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Self-regulating

brushless
synchronous alternators
series DSG
Contents:

1. Application

2. Ratings

3. Definition of the alternator


3.1 Basic technical data
3.2 Enclosure
3.3 Type of cooling
3.4 Design
4. Mechanical design
4.1 Design
4.2 Housing and stator
4.3 Rotor
4.4 End shields
4.5 Bearings
4.6 Terminal box
5. Power reducing influences
5.1 Standard conditions
5.2 Relation between power and coolant
temperature
5.3 Relation between power and installation
altitude
5.4 Relation between power and power factor
cos phi
5.5 Marine classification
5.6 Higher types of enclosure
5.6.1 Enclosure IP 43
5.6.2 Enclosure IPR 44 or IPR 54
5.6.3 Enclosure IP 44 or IP 54
6. Electrical performance
6.1 Operating principle
6.1.1 Alternator
6.1.2 Voltage regulator
6.2 Self-excitation, de-excitation
6.2.1 Self-excitation
6.2.2 De-excitation
6.3 Voltage and frequency
6.3.1 Voltage setting range
6.3.2 Static voltage response
6.3.3 Transient voltage response
6.3.4 Voltage waveform
6.4 Currents
6.4.1 Unbalanced loads
6.4.2 Overload
6.4.3 Short-circuit behaviour
6.5 Non-linear load
6.6 Emergency operation
6.6.1 Emergency manual control
6.6.2 Stand-by regulator
7. Parallel operation
7.1 General
7.2 Parallel switching conditions
7.3 Start-up synchronisation at isolated
parallel operation
7.4 Steady-state operation/load distribution
7.4.1 Voltage droop
7.4.2 Power factor regulation
7.5 Mains parallel operation
7.6 Oscillations
7.7 Neutral current
8. Planning guidelines
8.1 Nominal capacity
8.2 Dynamic voltage variation
8.3 Non-linear load
9. Factory testing
9.1 Standard tests
9.2 Special tests

2
AvK SEG competence from individual protection to meet your needs, as we
in electricity generation devices to complete electrical rely not only on continuity
and protective relaying fit-outs for power plants. AvK and quality in our technology
Germany, with its factory in solutions, but we also con-
When it comes to electricity Ingolstadt and the site in sider your satisfaction as
generation and protective Dreieich near Frankfurt, sup- equally important.
relaying, AvK|SEG is your com- plies synchronous machines The certification to DIN EN
petent and reliable partner. We and converters, while SEG ISO 9001 that AvK and SEG
offer the quality and flexibility Kempen specialises in plant factories have underpins our
of a medium-sized, indepen- engineering and devices for high quality aspirations.
dent group of companies with protection and other functions.
a good mixture of experience Together we set standards
and innovation. Operating and so influence electricity
globally, we are able to offer generation technology on an
you custom-built engineering international scale. We offer
solutions as well as an exten- every performance level, re-
sive range of products. gardless whether you require
Our product range extends an individual device, an
alternator or a turnkey system.
Our efficient customer service
and advice centres through-
out the world work energetically

3
Self-regulating brushless
synchronous alternators of the series type DSG

1.
Application Application examples

The AvK alternators of series The following lists just


type DSG are the result of some of the areas
an advanced development where AvK synchronous
process in which efficient alternators from the
manufacturing methods as DSG series 29-144 are
well as many years experience used in the energy
in the applications of such sector:
synchronous alternators were
utilised. permanent power
supply of stationary
This applies to the mechanical
and maritime systems
design, electrical characteris-
peak load operation in
tics and control engineering
parallel with the mains
properties.
emergency power sup-
The DSG series was devel- ply for critical users,
oped with particular regard e.g. in power plants,
to optimal operating efficiency, industrial plants, hospitals,
and to very favourable dy- high-rise buildings
namic response in the event on-board power supply
of load surges. Furthermore, for ships
for the magnetic circuit ship shaft generators,
design, damper cage layout reversing machines Emergency power supply
and winding design, special diesel-electric drive for
emphasis was laid on minimal ships
reaction as a result of current special power supplies
harmonics on the voltage for users who place high
waveform. demands on supply-line
quality
frequency conversion,
e.g. 50:60 Hz or
60:50 Hz

Suitable for use in all kinds


of drives: diesel engines,
gas engines, gas, water and
E steam turbines as well as ship
FI CAT GM B
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RTI shaft generators.


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4
2.
Ratings

Standard use ranges as per


VDE 0530, degree of pro-
tection IP 23, rated criteria
according to Section 3.1

 30 – 4,000 kVA,
400/231 V, 50 Hz,
1,500 rpm

or

 33 – 4,500 kVA,
450/260 V, 60 Hz,
1,800 rpm

Furthermore, DSG alternators


Combined heat and power station
are available for all standard
voltages to VDE 0530 in
the performance range given
Offshore equipment
and also as special versions
for specific voltages. In addi-
tion, the following rotational
speeds are available, de-
pending on power and size:

 at 50 Hz – 1,000, 750,
600 and 500 rpm

 at 60 Hz – 1,200, 900,
720 and 600 rpm

Higher ratings up to
approx. 6.5 MVA with
660 V or 690 V are possible
on request.

5
3.
Definition of the alternator

Designed in accordance 3.1


with DIN-EN 60034,
VDE 0530, IEC 34 Basic technical data

Rated power: According to rated output values To ensure the alternators


meet the desired requirements,
Rated power factor: cos phi = 0.8 conditions and specifications,
Rated voltage: 230…1000 V deviations from this data and
VDE 0530 are possible on
Rated frequency: 50 Hz or 60 Hz, request. The alternators can
Special frequencies on request be produced to all interna-
tional standards such as BS
Coolant temperature: ≤ 40°C (VDE)
4999, CIE 2/3, NEN
Installation altitude: ≤ 1,000 m above sea level (VDE) 3173, NEMA, etc., see
Section 5.5.
Degree of protection: see 3.2

Type of cooling: see 3.3

Design: see 3.4

3.2 3.3

Enclosure Type of cooling


IEC 34-5 IEC 34-6,
DIN VDE 0530-5 DIN VDE 0530-6

IP 23 provided as standard. Provided as standard:


Depending on size, higher IC01/IC0A1.
types of enclosure e.g. In the event of special pro-
IP 43, IPR 44, IPR 54, tection requirements,
IP 44 and IP54 can be the type of cooling will be
provided as required, see adapted accordingly.
Section 5.6.

6
3.4

Design
IEC 34-7
DIN VDE 0530-7
B3 B 5/B 20
Sizes DSG 29 to DSG 74 IMB 3 IMB 25
IM 1001 IM 2001/IM 1101
are produced as standard
in the designs IMB 34,
IMB 24 and B2/B5 or
B5/B16.
Sizes DSG 86 to DSG 144
are available as standard
in designs IMB 3, IMB 20
and IMB 16.
Other designs are possible. B 3/B 5 B 16
On request, we will perform IMB 35 IMB 16
IM 2001 IM 1305
special feet dimensions
in order to meet the require-
ments of the gen-set base
frame.

B 20 B2
IMB 20 IMB 2
IM 1101 IM 1205

B 14/B 20 V1
IMB 24 IMV 1
IM 2101 IM 3011

Design B3 B3/B14 B3/B5 B20 B14/B20 B5/B20 B2 B16 B2/B5 B5/B16 V1 Special design
Code I IMB IMB IMB IMB IMB IMB IMB IMB _ _ IMV1
DIN IEC 34 – 7 3 34 35 20 24 25 2 16
Code II IM IM IM IM IM IM IM IM _ _ IM
DIN IEC 34 – 7 1001 2101 2001 1101 2101 2001/1101 1205 1305 3011
DSG
     
29 – 52
DSG
           
62 – 74
DSG
           
86 – 114
DSG
         
125 – 144

7
DSG 29 – 43

1 Shaft 9 Main alternator stator

4 Antifriction bearing, drive end 10 Main alternator rotor

5 Inner bearing cap 11 Exciter stator 15 Cover

6 End shield, drive end 12 Exciter rotor 16 Rectifier support


4. 7 Fan 13 End shield, non-drive end 17 Terminal box

Mechanical design 8 Stator housing 14 Antifriction bearing, 18 Terminal studs


non-drive end

DSG 52 – 99

1 Shaft 7 Fan 13 End shield, non-drive end

2 Outer bearing cap 8 Stator housing 14 Antifriction bearing, non-drive end

3 Grease regulation disc 9 Main alternator stator 15 Cover

4 Antifriction bearing, drive end 10 Main alternator rotor 16 Rectifier support

5 Inner bearing cap 11 Exciter stator 17 Terminal box

6 End shield, drive end 12 Exciter rotor 18 Low voltage terminals

8
DSG 114 – 144 with antifriction bearings

1 Shaft 7 Fan 13 End shield, non-drive end

2 Outer bearing cap 8 Stator housing 14 Antifriction bearing, non-drive end

3 Grease regulation disc 9 Main alternator stator 15 Rectifier cover

4 Antifriction bearing, drive end 10 Main alternator rotor 16 Rectifier support

5 Inner bearing cap 11 Exciter stator 17 Terminal box

6 End shield, drive end 12 Exciter rotor 18 Low voltage terminals

DSG 114 – 144 with sleeve bearings


13 Exciter rotor

1 Shaft 7 End shield, drive end 14 End shield, non-drive end

2 Labyrinth seal 8 Fan 15 Sleeve bearing, non-drive end

3 Sleeve bearing, drive end 9 Stator housing 16 Rectifier cover

4 Sleeve bearing shell 10 Main alternator stator 17 Rectifier support

5 Oil ring 11 Main alternator rotor 18 Terminal box

6 Machine sealing 12 Exciter stator 19 Low voltage terminals

9
4.1 4.2 overhangs and connectors The rotor windings comply
against the dynamic stress with temperature class “H”
Design Housing and stator generated by electrodynamic of DIN EN 60034-1 VDE
force. 0530-1. The shaft ends are
The alternators consist of the The stator laminated core
cylindrical in types IMB 3
main alternator as revolving- consists of layers of low loss
or IMB 20, with slot and key
field machine, the exciter dynamo sheet metal, held by
4.3 as per DIN 6885 Sheet 1.
machine as revolving ar- clamping rings or clamping
The rotor is balanced with
mature machine, and the plates. The stator as a whole Rotor half key in accordance with
electronic voltage regulator. forms a compact, stable unit
VDE 0530/IEC 34-14 as
The components are con- consisting of stator laminated The main rotor designed as
standard.
structed as a compact unit. core and housing cover. The salient pole execution con-
The voltage regulator is housing is constructed as sists of hydraulically com- At alternators with shaft flange,
provided built-in as standard an octagonal steel structure pacted sheet metal or steel e.g. design IM 1205 (B2)
in the main terminal box for the smaller units DSG 29 plates. The standard built-in or IM 1305 (B16) or at
(DSG 29 – 52), in the non- – 52, and in the case of the damper cage is connected machines with flexible steel
drive end shield (DSG 62 – bigger machines, as a round electrically in the pole shoes discs, flanged shafts or steel
99) or in a separate terminal welded construction. The feet and between the poles. The discs will be adapted to the
box (DSG 114 – 144), or of the DSG 29 – 99 models winding of the main rotor is respective drive motor. Other
may be provided separately are welded to the housing, made of flat copper and is shaft designs or a second
upon request for enclosed while in the case of the larger amply protected by suitably shaft end can be manufactured
mounting into a switch- machines in the DSG 114 – sized components against on request.
board. 144 series, they are integrated deformation caused by
into the end shields. centrifugal force. The uni-
Cooling: directional fan is located at
At all machines, the cooling The stator winding corresponds the drive end of the rotor.
air is drawn in on the non- to temperature classification
drive end, and blown out on “H” as per DIN EN 60034-1 The exciter rotor consists of
the drive end by means of or VDE 0530-1. dynamo sheet metal, with
the shaft-mounted fan. the three-phase winding
Fastening components and inserted into its slots. The
Overspeed: mechanically stable con- rotating diodes in 6 pulse
In accordance with VDE nections secure winding bridge connection are
0530, the alternators are connected on the input side
designed to withstand a to the 3-phase winding of
overspeed of 1.2 times the the exciter and on the out-
rated speed for 2 minutes. put side to the field winding
For higher runaway speeds, of the main machine. They
e.g. in the case of water are amply dimensioned in
turbines (1.8 x nN [rated terms of voltage and current
speed]), the required design loads and also provided
modifications will be made. with a suppressor circuit.
Circuit engineering pre-
cautions for protection of the
system have to be arranged
where required.

10
4.4 4.5 Appropriate precautions formers for differential pro-
protect all bearings during tection and measurements.
End shields Bearings transport. In addition, for In the case of built-in current
safety reasons, we provide transformers from AvK/KWK,
Sizes DSG 29 to DSG 144 Up to and including size 43, a copper busbar constitutes
sleeve bearing alternators
are equipped with welded pre-lubricated antifriction the fourth terminal (N).
without oil filling for transport.
or cast-iron end shields. bearings with at least The auxiliary and low voltage
25,000 hours operating life terminals are either on
DSG 29 – 99:
are built in. As an option, separate terminal strips in
Alternator feet attached in 4.6
bearings allowing re- the main terminal box, in the
close proximity to the bearings end shield at the non-drive
lubrication are available. Terminal box
and designed accordingly, end, or in a separate terminal
From size DSG 52 up, re-
guarantee an especially The main terminal box is box on the stator housing,
lubrication antifriction
solid base. The drive end performed according to depending on alternator
bearings with a calculated
shield is produced from grey enclosure IP 54. Depending size. Voltage regulators,
life span for steady-state
cast iron up to and including on size, it may be on top
basic operation of at least
size DSG 62, and from (size DSG 29 to DSG 74),
40,000 hours (up to size
DSG 74 is of a welded on the side if the customer
DSG 62) or 30,000 hours
construction (standard in prefers, on the top of the
(from size DSG 74) are in-
type B14). Flange bells with generator housing (DSG 86
stalled as standard. Up to
motor fixing dimensions to DSG 99), or on the side
size DSG 74, the antifriction
to SAE standards can be or above at the non-drive
bearings are generally end shield with the desired
attached to it.
prestressed, while the larger cable outlet.
DSG 114 – 144: series machines contain pre- For the series DSG 29 to
The alternators are fixed to stressed bearings depending DSG 36 all 6 winding ends
the baseframe or foundation on the application and require- are led to separate terminals, Auxiliary terminal box DSG 114
at the end shields, the ments. while for the larger product
alternator feet are integrated DSG alternators of twin- series, the neutral point is temperature sensors,
into the end shields. Both bearing design are equipped connected as standard to secondary outputs of current
end shields are screwed with a fixed bearing and a the winding overhang and transformers, measuring
to the stator housing and floating bearing. The position is led to a common neutral lines for the exciter current,
of the fixed bearings and terminal or neutral busbar. heating and suchlike can be
together form the complete
floating bearings depends From size DSG 62, an connected here.
alternator housing.
on the size and the design open neutral point can be The heating terminals which
The generally large intake
incorporated if required, carry current when the unit
areas cause a slight pressure factors.
together with an enlarged is at rest are insulated for
loss and therefore a low DSG alternators of single-
terminal box, for example the protection of operating
cooling air flow velocity. In bearing design have a
for mounting of current trans- personnel.
terms of filter use, this results floating bearing on the non-
in long maintenance intervals. drive end.
Sizes DSG 74 to DSG 144
can be equipped upon
request and at additional
cost with sleeve bearings
flanged to the end shields.
Depending on the operating
conditions, forced oil lubri-
cation or water-cooling can
be required here.

Main terminal box DSG 114

11
5.
Power reducing influences

5.1 5.2 5.3

Standard conditions Relation between Relation between


power and coolant power and
The unit ratings given are temperature: installation altitude:
valid under VDE conditions, Characteristic curve 5.2 Characteristic curve 5.3
that is:
Coolant temperature The temperature limit of the As both air density and
≤ 40°C, winding is critical. A de- therefore heat absorptivity
Installation altitude crease in the coolant tempera- decrease at higher altitudes,
H ≤ 1000 m above sea ture (coolant temperature either the performance must
level, alternators of standard < 40°C) leads to an increase be decreased or a larger
enclosure IP 23 and cooling in performance, while a generator must be chosen.
type IC01. temperature increase (coolant
temperature > 40°C) leads
to a decrease in performance.
The characteristic values
of the particular alternator
selected, for example re-
actances, are generally valid
for the given rated power (SN).

Relation between power and coolant temperature Characteristic curve 5.2 Relation between power and installation altitude Characteristic curve 5.3

∂ [°C]

12
5.4
Relation between power and power factor cos phi Characteristic curve 5.4

Relation between
power and power
factor cos phi:
Characteristic curve 5.4

The underexcited range of The overexcited range is


cos phi = 0 – 1 is limited limited by:
during:
 cos phi = 1 – 0.8
 single operation by by the performance of
maintaining the rated the drive motor
voltage using the voltage
 cos phi = 0.8 – 0
regulator
by the permissible rotor underexcited overexcited
 operation in parallel with temperature rise.
the mains by stability Limitation by alternator
against loss of synchronism Limitation by prime mover

5.5
Temperature class Cooling air Temperature Derating
Marine classifications Classification temperature rise factor SN/STYP
CT δϑ for series DSG
As the coolant temperatures
°C K 29…74 86…99 114…144
(CT) are higher and the permis-
“H“ VDE 40 125 1 1 1
sible rises in temperature are GL 45 120 0.96 0.96 0.96
lower than the specifications RINA 50 115 0.93 0.93 0.93
for land-based applications, LR 45 110 0.90 0.90 0.90
the performance rating should NKK 45 110 0.90 0.90 0.90
be lowered, or a larger gen- DNV 45 115 0.93 0.93 0.93
erator type chosen. BV 50 110 0.90 0.90 0.90
ABS 50 115 0.93 0.93 0.93
The table opposite shows per- MRS 45 1201) 0.96 0.96 0.96
missible rises in temperature; “F“ VDE 40 105 0.86 0.91 0.93
design and use according to GL 45 100 0.83 0.87 0.89
temperature class “H” or “F”. RINA 50 90 0.75 0.84 0.86
For higher types of enclosure LR 45 90 0.75 0.84 0.86
than IP 23 and other require- NKK 45 90 0.75 0.84 0.86
ments, please send us a de- DNV 45 90 0.75 0.84 0.86
tailed inquiry. BV 50 90 0.75 0.84 0.86
ABS 50 95 0.78 0.84 0.89
MRS 45 100 1)
0.83 0.87 0.89

1
) temperature rise reduced in order not to exceed VDE

13
5.6 5.6.2 5.6.3  Air-cooled heat ex-
changers:
Higher types of Enclosure IPR 44 or Enclosure IP 44 or In this case, the cooling
enclosure IPR 54 IP 54 air temperature emerging
from the cooler and
The design and electrical From size DSG 62, air intake These types of enclosure are
entering the alternator is
parameters are determined and outlet ducts may be also possible for size DSG
higher than the outside
during the project stage. The provided. As an extra ad- 62 and above and require
temperature by the tem-
degree of enclosure and vantage, in addition to the the use of heat exchangers.
perature gradient in the
the rated power are indicated higher degree of enclosure, For the alternator, the coo-
heat exchanger. It is
on the rating plate. the necessary ventilation ling air temperature emerging
usually designed so that
dissipates the heat through from the cooler and into the
the cooling air going
5.6.1 ducts from the installation alternator is the deciding
into the alternator is
area and also reduces the factor.
Enclosure IP 43 around 15 K higher
noise level.
 Water-cooled heat than the air entering
The position of the intake
Enclosure type IP 43 is poss- exchangers: the cooler. The power
and outlet openings in the
ible for all sizes and requires In general the heat reduction is given in
generator allows for the
the addition of air inlet filters, exchangers are usually characteristic curve 5.2.
connection of supply and
whose higher air resistance designed so that the If the customer requires
outlet air channels. The
reduces the performance by temperature of the coo- a more space-saving
magnitude of the permissible
about 5% – 10% (depending ling air entering the cooling system design,
pressure drops in the piping
on the size, rotational speed alternator is 15 K above a reduction in per-
is to be agreed with the
and air velocity). Temperature the water intake tempe- formance may be
manufacturer.
sensors in the generator rature. The change in necessary because of
which are to be connected performance is given in the resulting increase in
to a control unit in the characteristic curve 5.2. air resistance. Careful
control panel warn against There is no additional evaluation and appro-
an unacceptable temperature power reduction caused priate case by case type
rise in the winding when by increased air resistance determination is recom-
cleaning of the air filters is in the cooling circuit. mended.
required.

14
6.
Electrical performance

6.1 6.1.1

Operating principle Alternator

In the smaller models, the G1


G1 Main alternator stator windings are made
G2 Exciter machine T6
Voltage droop transformer from round wire, while those
G3 Auxiliary winding R1 Voltage adjuster of the larger models are
made from flat wire as pre-
formed windings. The G3
winding is also located
in the main stator. From size
DSG 52 up, the well-propor-
tioned terminal box allows for
the addition of supplementary
controllers or modules.
The G1 rotor winding, made
of section wire, is laid directly
onto the insulated rotor lami-
nated core. This gives an
optimal copper filling factor
and good mechanical
strength. The strength of the
impregnated coils is further
increased by mechanical
packing.
The three-phase rotor winding
of the G2 stationary-field
machine, and its field wind-
ing, are insulated like the wind-
ings of the main machine.
High-quality multi-layer surface
insulation materials are used
to insulate the windings. This
heat-resistant insulating system
is suitable for the mechanical,
electrical and climatic re-
quirements of land and ship
use. The G3 auxiliary field
winding supplies the field
winding of the G2 brushless
three-phase a.c. exciter with

15
power via the actuator of  for sizes  internal and external  long operating life due to
the voltage regulator. DSG 29 to 43, the alternator voltage set high quality components
The power generated in the “COSIMAT LC1” regulator point adjustment  compact design
3-phase winding of the ex-  for sizes  PID gain control amplifier
citer rotor is rectified in a DSG 52 to 62, the with freely adjustable P 6.1.2.3
three-phase bridge connection “COSIMAT LC2” regulator and I parameters
consisting of silicon diodes “COSIMAT N+”
 from size
and supplied to the rotor of  underspeed protection
DSG 74 on, the
the G1 alternator. For varying (overproportional voltage The “COSIMAT N+” voltage
“COSIMAT N+” regulator.
load, the voltage of the main drop at underfrequency) regulator, used from size
alternator is regulated by If required, the “COSIMAT DSG 74 up, is a standardised
with LED display
altering the excitation current N+” regulator can also be component, subjected to en-
in the G2 winding using the used for sizes DSG 29 to  resistance against environ- durance testing for electrical
transistor actuator of the voltage 62. When installing the mental effects due to functioning and temperature-
regulator. “COSIMAT N+” into machines encapsulated electronics rise behaviour by the manu-
of sizes DSG 29 to 43, the facturer before installation in
 long operating life due to
6.1.2 regulators and components the alternators.
high quality components
are generally built in to the The capacity of the regulator
Voltage regulator switchgear, while the terminal  compact design is geared to the requirements
boxes of sizes DSG 52 to of bigger machines. Apart
An electronic voltage regu- 62 offer sufficient space for 6.1.2.2 from having those properties
lator is used for high voltage a “COSIMAT N+” and a already described for the
accuracy and excellent maximum of 2 supplementary “COSIMAT LC2”
“COSIMAT LC2” regulator,
dynamic response. An aux- modules. Even for external
The “COSIMAT LC2” is a it is also possible to add
iliary winding in the main assembly, the voltage regu-
compact voltage regulator supplementary regulators
stator supplies the regulator lators are always to be con-
for the regulation of three- and modules to the
with power. figured so that their power
phase synchronous alter- “COSIMAT N+” regulator.
In order to sense unequal circuits have cooling air
nators in stand-alone and
flowing freely through them. The control signals for the
phase voltages with unbal- parallel operation. Essential
The low-pass filter required following functions are
anced loads, the alternator features of the “COSIMAT
with harmonics load may supplied via terminals on
voltage is measured at LC2” regulator are:
be incorporated into the the “COSIMAT N+”:
3 phases for all regulator
models. The voltage regulator terminal box for all products  three-phase voltage
 power factor regulation/
keeps the terminal voltage in the range. measurement
balancing
at the main machine  internal and external  reactive power regulation/
constant via the excitation 6.1.2.1 alternator voltage set balancing
current IK1 in the winding point adjustment
“COSIMAT LC1”  regulation to a mains
of the G2 exciter.  PID gain control amplifier
with freely adjustable interface point
The “COSIMAT LC1” is a
The following regulators are
compact voltage regulator P and I control parameters  operating range extension
used as standard:
for the regulation of three-  parallel operation by
phase synchronous alternators reactive current-dependent  automatic or manual
in single operation. voltage droop stand-by changeover
Essential features of the  adjustable underspeed  volts-per-Hertz regulation
“COSIMAT LC1” regulator protection with LED dis-
are: play
 resistance against environ-
 three-phase voltage
mental effects due to en-
measurement
capsulated electronics
16
 stator current limiting 6.2.2 6.3 can be ignored for normal
distances between assembly
 excitation current limiting De-excitation Voltage and frequency and control panel.
 cable compensation The set point potentiometer
For de-excitation, the current AvK alternators are built
is connected to the regulator
More detailed descriptions in the G2 exciter winding for 50 or 60 Hz operation
terminals s/t. The connection
of these devices are given must be brought to 0. This at the voltages given in
lines of the set point po-
separately. can be done by disconnect- VDE 0530 and specifications
tentiometer must be laid out
ing the connections UH1 and from other countries.
separately as double-core
WH1 at the “COSIMAT LC2”, However, other voltages or
6.2 shielded wires. For correct
or by opening the bridge frequencies are available
equipotential bonding, the
Self-excitation, UH1-UH1´ and WH1-WH1´ on request.
shield must be connected
de-excitation on the “COSIMAT N+” voltage
to earth at either end or
regulator. In this way, the
more often. The minimum
supply to the regulator is inter-
6.2.1 wire size must be 0.75 mm2.
rupted and the current in the 6.3.1 The optical shield covering
Self-excitation exciter field falls to zero. For
Voltage setting range must reach at least 80…85%.
sizes 74 – 144, the de-ex-
Self-excitation without the For the operating range
citation switch should be
use of external auxiliary The voltage adjustment pro- between no-load and full
connected to the designated
means is achieved through vided as standard for alter- load, as per VDE 0530 and
terminals (see wiring diagram
permanent magnets in the nators of sizes DSG 29 to IEC 34, the voltage range
legend), and not to the
frame of the exciter. DSG 43 is achieved by (0.95…1.05) x UN applies,
“COSIMAT N+”, by use of a
In addition, excitation can a rheostat located on the with the given constraints.
de-excitation relay.
be provided by an external regulator.
Encapsulated switches are
voltage of approx. 10 V DC Alternators of size DSG 52
to be used. The minimum load
(positive pole on the I ter- and up are provided as 6.3.2
of the contacts must be > 5 V
minal). This voltage is standard with a 500 Ω set-
DC/0.1A. The required rated Static voltage response
applied to the terminals point adjuster. This is built
load is 220 V AC/10 A.
I1 – K1 of the exciter during in to the terminal box in
Please note carefully the in- The voltage tolerance for all
the run-up to rated speed. units up to size 74, and is
structions in the appropriate DSG alternators is ±0.5%
located in the control panel
wiring diagram. to ±1% under the following
The external excitation in the case of bigger units
conditions/disturbances:
must not be switched on Caution: (also an option for sizes
when the machine is at The excitation field electric DSG 29 to DSG 74) for  no-load operation to rated
rest. circuit of G2 must not be expediency reasons. The load cos phi 0.11)… 1
interrupted! After the de- voltage is continuously adjust-
 cold and warm machines
excitation, the alternator able within the range ±10%
produces a further residual of rated voltage. As per  speed drop of
voltage of approx. 15% of VDE 0530, the control range approximately 3%.
UN. This value, particularly is ±5% of the rated voltage 1
) This concerns the regulation
for voltages of over 400 V, in no-load operation; it can properties. The thermal rating for
can be above the permit- be extended to ±10% for continuous operation is at cos
phi = 0.8. The usual operational
ted touch voltage! operational testing of control range is cos phi = 0.8…1.
panel components and for
synchronisation. The resistance
of the potentiometer cables

17
Oscillogram 1 / load application 6.3.3 from the power supply
equipment works up until the
Transient voltage rated voltage is achieved.
response
The recovery time is
see Oscillogram 1 Application 0.5…0.8 seconds, depend-
see Oscillogram 2 Shedding ing on alternator size.

The voltage change for


6.3.4
sudden load variations
depends on the leakage Voltage waveform
resistance voltage drop of
alternator G1. A sinusoidal voltage wave-
The magnetic circuit and form is produced by the
the winding are optimally geometry of the magnetic
designed for slight transient circuit and the choice of the
Alternator DSG 86 L1-4, 2840 kVA, 400 V, 50 Hz, 1500 rpm
Application of 1500 kVA cosϕ = 0.1 voltage changes. winding factor of the stator
winding.
External disturbances for
transient voltage change The usual definitions are:
are the relative current surge
Oscillogram 2 / load shedding  Telephone Harmonic
as well as the power factor.
Factor “THF”
For example, during full
load application with cos The requirements of VDE
phi 0.8, the transient voltage 0530 are easily achieved.
drop is approximately
 total harmonic distortion
18…25%. The lower value
applies to machines at The harmonic content between
1500 rpm, the higher value Ph-Ph is ≤ 3% during no-load
to low-speed machines operation up to rated
of 500 rpm. With existing power and power factor
base load, the transient cos phi = 0.1…1 at
voltage change is slightly symmetric and linear loads.
lower than that for a alternator
operating at no load. If required, a special wind-
Alternator DSG 99 L1-6, 3220 kVA, 450 V, 60 Hz, 1200 rpm
ing arrangement reduces
Removal of 2600 kVA, cosϕ = 0.8 The time constants of the the total harmonic distortion
alternator G1, the exciter to less than 3% and the
G2, and the control system single harmonics part to less
used as well as the dynamic than 2% even for the voltage
speed decrease as an ex- waveform between line and
ternal influence determine neutral. However, this results
the temporal path of the in a slight reduction in perfor-
voltage. The amply dimen- mance.
sioned excitation system
achieves short recovery times
because the excess excitation

18
6.4 between the 3 phases. The mately 10 seconds with- current is a factor of 1.37
voltage asymmetry will be out the rated voltage higher, and for a phase-
Currents about ±1% per each 10% dropping to an unaccept- to-earth fault a factor of
unbalanced load. If the other able level. This short-term 1.85 higher. In this way,
6.4.1 phases were also loaded overload capacity is protective devices can be
with different currents, the available for starting currents co-ordinated to isolate
Unbalanced loads
magnitudes of the positive of induction motors, for the faulted system safely
phase sequence system, example. and selectively.
The electrical layout of the
negative sequence system,
alternator also permits an  The range IK ≥ 3 x IN is
and zero phase sequence
unbalanced load. required for example in
system must be analytically
general by various clas-
The following unbalanced or graphically calculated, 6.4.3
sification societies. The
loads, with no loading on so that the actual alternator
Short-circuit associated exciter rating
the other phases, are allowed: load may be determined.
behaviour leads to a short-term voltage
For the alternator, the current
rise almost to ceiling voltage
in any phase winding may
 The corresponding machine when the short-circuit is
not exceed the rated current
parameters determine the cleared. This (high) voltage
this and the ratio of the negative
Size corresponds to magnitude of the asymmet- rise may also occur during
I/IN I2/IN sequence system I2 to the
ric short-circuit current. certain disturbances in the
rated current IN must remain
29 1.0 0.33 Depending on machine voltage control system.
less than 20%.
36 1.0 0.33 size, it decreases within
 Necessary measures
43 0.9 0.3
AvK recommends limiting 0.3…0.6 seconds to
for the protection of
I2/IN to ≤ 0.08 in line with the sustained short-circuit
52 0.75 0.325 consumers are provided
the relevant specifications current.
62 0.6 0.2 for in the control panel.
for the protection of the entire
 The standard components
74 0.6 0.2 system.
are dimensioned so that
86 0.6 0.2
the alternator can supply
99 0.6 0.2 2.5 to 4 times the rated
6.4.2
114 0.6 0.2 current as sustained short
125 0.6 0.2 Overload circuit current for 3 seconds
at a 3 phase terminal
144 0.6 0.2
 In accordance with VDE short circuit. When a 2
I2 = inverse current 0530, the generators are phase short circuit occurs,
dimensioned for 1.5 times the sustained short-circuit
Consequently, the ratio of the rated current for a Oscillogram/asymmetric short-circuit current
the negative sequence sys- duration of 30 seconds.
tem I2 to the rated current
 To adapt to the requirements
IN is clearly above the VDE
of internal combustion
requirements.
engines, an overload of
Unbalanced loads cause
1.1 times the rated current
voltage unbalance and
can be maintained for 1h
additional losses that are
within 6h.
particularly noticeable when
there are temperature rises  The amply dimensioned
in the damper cage. There- excitation equipment permits
fore, the load should be a short-term overload of
Path of the short circuit current for 3 phase short circuit of an alternator
distributed on the system-side up to about 1.8 times the DSG 125 K1-12, 2740 kVA, 400 V, nominal current Inominal = 3,955 A
with connected voltage regulator
as symmetrically as possible rated current for approxi-

19
7.
Parallel operation

6.5 It is advisable to consult the 6.6.2 7.1


manufacturer in order to
Non linear load optimise the entire system. Stand-by regulator General

Converters as consumers The disadvantages of Alternators from size DSG


6.6
with non-linear currents cause emergency manual control 52 and up are equipped
harmonics in the voltage Emergency operation do not apply when a stand- as standard for parallel
waveform. In order to keep by regulator is installed, operation.
the losses occurring in the Where stricter safety require- because the alternator can The smaller sizes DSG 29
alternator and the system low ments exist, it is possible, in operate as before after to DSG 43 can be upgraded
and to guarantee the correct the event of failure of the elec- switchover to this regulator. accordingly.
functioning of the connected tronic voltage regulator, to con- The entire regulator unit – The parallel operation of
electrical devices, the har- tinue to operate the alternator main regulator, stand-by regu- the required number of units
monic oscillation content of using an emergency manual lator, manual or automatic enables an optimal capacity
the voltage waveform should control or to change over changeover unit – must be utilisation and favourable
be as small as possible, see to a stand-by regulator either built in to the switchgear. operating efficiency.
also Section 6.3.4. manually or automatically. In addition, the operational
That presupposes a small reliability of the system in-
sub-transient reactance xd”. 6.6.1 creases since the other units
One of the ways this can can take over in the case of
Emergency manual
be achieved is by design- failure of one of the units after
control
ing the damper cage in a corresponding pre-setting.
particular way.
The electrical power from
With very high load part the supply equipment is fed
due to inverters, over- to the exciter winding I1 – K1
7.2
dimensioning of the alternator of the exciter G2 via an
may be necessary. This also adjustable transformer with Parallel switching
requires a specific magnetic series-connected rectifier. conditions
circuit design. This inevitably Manual control of the correct
leads to an increase of exciter rating proves extremely Alternators to be connected
the asymmetric short-circuit difficult, especially in the in parallel to each other or
current. case of inrush currents. There- to the mains must fulfil the
The measures to be con- fore, emergency manual synchronisation conditions,
sidered for the alternator control is only possible where i.e. be identical with regard
depend on the relative non there is almost constant load to the following criteria:
linear load, the current har- of a separate network or in
the case of operation in  voltage
monics brought about by
parallel with the mains. To  frequency
the user, and the permissible
 phase sequence
harmonic voltage distortion. avoid consequential damage
 phase position
caused by operator error and
because of the difficulty of Permissible tolerances
manual operation, the alter- before connection are:
nator must be changed back
to automatic voltage regu-  voltage difference:
lation as soon as possible. 5% of UN
 frequency difference:
2% of fN

20
The frequency tolerance flowing in the UVW main 7.4 load distribution requires the
applies to normal diesel lines until synchronisation same droop.
generator sets. For occurs do not exceed the Steady-state operation/
load distribution The power factor dependence
operating mode with ad- rated current.
of the droop ensures that
ditional flywheel, a lower The exciter boosting current
 For active power load for parallel operation with
value is permissible. is usually drawn from a
distribution, the rotational the mains and during
series resistance and isolating
To avoid incorrect synchron- speed behaviour of changes in the mains voltage,
diodes of a battery and fed
isation (e.g. by unqualified the driving machine is the apparent power changes
to the exciter field connections
operational personnel), a responsible. in permissible limits.
I1/K1, in parallel with the
synchronisation control device
regulator connections.  For reactive load distribu- At the rated current, the
should be fitted which shall
The resistance and the rated tion, the voltage response of droop is:
only release the circuit breaker
power of the series resistance the alternators is responsible.
in the control panel if the 0.0% for cos phi = 1
depend on the battery voltage
synchronisation conditions The following methods of 1.3% for cos phi = 0.9
level and the no-load ex-
described are met. reactive load distribution can 1.8% for cos phi = 0.8
citation of the alternator. In
accordance with Section be used: 3.0% for cos phi = 0
Automatic synchronisation
is generally recommended 6.2 “De-excitation”, regu- Experience shows that stable
lator supply is interrupted 7.4.1
to avoid causing possible parallel operation can be
damage. during acceleration and achieved when the droop in
Voltage droop
released again when the the plant is adjusted to 3%
After parallel connection, rated speed is reached. After a synchronous alternator for nominal current and cos
the active power load and The voltage produced by is connected in parallel, it is phi 0.1.
reactive load distribution the regulator at terminals no longer possible to carry out For adaptation with other
must be balanced. I1– K1 then exceeds the voltage regulation because manufacturer’s products, the
battery voltage. A blocking of the fixed mains voltage. droop can be stepless
7.3 diode in the battery feed Minor variations in the mains adjusted between 0%…6%
line prevents backflow into voltage would result in con- of the nominal voltage.
Start-up synchron-
the battery, which can then siderable alternator reactive
isation at isolated
be disconnected. Through currents. Therefore, for
parallel operation
the firing speed recognition, parallel operation, a droop
This function can only be an inactive alternator may transformer must be inserted
7.4.2
used with similar types of be disconnected. in phase “V” of the alternator.
machines, and requires A supplementary current With this current signal, a Power factor
simultaneous start-up of the limiting regulator SR can reactive-current dependent regulation
diesel generator sets. The be used for automatic limit- set point control is achieved
ing of the stator current. in the voltage regulator. This process basically requires
alternators are connected
Mains voltage fluctuations of the use of the “COSIMAT
electrically to each other
up to ±2% can be equalised. N+” base regulator (as
while at rest. As rotational
standard from size DSG 74
speed increases, the alter- Alternators from size DSG up, as a retro-fit for smaller
nators are excited and 52 up are fitted as standard generators) and is used
attempt to pull themselves with a current transformer for during operation in parallel
into synchronisation. The voltage droop. Smaller
excitation current during machines can be upgraded
input of the initial excitation accordingly. Through the use
(12VDC) has to be limited of the droop, the terminal
so that the circulating currents voltage is lowered depending
on the reactive current. The
power proportional reactive
21
with the mains where the the mains voltage and permissible for the respective Since the winding and the
supply voltage fluctuates holds the set power factor heat class always reduces the neutral conductor are loaded
greatly. An additional regu- constant during voltage winding durability, prolonged thermally in this manner, this
lator for cos phi regulation fluctuations as well as during operation on the limits of current must be reduced by
in the alternator or in the different alternator loads. If range A in DIN VDE 0530-1 a neutral choke.
switchgear directly beside a specific power factor is should be avoided. This can
Alternatively, by using 2/3
the base regulator controls required at the mains inter- be assured if the machine is
chorded double-layer wind-
the “Cosimat N+” voltage face point, the cos phi regu- dimensioned and operated
ings (standard with some 4
regulator of the alternator for lator effective transformer must in accordance with the
pole DSG models) a transient
the purpose of maintaining be configured at this point. operating data specified at
current can largely be
the set power factor, i.e. However, it is also possible the project stage.
avoided. If identical gen-
the alternator voltage will to use a specific mains
erators run in parallel in iso-
follow the system voltage coupling regulator QPF-NK.
lated operation, no neutral
automatically. So as not to overload the 7.6
choke is generally necessary
exciter circuit, an excitation
Oscillations since the voltage waveforms
7.5 current limiter is advisable.
are identical between Ph-Mp.
It limits the excitation current
Mains parallel These periodic active and
to the set value for the rated
operation reactive power fluctuations
power for cos phi = 0.8.
are caused by irregular
There is a further possibility
As in most cases the mains torque characteristics in
of influencing the reactive
has a much higher short- the reciprocating internal
power supply specifically by
circuit power than the alter- combustion engines.
a reactive power regulator.
nators, the number of units To dampen these variations
With regard to permissible
running in parallel is irrelevant, during parallel operation,
longer voltage and frequency
i.e. there is no noticeable a damper cage is built into
variations, the specifications
effect. all the DSG alternators as
in VDE 0530-1, Section
Voltage fluctuation is thus standard.
12.3, Figures 10 and 11
nearly always determined
apply.
by the grid.
If the voltage and frequency
7.7
For a variation in mains deviate from the rated values,
voltage ΔU ≤ ±2%, the there will always be higher Neutral current
droop in accordance with temperatures at constant
Section 7.4.1 applies. rated power and therefore For different voltage wave-
reduced durability of the forms of the alternators
For a variation in mains running in parallel as well
winding and thus of the
voltage ΔU ≥ ±2%, a cos as the voltage waveforms
whole machine. Voltage
phi regulator in accordance of the grid, there are
rises cause higher iron
with Section 7.4.2 is used, mainly 3rd order currents
temperatures in the main
so that through the influence superimposed on the funda-
machine, which transfers to
of the exciter, the alternator mental wave in all 3 wind-
the winding. Voltage drops
voltage automatically follows ing phases. These flow back
mean increased current and
therefore increased heating through the neutral. The
of the windings. Since magnitude of these currents
exceeding the temperature depends on the potential
difference of the ripple
voltage and the reactance
of the alternator.

22
8. 9.
Planning guidelines Factory testing

8.1 bigger power steps All DSG alternators are sub- Final inspection:
can occur during the star jected to a full test run
Nominal capacity General design, testing of
to delta switchover. according to VDE guidelines.
the components, wiring in-
The tests are logged and the
The nominal capacity results Slip ring motors: spection, rating plate, circuit
test reports made available
from the sum of all users con- diagrams, identifications,
Start-up with armature resis- to the customer.
sidering the service factor. anti-condensation heating,
tance
The necessary unit rating is temperature sensors, etc.
ΔS=(1.3 – 1.6) x SN at
determined after consideration
cos phi 0.2 – 0.4 9.1
of the power-reducing in-
The inrush currents are
fluences in accordance with Standard tests 9.2
small and mostly non-
Section 5.
critical for dynamic voltage Special tests
1. Measuring the cold
changes. (at extra charge)
resistances
8.2 2. Measuring the residual Further tests can be
Transformer connection: voltage performed on request.
Dynamic voltage
For transformer unit rating 3. Voltage symmetry Please ask if required.
variation
bigger than alternator unit 4. Phase sequence test
rating, consultation with the 1. No-load characteristic
A standard value used is 5. Load characteristic
factory is required. The high 2. Short circuit characteristic
ΔU ≤ 20%. In this way, with cos phi = 0.1
sufficient clearance is avail- start-up rush of the trans- 3. Determination of
formers causes a load similar 6. Range of the setpoint
able for retaining voltage efficiency
to a short-circuit. Depending adjuster/voltage
of normal contactors. (summation of losses)
on requirements, the inrush adjustment range
Deviations from this value in 4. Temperature-rise test
the various specifications current should be attenuated 7. Voltage regulator
5. Noise measurement
or as a result of further re- by resistors or the transformer 7.1 Adjustment of the
should be magnetised with 6. Load connection and
quirements must be considered voltage regulator
rising generator excitation. load disconnection
on a case by case basis. 7.2 Underspeed protection
For the determination of the This is generally advised in 7. Harmonics content
adjustment
dynamic voltage dip, the the case of unit-connected analysis
transformers. 7.3 Parallel operation
inrush current with power 8. Peak short-circuit test
adjustment
factor must be known. Inrush 9. Sustained short-circuit
currents worthy of further 8.3 8. Transient overload
current measurement
investigation mainly occur with cos phi = 0.1 or
Non-linear load at short circuit 10. Vibration measurement
while connecting induction
(cardan-driven or at
motors. Caused by harmonics, in- 9. Winding test
motor operation)
creased losses occur in the 10. Overspeed test at
Suggested typical values are: 11. Rotor leakage test with
alternator and the connected 120% nominal speed
Squirrel-cage motors: rotor removed (inductor)
users. For clarification, the 11. High voltage test
Direct on-line starting magnitude of the harmonics
12. Measurement of
ΔS=(5 – 6) x SN at load, the current harmonic
insulation resistances
cos phi 0.2 – 0.4 distortion as well as the
13. Adjustment of additional
Star delta connection permissible voltage harmonic
voltage regulator
ΔS=(1.7 – 2.0) x SN at
distortion are to be con-
modules
cos phi 0.2 – 0.4 firmed to the manufacturer.
Depending on the load
torque during acceleration,
Subject to technical
modifications.
23
AvK Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG
Bunsenstraße 17 · D - 85053 Ingolstadt
P.O. Box 10 06 51 · D - 85006 Ingolstadt
Phone: (+49) 8 41/7 92 - 0 · Fax: (+49) 8 41/7 92 - 2 50
e-mail: infoavkin@avkseg.com · http://www.avkseg.com

Sales:
AvK Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG
Dreieich branch
PB DSG 50600 E

Benzstraße 47– 49 · D - 63303 Dreieich


P.O. Box 10 11 28 · D - 63265 Dreieich
Phone: (+49) 61 03/50 39 - 0 · Fax: (+49) 61 03/50 39 - 40
e-mail: infoavkdr@avkseg.com · http://www.avkseg.com