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Changes in Matter

Adapted from Chemical


Interactions
Discover Activity

• Obtain a small piece of chalk.


Observe it and record its
properties in your notebook.
• Place the chalk on a piece of
paper and crush it with the back
of a spoon. Record the changes
that occurred in your notebook
Discover Activity (Cont.)

• Place some of the crushed


chalk into the bowl of the
spoon. Add about 8 drops of
vinegar. Record what happens
in your notebook.
Explanation

• Chalk is mostly a single substance,


calcium carbonate. Do you think a
new substance was formed when the
chalk was crushed?
• Do you think a new substance was
formed when vinegar was added?
Provide evidence for your answers.
Chemistry

• The study of matter and it’s


changes.
Physical Changes

• Changes that alter the form


or appearance of matter.
• Does not change the
substances in the matter into
new substances.
Examples of Physical
Changes…
• Changes in State
• When matter changes from a solid to a
liquid or a liquid to a gas.
• Ice/water vapor/liquid water
• Dissolving, bending, crushing,
breaking, chopping, melting, freezing,
condensation, sublimation,
vaporization
Check for understanding

Why is the melting of an ice cube


called a physical change?

• The substance is still water, just


the form has changed.
Chemical Change

• Occurs when a substance is


transformed into a different
substance.
• The newly formed substances
have different properties than
the original substances.
Examples of Chemical
Changes…
• Combustion
• Electrolysis
• http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/JCEsoft/CCA/CCA3/MAIN/ELECH
• http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-4806079481951573184&q=
electrolysis+of+water&hl=en

• Oxidation
• Tarnishing
Evidence for Chemical
Reactions…
• Color Change
• Formation of
precipitate
• Gas production
• Temperature
changes
• Changes in
properties
Nuclear Change

• This changes occurs in the


nucleus of atoms
• This occurs everyday within the
sun
• There are 2 types:
• Nuclear fusion
• Nuclear fission
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear Fusion
Conservation of Mass

• What happens to a candle as it


burns?
• LAW of conservation of mass
states that MATTER IS NOT
CREATED OR DESTROYED IN
ANY CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL
CHANGE.
Review
1. Identify three different kinds of
physical changes that could
happen to a crayon.

2. Which of the following is not a


physical change:
• Drying wet clothes
• Cutting snowflakes out of paper
• Light a match
Review

3. What evidence would you look


for to determine whether a
chemical change had occurred?

4. Why is the electrolysis of water


classified as a chemical change
but the freezing of water is not?
Credits

Chemical Interactions, Pearson


Prentice Hall, 2005, Boston, MA