Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

THE FORUM/SYMPOSIUM AS A TEACHING

TECHNIQUE

DR V.K.MAHESHWARI DR SURAKSHA BANSAL ARCHANA


MAHESHWARI

P.hd P.hd
M.A

Former Principal Principal Lecturer

K.L.D.A.V. College M.I.T.College M.L.College

Roorkee.INDIA Meerut INDIA Saharanpur


INDIA

The purpose of higher learning is to develop the ability to respect the ideas and feelings of
others, criticism, appreciation, and present your own ideas and seek clarification. The student
should be able to present his own views on the theme. His potentialities can only be developed
by employing higher technique of teaching and instruction at college level. The following are the
main interactive techniques used for higher learning:

The Colloquy , Debate Forum and Symposium-

Colloquy: Three or four persons selected from a group present various aspects
of a problem to three or four resource persons who respond to them.

Debate Speakers who have opposing views on a controversial subject are


Forum: given equal time to present their reasons for their beliefs, followed by
a free and open discussion of the issue by the entire group.

Symposium: A series of speeches is given by as many speakers as there are


aspects of a problem or issue.

. All three approaches are much alike with the minor differences noted in the description above.
The symposium differs from the panel in that the speakers do not discuss the subject among
themselves. They make separate but related speeches (generally about 5 to 10 minutes in length).
In order to have a genuine symposium, you must utilize both the formal speeches and the
subsequent audience participation.
The colloquy (sometimes called “colloquium”) differs from both the symposium and the forum
in that there are two levels of participation: the one or two (usually not more than three) experts
interact with other small groups of people. This might be the entire group if the class is small. On
the other hand, this interaction may take place before a much larger audience so that really we
have two groups of participants, the experts and the interacters.
Since objective for the presentation is to offer as much information as possible in a limited time,
and to air two diverse points of view on an important subject, he could use standard debate, a
symposium, a colloquy, or even a panel. Any of these could be followed by a forum to include
questions and discussion from the larger group

SYMPOSIUM

The word “symposium” had several dictionary meanings. Firstly, Plato has used this term for
“good dialogue” to present the views towards God. Another meaning of the term is the
intellectual recreation or enjoyment.
The recent meaning of the term is a meeting of persons to discuss a problem or theme. The views
on a theme are presented in a sequence. Each specific aspect of a theme is presented by an expert
of the theme.

* Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein


means "to drink together") but has since come to refer to any academic conference,
or a style of university class characterized by an openly discursive format, rather
than a lecture and question-answer format. ...

As per en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symposium_(Plato)

* The Symposium (Συμπόσιον) is a philosophical text by Plato dated c. 385-380


BCE. It concerns itself at one level with the genesis, purpose and nature of love and,
at another, with the nature of knowledge: How do we know what we know?

n en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symposium_(Xenophon)refers

* Xenophon's Symposium (Συμπόσιον) records the discussion of Socrates and


company at a dinner given by Callias for Autolycus, son of Lycon. (Some
commentators identify this Lycon with the Lycon who was one of Socrates'
prosecutors. ...

* Meeting of a number of experts in a particular field at which papers are


presented by specialists on particular subjects and discussed with a view to making
recommendations conncerning the problems under discussion.

*This way symposium refers to a meeting or conference for the public discussion of
some topic especially one in which the participants form an audience and make
presentationsn
Symposium is one of the techniques of higher learning. It is an instructional technique used to
achieve higher cognitive and affective objectives.
“The symposium technique or forum serves as an excellent device for informing an audience,
crystallizing opinion and general preparing the listeners for arriving at decision, policies, value,
judgment or understanding.”

Objective of Symposium.

The main purpose of the symposium is to provide an understanding to the students or listener on
theme or problem specifically to develop certain values and feelings. The following are the main
objectives of the symposium technique:
1. To identify and understand various aspect of theme and problems.
2. To develop the ability to decision and judgment regarding a problem.
3. To develop the values and feelings regarding a problem.
4. To enable the listeners to form policies regarding a theme or problem.

Mechanism of Symposium
Symposium is a type of discussion, in which two or more speakers, talk from ten to twenty
minutes, develop individual approaches or solutions to a problem or present aspects of a policy,
process or programme. The speeches are followed by questions or comments from the audience,
as in the panel forum. The speeches may be persuasive, argumentative, informative or evocative.
Each speech proceeds without interruption. The chairman of the symposium introduces the topic,
comments on its importance and sometimes indicates the general approaches. The symposium
forum serves as an excellent device for informing an audience, crystallizing opinion; and in
general preparing the listener for arriving at decision, policies, value judgment or understanding.
As there is no need for symposium interaction other than careful listening unless the members
are to discuss the topic after the delivery of the speeches all members of the performing group
can sit in a straight line behind a table or an adjoining chairs, wit the chairman in the middle or to
one side of the speakers. If the symposium is to present two conflicting pints of view, the seating
arrangement can in opinion or in order to preserve peace.

Characteristics of symposium
1. It provides broad understanding of a topic or a problem.
2. Opportunity is provided to the listeners to take decision about the problem.
3. it is used for higher classes to specific themes and problems.
4. It develops the feeling of cooperation and adjustment.
5. It achieves synthesis and evaluation (creativity objectives) by employing the symposium
technique.
6. If provides different views on the topic or a theme.

Precautions for Organizing Symposium

1. Firstly. The moderator should be sure to prepare the speakers or to see that they are prepared.
They should know the rules of procedure, sequence of speaking, and the way in which the forum
will be conducted. They should be aware of the ideas and back ground of the other performers.
Like panelist, they might benefit from a brief warm up.
2. Secondly. The chairman or who ever is responsible for preparing the agents, should not
attempt to stack the cards by omitting or ignoring vital phase of problem as he selects or
delegates his speakers. It is not good to take up to an inadvertent misinterpretation or omission.
To distort or omit an important point of view deliberately is to invite disaster.

3. Thirdly. In all the forum situations the chairman must plan very carefully for the questioning
period that follows the prepared speeches, unless he wishes to take risk of boredom or dedlam.

Some Topics for Symposium


The symposium techniques is used to realize the higher cognitive and effective objectives. The
following are some topics for symposium in education:

1. Use of television for education


2. Scope of distance education in our education.
3. Use of essay and objective type tests.
4. Semester system in education
5. Causes of students’ unrest
6. Quality control of educational research.
7. Use of micro teaching in teacher education.
8. Use of team teaching in the schools.
9. Use of action research in classroom teaching
10. Scope of educational technology in our education.

Limitations of Symposium

1. the chairman has no control over the speakers as they have full freedom of prepare the theme
for discussion. They can present any aspect of the theme or problem.
2. There is a lot of repetition because every speaker prepares theme as whole. Different aspects
of theme are not prepared separately. It creates difficulty of understanding to the listener.
3. As different aspect of theme are presented simultaneously, therefore, the listeners are not able
to understand the theme correctly.
4. The listeners remain passive because they are not given opportunities to seek clarification and
put questions.
5. The discussion and presentation of theme is not summarized at the end. The participants
conclude on their own.
6. The technique is employed to achieve the higher objectives of cognitive domain but affective
domain objectives are not sufficiently emphasized

THE FORUM METHOD

Since it is rarely used by itself, the symposium should be viewed as a supplementary method
which enhances and extends the benefits of other information—transmitting approaches to
learning. It CAN offers the additional dimension of allowing the audience to ask questions about
points which were not clear during the previous presentation. The forum also provides an
opportunity for the correcting of misimpressions given by the speakers. The forum is also a form
nof review in which the audience can again think through the issues, thereby providing
additional order and design to the learning experience.
Good interest is usually maintained in a symposium . When people hear controversial points of
view presented by speakers or debaters, they tend to be drawn into the subject at hand and
subsequently want to interact with the viewpoints of the speakers
The most significant person in the presentation will not be one of the experts. More important to
the success of a forum is the chairman, who will keep the question on target, sort out key
questions for discussion, prod the special speakers if necessary, and summarize the significant
findings at the end of the session.

Values of the Forum Method


Since it is rarely used by itself, the symposium should be viewed as a supplementary method
which enhances and extends the benefits of other information—transmitting approaches to
learning. It CAN offers the additional dimension of allowing the audience to ask questions about
points which were not clear during the previous presentation. The forum also provides an
opportunity for the correcting of misimpressions given by the speakers. The forum is also a form
of review in which the audience can again think through the issues, thereby providing additional
order and design to the learning experience.
Good interest is usually maintained in a symposium . When people hear controversial points of
view presented by speakers or debaters, they tend to be drawn into the subject at hand and
subsequently want to interact with the viewpoints of the speakers
The most significant person in the presentation will not be one of the experts. More important to
the success of a forum is the chairman, who will keep the question on target, sort out key
questions for discussion, prod the special speakers if necessary, and summarize the significant
findings at the end of the session.

Principles for Effective Use of the Forum


Remember the primary objective is to stimulate thought and offer information, not to solve
problems.
Make sure the chairman is competent for his role, which includes introducing the speaker or
speakers, reminding the audience to be ready to participate after the presentations are made,
soliciting response from the larger group, clarifying questions and answers when necessary,
avoiding awkward pauses of silence by posing questions himself, and keeping the discussion on
the sharp edge of controversy. He must do all of this while refraining from a lengthy or
prominent speaking role himself.
Make sure that the original presentations are as objective and accurate as possible. If
misinformation is given during this stage of the method, the discussion will be an exploration in
error and meaninglessness rather than truth.
Always include a summary at the conclusion which will attempt to clarify what issues have been
presented, how they relate to one another, and what course of action should follow on the part of
the group members.

Problems in Using the Forum


The biggest danger in this teaching approach is failure to find an attractive subject. Sometimes a
subject may be of interest to the speakers who live with its implications day by day but of little
concern to the audience. If so, when time for questions is offered, everyone will sit silently
looking at the chairman. Such an experience is embarrassing to the speakers, and deadly in terms
of creating a vital learning experience. In thinking about using a forum for your class, make sure
they all agree that the subject matter for discussion is relevant and meaningful to them.
Another problem is the danger of being overwhelmed by one particular position. This is
particularly dangerous when using a lecture-forum. It can also become a problem in debate,
symposium, or colloquy if one side of the argument is weak. It is always difficult for a group to
be objective on a controversial issue. But once a speaker has delineated an opinion and only one
side of that issue has been adequately presented, it is almost impossible for an audience to
consider the other side honestly and openly.
It is only fair to say also that using any teaching method of this kind takes time. The teacher who
uses various forms of discussion will invariably be a teacher who is committed to quality rather
than quantity. In other words, he is more interested that his students learn well the things which
he presents than that they skim over a lot of material during the classtime

Похожие интересы