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URL

Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resources
on the World Wide Web.

The first part of the address is called a protocol identifier and it indicates what protocol to use,
and the second part is called a resource name and it specifies the IP address or the domain name
where the resource is located. The protocol identifier and the resource name are separated by a
colon and two forward slashes.

HTTP

Short for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web.
HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and
browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in
your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and
transmit the requested Web page.

The other main standard that controls how the World Wide Web works is HTML, which covers
how Web pages are formatted and displayed.

IP

Short for Internet Protocol. IP specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the
addressing scheme. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a
source.

TCP

Abbreviation of Transmission Control Protocol, and pronounced as separate letters. TCP is one
of the main protocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP
enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees
delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which
they were sent.

NNTP

Short for Network News Transfer Protocol, the protocol used to post, distribute, and retrieve
USENET messages. The official specification is RFC 977.

NNTP replaced UUCP, the original USENET

protocol.
DNS

Short for Domain Name System (or Service or Server), an Internet service that translates domain
names into IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The
Internet however, is really based on IP addresses. Every time you use a domain name, therefore,
a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the
domain name www.example.com might translate to 198.105.232.4.

Internet

A global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are linked into
exchanges of data, news and opinions. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the
Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its
operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to
the global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well.
There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online services, such as America Online,
offer access to some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial
Internet Service Provider (ISP).

The Internet is not synonymous with World Wide Web.

e-mail

Short for electronic mail, the transmission of messages over communications networks. The
messages can be notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files stored on disk. Most
mainframes, minicomputers, and computer networks have an e-mail system. Some electronic-
mail systems are confined to a single computer system or network, but others have gateways to
other computer systems, enabling users to send electronic mail anywhere in the world.
Companies that are fully computerized make extensive use of e-mail because it is fast, flexible,
and reliable.

Browser

Short for Web browser, a software application used to locate and display Web pages. The two
most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox. Both of these are graphical
browsers, which means that they can display graphics as well as text. In addition, most modern
browsers can present multimedia information, including sound and video, though they require
plug-ins for some formats.
Web server

A computer that delivers (serves up) Web pages. Every Web server has an IP address and
possibly a domain name. For example, if you enter the URL
http://www.pcwebopedia.com/index.html in your browser, this sends a request to the server
whose domain name is pcwebopedia.com. The server then fetches the page named index.html
and sends it to your browser.

Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the
machine to the Internet. There are many Web server software applications, including public
domain software from NCSA and Apache, and commercial packages from Microsoft, Netscape
and others.

Intranet

A network based on TCP/IP protocols (an internet) belonging to an organization, usually a


corporation, accessible only by the organization's members, employees, or others with
authorization. An intranet's Web sites look and act just like any other Web sites, but the firewall
surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access.

Like the Internet itself, intranets are used to share information. Secure intranets are now the
fastest-growing segment of the Internet because they are much less expensive to build and
manage than private networks based on proprietary protocols.

HTML

Short for HyperText Markup Language, the authoring language used to create documents on the
World Wide Web. HTML is similar to SGML, although it is not a strict subset.

HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and
attributes. The correct structure for an HTML document starts with <HTML><HEAD>(enter
here what document is about)<BODY> and ends with </BODY></HTML>. All the information
you'd like to include in your Web page fits in between the <BODY> and </BODY> tags.
XHTML

Short for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language, a hybrid between HTML and XML
specifically designed for Net device displays.

XHTML is a markup language written in XML; therefore, it is an XML application.

XHTML uses three XML namespaces (used to qualify element and attributes names by
associating them with namespaces identified by URI references. Namespaces prevent identically
custom-named tags that may be used in different XML documents from being read the same
way), which correspond to three HTML 4.0 DTDs: Strict, Transitional, and Frameset.

XHTML markup must conform to the markup standards defined in a HTML DTD.

When applied to Net devices, XHTML must go through a modularization process. This enables
XHTML pages to be read by many different platforms.

A device designer, using standard building blocks, will specify which elements are supported.
Content creators will then target these building blocks--or modules.

Hypertext

A special type of database system, invented by Ted Nelson in the 1960s, in which objects (text,
pictures, music, programs, and so on) can be creatively linked to each other. When you select an
object, you can see all the other objects that are linked to it. You can move from one object to
another even though they might have very different forms. For example, while reading a
document about Mozart, you might click on the phrase Violin Concerto in A Major, which could
display the written score or perhaps even invoke a recording of the concerto. Clicking on the
name Mozart might cause various illustrations of Mozart to appear on the screen. The icons that
you select to view associated objects are called Hypertext links or buttons

Hypermedia

An extension to hypertext that supports linking graphics, sound, and video elements in addition
to text elements. The World Wide Web is a partial hypermedia system since is supports graphical
hyperlinks and links to sound and video files. New hypermedia systems under development will
allow objects in computer videos to be hyperlinked.

USENET

A worldwide bulletin board system that can be accessed through the Internet or through many
online services. The USENET

contains more than 14,000 forums, called newsgroups, that cover every imaginable interest
group. It is used daily by millions of people around the world.