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PO'WER SYSTEM

PROTECTION
Volume 1: Principles and components
Edited by The Electricity Training Association

Volume 2: Systems and methods


Edited by The Electricity Training Association

Volume 3: Application
Edited by The Electricity Training Association

Volume 4: Digital protection and signalling


Edited by The Electricity Training Association

The Institution of Electrical Engineers


Published by: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London,
United Kingdom

First published 1969 by Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Limited


© 1969; The Electricity Council
Revised edition 1981 by Peter Peregrinus Limited on behalf of the
Institution of Electrical Engineers
@ 1981: The Electricity Council
Reprinted with minor corrections 1986
Reprinted 1990
Second revised edition 1995 by the Institution of Electrical Engineers
¢ 1998: Electricity Association Services Limited
Reprinted 1997

This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the


Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair
dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or
review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988,
this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any forms or
by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the copyright
holder and publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in
accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing
Agency, Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be
sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address:

The Institution of Electrical Engineers,


Michael Faraday House,
Six Hills Way, Stevenage,
Harts. SG1 2AY, United Kingdom

While the editor and the publishers believe that the information and
guidance given in this work is correct, all parties must rely upon their own
skill and judgment when making use of it. Neither the editor nor the
publishers assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused
by any error or omission in the work, whether such error or omission is
the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is
disclaimed.

The moral right of the authors to be identified as authors of this work has
been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act 1988.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A CIP catalogue record for this book


is available from the British Library

ISBN 0 85296 834 5

Printed in the United Kingdom at the UniversityPress, Cambridge


Published by: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London,
United Kingdom

First published 1969 by Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Limited


© 1969: The Electricity Council
Revised edition 1981 by Peter Peregrinus Limited on behalf of the
Institution of Electrical Engineers
© 1981: The Electricity Council
Reprinted with minor corrections 1986
Reprinted 1990
Second revised edition 1995 by the Institution of Electrical Engineers
© 1995: Electricity Association Services Limited

This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the


Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair
dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or
review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988,
this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any forms or
by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the copyright
holder and publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in
accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing
Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be
sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address:

The Institution of Electrical Engineers,


Michael Faraday House,
Six Hills Way, Stevenage,
Herts. SG1 2AY, United Kingdom

While the editor and the publishers believe that the information and
guidance given in this work is correct, all parties must rely upon their own
skill and judgment when making use of it. Neither the editor nor the
publishers assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused
by any error or omission in the work, whether such error or omission is
the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is
disclaimed.

The moral right of the authors to be identified as authors of this work has
been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act 1988.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A CIP catalogue record for this book


is available from the British Library

ISBN 0 85296 836 1

Printed in United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge


Published by: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London,
United Kingdom

First published 1969 by Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Limited


© 1969: The Electricity Council
Revised edition 1981 by Peter Peregrinus Limited on behalf of the
Institution of Electrical Engineers
© 1981: The Electricity Council
Reprinted with minor corrections 1986
Reprinted 1990
Second revised edition 1995 by the Institution of Electrical Engineers
© 1995: Electricity Association Services Limited
Reprinted 1997

This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the


Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair
dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or
review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988,
this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any forms or
by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the copyright
holder and publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in
accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing
Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be
sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address:

The Institution of Electrical Engineers,


Michael Faraday House,
Six Hills Way, Stevenage,
Herts. SG1 2AY, United Kingdom

While the editor and the publishers believe that the information and
guidance given in this work is correct, all parties must rely upon their own
skill and judgment when making use of it. Neither the editor nor the
publishers assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused
by any error or omission in the work, whether such error or omission is
the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is
disclaimed.

The moral right of the authors to be identified as authors of this work has
been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act 1988.

Bdtish Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A CIP catalogue record for this book


is available from the British Library

ISBN 0 85296 837 X

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge


Published by: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London,
United Kingdom

© 1995: Electricity Association Services Limited


Reprinted 1997, 2005

This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the


Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair
dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or
review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988,
this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any forms or
by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the copyright
holder and publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in
accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing
Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be
sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address:

The Institution of Electrical Engineers,


Michael Faraday House,
Six Hills Way, Stevenage,
Herts. SG1 2AY, United Kingdom

While the editor and the publishers believe that the information and
guidance given in this work is correct, all parties must rely upon their own
skill and judgment when making use of it. Neither the editor nor the
publishers assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused
by any error or omission in the work, whether such error or omission is
the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is
disclaimed.

The moral right of the authors to be identified as authors of this work has
been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act 1988.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A CIP catalogue record for this book


is available from the British Library

ISBN 0 85296 838 8

Printed In Great BrlUan at the University Press, Cambridge


Foreword

The four volumes which make up this publication owe their origin to a
correspondence tuition course launched in 1966 by the UK electricity supply
industry, written by expert engineers from both the supply industry and
manufacturers, and administered by the Electricity Council. The
correspondence course continues to be provided to meet the needs of staff in
the electricity supply industry throughout the world. Since privatisation of the
industry in the UK the course is now provided by the Electricity Training
Association, the industry's training organisation.
It became apparent soon after its inception that the work met a widespread
need in the UK and overseas for a standard text on a specialised subject.
Accordingly, the first edition of Power System Protection was published in book
form in 1969 and has since come to be recognised as a comprehensive and
valuable guide to concepts, practices and equipment in this important field of
engineering. Because the books are designed not only to provide a grounding
in the theory but to cover the range of applications, changes in protection
technology mean that a process of updating is required. The second edition
therefore presented a substantial revision of the original material and,
although only minor changes have been made to the first three volumes, the
publication of the fourth book in 1995, along with revised versions of existing
works, reflects the considerable developments in the field of digital technology
and protection systems.
The four revised volumes comprise 23 chapters, each with a bibliography.
The aim remains that of providing sufficient knowledge of protection for those
concerned with design, planning, construction and operation to understand
the function of protection in those fields, and to meet the basic needs of an
engineer intending to specialise in the subject.
In the use of symbols, abbreviations and diagram conventions, the aim has
been to comply with British Standards.
The Electricity Training Association wishes to acknowledge the work both
of the original authors, and of those new contributors who undertook the work
of revising the first three volumes for this new edition; they are referred to at
the head of the appropriate chapter. The Association also acknowledges the
valuable assistance of National Grid Company, East Midlands Electricity,
Foreward

Norweb, and Yorkshire Electricity staff and the help of the following in
permitting reproduction of illustrations and other relevant material:
Allen West Company Limited, ASEA Brown Boverie Company Limited,
BICC Limited, Electrical Apparatus Company, ERA Technology Limited, GEC
Switchgear Limited, GEC Transformers Limited, Price and Belsham Limited,
ReyroUe Protection Limited.
Extracts from certain British Standards are reproduced by permission of the
Bridsh Standards Institution from whom copies of the complete standards may
be obtained.
A particular indebtedness is acknowledged to the Chairman and members
of the Editorial Panel, who directed and co-ordinated the work of revision for
publication.
Chapter authors

R.K. Aggarwal B Eng, PhD, C Eng, MIEE, SMIEEE


N. Ashton C Eng, FIEE, ARTCS
K.AJ. Coates C Eng, MIEE
P.C. Colbrook BSc Tech, AMCST, C Eng, MIEE
L. Csuros Dipl Eng, C Eng, FIEE
D. Day BSc, C Eng, MIEE
EM. Dolby C Eng, MIEE
L.C.W. Frerk BSc (Eng), C Eng, MIEE, FI Nuc E
EW. Hamilton B Eng, C Eng, FIEE
J. Harris C Eng, MIEE
J.W. Hodgkiss MSc Tech, C Eng, MIEE
L.Jackson BSc, PhD, C Eng, FIEE
G.S.H. Jarrett Wh Sc, BSc (Eng), C Eng, FIEE
M. Kaufmann C Eng, FIEE
EJ. Mellor TD
K.G. Mewes Dip EE, C Eng, MIEE
P.J. Moore B Eng, ACGI, PhD, C Eng, MIEE
J.H. Naylor BSc (Eng), C Eng, FIEE, AMCT, DIC
C. Ohl6n MSc Electrical Engineering
H.S. Petch BSc (Eng), MIEE, M Amer IEE
J. Rushton PhD, FMCST, C Eng, FIEE
E.C. Smith AMCT, C Eng, FIEE
C. Turner DSc, F Inst P
H.W. Turner BSc, F Inst P
J.C. Whittaker BSc (Eng), C Eng, FIEE
Editorial panel

J.A. Aspinall B Tech, C Eng, MIEE


S. Boswell Technical Training Adviser (Transmission)
A.J. Dick BSc (Eng), ACGI, DMS, C Eng, MIEE
J.A. Downes BSc (Eng), M Tech
G. Hensman BSc (Eng), ACGI, AMIEE
D.J. Howarth C Eng, MIEE, ARTCS
B.Judd B Eng (Project manager)
G.P. Keogh BSc Dip Ed, C Eng, MIEE, MIPD
R. Rosling B Tech, AMIEE
J.L. Ryan BSc (Eng), ACGI, C Eng, MIEE
C. Taylor AMIEE, FIPD
R.N. Warren Technical Training Adviser (Distribution)