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ADDITIONAL RESEARCHES ON

HOLY TRINITY UNIVERSITY


Puerto Princesa City, Palawan

Title : Additional Researches on Psychological and


Sociological Foundations of Education

Subject : Foundations of Education – 2

Professor : Mrs. Julia T. Gorobat

Student / Yr. and Course : Joy N. Dacuan


BEED - IV (Major in Math)

=====================================================

Introduction

From the dawn of civilization, man has been marching in search of wisdom. Various experiments
are projected through education, so that humanity, happiness and harmony are wedded together.
Education is indispensable for making life and living meaningful and purposive. Its significance cannot be
fully appreciated unless it is looked at in proper perspectives philosophical, sociological and
psychological.

Psychology has a very significant bearing on education because of its influence on the various
factors related to learning and teaching. Without the knowledge of psychology a teacher is at a loss to
understand the needs and problems in a child s life. This provides the key to know the individual
differences and meets them with appropriate educational programmes. It also helps the teachers to offer
guidance and counselling to the pupils. In fact, psychology places education on a scientific basis and
brings dignity to education as a discipline.

In the other hand, the Sociological Foundation of Education has added a new dimension to
education as an interdisciplinary approach. Sociology which involves the study of society, social process
and social change is a growing science. School is a miniature society and what happens in a society also
happens in a school situation. Like parents in a family, teachers take important roles in a school.

Obviously, both psychological and sociological foundations of education have a practical bearing
on our day-to-day living. Studying all of the foundations is a necessity to us, the future teachers and the
teachers to become more productive and efficient in field of teaching.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Defined Education, Psychology and Sociology and Education

UNIT 1 PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION


Chapter 1 - EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AS FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION

 Psychology and Sociology Defined 1

 Psychological Education and Sociological Education 1

 Contributions of Educational Psychology and Sociology 2

 Methods of Educational Psychology 3


Introspection
Observation Method
Experimental Method
Clinical Method
Case Study Method

 Systems of Schools of Psychology 4-5


Structuralism
Functionalism
Behaviourism
Gestalt psychology
Psychoanalysis
Individual Psychology
Existential Psychology
Humanistic Psychology

Chapter 2 - GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

 Growth and Development 5

 Heredity (Nature) and Environmental (Nurture) 5

 Development during Infancy or Babyhood 5-6


Characteristics of babyhood:
Emotional behavior in babyhood:
Development in socialization:

 Development Characteristics during Childhood 6-7


Cognition
Self-regulation
Moral Development
Physical Growth
Personality Development and Gender Socialization
Development Through Family Relationships
Emotional Development
 Psychology of Adolescence 7-9
Quarter-life crisis
Physical and Sexual Development
Intellectual and Behavioural Development
Stages of Social-Emotional Development
Moral Development
Juvenile delinquency
From adolescence to adulthood: the transition from child to adult care

 Adjustment Psychology 9
 Characteristics of a Grown, Developed and Happy Person 9

Chapter 3 - SCHOOL LEARNERS

 Types of Learners 10
Visual Learners
Auditory Learners
Read-Write Learners
Kinaesthetic Learners

 Exceptional Children 10
Physically Handicapped
Mentally Retarded
Gifted Child
Slow Learners

 12 Major Type of Students 11-12


Inconsequential
Sipsip
Provance
Involved
Nerd
Sosyal
Chismosa
Yuckies
Baduy
Weird
Happy-go-lucky
Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING

 Learning 12-14

Learning Pyramid
Theories of Learning
Cooperative Learning
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning
Transfer of Learning Chart
Near transfer of Learning
Far Transfer of Learning

 Interest and Attention 14

 Aptitude and Intelligence


14

 Motivation 14-16
Components of Motivation
Types of Motivation
Theories of Motivation
Instinct Theory
Drive Reduction Theory
Arousal Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
Humanistic Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

 Emotion 16
James-Lange Theory
Cannon-Bard Theory
Schachter-Singer Theory
Lazarus Theory
Facial Feedback Theory

 Sensation 17
Absolute Threshold
Difference Threshold
Signal Detection Theory
Sensory Adaptation

 Perception 18
Gestalt Principles of Grouping
Maintaining Perceptual Constancy
Size constancy
Brightness constancy
Perceiving Distance
 Memory 19-20
Stage Models of Memory
What Student remember

UNIT - II SOCIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION

Chapter 1 - EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY AS FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION

 Relation between sociology and education 21


Role of Education to Society
Issues of Society

 Social Reproduction 21
Structural Function of Social Reproduction
Conflicts
Conflict Theory

Chapter 2 - Factors and Persons Affecting Sociological Education

 Agent of Educational Society 22

Education’s Role to Society


Teachers’ Roles to Society
Family Structure
Government Works

 Components of Society 23-24


Sex and Gender
Gender Roles
Race and Ethnicity
Language
Technology
Ideology
Secularism
 Stereotypes 24
Gender Stereotypes
Educational Stereotypes

 Social Stratification 24-25


Origins
Effects

Chapter 3 - Social /Societal Groups

 Primary 25
 Secondary 25
 Others 25-26
 Basis of Group Formation 26
 Society and Community Wheel 27
 Community Member Roles and Types 27-29
 Institutions in the Society 30

UNIT - III PERSONS INVOLVED

 James, Wundt
 John B. Watson,
 B. F. Skinner
 Max Wertheimer
 Sigmund Freud
 Alfred Adler
UNIT - I PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION
Chapter 1 - EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AS FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION

Psychology and Sociology Defined

The word “psychology” comes from the Greek word (Psyche mean Soul, Logos mean Science),
thus the meaning of Psychology is the science of soul. It is the science of behaviour, the activities of
animate creature, which can be observed and measured in an objective way.

Sociology is said to be the study of human social behaviour, especially the study of the origins,
organization, institutions, and development of human society.

Education in the other hand is the modification of behaviour of children in a controlled


environment. To shape the behaviour of the subject and bring some positive or negative changes, it is
necessary to study the science of behaviour. The developmental stages and characteristics of children are
very essential factors from which the teacher must aware in order to be a successful teacher.

If the teacher has no knowledge of children psychology and societal origins, how can we expect
from him that he would succeed in bringing about the desirable changes in children?

Psychological Education and Sociological Education

Educational psychology is an interdisciplinary subject that incorporates human development,


learning strategies, intelligence, motivation, measurement, and classroom management. An emphasis
will be placed upon developing a consistent theory and philosophy (personal) based upon the
preponderance of current research including, but not limited to such fields as brain-based learning,
multiculturalism, gender, and socioeconomic status.

It studies about how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational
interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Mainly,
it is concerned with how students learn and develop, often focusing on subgroups such as gifted children
and those subject to specific disabilities

Educational sociology, then, is the application of sociological principles and methods to the
solution of problems in an educational system. It is mostly concerned with schooling, and especially the
mass schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, further, adult,
and continuing education.

UNIT I Chapter 1 - EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AS FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION 1


Contribution of Educational Psychology

One simple question may be asked as to why educational psychology should be taught to prospective
teachers in training colleges. The educational psychology helps the teachers in the following ways:

1. To understand developmental characteristics

Children pass through different stages of development in life as infancy, childhood and adolescence.
These developmental stages have their own characteristics and demands.

2. To understand the nature of class room learning

With the help of education psychology the teacher understand the students and their need and
problems, it help teacher in learning process in general and class-room learning in particular.

3. To understand individual differences

With the help of psychology teacher understand the individual’s differences. Teacher faces a class of 30
to 50 students who have a different range of individual differences. Teacher with the knowledge of
education psychology and individual differences may adjust his teaching to the needs and requirements
of the class.

4. To understand effective teaching methods

Every day experience shows that lack of proper methods of teaching sometimes results in
failure of communication in the classroom. The educational psychology gives us the knowledge
of appropriate methods of teaching. It helps in developing new strategies of teaching.

5. Knowledge of mental health

Mental health of the student and teacher is very important for efficient learning. With the help
of educational psychology, the can understand the various factors, which are responsible for
the mental health and maladjustment.

6. Curriculum construction

Psychological principles are also used in formulating curriculum for different stages.

7. Measurement of learning out-comes

Psychological tools help the teachers to evaluate the learning out-come of the students. it
helps the teacher to evaluate his own performance.

UNIT I Chapter 1 - EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AS FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION 2


8. Guidance for the education of exceptional children

Most important contribution of educational psychology is the provision and organization


of the educational psychology is the provision and organization of the
education for the education of sub normal children.

Methods of Educational Psychology

1. Introspection

Historically introspection is the oldest method of all, which was formerly used in philosophy, and
then in psychology to collect data about the conscious experience of the subject. Introspection
means to see within one self or self observation. To understand one’s own mental health and the
state of mind. This method was developed by the structuralists in psychology who defined
psychology as the study of conscious experiences of the individual.

2. Observation

With the development of psychology as an objective science of behaviour, the method of


introspection was replaced by careful observation of human and animal behaviour.
Observation literally means looking outside oneself. It is a very important method for
collecting data in almost all type of research studies.

3. Experimental Method

This method has been developed in psychology by the continuous efforts by psychologists to
make objective and scientific study of human behaviour. One of the major contributions of the
behaviourism is the development of experimental method to understand, control and
predict behaviour. It is the most precise, planned systematic observation. The experimental
method uses a systematic procedure called experimental design.

4. Clinical Method

This method is primarily used to collect detailed information on the behaviour problems of
maladjusted and deviant cases. The main objective of this method is to study individual case or
cases of group to detect and diagnose their specific problems and to suggest therapeutic
measures to rehabilitate them in their environment.

5. Case Study Method

Case study is in-depth study of the subject. It is the in-depth analysis of a person, group, or
phenomenon. A variety of techniques are employed including personal interviews, psychometric
tests, direct observation, and archival records. Case studies are most often used in psychology in
clinical research to describe the rare events and conditions of the subject; case study is specially
used in education psychology.

UNIT I Chapter 1 - EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AS FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION 3


Systems of Schools of Psychology

1. Structuralism
This grew out of the work of James, Wundt, and their associates. These psychologists believed the
chief purpose of psychology was to describe, analyse, and explain conscious experience,
particularly feelings and sensations. The structuralists attempted to give a scientific analysis of
conscious experience by breaking it down into its specific components or structures. For example,
they identified four basic skin sensations: warmth, cold, pain, and pressure. They analysed the
sensation of wetness as the combined experience of cold and smoothness.

2. Functionalism
This is the doctrine that what makes something a thought, desire, pain (or any other type of
mental state) depends not on its internal constitution, but solely on its function, or the role it
plays, in the cognitive system of which it is a part. More precisely, functionalist theories take the
identity of a mental state to be determined by its causal relations to sensory stimulations, other
mental states, and behaviour.

3. Behaviourism
This was introduced in 1913 by John B. Watson, an American psychologist. Watson and his
followers believed that observable behaviour, not inner experience, was the only reliable source
of information. The behaviourists also stressed the importance of the environment in shaping an
individual's behaviour. They chiefly looked for connections between observable behaviour and
stimuli from the environment.

4. Gestalt psychology
Like behaviourism, developed as a reaction against structuralism. Gestalt psychologists believed
that human beings and other animals perceive the external world as an organized pattern, not as
individual sensations. For example, a film consists of thousands of individual still pictures, but we
see what looks like smooth, continuous movement. The familiar saying "The whole is greater than
the sum of its parts" expresses an important principle of the Gestalt movement.

Gestalt psychology was founded about 1912 by Max Wertheimer, a German psychologist. During
the 1930's, Wertheimer and two colleagues took the Gestalt movement to the United States.

5. Psychoanalysis
Was founded during the late 1800's and early 1900's by the Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud.
Psychoanalysis was based on the theory that behaviour is determined by powerful inner forces,
most of which are buried in the unconscious mind. According to Freud and other
psychoanalysts, from early childhood people repress (force out of conscious awareness) any
desires or needs that are unacceptable to themselves or to society.

6. Individual Psychology
Alfred Adler postulates a single "drive" or motivating force behind all our behavior and
experience. By the time his theory had gelled into its most mature form, he called that motivating
force the striving for perfection. It is the desire we all have to fulfill our potentials, and is basically
the same idea as Carl Rogers' idea of self-actualization.

UNIT I Chapter 1 - EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AS FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION 4


7. Existential Psychology
Existentialism uses a philosophical method called phenomenology. Phenomenology is the careful
and complete study of phenomena, and is basically the invention of the philosopher Edmund
Husserl. Phenomena are the contents of consciousness, the things, qualities, relationships,
events, thoughts, images, memories, fantasies, feelings, acts, and so on, which we experience.
Phenomenology is an attempt to allow these experiences to speak to us, to reveal themselves to
us, so we might describe them in as unbiased a fashion as possible.

8. Humanistic Psychology
Like Existentialism, Humanism is a broad collection of theories and theorists that are
sometimes hard to pin down. But the best known and most influential person among them has
to be Carl Rogers.

Chapter 2 - GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Growth and Development

Growth is defined as an increase in size; development is defined as a progression toward maturity. Thus the
terms are used together to describe the complex physical, mental, and emotional processes associated
with the “growing up” of children.

Nature and Nurture Defined

Nature refers to heredity: the genetic makeup or "genotypes" (i.e., information encoded in DNA) an
individual carries from the time of conception to the time of death. Heredity may range from genetic
predispositions that are specific to each individual and that therefore potentially explain differences in
individual characteristics (e.g., temperament), to those supposedly specific to certain groups and that
therefore account for group differences in related characteristics (e.g., gender and height), and to those
that are theorized to be shared by all humans and are generally thought to set humans apart from other
species (e.g., the language acquisition device in humans).

Nurture, by contrast, refers to various external or environmental factors to which an individual is exposed
from conception to death. These environmental factors involve several dimensions. For example, they
include both physical environments (e.g., secondhand smoking and prenatal nutrition) and social
environments (e.g., the media and peer pressure). Also, environmental factors vary in their immediacy to
the individual; they involve multiple layers of forces, ranging from most immediate (e.g., families, friends,
and neighborhoods) to larger contexts (e.g., school systems and local governments) to macro factors (e.g.,
international politics and global warming).

Development during Infancy or Babyhood

a. Characteristics of babyhood: (From 2 weeks to 2 years)


i) Babyhood is the true foundation age. At this time, many behavior patterns,
attitudes and emotional expressions are established. It is a critical period in setting the
pattern for personal and emotional adjustments.

ii) Babyhood is an age of rapid growth and development. Babies grow rapidly both
physically and psychologically. Changes are rapid in appearance (height and weight) and
capacities. The limbs develop in better proportion to the large head. Intellectual growth
and change are parallel to physical growth and change.

UNIT I Chapter 2 - GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 5


iii) Ability grows to recognize and respond to people and objects in the environment. The
baby is able to understand many things and communicate its needs and wants.

iv) The babyhood is an age of decreasing dependency. The baby begins to do things to
itself. With decrease of dependency, a rebellion against being treated as baby.

v) It is an age of high individuality which can be realized in appearance and in patterns of


behaviour.

vi) Babyhood is the beginning of Creativity, sex role and socialization for
adjustment in future life.

vii) Babyhood is a hazardous period. The physical hazards are illness, accidents,
disabilities and death. Psychological hazards are disinterests and negative attitudes.

b. Emotional behavior in babyhood:


i) At birth, the emotions appear in simple and undifferentiated forms. In
babyhood, the emotions are differentiated and they are aroused by a number of stimuli.

ii) There is much difference with the behavior of adolescents and adults and often
from those of older children.

iii) Emotions are more easily conditioned during babyhood than at latter stage.
This is due to the reason that the intellectual abilities of babies are limited. They respond
easily and quickly to stimuli. Anyhow there is hesitation to respond in some cases.

c. Development in socialization:

At birth, infants are not gregarious in nature in the sense that there is no difference to
them who attend to their physical needs. During the first year of the babyhood, babies
are in a state of equilibrium which makes them friendly, easy to handle and pleasant to be
with. Around the middle of second year, the equilibrium is tilted making the baby fussy,
non cooperative, and difficult to handle. However, equilibrium is restored so that the
babies begin to exhibit again pleasant and social behaviour.

Development Characteristics during Childhood

a. Cognition

To begin with, of all the parts of the body, the brain grows most during early childhood,
making for dramatic changes in cognitive development. Children's memory, for instance,
greatly advances after infancy. Young children can remember large amounts of
information!

Second, children learn to convey thoughts and ideas relating to their everyday lives by
using words and images. Psychologist Jean Piaget best illustrates what children
understand and fail to understand at this stage. Children can't distinguish their
perspectives from others.

b. Self-regulation

Children learn to self-regulate and control behaviour without help. For instance, in terms
of sexuality, early childhood, or the period Sigmund Freud defined as the phallic stage, is a
time in which children focus pleasure on their genitals. After being reprimanded by their
parents and others, children learn to stop touching themselves in public.

UNIT I Chapter 2 - GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 6


c. Moral Development

Children begin to make progress in terms of moral development. This has much to do with
the values that are instilled by parents. As time goes on in early childhood, children are
able to develop their own senses of right and wrong.

d. Physical Growth

In order to grow, children's physical needs must be met. In early childhood, they require
proper amounts of sleep. Most kids are able to get enough rest by sleeping throughout
the night and taking one nap during the day. They also need timely immunizations, the
right nutritious foods and exercise to lead healthy lives. Gross motor skills improve
dramatically in early childhood if such needs are met.

e. Personality Development and Gender Socialization

A child's social world influences the development of his personality and purposeful
behaviour. As children get into the latter stages of early childhood, they are given more
responsibility. According to Erik Erikson's psychoanalytic theory, they are in the initiative
versus guilt stage. If they do not rise to the challenge of taking responsibility, they are
likely to experience anxiety and guilt.

f. Development through Family Relationships

Family relationships play a crucial role in the development of children. The parent-child
relationship is one of the single greatest influences on a child's self esteem and sense of
self-control. Authoritative parenting is best. Children make rapid language advancements
at this stage. The type of environment parents create can set the foundation for literacy if
books and effective verbal exercises are utilized.

g. Emotional Development

Preschoolers become increasingly able to discuss their emotions and those of others. They
can understand that people can react to the same event with different emotions. Children
at this stage can even develop the type of empathy that will allow them to understand and
respond to a friend's sadness.

Psychology of Adolescence

a. Quarter-life crisis

Is a term applied to the period of life immediately following the major changes of
adolescence, usually ranging from the early twenties to the early thirties. The term is
named by analogy with mid-life crisis.

UNIT I Chapter 2 - GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 7


b. Physical and Sexual Development

Even during normal adolescence, substantial emotional adjustments are required. If the timing is
not typical, particularly in a boy whose physical development is delayed or a girl whose
development occurs early, additional emotional stress is likely. Most boys who grow slowly
eventually attain normal height. However, adolescents whose growth or sexual development is
delayed should be evaluated to rule out diseases and other physical causes and given reassurance
if the evaluation is negative.

c. Intellectual and Behavioural Development

In early adolescence, a child begins to develop the capacity for abstract, logical thought. This
increased sophistication leads to an enhanced awareness of self and the ability to reflect on one's
own being. Because of the many noticeable physical changes of adolescence, this self-awareness
often turns into self-consciousness, with an accompanying feeling of awkwardness. The
adolescent also has a preoccupation with physical appearance and attractiveness and a
heightened sensitivity to differences from peers.

d. Stages of Social-Emotional Development


Erikson's Eight Stages of Development:

1. Learning Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust (Hope)


2. Learning Autonomy Versus Shame (Will)
3. Learning Initiative Versus Guilt (Purpose)
4. Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence)
5. Learning Identity Versus Identity Diffusion (Fidelity)
6. Learning Intimacy Versus Isolation (Love)
7. Learning Generativity Versus Self-Absorption (Care)
8. Integrity Versus Despair (Wisdom)

UNIT I Chapter 2 - GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 8


e. Stages of Moral Development according to Lawrence Kohlberg

Level 1. Preconventional Morality


Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment
Stage 2 - Individualism and Exchange

Level 2. Conventional Morality


Stage 3 - Interpersonal Relationships
Stage 4 - Maintaining Social Order

Level 3. Postconventional Morality


Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights
Stage 6 - Universal Principles

f. Juvenile delinquency
Refers to antisocial or illegal behavior by children or adolescents. Most legal systems prescribe
specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centres.. Youth crime is a
major issue and is an aspect of crime which receives great attention from the news media and
politicians. Crime committed by young people has risen since the mid-twentieth century, as
have most types of crime

g. From adolescence to adulthood: the transition from child to adult care


Adolescence, the period of transition from childhood to adulthood, is a key phase of human
development. It is characterized by rapid changes – physical, sexual, psychological, emotional,
cognitive, and social. The psychological imbalance that prevails during adolescence is particularly
significant in people with diabetes as it often leads to a decline in self-care. This brings about a
deterioration in blood glucose control, and creates difficulties that hamper the development of
harmonious relationships between the young person with diabetes and his or her
healthcare providers.

Adjustment Psychology

“Adjustment” can be defined as a process of altering one's behaviour to reach a harmonious relationship
with their environment. This is typically a response brought about by some type of change that has taken
place. The stress of this change causes one to try to reach a new type of balance or homeostasis between
the individual (both inwardly and outwardly), and with their environment.

Characteristics of a Grown, Developed and Happy Person


1. Openness to experience.
2. Living in the here-and-now.
3. Organismic trusting.
4. Freedom
5. Creativity

UNIT I Chapter 2 - GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 9


Chapter 3 - SCHOOL LEARNERS

Types of Learners

a. Visual Learners
They tend to be fast talkers.
They exhibit impatience and have a tendency to interrupt.
They use words and phrases that evoke visual images.
They learn by seeing and visualizing.

b. Auditory Learners
They speak slowly and tend to be natural listeners.
They think in a linear manner.
They prefer to have things explained to them verbally rather than to read written information.
They learn by listening and verbalizing.

c. Read-Write Learners
They prefer for information to be displayed in writing, such as lists of ideas.
They emphasize text-based input and output.
They enjoy reading and writing in all forms.

d. Kinaesthetic Learners
They tend to be the slowest talkers of all.
They tend to be slow to make decisions.
They use all their senses to engage in learning.
They learn by doing and solving real-life problems.
They like hands-on approaches to things and learn through trial and error.

Exceptional Children

a. Physically Handicap
Some people with disabilities do not like the term "handicap" because of a belief that it originally
meant someone who could not work and went begging with their cap in hand. This, however,
appears to not be the true origin of the word. It originated in a lottery game known as Hand In
Cap in the 1600s which involved players placing money in a cap.

b. Mental retardation (MR)


A generalized disorder, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in
two or more adaptive behaviours with onset before the age of 18. It has historically been defined
as an Intelligence Quotient score under 70.

c. Intellectual giftedness
An intellectual ability significantly higher than average. It is different from a skill, in that skills are
learned or acquired behaviours. Like a talent, intellectual giftedness is usually believed to be an
innate, personal aptitude for intellectual activities that cannot be acquired through personal
effort.

d. slow learner
They want to learn, but he/she is slow. That is the direct meaning of it. A very dumb person, a
person that cannot comprehend the most obvious details of something that is very familiar and
common in the eyes of many.

UNIT I Chapter 3 - SCHOOL LEARNERS 10


12 major types of college students

1. Inconsequential
These are the types of people who smile at you and sometimes go up to you and actually talk to
you. They know your name and everything about you - but you've never seen them in your whole
life.. They're just never seen and hardly ever recite.

2. Sipsip
Their hands are perpetually raised, ready to recite. They always sit up front and their heads
automatically nod every 5 seconds to what the teacher is saying. They have endless questions,
some of which they ask the teacher after class. They cover their papers during exams and never
share answers. If you ask them, "Did you study?" they will either say "No" or "Not really" but
they get the highest scores. They have one friend or none.

3. Provance
They usually live in the dorm because they're from the provinces. They're the ones who eat ulam
for lunch with mountain of rice (3 cups usually). Their money don’t fold, they jingle. They
speak neither English nor Tagalog well.

4. Involved
They love joining the students council and cause-oriented or catechist groups. They love staging
rallies. They hang around together and have lunch or snacks with a teacher/coordinator. They love
wearing wooden crosses round their necks. They're musically inclined - they play the guitar during
mass. If they weren't involved they become inconsequential.

5. Nerd
They're really nice, they are the living saints. They never cut class. They are quite (they hardly
recite), but they get the highest grades in the class. They study together in a big group. They're
really cool, they let you copy when the teacher isn't looking. Teachers and classmates love them -
but they never get invited to parties. They usually skinny.

6. Sosyal
They are not necessarily rich but they act it. They have bad grades. They always cut class. They're
always organizing some party or get-together and they love to pull all their names in their
invitations. They're "best friends" with the nerds who help them pass. Teachers who were
inconsequential love the sosyals - the friends they'd always wanted in their youth. The sosyals act
chummy with these teachers whom they really hate.

7. Chismosa
They're the ones who always want to look at your date book, diary, or notebook to the extent of
pulling it like a child if you don’t want to show it. Favorite lines are "Don’t tell. haaaaa!" and
"Guess whose preeeeegnaaaant?!" They're very friendly if they think you have chismis. They're
very paranoid that people are angry with them.

8. Yuckies
They are so nice, always smiling, they're disgusting. All the teachers love them and they win most
of the awards in graduation. They have the smelliest ba-on in the class, usually cold meat na
sumisingaw.

UNIT I Chapter 3 - SCHOOL LEARNERS 11


9. Kuripot
Their things are complete but usually of cheap brands. They're the once who charge five to 25
centavos for a sheet of paper - either that or they have written their names in each sheet so
nobody can ask.

10. Baduy
They are the ones you borrow ballpens from and you never return them. They don’t speak
English. They're the ones who know the latest dance craze in Eat Bulaga and they usually aspire to
become ROTC officers. They never get invited to parties.

11. Weird
People love to talk about them because they're so strange. They're usually loners because they're
very picky with friends. They have friends abroad and in other schools (who are weird as well).
They don’t cut class, they're usually in the Deans List. They have hyper acidic stomachs because
since there's no one to eat with, hardly ever do.

12 Happy-go-lucky
They bring the least things to school, they borrow everything they need. They always cut class,
come in late. They never take notes. They hardly study but amazingly pass, they're just lazy. They
always sit at the back where they talk. Teachers hate them. They go to school basically to see their
friends.

Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING

Learning

a. Learning Pyramid

UNIT I Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING 12


c. learning theories

e. What is Cooperative Learning?

Cooperative Learning is a relationship in a group of students that requires positive


interdependence (a sense of sink or swim together), individual accountability (each of us has to
contribute and learn), interpersonal skills (communication, trust, leadership, decision making, and
conflict resolution), face-to-face promotive interaction, and processing (reflecting on how well the
team is functioning and how to function even better).

e. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning

1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application


4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

f. Transfer of Learning Chart

UNIT I Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING 13


g. Near transfer
Near transfer of skills and knowledge are applied the same way every time the skills and
knowledge are used. Near transfer training usually involves tasks that are procedural in nature,
that is, tasks which are always applied in the same order. Although this type of training is easier to
train and the transfer of learning is usually a success, the learner is unlikely to be able to adapt
their skills and knowledge to changes.

h. Far transfer
Far transfer tasks involve skills and knowledge being applied in situations that change. Far transfer
tasks require instruction where learners are trained to adapt guidelines to changing situations or
environments. Although this type of training is more difficult to instruct (transfer of learning is less
likely), it does allow the learner to adapt to new situations.

Interest and attention

How does interest relate to attention? Can most people choose to pay attention to things that
they’re not particularly interested in for long periods of time? I wouldn’t think so. And yet many
descriptions of ADD and ADHD (especially, it seems, those geared toward children with the
disorder) say that “it much easier … to sustain attention in … work … when tasks are interesting,
meaningful, or in some way motivating …”, as if this were something unique to individual afflicted
with ADD. But that just sounds like bullshit to me. Even Wikipedia says that “[those affected] face
some of their greatest challenges in the areas of self-control, self-motivation, as well as executive
functioning”.

On the contrary, it seems more likely to me (and I speak as someone medicated for the disorder)
that most people who have these problems have them because they work on very abstract and
complicated subject with very little immediate emotional or adrenal influence. And, for humans,
that’s a recipe for those problems.

Aptitude and Intelligence

In every day language, aptitude is usually defined as a natural or inherent talent for a certain skill or
activity. For example, we often talk about a student’s aptitude for learning languages, a child’s
aptitude for drawing, a mother’s aptitude for crossword puzzles or even a husband’s aptitude for
golf! Another way of thinking about aptitude is as a competency – whether innate, acquired or
developed –for a certain type of work and this competency can be physical or mental. In the field
of intelligence, aptitude is often considered to represent specific subsets of mental ability which
provides useful information on an individual’s potential, particularly with regards to education and
employment.

Motivation

a. The 3 main components of motivation are:


1.) Direction
2.) Effort
3.) Persistence

b. 2 types of factors that influence motivation:


● intrinsic– self generated factors (responsibility, freedom to act, scope to use and develop skills
and abilities, interesting and challenging work, opportunities for advancement) – they
have a deeper and longer-term effect.

UNIT I Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING 14


● extrinsic - what is done for people to motivate them (rewards, promotion, punishment) – they
have an immediate and powerful effect, but won’t necessarily last long

c. Instinct Theory

Humans have the same types of innate tendencies. Babies are born with a unique ability that
allows them to survive; they are born with the ability to cry. Without this, how would others know
when to feed the baby, know when he needed changing, or when she wanted attention and
affection? Crying allows a human infant to survive. We are also born with particular reflexes which
promote survival. The most important of these include sucking, swallowing, coughing, blinking.
Newborns can perform physical movements to avoid pain; they will turn their head if touched on
their cheek and search for a nipple (rooting reflex); and they will grasp an object that touches the
palm of their hands.

d. Drive Reduction Theory

According to Clark Hull (1943, 1952), humans have internal internal biological needs which
motivate us to perform a certain way. These needs, or drives, are defined by Hull as internal states
of arousal or tension which must be reduced. A prime example would be the internal feelings of
hunger or thirst, which motivates us to eat. According to this theory, we are driven to reduce these
drives so that we may maintain a sense of internal calmness.

e. Arousal Theory

Similar to Hull's Drive Reduction Theory, Arousal theory states that we are driven to maintain a
certain level of arousal in order to feel comfortable. Arousal refers to a state of emotional,
intellectual, and physical activity. It is different from the above theory, however, because it
doesn't rely on only a reduction of tension, but a balanced amount. It also does better to explain
why people climb mountains, go to school, or watch sad movies.

f. Psychoanalytic Theory

Remember Sigmund Freud and his five part theory of personality. As part of this theory, he
believed that humans have only two basic drives: Eros and Thanatos, or the Life and Death drives.
According to Psychoanalytic theory, everything we do, every thought we have, and every emotion
we experience has one of two goals: to help us survive or to prevent our destruction. This is similar
to instinct theory, however, Freud believed that the vast majority of our knowledge about these
drives is buried in the unconscious part of the mind.

g. Humanistic Theory

Although discussed last, humanistic theory is perhaps the most well know theory of motivation.
According to this theory, humans are driven to achieve their maximum potential and will always do
so unless obstacles are placed in their way. These obstacles include hunger, thirst, financial
problems, safety issues, or anything else that takes our focus away from maximum psychological
growth.

UNIT I Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING 15


h. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Emotion

The mainstream definition of emotion refers to a feeling state involving thoughts, physiological
changes, and an outward expression or behavior. But what comes first? The thought? The
physiological arousal? The behavior? Or does emotion exist in a vacuum, whether or not these
other components are present? There are five theories which attempt to understand why we
experience emotion.

a. James-Lange Theory

The James-Lange theory of emotion argues that an event causes physiological arousal first and
then we interpret this arousal. Only after our interpretation of the arousal can we experience
emotion. If the arousal is not noticed or is not given any thought, then we will not experience any
emotion based on this event.

b. Cannon-Bard Theory

The Cannon-Bard theory argues that we experience physiological arousal and emotional at the
same time, but gives no attention to the role of thoughts or outward behavior.

UNIT I Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING 16


c. Schachter-Singer Theory

According to this theory, an event causes physiological arousal first. You must then identify a
reason for this arousal and then you are able to experience and label the emotion.

d. Lazarus Theory

Lazarus Theory states that a thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal. In
other words, you must first think about your situation before you can experience an emotion.

e. Facial Feedback Theory

According to the facial feedback theory, emotion is the experience of changes in our facial
muscles. In other words, when we smile, we then experience pleasure, or happiness. When we
frown, we then experience sadness. it is the changes in our facial muscles that cue our brains and
provide the basis of our emotions. Just as there are an unlimited number of muscle
configurations in our face, so to are there a seemingly unlimited number of emotions.

Sensation

Sensation is the process by which our senses gather information and send it to the brain. A large
amount of information is being sensed at any one time such as room temperature, brightness of
the lights, someone talking, a distant train, or the smell of perfume. With all this information
coming into our senses, the majority of our world never gets recognized. We don't notice radio
waves, x-rays, or the microscopic parasites crawling on our skin. We don't sense all the odors
around us or taste every individual spice in our gourmet dinner. We only sense those things we are
able too since we don't have the sense of smell like a bloodhound or the sense of sight like a hawk;
our thresholds are different from these animals and often even from each other.

a. Absolute Threshold

The absolute threshold is the point where something becomes noticeable to our senses. It is the
softest sound we can hear or the slightest touch we can feel. Anything less than this goes
unnoticed. The absolute threshold is therefore the point at which a stimuli goes from
undetectable to detectable to our senses.

b. Difference Threshold

Once a stimulus becomes detectable to us, how do we recognize if this stimulus changes. When
we notice the sound of the radio in the other room, how do we notice when it becomes louder. It's
conceivable that someone could be turning it up so slightly that the difference is undetectable. The
difference threshold is the amount of change needed for us to recognize that a change has
occurred. This change is referred to as the Just Noticeable Difference.

UNIT I Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING 17


c. Signal Detection Theory

Have you ever been in a crowded room with lots of people talking? Situations like that can make it
difficult to focus on any particular stimulus, like the conversation we are having with a friend. We
are often faced with the daunting task of focusing our attention on certain things while at the same
time attempting to ignore the flood of information entering our senses. When we do this, we are
making a determination as to what is important to sense and what is background noise. This
concept is referred to as signal detection because we attempt detect what we want to focus on and
ignore or minimize everything else.

d. Sensory Adaptation

The last concept refers to stimuli which has become redundant or remains unchanged for an
extended period of time. Ever wonder why we notice certain smells or sounds right away and then
after a while they fade into the background? Once we adapt to the perfume or the ticking of the
clock, we stop recognizing it. This process of becoming less sensitive to unchanging stimulus is
referred to as sensory adaptation, after all, if it doesn't change, why do we need to constantly
sense it?

Perception

As mentioned in the introduction, perception refers to interpretation of what we take in through


our senses. The way we perceive our environment is what makes us different from other animals
and different from each other. In this section, we will discuss the various theories on how our
sensation are organized and interpreted, and therefore, how we make sense of what we see, hear,
taste, touch, and smell.

a. Gestalt Principles of Grouping

The German word "Gestalt" roughly translates to "whole" or "form," and the Gestalt psychologist's
sincerely believed that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. In order to interpret what we
receive through our senses, they theorized that we attempt to organize this information into
certain groups. This allows us to interpret the information completely without unneeded
repetition. The Gestalt principles of grouping include four types: similarity, proximity, continuity,
and closure.

b. Maintaining Perceptual Constancy

Refers to our ability to see things differently without having to reinterpret the object's
properties. There are typically three constancies discussed, including size, shape, brightness.

UNIT I Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING 18


c. Size constancy

Refers to our ability to see objects as maintaining the same size even when our distance from them
makes things appear larger or smaller. This holds true for all of our senses. As we walk away from
our radio, the song appears to get softer. We understand, and perceive it as being just as loud as
before. The difference being our distance from what we are sensing.

d. Brightness constancy

Refers to our ability to recognize that color remains the same regardless of how it looks under
different levels of light. That deep blue shirt you wore to the beach suddenly looks black when you
walk indoors. Without color constancy, we would be constantly re-interpreting color and would be
amazed at the miraculous conversion our clothes undertake.

e. Perceiving Distance

We determine distance using two different cues: monocular and binocular. Monocular cues are
those cues which can be seen using only one eye. They include size; texture, overlap, shading,
height, and clarity.

Memory

a. The Stage Model of Memory


While several different models of memory have been proposed, the stage model of memory is
often used to explain the basic structure and function of memory. Initially proposed in 1968 by
Atkinson and Shiffrin, this theory outlines three separate stages of memory: sensory memory,
short-term (working) memory and long-term memory.

b. Sensory Memory
Sensory memory is the earliest stage of memory. During this stage, sensory information
from the environment is stored for a very brief period of time, generally for no longer than
a half-second for visual information and 3 or 4 seconds for auditory information. We
attend to only certain aspects of this sensory memory, allowing some of this information
to pass into the next stage - short-term memory.

c. Short-Term (Working) Memory


Short-term memory, also known as working memory, is the information we are currently
aware of or thinking about. In Freudian psychology, this memory would be referred to as
the conscious mind. Paying attention to sensory memories generates the information in
short-term memory. Most of the information stored in working memory will be stored for
approximately 20 to 30 seconds. While many of our short-term memories are quickly
forgotten, attending to this information allows it to continue on the next stage - long-term
memory.

d. Long-Term Memory
Long-term memory refers to the continuing storage of information. In Freudian
psychology, long-term memory would be call the preconscious and unconscious. This
information is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into working memory to
be used when needed. Some of this information is fairly easy to recall, while other
memories are much more difficult to access.

UNIT I Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING 19


e. What students remember

UNIT I Chapter 4 - ALL ABOUT LEARNING 20


UNIT - II SOCIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION
Chapter 1 - EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY AS FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION

Relation between sociology and education

a. Role of Education to Society

Education begins at home. One does not only acquire knowledge from a teacher;
one can learn and receive knowledge from a parent, family member and even an
acquaintance. In almost all societies, attending school and receiving an education is
extremely vital and necessary if one wants to achieve success.

However, unfortunately we have places in the world, where not everyone has an
opportunity to receive this formal type of education. The opportunities that are
offered are greatly limited. Sometimes there are not enough resources to provide
schooling. Furthermore because parents need their children to help them work in
factories, have odd jobs, or just do farm work.

b. Issues of Society

Educational institution is a good sample of society.It is a miniature form of society.You can


find various group like group of learners(boys and girls),group of teacher(male and
female),group of non teaching staff.Various roles are played in educational institutions
like Evaluation (peer evaluation, tutor evaluation, evaluation of teacher by learner etc).

Teacher play role of Judge(evaluation),helper (help learner in achieving objective),


detective(find out the law breaker),Idol(promotimg values).The environment of
educational institution is a complex one and various issues like gender,Social
background,language technology,ideology interplay in a complex social milieu at
micro(within institution) and macro (broad perspective) level.Let us go through these
issues in brief.this will be useful in arranging effective learning experience.

Social Reproduction

a. Structural and Function of Social Reproduction

Social reproduction is a sociological term referring to processes which sustain or


perpetuate characteristics of a given social structure or tradition over a period of time.

Much of what we do in schools is designed to further the mission of "social


reproduction" - one generation effectively reproducing itself in the next. We create
"grade level expectations" based on the performance of children of the past and
hold contemporary students to that - holding them back or trying to rush them
forward - but holding them. We enforce our own technological preferences,
frustrating and limiting the possible success of students most pulled toward future
possibilities. We enforce a system of manners created by and for a power structure
which existed two generations ago (back when administrators and legislators went to school).

b. Conflicts

A psychic struggle, often unconscious, resulting from the opposition or


simultaneous functioning of mutually exclusive impulses, desires, or tendencies.

UNIT II - Chapter 1 - EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY AS FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION 21


c. Conflict Theory

States that society or an organization functions so that each individual participant


and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to
social change such as political changes and revolutions. The theory is mostly
applied to explain conflict between social classes, proletariat versus bourgeoisie;
and in ideologies, such as capitalism versus socialism. While conflict theory
successfully describes instances where conflict occurs between groups of people,
for a variety of reasons, it is questionable whether this represents the ideal human society.

Chapter 2 - FACTORS AND PERSONS AFFECTING SOCIOLOGICAL EDUCATION

Agent of Society

a. Education’s Role to Society

The purpose of education is to pass on some values from one generation onto the
next, yet those values have changed somewhat since later generations explore new
limits when it comes to student discipline, learning standards, the teaching of
religion and other relevant issues. There has to be some kind of mirror between what
the system teaches and what the dominant society around that system would like to
see. So if you living in the US you still won’t expect to learn much about Marx since his name is
synonymous with communism and everything anti-capitalist. Similarly you will be fed the biblical
creationist theory regarding the six days of the earth’s creation in certain states that have voted for
a return to this model of creation despite a mass of scientific data showing the contrary.

b. Teachers’ Role to Society

The role of a teacher in society is both significant and valuable.It has far-reaching influence on the
society he lives in and no other personality can have an influence more profound than that of a
teacher. Students are deeply affected by the teacher's love and affection, his character, his
competence, and his moral commitment. A popular teacher becomes a model for his students. The
students try to follow their teacher in his manners, costumes, etiquette, style of conversation and
his get up. He is their ideal.

c. Family and Structure

The definition of the Filipino family has been slowly changing in the last few decades.
The Filipino family is described as being basically nuclear but functionally extended.
This means that most families consist of the parents and their children, but there is
recognition and respect for the ties between the nuclear family and the whole network of
relatives from both sides of the family. Grandparents, godparents, uncles, aunts,
etc. --- all play some part in raising the children. Major decisions are consulted with
them, especially when the parents are still young and starting out.

d. Government Works

The present government wants to give state schools more independence from local
authorities. The aim is to reduce bureaucracy, enable schools to adopt a specialist
area such as sport or music, and encourage more competition amongst schools.
Critics argue that such reforms will create a “two-tier education system.”

UNIT II - Chapter 2 - Factors and Persons Affecting Sociological Education 22


Components of Society

a. Sex and Gender


Gender refers to an individual's anatomical sex, or sexual assignment, and the
cultural and social aspects of being male or female. Outward expression of gender identity
according to cultural and social expectations is a gender role. Either gender can live out a gender
role (for example, being a homemaker) but not a sex role, which is anatomically limited to one
gender (gestating and giving birth being limited to females, for example).

An individual's sexual orientation refers to her or his relative attraction to members of the same
sex ( homosexual), other sex ( heterosexual), or both sexes ( bisexual).

b. Gender Roles

Gender roles are cultural and personal. They determine how males and females
should think, speak, dress, and interact within the context of society. Learning plays a role in this
process of shaping gender roles. These gender schemas are deeply embedded cognitive
frameworks regarding what defines masculine and feminine. While various socializing agents—
parents, teachers, peers, movies, television, music, books, and religion—teach and reinforce
gender roles throughout the lifespan, parents probably exert the greatest influence, especially on
their very young offspring.

c. Race and Ethnicity

The term race refers to groups of people who have differences and similarities in
biological traits deemed by society to be socially significant, meaning that people
treat other people differently because of them. For instance, while differences and
similarities in eye color have not been treated as socially significant, differences
and similarities in skin color have

d. Language

A sociology of language would seek to understand the way that social dynamics are affected by
individual and group language use. It would have to do with who is 'authorized' to use what
language, with whom and under what conditions. It would have to do with how an individual or
group identity is established by the language that they have available for them to use. It would
seek to understand individual expression, one's (libidinal) investment in the linguistic tools that one
has access to in order to bring oneself to other people.

e. Technology

The journal “Sociology of Science and Technology” specialises in problems in sociology of science
and technology. It is published under scientific guidance of the Institute for the History of Science
and Technology named after Sergey I. Vavilov, St. Petersburg Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Founded in 2009, it is published 4 times a year, in Russia.

f. Ideology

This term has a long, complex, and extraordinarily rich history. As a specifically sociological
concept, it originated in the work of Karl Marx, and to this day its deployment in a particular
sociological analysis remains a sign that such analysis is either Marxist or strongly influenced by
Marxism.

UNIT II - Chapter 2 - Factors and Persons Affecting Sociological Education 23


This said, it is important to bear in mind that the social phenomenon to which the concept refers—the realm of ideas or
culture, in general, and that of political ideas or political culture more specifically—together with the
relationship between the realm of ideas and those of politics and economics, have also been discussed at
length within other sociological traditions. What is more, these other discussions (especially those amongst
Weberians, Durkheimians, and structuralists), have not infrequently had a considerable impact on Marxist
conceptualizations of ideology (as well as vice versa).

g. Secularism

This is the concept that government or other entities should exist separately from
religion and/or religious beliefs.

In one sense, secularism may assert the right to be free from religious rule and teachings,
and the right to freedom from governmental imposition of religion upon the people within a state
that is neutral on matters of belief. (See also Separation of church and state and Laïcité.) In another
sense, it refers to the view that human activities and decisions, especially political ones, should be
based on evidence and fact unbiased by religious influence.[1

Stereotypes

a. Gender Stereotypes

This simplistic generalizations about the gender attributes, differences, and roles of
individuals and/or groups. Stereotypes can be positive or negative, but they rarely
communicate accurate information about others. When people automatically apply
gender assumptions to others regardless of evidence to the contrary, they are
perpetuating gender stereotyping. Many people recognize the dangers of gender
stereotyping, yet continue to make these types of generalizations.

b. Educational Stereotypes

Thirdly, there are some stereotypes related to educational skills. Real women don’t do math, or
you’re too pretty to be a math major are some of the stereotypes. Women see this and say math is
only for male. This prevents them from going into math class. Even if they go into math class and
they might not do well. Men see women as taking art and dance classes. I disagree with these
stereotypes, because women are doing better than women. Women are going to places that men
go and do things that men do. We think that things are impossible for women and say only a man
can do it. This is wrong and it should not be considered as the right idea in recognizing women.

Social Stratification

a. Origins of Social Stratification

In early societies, people shared a common social standing. As societies evolved and became more
complex, they began to elevate some members. Today, stratification, a system by which society
ranks its members in a hierarchy, is the norm throughout the world. All societies stratify their
members. A stratified society is one in which there is an unequal distribution of society’s rewards
and in which people are arranged hierarchically into layers according to how much of society’s
rewards they possess. To understand stratification, we must first understand its origins.>
Hunting and gathering societies had little stratification. Men hunted for meat while women
gathered edible plants, and the general welfare of the society depended on all its members sharing
what it had. The society as a whole undertook the rearing and socialization of children and shared
food and other acquisitions more or less equally. Therefore, no group emerged as better off than the others.

UNIT II - Chapter 2 - Factors and Persons Affecting Sociological Education 24


b. Effects

The rigidity of social stratification varies according to a society's level of social mobility. The
greater the level of social mobility, the more easily a person can move from a lower social class to a
higher one.

Chapter 3 - SOCIAL/SOCIETAL GROUPS

Primary groups

Are small groups with intimate, kinship-based relationships: families, for example. They commonly last for
years. They are small and display face-to-face interaction.

Secondary groups

In contrast to primary groups, are large groups involving formal and institutional relationships. They may
last for years or may disband after a short time. The formation of primary groups happens within
secondary groups.

Primary groups can be present in secondary settings. For example, attending a university exemplifies
membership of a secondary group, while the friendships that are made there would be considered a
primary group that you belong to. Likewise, some businesses care deeply about the well being of one
another, while some immediate families have hostile relations within it.
Individuals almost universally have a bond toward what sociologists call reference groups. These are groups to which
the individual conceptually relates him/herself, and from which he/she adopts goals and values as
a part of his/her self identity.

Other types of groups:

a. Peer group

A peer group is a group with members of approximately the same age, social status, and interests.
Generally, people are relatively equal in terms of power when they interact with peers.

b. Clique

An informal, tight-knit group, often in a High School/College setting, that shares common
interests. Most cliques exhibit an established yet shifting power structure.

c. Club

A club is a group, which usually requires one to apply to become a member. Such clubs may be
dedicated to particular activities: sporting clubs.

d. Household
All individuals who live in the same home. anglophone culture may include various models of
household, including the family, blended families, share housing, and group homes.

e. Community
A community is a group of people with a commonality or sometimes a complex net of overlapping
commonalities, often–but not always–in proximity with one another with some degree of
continuity over time.

UNIT II Chapter 3 - Social /Societal Groups 25


f. Franchise

An organization which runs several instances of a business in many locations.

g. Gang

A gang is usually an urban group that gathers in a particular area. It is a group of people that often
[citation needed]
hang around each other. They can be like some clubs, but much less formal.

h. Mob
A mob is usually a group of people that has taken the law into their own hands. Mobs are usually
groups which gather temporarily for a particular reason.

i. Posse
A posse was originally found in English common law. It is generally obsolete, and survives only in
America, where it is the law enforcement equivalent of summoning the militia for military
purposes.. However, it can also refer to a street group.

j. Squad

This is usually a small group, of around 3 to 8 people, who work as a team to accomplish their
goals.

k. Team

Similar to a squad, though a team may contain many more members. A team works in a similar
way to a squad.

l. In-group

A group to which we do belong

m. Out group

A group to which we do not belong

Basis of Group Formation

1. Common motives and goals;

2. An accepted division of labor, i.e. roles,

3. Established status (social rank, dominance) relationships;

4. Accepted norms and values with reference to matters relevant to the group;

5. Development of accepted sanctions (praise and punishment) if and when norms


were respected or violated.

UNIT II Chapter 3 - Social /Societal Groups 26


Society and Community Wheel

Community Member Roles and Types

a. Core participants

There are usually as small group of people who quickly adapt to online interaction and provide a
large proportion of an online group's activity. Some speculate that 10% of the membership make
up 90% of the community activity. These individuals visit frequently and post often. They are
important members. Understanding and meeting their needs will go a long way to making your
community successful. They can be a source of volunteer leadership (hosts, cybrarians, greeters)
and ideas for improving the community. Ask them what they think, need and want to do. On the
flip side, be careful that they do not dominate and make it hard for less active folks to participate

b, Readers/Lurkers

Readers or Lurkers are the unseen forces that DO affect a community. Community
owners estimate that there are approximately 10 to 100 readers per active poster. They
represent a combination of people new to the community, those not yet comfortable in posting,
people who will only read and never post, and people who come in and then drift away without
engaging. This group represents a huge pool of potential active members. Gentle efforts to pull
them in with welcoming email, offering of guides, greeters or mentors and other efforts are well
rewarded. The readers also play another very important role: audience to the active posters,
especially in larger, open, social communities. For commercial communities that rely on page
views to drive advertising revenues, readers are indispensable.

UNIT II Chapter 3 - Social /Societal Groups 27


c. Dominators

People who post frequently influence the pace of an online interaction space and can,
unknowingly and unintentionally, dominate that space making it harder for others to participate.
Most often, dominators don't know they are dominating. Facilitators can gently ask via email for
the member to give others a little more time to respond, while also acknowledging their
important contribution, for the line between core member and dominator is pretty fuzzy.
Dominators can often be given productive roles to take advantage of their interest and time, such
as volunteer hosts or content experts.

d. Linkers, weavers and pollinators

The bumblebees and butterflies! This group of people is very important in larger communities
where there may be a large selection of conferences and topics from which to choose. These
members tend to participate across a range of interests, and in doing so, are in the best position to
let others know of interesting happenings across the community. They make wonderful greeters
and mentors, and often have interest in bringing new resources to a community as cybrarians. They
keep spaces from getting dull or stale. On the other hand, they can disrupt slower, deeper
conversations with their "flitting" in and out.

e. Flamers

Flamers live, as they say, to flame. Flaming is defined as sending hostile, unprovoked messages .
What is actually considered a flame varies by community, but often there are people who enjoy
challenging other members just for the "fun of it." Name-calling, innuendo and such are the tools
of flamers. The interesting dynamic of flaming is that to an extent, it draws community interest as a
form of entertainment. At the other end, it drives people away if it goes over the line of community
norms. Flamers can also be the source of new ideas which, when applied within community norms,
creating what is known as "creative abrasion" and can be helpful in workgroups and brainstorms.

f. Actors and Characters

Some people very successfully develop online personas with "bigger than" life personalities and
characteristics. They may be the online version of the "Class Clown, " the humorist or one-line
master, or just have a unique way of communicating that stands out. These are strong attractors of
community attention, especially in social communities. They can help lighten the atmosphere for a
community, helping balance tense situations and introduce ways for people to reveal more about
themselves in a potentially less threatening manner. When they push too hard against community
norms, they can be perceived as negative influences for two main reasons: interrupting "serious"
threads or conversations, and for not knowing when to quit based on group norms (usually
unspoken norms.)

g. Energy Creatures

Perhaps the most famous archetype in online communities, the Energy Creature is an individual
who so irritates a community that they form up around him or her to try and counteract the
"creature's" energy. They community may try shunning the energy creature, but often get pulled
into the vortex and become energy creatures themselves. At their worst, energy creatures can
destroy a conversation or community. At their best, they are often caricatured mirrors of the
community, helping us recognize our own potentially negative patterns. They can be catalysts for
groups to break through to a deeper level of communication. Sometimes they can even wake up a
sleeping group.

UNIT II Chapter 3 - Social /Societal Groups 28


h. Defenders

Defenders sometimes defend an individual (sometimes to the point of being perceived as a slavish
defender) or groups. They can be hypersensitive to the smallest slight or suggestion of attack,
perhaps because of previous experiences. They may also have highly developed intuitive skills,
which can be very productive for a community and serve as an "early warning" signal of a
changing community dynamic.

i. Needlers

It only takes one line, repeated, inserted, and insinuated, over time, to recognize a needler. They
have a point to make and it appears again, and again, and again. Often in the form of a cynical "I
told you so," Needlers know they are right and won't let you forget it. Their point may be insightful
or irrelevant, but the value of the point is quickly lost on an audience who gets fatigued from the
repetition. This is different from a spammer because the point is often "on point." But it can loose
its power and context, regardless of the quality. In some cases, this may be from a visionary who is
ahead of her/his time, who needles with the best interest of the group in mind. Other times it is
from a person who will not budge from their stance. Needlers can also keep us "honest" by not
letting a group evade critical issues or behaviors. They can be bellwethers of new ideas.

j. Newbies or NewBees

Sometimes called "clueless newbies," newbies (or New Bees, as I like to call them) are members
new to a community. They might also be new to online interaction. When new folks jump into an
online interaction without checking it out, observing the interaction or learning the community
norms, they can be perceived as rude and clueless. In some communities, newbies are treated to
a baptism of fire by old hands as a way of either being accepted or rejected from the group.
Newbies are also the source of new blood, ideas, interest and "pollination," thus the new-bee
appellation. Newbies deserve our attention and should be supported with information to help
them become part of the group.

k. PollyAnnas

Also known as the PC (politically correct) Police. PollyAnnas also operate across a range of
"acceptable" behavior, from being a source of appreciation of community members, to the being
"nice" at the expense of being honest or "real." They see the bright side to most anything, so they
can be a positive influence. However, Pollyannas drive some people so nuts they will leave a thread
just to escape. PollyAnnas avoid conflict and withdraw before clarity is reached because they are
averse to conflict.

l. Spammers

Spammers post the same thing over and over again. Often, it is commercial material with little or
no relevance to the community. Sometimes members start spamming as a reaction to feeling that
they are not being "heard." Sometimes it is simply a matter of ignorance of community norms and
the general disapproval of spam by experienced Internet users. Spammers should be contacted via
email immediately and asked to stop.

UNIT II Chapter 3 - Social /Societal Groups 29


m. "Black and White" Folks

These are the people who present immutable positions. They appear to be initially unwilling to see
points of view beyond their own. They push instead of probe. They are usually willing to take the
blame for their style (ownership) but shy away from the responsibility of the impact of their style.

They engage only on their own terms, but may refuse to engage others who utilize the same
tactics. Interaction often escalates and winning is the goal. They also are keepers of important
information that the community may need, but not particularly liked. They ask the tough
questions, but may not like to be asked them back in return.

n. "Shades of Grey" Folks

Sometimes characterized as wishy-washy, with no clear convictions, and as members who shrink
away from the tough issues. Often they won't fully engage or justify their positions. On the other
side, they often can help neutralize a polarized situation and offer new, combined viewpoints for a
community. They tend to carry new information into a group that has polarized on issues and can
be a breath of fresh air.

o. Untouchable Elders

We tend to thrust this archetype on others -- the expert, the guru -- and sometimes unconsciously
create a different set of rules or norms for the elder. Most often, the elder does not seek this
recognition. Elders may not held accountable to the same community norms or scrutiny of the
other members. Elders can dominate new members by a few words, regardless of the value of the
words of others around them. Their wisdom is gold to a community, but their influence can
inadvertently muzzle the rest of the group who might feel uncomfortable posting in such company.

Institutions in the Society

a. Marriage and Family

b. Religion

c. Education

d. Scientific institutions

e. Hospitals

f. Legal systems

g. Penal systems

h. Psychiatric hospitals and Asylums

i. Military

j. Mass media and News media

k. Factories and Corporations

l. Organisations

UNIT II Chapter 3 - Social /Societal Groups 30


UNIT - III PERSONS INVOLVED
Chapter 1 - MINI-BIOGRAPHY OF PERSONS INVOLVED

Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt

 August 16, 1832 - August 31, 1920


 A German medical doctor, psychologist, physiologist, philosopher,
and professor
 Known as one of the founding figures of modern psychology.
 He is widely regarded as the "father of experimental psychology”
 He also formed the first journal for psychological research in 1881.

John B. Watson

 January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958


 Was an American psychologist
 Established the psychological school of behaviorism
 Often referred to as the "father of behaviourism."
 A popular author on child-rearing advertising industry.

Burrhus Frederic Skinner

 March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990


 was an American psychologist, author, inventor, social philosopher
 Invented the cumulative recorder
 Formulated theories about Radical behaviourism

UNIT III - PERSONS INVOLVED 31


Max Wertheimer

 April 15, 1880 – October 12, 1943


 A Czech-born psychologist
 One of the three founders of Gestalt psychology
 Much of his work dealt with perception
 His Productive Thinking was published posthumously in 1945

Sigismund Schlomo Freud a.k.a Sigmund Freud

 May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939


 A Jewish Austrian neurologist
 Known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defence
mechanism of repression,
 An early neurological researcher into cerebral palsy

Alfred Adler

 February 7, 1870 - May 28, 1937


 An Austrian medical doctor and psychologist
 Founder of the school of individual psychology
 Co-founders of the psychoanalytic movement

UNIT III - PERSONS INVOLVED 32


Reference Books:

 Elizabeth B. Hurlock, Development Psychology, A life-Span


 Abraham Sperlings, Psychology Made Simple
 Spencer A. Rathus, Pswychology (Principles in Practice)
 Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. (2003). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (6th ed.). Elliot, A. J. (1999).
 Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist,
 Bloom, B. S. (1984). The two sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as
one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher,
 Benjafield, J. (1996). A History of Psychology. Toronto: Allyn & Bacon.
 Chaplin, J. & Krawiec, T. (1974). Systems and Theories of Psychology. New York, Holt, Rinehart and
 Marx, M. & Hillix, W. (1973). Systems and Theories in Psychology. New York McGraw-Hill
 Hillner, K. (1984). History and systems of modern psychology: a conceptual approach.
 Hilgard, E. (1987). Psychology in America. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
 Watson, R. & Evans, R. (1991). The Great Psychologists: A history of psychological thought. (5th ed.)

Reference Websites:
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Read more of this at:

 http://www.scribd.com/joydacuan