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The Vayu-Purana The original Vayu 1s pethaps che oldest of the extant Puranas * The Mahabharata (Vangavasi ed , III, 191, 16) speaks of a ‘Purana proclaimed by Vayu’, the Hariwamsa (Vangavasi ed , I, 7, 13 and 25) refers to ‘Vayu’ as an authority, Banabhatta says in his Harsacartta that he listened to the reading of the Vays-puraya in bis nate village,” and Albertini repeatedly names a Vayu-purina wn his account of India” The character of the Vayw as a Mahipurina has sometimes been called in question ' The cause of this doubt 1s the use of the ttle ‘Swa’ or ‘Sarva’ for ‘Vayaviya’ in the majority of the lists of ‘aghteen Mahapurinas’* But this substitution, which has been taken wrongly in favour of the comparatively late sectarian Upa- purina called ‘Siva-purana’, 1s based on the Sava character of the Vayu The Skanda says ‘The fourth (Purina), declared by Vayu, 1s known as Vayaviya Ie 1s also called Sarva on account of 1 In the following pages the Anandiérama edition of the Vayw has been used 2 Harsacanta ch wt, (pavamana-proktam putnam papatha) 3 Sachan, Alberiinss India, 1, pp 41-2, 130, 168, 194, 247, 287, ete 4 Naraumha Vajapeyin includes the 'Vaya-p’ among the Upapurinay Suc Nuyacara-pradipa, ASB ed, p 19 Sridhara Svamun, sm hus commentary on the Bhagavata-p , cxpluns the word avaka as Siwa-purina’ See his commentary on Bhagavate X11, 13, 4 Mitra Mira recognises the Saiva as a Mahapurina and says aft frggerd merece Tata area TT a ae TAA AOMSRTANCATAA MERGALT FET AT TATA TTA | Sce Viramtrodaya, Pantbbasiprakata (ed Parvatiya Nutyinanda Garena, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series, Benarcs, 1906) p 13 5 Sec Visnu-p (Vanga cd) IL, 6, a1 f£, Bhagavata (Vanga ed) XU, 7, 23 & and XU, 13, 4 ©, Karma (Vanga ed) I, 1, 13 &, Padma (Anss ed) I, 62, 2 #, IY, 111, go f, VI, 21g, 25 , and VI, 263, 77 ©, Varah (Vange ed) 112, 69 Markandeya (Vanga ed) 137, 8 &, Liga (Jwinanda’s ed) I, 39, 61 #, Swe (Vanga ed) V (Vayauya-samhvtd), 1, 1, 38 , Svamihitraya-thanda of the Siata- tambit@ commented on by Madhavacirya (Eggcang, India Office Catalogue Vt, P 1377), Saura-sarabita of the Skanda-p (Eggehing, India Office Catalogue, VI, p 1382), Sambhava-kinda of the Sivarahasya-khanda of the Semkara-sambua of che Skanda-p (Eggeling, India Office Catalogue, V1, p 1363), and so forth 132 The Vayn-Purana 18 connection with (re, treatment of) Siva-bhaker It contains 24,000 Slokas"’ The description of the fourth Maha- purana, as given in the Matsya, Naradiya and Agm, also agrees with the contents of the present Vayu-purina’ None of the Nibandha-writers, who have drawn upon the Vayw and the Swa- purana, have been found to make any confusion between the two, for the verses quoted from the ‘Vayaviya’ or ‘Vays-purana’ are, in the majority of cases, found only in the present Vay# but not in the Swa, and those quoted from the ‘Sasva’ or ‘Siva-purdina’ are some- times traceable in the present Siva but never in the Vaya That the Vayu was more important 1n the eyes of at least the Nibandha- kciras 1s.shown by the fact that almost all of them quote verses from 1t, whereas the Siva-p 1s drawn upon by a very few of them Hence it seems that the attempt to raise the Stva-p to the status of a Maha- 6 agd aga ste aertafifa crag . Rreateernaregs TaTTTETAT aafiafaread aarti g wie 1 Skanda-p (Vanga ed) V, m, (Revi-khanda), 1, 33-342 These verses are also found in the Reva-mahatmya which clams to be a part of the Vayu-purana Suc Aufreche, Bodlesan Catalogue, p 65 7 Sce Matsya (Varga cd) 53, 18, Naradiya (Venkat ul) I, 95 md Agu (Vanga ed) 272, 4b-5 The mention of the Sveta-halpa as connected with ¢he declaiation of the ‘Vayaviya Purina should not create any difficulty, for the Vaya-p scems to connect itself with the Varaha-ka'pa (Vayw 6, 11 and 13, 7, 5. 21, 12 and 23) and to wentify this Kalpa with che Sveta-kalpa (Vayu 6, 13, 23, 63 & and 114 ff) Moreover, the Naradiya P whose list of contents of the ‘Vayavrya’ Purdna agrees much with those of our Vaya but not even partially with those of the Siva, also speaks of the connection of the Vayavrya’ with the Svctakalpa The woid bhaga-dvaya-samanvita ured by the Naradiya P with respect to the ‘Vayaviya’ should not be taken to point ro the Vayaviya-sambsta (of the Swap) which also consists of two bhagas (parts) Eggcling, in hus India Office Catalogue, VI, pp 1299-1301, describes a few mss of a Purina which 1s called ‘vdyuprokta-purina’ ot ‘vayw-parina’ 1m the colophons of chapters It is generally the same as our present Vays, and 1s divided into two khandas (or kandas) or four padas The ASB edition of the Vayw also ss divided into two bhagas OF the twelve Samlutis of che Siua-p the Vayaviya-sambutd only 1s declared by Vayu So, how could the words vayavyya, viyn-prokta ete be applicable to the cntire Siva-p which begins with a Sambita other than the Vayaviya? The Viyu-Purana 133 purana" was due to a comparatively late sectarian zeal” The Devi- Lbagavata (Vanga cd., I, 3, 14) and the ‘Padma-p ’ referred to by Gangadhara in his commentary on the Dharma-samhuti of the Swa-p ,”° include the Siva among the Upapuranas The Vayw consists of four Padas—(1) Prakriya, comprising chaps 1-6, (2) Anusanga, chaps 7-64, (3) Upodghata, chaps 65-99. and (4) Upasamhara, chaps 100 to the end It deals with all che five topics characteristic of the old Puranas Over and above these, there are a few chapters on Smirti matters, viz, chaps 16-17 — on the duties of the castes (varnas) and dramas, chap 18 — on the penances of yatis, chaps 57-59 — on yuga-dharma, » 73°83 — on funeral sacrifices (including impurity due to births and deaths, and purification of things), chap 10: — om hells and results of actions done, and chaps 105-122 — on the glories of Gaya These chapters do not seem to have belonged to the present Vaya in its earhest form They are 1n all likelthood later additions Of these, chaps 16-18 are comprised tn the section on Pasupata Yoga which betrays the influence of chaps 39-43 of the Markandeya-p In this section, which extends from chap 10 (verses 68 f£) to 20, 8 In ws Vayaviya-sambsta, the Swa-p lays clam to the position of a Maha- purana saying that the fourth Mahdpurana 1s the Sava which consists of twve Samhutés See Swap V, 1, 41 9 The vse“ , ., qraprage | sree agfts’ aareefate df in Kirma 1, 1, which includes the “Sarva among the Mahapurinas, should not be taken strongly im support of the carly dace of the Swap and its character as a Mahipurina This verse most probably means “That excellent (Purina) proclaimed by Vayw 1s enumerated 25 the eighteenth and 1s known as Brebminda , because the Brabmanda-p also 1s proclamed by Vayu and 1s called ‘vayu-prokea brabmanda’ in the colophons of its chapters 10 Haraprasad Shastri, Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts, ASB, V, p 289 134 The Vayu-Purina the Vayu has not only a good number of verses in common with che Markandeya’’ but has also improved upon the fatter with fresh addition of chapters and verses Now, we have seen that Markandeya 39-43 cannot possibly be dated earher than 200 A D Therefore chaps. 16-18 of the Vaya-p should be dated later still The face that the section on Pasupata yoga is not found in the Brabmanda-p tends to show that it was interpolated after goo A D , because the Vay and Brabmanda could not have becn separated earlier than goo AD Consequently, Vayu 16-18 also are to be dated later than that period. As Siilapan: quotes a verse from chap 18 in hus Prayascrtta-vweka, they ate certainly earlier than 1300 AD_ None of the early Nibandhakatas being found to draw upon them, it 1s difficult to place the lower limit of the date at a still carer period Chaps 57-59, dealing with ywga-dbarma, give an account of the period ranging from the reign of the Nandas to the end of the Andhra rule in Western India!’ Therefore, these chapters should not be dated earlier chan 200 AD They were, however, written earlier than 275 AD, because the Matsya-p borrowed from the Vayu a good number of chapteis, including the theee mentioned above, in the last quarter of the thitd or the first quarter of the fourth century AD *' Of these three chaptets, chap 59 has been drawn upon by Devanabhatta in his Smrti-candrika (see Appendix) Chaps 73-83, on Sraddba, are included in the section ‘Sraddha- halpa’ (covering chaps 71-85), the greater part of which 1s given as an interlocution between Brhaspati and his son Samyu In these chapters yogins have been given remarkable prominence as invited 11 CE Vays, 16 with Markandeya, 41, 3, Vay 17 with Markandeya 41, 18ff, Vayw 19 with Markandeya 43, and Vayu, 20 with Markandeya 42, 5 12 See my essay on the Markandeya-p m THQ, XI, 1935, pp 108 13. See my essay on ‘the Hindu society before 200 AD and the Purame rites and customs in the first stage of their development’ to be shortly published im the Indian Histoncal Quarterly 14 Sec my essay on the ‘Matsya-purina’ m ABORI, XVII, pp 1 € The Vayu-Purina 135 guests"? It 1s said “‘Sriddhas should be carefully offered to yogins . . What is eaten by an adept in yoga saves one from great fear A yogin 1s superior to a thousand householders, a bundred forest-hermits and a thousand students’? Such promi- nence given to yogins 1s not traceable in the Codes of Manu and Yajfiavalkya, who do not seem to have held yogins in high esteem On the other hand, yogins are given great prominence in the exist- ing Paficaratra Samhutas which are certainly later than the above mentioned Codes. It 1s therefore highly probable that the chapters on $raddha in the Vayu-p belong to a date not earlier than 200 AD_ This date seems also to be supported by the hatred with which the ‘nagnas’ (the naked) have been mentioned in chaps 78 and 79"* The word nagna 1s said to mean those people who ate without garments Such people are clearly the Jains and the Buddhists, because the terms nirgrantha and pasanda also have been used in these chapters of the Vayx The contempt shown to these religious sects could be possible only when their religions were in a decadent state Buddhism, which found its strongest upholders in A$oka Maurya and Kaniska, was probably in a flourishing condition at the end of the second century AD So the chapters of the Vayu cannot possibly be earlier than thar ume The mention of the Naksatras from Krttka to Bharani in Vayx 82 points to a date earlier than 500 AD It 1s probable thac the chapters under dis- cussion were added to the Vayu about the middle of the third century A.D, Most of the above mentioned chapters on Sraddba have been drawn upon by the Nibandha-writers early and late, viz., Silapani has quoted verses from chaps, 78 and 79 in his Prayasertta-vweka ()vananda's ed.), Vacaspatimigra from chaps 77 and 82 1n his Tirtha-cntamant (Bibl Ind), Kullikabhatta from chap 78 in his 15 Vayu, 71, sof 16 Vayn, 78, 24, and 79, 25 136 The Vayn-Purina commentary on the Manu-smret, Miadhavacirya from chaps. 75, 76 in his Bhisya on the Parasara-smrts (ed Islampurkar, Bombay), Madanapila from chaps 75 and 79-81 in his Madanapargata (Bibl. Ind ), Sridatta Upadhyaya from chaps 78 and 79 1n his Krtyacira, (Ms No 4339, Dacca Univ Lib ), Candeévara from chap 81 in his Krtyaratnikara (Ms No 1055C, Dacca, Univ Lib ), Devanabhacta from chaps 75 and 78-80 in his Sim tt-candnka (ed Gove of Mysore), Ballilasena from chap 80 in his Danasdgara (Indra Office Mss ) and from chap 19 in his Adbhutasagara (ed Muralidhara Jha, Benates), and Aparirka from chaps 74-82 1n his commentary on the Yapia- ualkya-smrt: (see Appendix) All of the verses in Vayw 73-83 do not seem to have come from the same date Verses 14-32 of Vayu 82 are most probably spuri- ous They do nor occur in the great majority of mss , nor are they to be found in the corresponding chapter of the Brebmanda-p, Besides these verses, there are certain others which were interpolat- ed later, but it 1s very difficult to separate them The fact that many of the quoted verses, especially on Sraddha, are not found in the present Vayu, proves that the Purana has undergone substantial losses also Chap 101, on hells and results of actions, probably comes from the same date as chaps 57-59 As there 1s no evidence sufficient for the determination of its date, it 1s impossible to say anything definitely Chaps 105-112, on Gaya-mahatmya, did not originally belong to the Vayw In many mss of the Purana this Mahatmya has been omutted "’ On the other hand, it 1s often found to appear as an independent text in mss as well as m printed editions That this appendage was attached to the Vays earher than 1400 A D 1s certain, for Vacaspatimisra quotes numerous verses from chaps 105, and 111-112 (see Appendix) 17 See Vayu-p, p 426, footnote APPENDIX . Verses quoted from the ‘Vayu-Purina’ or ‘Vayaviya’ in 1 Apararka’s Vayn-p com on Yay (Anss ed), p 258 (twica)=78, stb-s2aand s2b-54 (except 53a) p 387 =7h 27 Pp 448 =79: 67 PP 4545 = = 79. 68 and 78-80 Three lines ‘andérarms tapas tepe’ ete are not found P 473 -OF the four lines quoted, only one tallies with Vay, 78, 31b, the other three are not found P 475 =74 4 pp 4878 = Bo, 39-40, 4, 37, % 5-8, 16 and 19-21 74, 1-2 Verses beginning, with ‘éraddbesipanahan dadyat’, tilapitrne tu yo dadyat’ and ‘vya- janam tala-rntam ca’ are found to tally with Brabmanda, TI, 16, 8-9 and 10 P 490 = 75, 54b-55a P 493 = 78, 48b-49a PP 502-3 = 74, 20b-25a and 26-28 The lines ‘svargapavarga- sopinam’ and ‘bhra- tarah sarvabhatanam’ are not found P 506 = 75 43 BR 5st = 76, 31-338 and 34b-c P 553 OF the 21 Ines quot- ed, only the first three and the last one tally THQ, JUNE, 1938 Vayu-p with Vayn, 78, Sb-ba and 78, rob respec- uvely These 21 lines are the same as Brabmanda, MII, 14, 8b-9, 10b-12 and “14b-20 P 554 = Bo, q2b-45a and 47-48 P 559 = 81, 18 p 560 =8, 20 P 924 = 79, 24b-25 2 Adbbutasigara of Ballalascna, P 506 = 19, 18 P 507 (ewice) = 19, 17 and 25 Pp 508 (thrice) =19, 13, 27 and 14 P 509 (four umes) = 19, 16, 33 and 15 The verse ‘nagnam iravanakam 6 not found 3 Danasagara of Ballilasena, fol 1872 = 80, 59 4, Kullokabhatta’s commentary ‘on Manu, Ill, 267—(CE Brabmanda, Venkat ed, HI, 14, 11b) on Manu, IV, 49=78, 60 5, Smrus-candrika of Devanabhatea, Tl, 589 =79, 38 1, 25 = 80, 45 203-4 —These verses tally with Brabmanda, ll, 4, 14b-15, 16b and 17b-20 B 138 . Vayw-p 208 (twice) = 78, 31b-320 rnd 40 331 = 75, 54b-550 366 370-37! 392-3 393 6 Knyicira of Sridacea Upadhyaya fol 2a = 78,60 » toa , 38 and 39b » rab 79, 33a and 34a » gta = 79, 46b-477 » 642 = 79, 88 7 Krtya-ratnihara of Candesvara, fol 173b = 81, 2-4 » 188 «= Br, 4a 8 Midhavacirya’s Com on the Pariiara-smr, vol I, part 1, P 369 —These verses, which are not found im the Vayw-p are the same as Brabmanda, IM, 14, 1qb-20 (except 16a and_17a) Pp 412 75 54b-558 P 43r = 75, 22 p 438 = 76. 3 9 Madana-parsjita of Madanapila, p 486 =81, aga p 552 These verses are found not in the Vay but in the Brabinda (Ill, 14, 9b, t0b-12 14b-172) and. The Vayu-Purana Vayw-p 8 = 79, 538 ae The other two bnes ‘grhasthanam' exc are not found P 579 = bo, 2 p 58 = 75) 540-558 p sgt = 75 57b-58y 71-72 and 75-762 P 600 = 75 B 10 Prayatesttascweka cof Siflapam, P 306 = 78, 48b-4gn P 347 chee PP 429-430 =78, 69, 79, 20-22 474 = 79, 2gb-25 ut Tirthacintamant of Vicaspatumsca, P7 110, 23 PP 274-5 82, 9 and 43, 7, * g6b-97a, 98-g9, 101 203, 105-1064, (two lines ‘snatua— dina- trayam’, ete on p 275 of the Tirtha-cinta- mani are not found), 108a and 109 pp 280-281 = 108, 132, 14-19 (one line ramatirthe narah snit- va’ as not found), 21b-23a, (one line ‘agatya ca’ on p 281 of the Tutha-cinta- mans 1s not found), 22 and 28-30 p 282 = 108, 20 pp 284-5 =110, g-15b, 19-20b, 20¢, (one hne ‘tilayya- dadby' 1s found in the footnote on p 443. of the Viyw-p), 56-59 and 61a, pp 2856 p 288 p 289 PP 290-292 P 309 Panera pp 3148 The Vayn-Purina Vaywp 105, 18.93, 26 and 08, 71b, (one line etc 1s not found), 111, 17 =110, 17 and 21-22 10, 23-24 and 30-32 = 10, 34-42 and 44-55 10, 89, 62a and 65 =1t, 1-3, 110, 21, 17-8a and 23-24. 111, 4-65, 7, 8-104, 12, yob-11a, 13-14 and 1522 Some verses, which are not found in the run- ning text, are given 10 the footnote on p 443 of the Vayu-p = 109, 43 The othe three lines ate not found =u, 23eb and 24-26 S111, 303, 31-32, 35-36 33-34 and 38-4o One line sraddbaya pinda- danava’ wd one verse ‘amraS ca stktah on prof Twtha- cuntimam are not found =111, qt. 4aa. 458, 44, a5b-c, 46-4ya, 50-52. Ba, 560-63, 69-71, 64-68, 73, (two verses are found m the foot- note on p 44g of the Vayw-p), 74-750 =105, 26 p 32 PP 31-3 PP 325-333 = 107, 46 =u, 77, Three natva'th Vayup and 48 lines. a’, 139 7a 79 “destua “gaydyim dharma-prsthe’ and ‘gaya-iise “ksaya-vate’ are given in the foot- note on p 44g of the ri, 76, 82- 75 309, sb 12 One line Vayu-p Tirtha- 84 and and 7b- ‘upendra tvam’ on p 323. of the emtémans 1s not found =12, arezb, 2326, (owo Innes are found in the footnote on p 451 of the Vayu-p), 34b, 4qb, 46-490, (four lines ‘udbbuyzb’ etc are not found), 49b-53, (the 30-31, ines “waddbi nama’ cte on p 327 of the Tirtha- cintamant are not found), 56-582, 60 and 108, 12, 24, (five lines ‘rime vanam 58b-59 gate’ ete on p 328 of the Trtha-c are found an the footnote of the Vayw-p p 436), 43b- 44a, (Vayu-p. pp 436- 7, footnote, verses 1-2, 515 17, 16, 18-26, 28-32, 34b-38a, three lines ‘tam drstua’ etc 332 of the on p Tirtha-c found) are not Rayenpra CHanpra Flazaa