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Lecturing

I. Purposes of Lecturing

II. Advantages of the Lecture Method

III. Disadvantages of the Lecture Method

IV. Organizing the Lecture

A. Plan the Objectives of the Lecture

B. Written Outline

1. Several Forms of Outline

• Hierarchal or Classical Lecture

• Problem-Centered Lecture Structure

• Comparative Lecture Structure

• Thesis Format Lecture Structure

C. Stress the Points in the Structure

D. Summarize Structure and Main Points

V. Delivering the Lecture

A. Characteristics of Disorganized Lecture

B. Controlling Anxiety

C. Spontaneity

D. Voice Quality

E. Body Language

F. Speed of Delivery

G. Getting Off on the Right Foot

H. Clarifying During the Lecture

I. Facilitating Retrieval From Memory

VI. Types of Lectures

A. Traditional Oral Essay

B. Participatory Lecture

C. Feedback Lecture
D. Mediated Lecture

Lecturing
For many years, active learning has been in vogue while passive learning is out, and
the critics says there is no more passive mode of learning than lecturing. In the days of
Socrates and Plato, lectures were a means of conveying facts, information and ideas
that could not be readily obtain elsewhere. Today we have a broad array of teaching
material and strategies from which to choose, so many would argue that we no longer
need the lecture method.

I. Purposes of Lecturing
- The teacher can use the lecture to set the stage for a new area of learning and
place the topic into the perspective of what is already known.
- The lecture method can be used to simulate student’s interest in the subject.
- Lecture can be used to inspire people.
- Lecture is to integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge from several
fields or source.
- In lecture, difficult concepts can be clarified.

II. Advantages of the Lecture Method


- Lecture method is economical.
- A great deal of information can be communicated in a one hour lecture.
- The lecturer can supplement a textbook by enhancing a topic and making it come
to life.
- The lecturer can demonstrate critical thinking and problem solving being done by
an expert.
- It helps students develop their listening abilities.
- Lecture brings enjoyment.

III. Disadvantages of the Lecture Method


- By nature it lends itself to the teaching of facts while placing little emphasis on
the problem solving, decision making, analytical thinking or transfer of learning.
- Lecturing is not conducive to meeting student’s individual learning needs.
- Lecturing brings with it the problem of limited attention span on the part of the
learner.

IV. Organizing the Lecture


A. Plan the objective of the lecture. To gauge how much time it will take to cover the
content, and to consider the difficulty of the material and the availability of the
audience.
B. Go with the content, start a written outline.
1. Several Forms of Outline
• Hierarchical or Classical Lecture
It is the most commonly used form, especially in nursing. In this
approach, information is grouped, divided, and subdivided in typical
outline form. This is the simplest lecture structure and is very easy for
learners to follow, especially if the outline is visually presented on slides or
on transparencies.
Example:
Research design
I. Why we need different research designs
II. Research designs
A. Experimental (Clinical Trials)
1. Quasi-experimental
2. Pre-experimental
B. Correlational
1. Ex post Facto (Comparative)
2. Retrospective and Prospective
3. Cross-sectional and Longitudinal
C. Descriptive
D. Qualitative
1. Ethnographic
2. Phenomenological
3. Grounded Theory
• Problem-Centered Lecture Structure
In this structure, a problem is posed, and various hypotheses and the
solutions are developed. When the problems are complex, the hypotheses
and the solutions may be overlapping, making the outline appear more
complicated. This kind of lecture requires a lot of clarification and
examples.
Example:
Solutions
Infection Antibiotics, fluids
Problem: Fever} Hypotheses: Inflammation Heat application
Dehydration Fluids and
electrolytes
• Comparative Lecture Structure
When the objective is to differentiate between two entities, this
structure is being use. The chart-type format maybe actually presented to
the learners to help them visualize the comparison.
Example:
Variables Nurse Practitioner Physician’s
assistant
Education
Professional status
Autonomy
Clinical skills
Prescription
privileges
Salary
• Thesis Format Lecture Structure
This involves the lecturer taking apposition on an issue or a particular
viewpoint on a subject and then supporting or justifying that viewpoint or
position with evidence or logic.
Example:
A lecture on the topic passive euthanasia, with the thesis that,
ethically, passive euthanasia is the beginning of a slippery slope.
C. The lecturer should continue to stress the points in the structure as the lecture
unfolds.
Advance Organizer
It is a statement that forms a bridge between concepts already discuss and
those to come. They help learner link what they already know to what they are
about to learn.
D. At the end of the lecture, the structure and the main points should be
summarized. That way the teacher ties the objectives from the beginning of the
lecture to the end, and the teacher has come to full circle.

V. Delivering the Lecture


You need to plan your delivery, rehearse, and consciously think about your
techniques of delivery if you are to maximize your effectiveness.
A. Characteristics of Disorganized Lectures
1. Structure or outline is not obvious to the listener. No apparent rationale for the
sequence of topics.
2. No mention of the objectives or desired learning outcomes of the lecture.
3. Lecturer mentions the same topic at different time with no apparent purpose
other than failing to complete a thought at one time.
4. No advance organizers before new concept is introduced.
5. No transition between sections of the lecture.
6. No summary or trying thought together at the end.
B. Controlling Anxiety
Imaging – An effective control mechanism. You visualize yourself as you want
to appear on audiences.
C. Spontaneity
Avoid reading in the class. Reading kills spontaneity and can be
anesthetizing.
D. Voice Quality
If your voice is not loud enough for everyone in the class to hear easily, use a
microphone if possible. Beware of lecturing in monotone voice. You should vary
the pitch and volume of your voice as you speak.
E. Body Language
Be aware of your body language. You can add dramatic quality of your
lecturing by movement. Use hand for emphasis. Avoid mannerisms because it
can distract your audiences. Maintain eye contact with the class.
F. Speed of Delivery
The pacing of lecture affects learners’ comprehension and enjoyment of the
material. A pause now and again helps the students catch up and gives both
them and you a few second to reflect on what has been said.
G. Getting off on the Right Foot
The way you begin the lecture sets the tone for all that follows. Try to avoid
just walking into the class and immediately launching into lecture. A good
opening puts the audience in a positive frame of mind for what is to come.
H. Clarifying During the Lecture
Clarifying confusing or difficult concepts during a lecture is essential.
Clarification can be done effectively by means of examples and analogues rather
than repetition.
I. Facilitating Retrieval from Memory
Repetition – it does not help to clarify muddy points, it does help in fix
information in memory and make it more likely to be retrieve at a later time.
Elaboration – repeated points are flesh out in more detail when mentioned the
second in the lecture.
Imagery – mechanism in which information can be lodged in memory for later
retrieval.

VI. Types of Lecture


A. Traditional Oral Essay
In this lecture type, the teacher is an orator and is the only speaker. The class
consists of complete polished exposition on the topic that can be inspirational
and informative. This type of lecture is often overused, resulting in passive and
sometimes bored learners.
B. Participatory Lecture
Begins with learners brainstorming ideas on lecture topics based on what
they have read in preparation. It progresses with the teacher organizing students’
idea and fleshing them out with expertise. The lecture with incomplete handouts,
involves somewhat a traditional oral essay formant. The handouts helps learners
focus attention on important points and yet not have to take on every single piece
of information.
C. Feedback Lecture
It consists of mini-lectures interspersed with 10-minute small group discussion
structure around questions related to the lecture content. This approach gives the
learner the opportunity to manipulate lecture content and apply it immediately,
thus enhancing learning and memory recall.
D. Mediated Lecture
Lecture with the use of media such as films, slides, or web based images
along with the traditional lecture. This approach can be used for web based
course as well as classroom courses. Using images of some type can add an
emotional component to the lecture and assist in changing attitude.
Sample of Incomplete Hand-outs:
Lecturing

I. Purposes of Lecturing
- The teacher can use the lecture to set the stage for a new area of learning and
place the topic into the perspective of what is already known.
- The lecture method can be used to _________________________ in the
subject.
- Lecture can be used to inspire people.
- Lecture is to integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge from several
fields or source.
- In lecture, ______________________________.

II. Advantages of the Lecture Method


- Lecture method is _____________.
- A great deal of information can be communicated in a one hour lecture.
- The lecturer can supplement a textbook by enhancing a topic and making it come
to life.
- The lecturer can demonstrate critical thinking and problem solving being done by
an expert.
- It helps students _________________________________.
- Lecture brings enjoyment.

III. Disadvantages of the Lecture Method


- By nature it lends itself to the teaching of facts while placing little emphasis on
the problem solving, decision making, analytical thinking or transfer of learning.
- Lecturing is not conducive to meeting student’s individual learning needs.
- Lecturing brings with it the ____________________________ on the part of the
learner.

IV. Organizing the Lecture


A. _____________________________. To gauge how much time it will take to
cover the content, and to consider the difficulty of the material and the availability of
the audience.
B. Go with the content, start a ____________.
1. Several Forms of Outline
• ____________ or Classical Lecture
It is the most commonly used form, especially in nursing. In this
approach, information is grouped, divided, and subdivided in typical
outline form.
• Problem-Centered Lecture Structure
In this structure, a _______ is posed, and various _________ and the
_______ are developed.
• ____________ Lecture Structure
When the objective is to differentiate between two entities, this structure is
being use.
• ____________ Lecture Structure
This involves the lecturer taking apposition on an issue or a particular
viewpoint on a subject and then supporting or justifying that viewpoint or
position with evidence or logic.
C. The lecturer should continue to stress the points in the structure as the lecture
unfolds.
__________________
It is a statement that forms a bridge between concepts already discuss and
those to come. They help learner link what they already know to what they are
about to learn.
D. At the end of the lecture, the structure and the main points should be
______________.

V. Delivering the Lecture


You need to plan your delivery, rehearse, and consciously think about your
techniques of delivery if you are to maximize your effectiveness.
A. Characteristics of Disorganized Lectures
1. Structure or outline is not obvious to the listener. No apparent rationale for the
sequence of topics.
2. No mention of the ________________________________ of the lecture.
3. Lecturer mentions the ________________________ with no apparent purpose
other than failing to complete a thought at one time.
4. No advance organizers before new concept is introduced.
5. No transition between sections of the lecture.
6. ____________ or trying thought together at the end.
B. Controlling Anxiety
Imaging – An effective ________________. You visualize yourself as you
want to appear on audiences.
C. ____________
Avoid reading in the class. Reading kills spontaneity and can be
anesthetizing.
D. ____________
If your voice is not loud enough for everyone in the class to hear easily, use a
microphone if possible. Beware of lecturing in monotone voice. You should vary
the pitch and volume of your voice as you speak.
E. Body Language
Be aware of your body language. You can add dramatic quality of your
lecturing by __________. Use hand for emphasis. Avoid mannerisms because it
can distract your audiences. Maintain ________ with the class.
F. Speed of Delivery
The _______________ affects learners’ comprehension and enjoyment of the
material. A pause now and again helps the students catch up and gives both
them and you a few second to reflect on what has been said.
G. Getting off on the Right Foot
The ______________________ sets the tone for all that follows. Try to avoid
just walking into the class and immediately launching into lecture. A good
opening puts the audience in a positive frame of mind for what is to come.
H. Clarifying During the Lecture
Clarifying confusing or difficult concepts during a lecture is essential.
Clarification can be done effectively by means of ______________________
rather than repetition.
I. Facilitating Retrieval from Memory
________ – it does not help to clarify muddy points, it does help in fix
information in memory and make it more likely to be retrieve at a later time.
__________ – repeated points are flesh out in more detail when mentioned
the second in the lecture.
___________ – mechanism in which information can be lodged in memory for
later retrieval.

VI. Types of Lecture


A. ______________ Essay
In this lecture type, the teacher is an orator and is the only speaker.
B. Participatory Lecture
Begins with learners _________________ on lecture topics based on what
they have read in preparation. It progresses with the teacher organizing students’
idea and fleshing them out with expertise. The lecture with incomplete handouts,
involves somewhat a traditional oral essay formant. The handouts helps learners
focus attention on important points and yet not have to take on every single piece
of information.
C. _________ Lecture
It consists of mini-lectures interspersed with 10-minute small group discussion
structure around questions related to the lecture content.
D. Mediated Lecture
Lecture with the use of ________________________________________
along with the traditional lecture.

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