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1. Quadratic expression : Irrational roots and complex roots occur in conjugate pairs

i.e.

A polynomial of degree two of the form ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 is

called a quadratic expression in x. if one root α + iβ, then other root α iβ

2. Quadratic equation :

An equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0, a, b, c ∈ R has two and

only two roots, given by 5. Sum of roots :

−b −Coefficient of x

−b + b2 − 4ac −b − b2 − 4ac S=α+β= =

α= and β= a Coefficient of x2

2a 2a

Product of roots :

3. Nature of roots :

Nature of the roots of the given equation depends upon the c cons tant term

nature of its discriminant D i.e. b2 4ac. P = αβ = =

a Coefficient of x2

Suppose a, b, c ∈ R, a ≠ 0 then

(i) If D > 0 ⇒ roots are real and distinct (unequal)

6. Formation of an equation with given roots :

(ii) If D = 0 ⇒ roots are real and equal (Coincident)

x2 Sx + P = 0

(iii) If D < 0 ⇒ roots are imaginary and unequal i.e.

⇒ x2 (Sum of roots) x + Product of roots = 0

non real complex numbers.

Suppose a, b, c ∈ Q a ≠ 0 then

7. Roots under particular cases :

(i) If D > 0 and D is a perfect square ⇒ roots are rational

For the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0

& unequal

(i) If b = 0 ⇒ roots are of equal magnitude but of opposite

(ii) If D > 0 and D is not a perfect square ⇒ roots are

sign.

irrational and unequal.

(ii) If c = 0 ⇒ one root is zero and other is b/a

For a quadratic equation their will exist exactly 2 roots real

or imaginary. If the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is satisfied for (iii) If b = c = 0 ⇒ both roots are zero

more than 2 distinct values of x, then it will be an identity & (iv) If a = c ⇒ roots are reciprocal to each other.

will be satisfied by all x. Also in this case a = b = c = 0.

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(v) If a > 0, c < 0 or a < 0, c > 0 ⇒ roots are of opposite (vi) α4 + β4 = (α2 + β2)2 2α2β2

signs

Fb

=G

2

− 2ac I 2

2c2

(vi) If a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 or a < 0, b < 0, c < 0 ⇒ both ={(α + β)2 2αβ}2 2α2β2

H a2

JK

a2

roots are ve

(vii) If a > 0, b < 0 , c > 0 or a < 0, b > 0, c < 0 ⇒ both

roots are +ve. −b(b2 − 2ac) b2 − 4ac

(vii) α4 β4 =(α2 + β2) (α2 β2) =

a4

b2 + ac

If roots of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 are α and β, (viii) α2 + αβ + β2 = (α + β)2 αβ =

a2

then

(i) (α β) = 2

(α + β) − 4αβ = ± (ix) + = =

a β α αβ αβ

b2 − 2ac FG α IJ 2

FG β IJ 2

α4 + β4 [(b2 − 2ac)2 − 2a2c2 ]

a2 (x)

H βK +

H αK =

α 2 β2

=

a2c 2

−b b2 − 4ac

(iii) α2 β2 = (α + β) 2

(α + β) − 4αβ =

a2 9. Condition for common roots :

The equations a1 x2 + b1 x + c1 = 0 and a2x2 + b2x + c2 = 0

−b(b2 − 3ac) have

(iv) α3 + β3 = (α + β)3 3(α + β) αβ =

a3

b1c2 − b2c1 c1a2 − c2a1

(v) α 3 β3 = (α β) [α2+ β2 αβ] (i) One common root if c1a2 − c2a1 = a1b2 − a2b1

= (α + β)2 − 4αβ [α2+ β2 αβ]

a1 b1 c1

(ii) Both roots common if a = b = c

2 2 2

(b2 − ac) b2 − 4ac

=

a3

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(v) If both the roots lies in the interval (k1, k2)

LF b I OP

+ bx + c = a MGH x + 2a JK

2

D −b

−

In a quadratic expression ax 2

MN PQ

4a2 ,

D ≥ 0, a.f(k1) > 0, a.f(k2) > 0, k1 <

2a

< k2

(i) If a > 0, quadratic expression has minimum value a.f(k1) < 0, a.f(k2) < 0

4ac − b2 −b

at x = and there is no maximum value. (vii) λ will be the repeated root of f(x) = 0 if

4a 2a

f(λ) = 0 and f'(λ) = 0

(ii) If a < 0, quadratic expression has maximum value

4ac − b2 −b

at x = and there is no minimum value. 12. For cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 :

4a 2a

−b c −d

We have α + β + γ = , αβ + βγ + γα = and αβγ =

a a a

11. Location of roots :

where α, β, γ are its roots.

Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 then w.r.to f(x) = 0

(i) If k lies between the roots then a.f(k) < 0

(necessary & sufficient) 13. For biquadratic equation ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0 :

themselves are not roots We have α + β + γ + δ = , αβγ + βγδ + γδα + γδβ =

a a

f(k1) . f(k2) < 0 (necessary & sufficient)

(iii) If both the roots are less than a number k c e

αβ + αγ + αδ + βγ + βδ + γδ = and αβγδ =

a a

−b

D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0, <k (necessary & sufficient)

2a

−b

D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0, >k (necessary & sufficient)

2a

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COMPLEX NUMBER

* z z = |z|2

A number of the form z = x + iy (x, y ∈ R, i = −1 ) is called

* z1 − z2 = z 1 z 2

a complex number, where x is called a real part i.e. x = Re(z)

and y is called an imaginary part i.e. y = Im(z).

* z1z2 = z 1 z 2

Modulus |z| = x2 + y2 ,

FG z IJ FG z IJ

Hz K

1

Hz K

1

y * = (provided z2 ≠ 0)

2 2

amplitude or amp(z) = arg(z) = θ = tan1 .

x

(i) Polar representation : * ez j

n

= ( z )n

(ii) Exponential form :

* If α = f(z), then α = f( z )

z = reiθ , where r = |z|, θ = amp.(z)

Where α = f(z) is a function in a complex variable

(iii) Vector representation : with real coefficients.

→

P(x, y) then its vector representation is z = OP * z + z = 0 or z = z ⇒ z = 0 or z is purely imaginary

* z= z ⇒ z is purely real

2. Integral Power of lota :

4. Modulus of a complex number :

i= −1 , i = 1, i = i , i = 1

2 3 4

Hence i4n+1 = i, i4n+2 = 1, i4n+3 = i, i4n or i4(n+1) = 1 defined as

3. Complex conjugate of z :

|z| = (Re(z))2 + (Im(z))2 , |z| ≥ 0

of z

z

* z is the mirror image of z in the real axis. (ii) z1 =

|z|2

* |z| = | z |

(iii) |z1 ± z2|2 = |z1|2 + |z2|2 ± 2 Re (z1 z2 )

* z + z = 2Re(z) = purely real

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(iv) |z1 + z2|2 + |z1 z2|2 = 2 [|z1|2 + |z2|2] 6. Square root of a complex no.

+i

OP

|z|−a

(vi) |z1 ± z2| ≥ |z1| |z2| a + ib = ± MN 2 2 PQ

, for b > 0

−i

|z|−a OP

Argument of a complex number z is the ∠ made by its radius

vector with +ve direction of real axis.

= ±

MN 2 2 PQ

, for b < 0

7. De-Moiver's Theorem :

= π θ , z ∈ 2nd quad.

It states that if n is rational number, then

= θ, z ∈ 3rd quad.

(cosθ + isinθ)n = cosθ + isin nθ

= θ π , z ∈ 4 quad. th

and (cosθ + isinθ)n = cos nθ i sin nθ

(i) arg (any real + ve no.) = 0

(ii) arg (any real ve no.) = π 8. Euler's formulae as z = reiθ, where

(iii) arg (z z ) = ± π/2 eiθ = cosθ + isinθ and eiθ = cosθ i sinθ

(iv) arg (z1.z2) = arg z1 + arg z2 + 2 k π ∴ eiθ + eiθ = 2cosθ and eiθ eiθ = 2 isinθ

FG z IJ

Hz K

1

(v) arg = arg z1 arg z2 + 2 k π 9. nth roots of complex number z1/n

2

FG 1 IJ N H n K H n KQ ,

= r1/n cos

(vi) arg ( z ) = arg z = arg H zK , if z is non real

where m = 0, 1, 2, ......(n 1)

= arg z, if z is real

(i) Sum of all roots of z1/n is always equal to zero

(vii) arg ( z) = arg z + π, arg z ∈ ( π , 0]

(ii) Product of all roots of z1/n = (1)n1 z

= arg z π, arg z ∈ (0, π ]

(viii) arg (zn) = n arg z + 2 k π

10. Cube root of unity :

(ix) arg z + arg z = 0 cube roots of unity are 1, ω, ω2 where

argument function behaves like log function.

−1 + i 3

ω= and 1 + ω + ω2 = 0, ω3 = 1

2

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z − z1 z − z1

If z = cosθ + isinθ or z − z2 + z − z2 = 0

1

(i) z+ = 2cosθ z1 + z 2 |z1 − z 2 |

z or z− =

2 2

1

(ii) z = 2 isinθ or |z z1|2 + |z z2|2 = |z1 z2|2

z

Where z1, z2 are end points of diameter and z is any

1 point on circle.

(iii) zn + = 2cosnθ

zn

(iv) If x = cosα + isinα , y = cos β + i sin β & z = cosγ + isinγ 13. Some important points :

and given x + y + z = 0, then (i) Distance formula PQ = |z2 z1|

(ii) Section formula

1 1 1

(a) + + =0 (b) yz + zx + xy = 0

x y z m1z2 + m2 z1

For internal division = m1 + m2

(c) x +y +z =0

2 2 2

(d) x + y + z = 3xyz

3 3 3

12. Equation of Circle : m1z2 − m2 z1

* |z z1| = r represents a circle with centre z1 and For external division = m1 − m2

radius r.

(iii) Equation of straight line.

* |z| = r represents circle with centre at origin.

* Parametric form z = tz1 + (1 t)z2 where t ∈ R

* |z z1| < r and |z z1| > r represents interior and

exterior of circle |z z1| = r.

z z 1

* z z + a z + a z + b = 0 represents a general circle

* Non parametric form

z1 z1 1 = 0.

where a ∈ c and b ∈ R.

z2 z2 1

* Let |z| = r be the given circle, then equation of

tangent at the point z1 is z z 1 + z z1 = 2r2

z1 z1 1

* diametric form of circle :

* Three points z1, z2, z3 are collinear if

z2 z2 1 = 0

FG z − z IJ π z3 z3 1

Hz − z K

1

arg = ± ,

2 2

or slope of AB = slope of BC = slope of AC.

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z − z1 triangle is equilateral

(iv) The complex equation z − z = k represents a circle

2

iff (z1 z2)2 + (z2 z3)2 + (z3 z1)2 = 0.

if k ≠ 1 and a straight line if k = 1. (xiii) If z1, z2, z3 are the vertices of an isosceles triangle,

(v) The triangle whose vertices are the points represented right angled at z2,

by complex numbers z1, z2, z3 is equilateral if then z12 + z22 + z32 = 2z2 (z1 + z3).

z2 − z3 + z3 − z1 + z1 − z2 = 0 z1+ z3 = z2 + z4

(vi) |z z1| = |z z2| = λ , represents an ellipse if

and if |z1 z2| = λ , then z lies on a line segment

connecting z1 & z2

(vii) |z z1| ~ |z z2| = λ represents a hyperbola if

and if |z1 z2| = λ , then z lies on the line passing

through z1 and z2 excluding the points between z1 & z2.

(viii) If four points z1, z2, z3, z4 are concyclic,

FG z − z2 IJ FG z − z4 IJ

Hz

1

K Hz

3

then

1 − z4 3 − z2 K is purely real.

a straight line in the complex plane.

(x) If z1, z2, z3 be the vertices of an equilateral triangle

and z0 be the circumcentre,

then z12 + z22 + z32 = 3z02.

(xi) If z1, z3, z3 ....... zn be the vertices of a regular

polygon of n sides & z0 be its centroid, then

z12 + z22 + ......... + zn2 = nz02.

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PERMUTATION & COMBINATION (iv) If out of n objects, 'a' are alike of one kind, 'b' are alike

of second kind and 'c' are alike of third kind and the

rest distinct, then the number of ways of permuting

1. Factorial notation -

The continuous product of first n natural numbers is called n!

factorial the n objects is

a! b! c!

i.e. n or n! = 1. 2. 3........(n 1).n

n! = n(n 1)! = n(n 1)(n 2)! & so on 4. Restricted Permutations -

(i) The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken

n!

or n (n 1)......... (n r + 1) = r at a time, when m particular things always occupy

(n − r)!

definite places = nmprm

Here 0! = 1 and (n)! = meaningless. (ii) The number of permutations of n different things taken

r at a time, when m particular things are always to be

2. Fundamental principle of counting - excluded (included)

(i) Addition rule : If there are two operations such that = nm

Pr (nmCrm × r!)

they can be done independently in m and n ways

respectively, then either (any one) of these two

operations can be done by (m + n) ways. 5. Circular Permutations -

Addition ⇒ OR (or) Option When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as

different.

(ii) Multiplication rule : Let there are two tasks of an

operation and if these two tasks can be performed in m (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things

and n different number of ways respectively, then the n

Pr

two tasks together can be done in m × n ways. taken r at a time

r

Multiplication ⇒ And (or) Condition

(ii) The number of circular permutations of n different things

(iii) Bijection Rule : Number of favourable cases

n

= Total number of cases Pn

taken altogether = (n 1)!

Unfavourable number of cases. n

When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated

3. Permutations (Arrangement of objects) - as same.

(i) The number of permutations of n different things taken (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things

n! n

Pr

r at a time is npr = taken r at a time

(n − r)! 2r

(ii) The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken (ii) The number of circular permutations of n different things

all at a time is npn = n!

n

(iii) The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken Pn 1

taken all together = (n 1)!

r at a time, when repetition of objects is allowed is nr. 2n 2

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6. Combination (selection of objects) - (iv) Total number of selections of zero or more objects

The number of combinations of n different things taken r at from n identical objects is n + 1.

a time is denoted by nCr or C (n, r) (v) Total number of selections of zero or more objects

out of n different objects

n! n

Pr

n

Cr = = = n

C0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... + Cn = 2n

n

r !(n − r)! r!

(vi) The total number of selections of at least one out of

(i) n

Cr = nCnr

a1 + a2 + ...... + an objects where a1 are alike (of

(ii) n

Cr + nCr1 = n+1Cr

one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ......... an are

(iii) n

Cr = nCs ⇒ r = s or r + s = n alike (of nth kind) is

(iv) n

C0 = Cn = 1

n

[(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) + ...... + (an + 1)] 1

(v) n

C1 = nCn1 = n

(vii) The number of selections taking atleast one out of

n a1 + a2 + a3 + ....... + an + k objects when a1 are

(vi) n

Cr = n1

Cr1 alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind),

r

........ an are alike (of kth kind) and k are distinct is

1 [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) .......... (an + 1)] 2k 1

(vii) n

Cr = (n r + 1) nCr1

r

7. Restricted combinations - (i) The number of ways in which (m + n + p) different

The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at objects can be divided into there groups containing m,

a time, when k particular objects are always to be

(m + n + p)!

(i) included is nkCrk n, & p different objects respectively is

m! n! p!

(ii) excluded is nkCr

(iii) included and s particular things are to be excluded is (ii) The total number of ways in which n different objects

are to be divided into r groups of group sizes n1, n2, n3,

nks

Crk

............. nr respectively such that size of no two groups

is same is n ! n !............n ! .

(i) The number of selections of n identical objects, taken 1 2 r

at least one = n (iii) The total number of ways in which n different objects

(ii) The number of selections from n different objects, taken are to be divided into groups such that k1 groups have

at least one group size n1, k2 groups have group size n2 and so on,

kr groups have group size nr, is given as

= nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... + Cn = 2n 1

n

.

tical objects is 1. (n1 !) (n2 !) .............(nr !)k r k1 ! k 2 !............ k r !

k1 k2

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(b) Number of total triangles formed by joining the n

are divided into k groups of fixed group size and are

points on a plane of which m(< n) are collinear is

distributed among k persons (one group to each) is n

C3 m

C3.

given as

(c) Number of diagonals in a polygon of n sides is

(number of ways of group formation) × k!

n

C2 n.

(d) If m parallel lines in a plane are intersected by a

10. Selection of light objects and multinomial theorem -

family of other n parallel lines. Then total number of

(i) The coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 xr) is

parallelogram so formed is mC2 × nC2.

equal to n + r 1Cr 1

(e) Given n points on the circumference of a circle, then

(ii) The number of solution of the equation x1 + x2 + ..........

number of straight lines nC2

+ xr = n, n ∈ N under the condition n1 ≤ x1 ≤ n'1,

number of triangles nC3

n2 ≤ x2 ≤ n'2 , ................ nr ≤ xr ≤ n'r

number of quadrilaterals nC4

where all x'is are integers is given as

(f) If n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that

Coefficient of xn is no two lines are parallel and no three lines are

LMex n1 +1

j ex n2 +1

j...ex nr +1

jOQP concurrent. Then the number of part into which these

N

n1 n'1 n2 n'2 nr n'r

+x +...+x +x +...+x +x +...+ x

lines divide the plane is = 1 + Σn

11. Derangement Theorem - (g) Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n × n

(i) If n things are arranged in a row, then the number of n n

ways in which they can be rearranged so that no one is ∑ r3 and number of squares of any size is ∑ r2 .

r =1 r =1

of them occupies the place assigned to it is

L 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 −....+(−1) 1 OP

= n! M1 −

n

(h) Number of rectangles of any size in a rectangle of

N 1! 2! 3! 4! n!Q

n × p is

np

(n + 1) (p + 1) and number of squares

4

(ii) If n things are arranged at n places then the number of

ways to rearrange exactly r things at right places is n

of any size is ∑ (n + 1 r) (p + 1 r).

n! LM1 − 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 +....+(−1) n− r 1 OP r =1

=

r N 1! 2! 3! 4! (n − r)! Q

12. Some Important results -

(a) Number of total different straight lines formed by joining

the n points on a plane of which m(<n) are collinear is

n

C2 mC2 + 1.

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1. Mathematical definition of probability :

Probability of an event (viii) P( A + B ) = 1 P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) 2P(AB)

=

Total no. of cases (ix) P(neither A nor B) = P ( A B ) = 1 P(A + B)

Note : (i) 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1 (x) When a coin is tossed n times or n coins are tossed

(ii) Probability of an impossible event is zero

1

(iii) Probability of a sure event is one. once, the probability of each simple event is .

2n

(iv) P(A) + P(Not A) = 1 i.e. P(A) + P( A ) = 1

(xi) When a dice is rolled n times or n dice are rolled once,

the probability of each simple event is .

6n

m n−m

If P(A) = and P( A ) = (xii) When n cards are drawn (1 ≤ n ≤ 52) from well shuffled

n n

deck of 52 cards, the probability of each simple event

P(A) m

Then odds in favour of A = = 1

P(A) n−m is 52 .

Cn

P(A) n−m (xiii) If n cards are drawn one after the other with replace-

and odds in against of A = =

P(A) m

1

ment, the probability of each simple event is .

(52)n

3. Set theoretical notation of probability and some impor-

tant results : (xiv) P(none) = 1 P (atleast one)

(a) Total cards : 52 (26 red, 26 black)

P(AB)

(ii) P(A/B) = (b) Four suits : Heart, diamond, spade, club (13 cards

P(B)

each)

(iii) P(A + B) = P(AB) + P( A B) + P(A B ) (c) Court (face) cards : 12 (4 kings, 4 queens, 4

(iv) A ⊂ B ⇒ P(A) ≤ P(B) jacks)

(d) Honour cards : 16 (4 Aces, 4 kings, 4 queens, 4

(v) P( AB ) = P(B) P(AB)

Jacks)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

P(A/B) = Probability of occurrence of A, given that B has

If n letters corresponding to n envelopes are placed in

the envelopes at random, then P(A ∩ B)

already happened =

(a) Probability that all the letters are in right enve- P(B)

lopes =

n! P(A ∩ B)

already happened =

(b) Probability that all letters are not in right enve- P(A)

lopes = 1

n! No. of sample pts. in A ∩ B

likely, then P(A/B) = .

(c) Probability that no letters are in right envelope

No. of pts. in B

1 1 1 1 and P(B/A) = P(B)

= + .... + (1)n

2! 3! 4! n!

(ii) Multiplication Theorem :

(d) Probability that exactly r letters are in right P(A ∩ B) = P(A/B). P(B), P(B) ≠ 0

envelopes =

r! N2! 3! 4! (n − r)! Q

Generalized :

P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ ............... ∩ En)

4. Addition Theorem of Probability : = P(E1) P(E2/E1) P(E3/E1 ∩ E2) P(E4/E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3) .........

(i) When events are mutually exclusive If events are independent, then

i.e. n (A ∩ B) = 0 ⇒ P(A ∩ B) = 0 P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ ....... ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2) ....... P(En)

∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B)

(ii) When events are not mutually exclusive i.e. 6. Probability of at least one of the n Independent events :

P(A ∩ B) ≠ 0 If P1, P2, ....... Pn are the probabilities of n independent

events A, A2, .... An then the probability of happening of at

∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A ∩ B)

least one of these event is.

or P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) P(AB)

1 [(1 P1) (1 P2)......(1 Pn)]

(iii) When events are independent i.e. P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P (B)

or P(A1 + A2 + ... + An) = 1 P ( A 1 ) P ( A 2 ) .... P( A n )

∴ P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A) P(B)

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

Let A1, A2, ............. An are n mutually exclusive & set of (b) E (x2) = npq + n2 p2

exhaustive events and event A can occur through any one (c) Variance E(x2) (E(x))2 = npq

of these events, then probability of occurence of A

(d) Standard deviation = npq

P(A) = P(A ∩ A1) + P(A ∩ A2) + ............. + P(A ∩ An)

10. Truth of the statement :

n

(i) If two persons A and B speaks truth with the probabil-

= ∑ P(Ar) P(A/Ar)

ity p1 & p2 respectively and if they agree on a state-

r =1

ment, then the probability that they are speaking truth

will be given by

8. Baye's Rule :

Let A1, A2, A3 be any three mutually exclusive & exhaustive p1p2

events (i.e. A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3 = sample space & A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 = φ) p1p2 + (1 − p1 ) (1 − p2 ) .

an sample space S and B is any other event on sample space

(ii) If A and B both assert that an event has occurred,

then,

probability of occurrence of which is α then the prob-

P(B / A i)P(A i ) ability that event has occurred.

P(Ai/B) = P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) , Given that the probability of A & B speaking truth is p1, p2.

1 1 2 2 3 3

i = 1, 2, 3 αp1p2

αp1p2 + (1 − α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 )

9. Probability distribution : (iii) If in the second part the probability that their lies

(i) If a random variable x assumes values x1, x2, ......xn

(jhuth) coincides is β then from above case required

with probabilities P1, P2, ..... Pn respectively then

probability will be

(a) P1 + P2 + P3 + ..... + Pn = 1

(b) mean E(x) = Σ Pixi αp1p2

(c) Variance = Σx Pi (mean) = Σ (x ) (E(x))

2 2 2 2 αp1p2 (1 α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 ) β .

+ −

(ii) Binomial distribution : If an experiment is repeated n

times, the successive trials being independent of one

another, then the probability of -

r success is nCr Pr qnr

n

atleast r success is ∑ Ck Pk qnk

n

k =r

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

PROGRESSION AND SERIES (iv) If A1, A2,...... An are n A.M's between a and b,

then A1 = a + d, A2 = a + 2d,...... An = a + nd,

1. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) : b−a

(a) General A.P. a, a + d, a + 2d, ...... , a + (n 1) d where d =

n+1

where a is the first term and d is the common difference

n

(b) General (nth) term of an A.P. (v) Sum of n A.M's inserted between a and b is (a + b)

2

Tn = a + (n 1)d [nth term from the beginning]

(vi) Any term of an A.P. (except first term) is equal to

If an A.P. having m terms, then nth term from end the half of the sum of term equidistant from the

= a + (m n)d 1

(c) Sum of n terms of an A.P. term i.e. an = (a + an+r), r < n

2 nr

n n

Sn = [2a + (n 1)d] = [a + Tn] 2. Geometric Progression (G.P.)

2 2

(a) General G.P. a, ar, ar2 , ......

Note : If sum of n terms i.e. Sn is given then Tn = Sn Sn1

where a is the first term and r is the common ratio

where Sn1 is sum of (n 1) terms.

(b) General (nth) term of a G.P. Tn = arn1

(d) Supposition of terms in A.P.

If a G.P. having m terms then nth term from end = armn

(i) Three terms as a - d, a, a + d (c) Sum of n terms of a G.P.

(ii) Four terms as a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d

a(1 − r n ) a − Tnr

(iii) Five terms as a 2d, a d, a, a + d, a + 2d Sn = = , r<1

1−r 1−r

(e) Arithmetic mean (A.M.) :

(i) A.M. of n numbers A1, A2, ................ An is defined a(r n − 1) Tnr − a

= = ,r>1

as r −1 r −1

A.M. = = = (d) Sum of an infinite G.P. S ∞ = , |r|<1

n n n 1−r

(e) Supposition of terms in G.P.

(ii) For an A.P., A.M. of the terms taken symmetrically

from the beginning and from the end will always a

(i) Three terms as , a, ar

be constant and will be equal to middle term or r

A.M. of middle term.

a a

(iii) If A is the A.M. between two given nos. a and b, (ii) Four terms as , , ar, ar3

r3 r

then

a a

a+b (iii) Five terms as , , a, ar, ar2

A= i.e. 2A = a + b r2 r

2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

= M

2

(c) Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n

N 2 Q

3 3 3 3 3

(i) Geometrical mean of n numbers x1, x2, .......... xn

is defined as

(d) Σa = a + a + .... + (n times) = na

G.M. = (x1 x2 ............... xn)1/n.

(e) Σ(2n 1) = 1 + 3 + 5 + .... (2n 1) = n2

(i) If G is the G.M. between two given numbers a

and b, then (f) Σ2n = 2 + 4 + 6 + .... + 2n = n (n + 1)

(ii) If G1, G2, .............. Gn are n G.M's between a

and b, then 1 1 1

(a) General H.P. , , +......

a a + d a + 2d

F bI

= ar , where r = G J

1/n+1

(b) General (nth term) of a H.P. Tn

G1 = ar, G2 = ar ,..... Gn

2 n

H aK

1 1

(iii) Product of the n G.M.'s inserted between a & b is = = th

a + (n − 1)d n term coresponding to A.P.

(ab)n/2

(c) Harmonic Mean (H.M.)

3. Arithmetico - Geometric Progression (A.G.P.) : 2ab

(i) If H is the H.M. between a and b, then H =

(a) General form a, (a + d)r, (a + 2d) r2, ............. a+b

(b) General (nth) term Tn = [a + (n 1) d] rn1 (ii) If H1, H2,......,Hn are n H.M's between a and b,

(c) Sum of n terms of an A.G.P Sn = + r. then H1 = , ....., Hn =

1−r (1 − r)2 bn + a na + b

or first find n A.M.'s between & , then their

a b

a dr

S∞ = +

(1 − r)2

reciprocal will be required H.M's.

1−r

4. Sum standard results : (i) AH = G2

n(n + 1) (ii) A ≥ G ≥ H

(a) Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + ..... + n =

2 (iii) If A and G are A.M. and G.M. respectively between two

+ve numbers, then these numbers are

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

(b) Σn2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + ..... + n2 = A±

6 A 2 − G2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

n n

For the sake of convenience the coefficients C0 , C1 ,

1. Binomial Theorem for any +ve integral index :

n n

(x + a) n = nC0 xn + nC1 xn1 a + nC2 xn2 a2 + ....... C2 ..... Cr ..... n Cn are usually denoted by C0, C1 ,.....

+ nCr xnr ar + .... + nCn an C r .......... Cn respectively.

n

= ∑

r=0

n

Cr xnr ar

* C0 + C1 + C2 + ..... + Cn = 2n

* C0 C 1 + C2 C3 + ..... + C n = 0

(i) General term - Tr+1 = nCr xnr ar is the (r + 1)th term from

beginning. * C0 + C 2 + C4 + ..... = C1 + C 3 + C5 + .... = 2n1

(ii) (m + 1) term from the end = (n m + 1) from begin-

th th

n Cr −1 = n−2

(iii) middle term * Cr = Cr −2 and so on ...

r r r −1

Fn I

(a) If n is even then middle term = G + 1J

th

H2 K term 2n!

c hc h

2n

* Cn + r = n−r ! n+r !

FG n + 1IJ th

H 2K and

* n

Cr +

n

Cr − 1 = n+1

Cr

FG n + 3IJ th

* C1 + 2C2 + 3C3 + ... + nCn = n.2n1

H 2 K term

* C1 2C2 + 3C3 ......... = 0

Binomial coefficient of middle term is the greatest bino- * C0 + 2C 1 + 3C2 + ......+ (n + 1)Cn = (n + 2)2n1

mial coefficient.

c2nh! = 2n

Cn

2. To determine a particular term in the given expasion : cn!h

2

F

Let the given expansion be G x

1 IJ n

* C02 C 12 + C22 C32 + .....

H K

α

± , if xn occurs in

xβ

|RS 0, if n is odd

T|c−1h

Tr+1 (r + 1)th term then r is given by n α r (α + β) = m = n/2 n

Cn/2 , if n is even

and for x0, n α r (α + β) = 0

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

Note : 2n + 1

C0 + 2n + 1

C1 + .... + 2n + 1

Cn =

2n + 1

Cn + 1 + n!

(ii) (x + y + z)n = ∑ xr ys z t

r + s + t =n s! r !t !

2n + 1 2n + 1

Cn + 2 + ..... C2n + 1 = 2 2n

Generalized (x1 + x2 +..... xk)n

C1 C2 Cn 2n+1 − 1 n!

* C0 + + + ..... + = ∑ r1 r2 rk

2 3 n+1 n+1 = r1 +r2 +...rk =n r1 ! r2 !....rk ! x1 x2 ..... xk

C1 C2 C3 (−1)n C n 1

* C0 + .... + =

2 3 4 n+1 n+1 6. Total no. of terms in the expansion (x1 + x2 +... xn)m is

m+n1

C n1

4. Greatest term :

(n + 1)a

(i) If ∈ Z (integer) then the expansion has two

x+a

greatest terms. These are kth and (k + 1)th where x & a

are +ve real nos.

(n + 1)a

(ii) If ∉ Z then the expansion has only one great-

x+a

LM(n + 1)aOP ,

est term. This is (k + 1)th term k =

N x+a Q

{[.] denotes greatest integer less than or equal to x}

5. Multinomial Theorem :

n

(i) (x + a)n = ∑ n

Cr xnr ar, n ∈N

r =0

n n! n!

= ∑ xnr ar = r +∑ x s ar ,

r =0 (n − r)! r ! s =n s ! r !

where s = n r

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3. Trigonometric identities :

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO AND IDENTITIES

(i) sin2θ + cos2θ = 1

(ii) cosec2θ cot2θ = 1

1. Some important results :

(iii) sec2θ tan2θ = 1

(i) Arc length AB = r θ

1 2 4. Sign convention :

Area of circular sector = r θ

2 y

(ii) For a regular polygon of side a and number of sides n II quadrant I quadrant

sin & cosec All +ve

π are +ve

(a) Internal angle of polygon = (n 2)

n

(b) Sum of all internal angles = (n 2) π x' O x

(c) Radius of incircle of this polygon r = cot

2 n tan & cot cos & sec

(d) Radius of circumcircle of this polygon R are +ve are +ve

y'

a π

= cosec

2 n

5. T-ratios of allied angles : The signs of trigonometrical ratio

1 FG π IJ in different quadrant.

(e) Area of the polygon =

4

na2 cot H nK Allied∠ of (θ) 900 ± θ 1800 ± θ 2700 ± θ 3600 ± θ

T-ratios

1 2 π sinθ sinθ cosθ m sinθ cosθ ±sinθ

(f) Area of triangle = a cos

4 n cosθ cosθ m sinθ cosθ ±sinθ cosθ

F a πI

Area of incircle = π G cot J

2 tanθ tanθ m cotθ ±tanθ m cotθ ±tanθ

(g)

H 2 nK cotθ cotθ m tanθ ±cotθ ±cotθ m tanθ

secθ secθ m cosecθ secθ ±cosecθ secθ

(h) Area of circumcircle = π

H2 nK

6. Sum & differences of angles of t-ratios :

(i) sin(A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB

2. Relation between system of measurement of angles : (ii) cos(A ± B) = cosA cosB ± sinA sinB

D G 2C tan A ± tanB

= = & π radian = 1800 (iii) tan (A ± B) =

90 100 π 1 m tan A tan B

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cot A cot B m 1

(iv) cot (A ± B) = versa :

cot B ± cot A

(i) 2sinA cosB = sin(A + B) + sin(A B)

(v) sin(A + B) sin(A B) = sin2A sin2B = cos2 B cos2 A

(ii) 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) sin(A B)

(vi) cos(A + B) cos (A B) = cos2A sin2B = cos2B sin2A

(iii) 2cosA cosB = cos(A + B) + cos(A B)

(vii) tan(A + B + C)

(iv) 2sinA sinB = cos(A B) cos(A + B)

=

tan A + tanB + tan C − tan A tan B tan C S1 − S3

= 1−S FG C + D IJ cos FG C − D IJ

1 − tan A tan B − tanB tan C − tan C tan A 2 (v) H 2 K H 2 K

sinC + sinD = 2sin

Generalized tan (A + B + C + ......... )

S1 − S3 + S5 − S7 +......

F C + D I F C − DI

(vi) sinC sinD = 2cos GH 2 JK sin GH 2 JK

= 1 − S + S − S + S −......

2 4 6 8

Where S1 = Σ tan A

(vii) cosC + cosD = 2cos GH

F C + D IJ cos FG C − D IJ

S2 = Σ tan A tan B, 2 K H 2 K

S3 = Σ tan A tan B tan C & so on

F C + D IJ sin FG D − C IJ

(viii) cosC cosD = 2sin GH

2 K H 2 K

(viii) sin (A + B + C) = Σ sin A cos B cos C Π sin A

= Π cos A (Numerator of tan (A + B + C))

(ix) cos (A + B + C) = Π cos A Σ sin A sin B cos C sin(A + B)

(ix) tanA + tanB =

= Π cos A (Denominator of tan (A + B + C)) cos A cos B

for a triangle A + B + C = π

Σ tan A = Π tan A 8. T-ratios of multiple and submultiple angles :

Σ sin A = Σ sin A cos B cos C 2 tan A

(i) sin2A = 2sinA cosA =

1 + Π cos A = Σ sin A sin B cos C 1 + tan2 A

= (sin A + cos A)2 1 = 1 (sin A cos A)2

3 +1

(viii) sin75 = 0

= cos15 0

2 2 2 tan A / 2

⇒ sinA = 2sinA/2 cosA/2 =

1 + tan2 A / 2

3 −1 (ii) cos2A = cos2A sin2A = 2cos2A 1

(ix) cos750 = = sin150

2 2

1 − tan2 A

(x) tan75 = 2 + = 1 2sin2A =

3 = cot15

0 0

1 + tan2 A

(xi) cot750 = 2 3 = tan15

0

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2 tan A 2 tan A / 2

(iii) tan2A = ⇒ tanA = (iii) sinA + sinB + sinC = 4cosA/2 cosB/2 cosC/2

1 − tan2 A 1 − tan2 A / 2

(iv) cosA + cosB + cosC = 1 + 4 sinA/2 sinB/2 sinC/2

(iv) sin3θ = 3sinθ 4sin3θ = 4sin(600 θ ) sin(600 + θ ) sin θ

(v) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 1 2sinA sinB cosC

= sin θ (2 cos θ 1) (2 cos θ + 1) (vi) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1 2cosA cosB cosC

(v) cos3θ = 4cos3θ 3cosθ (vii) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC

= 4cos(60 θ ) cos(60 + θ ) cos θ

0 0

(viii) cotB cotC + cotC cotA + cotA cotB = 1

= cos θ (1 2 sin θ ) (1 + 2 sin θ ) (ix) Σ tan A/2 tan B/2 = 1

(x) Σ cot A cot B = 1

3 tan A − tan3 A

(vi) tan3A = (xi) Σ cot A/2 = Π cot A/2

1 − 3 tan2 A

= tan(600 A) tan(600 + A)tanA

11. Some useful series :

1 − cos A (i) sinα + sin(α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + .... + to nterms

(vii) sinA/2 =

2

LM FG n − 1IJβOP sinLnβ O

N H 2 K Q MN 2 PQ , β ≠ 2nπ

sin α +

1 + cos A

(viii) cosA/2 = = β

2 sin

2

1 − cos A 1 − cos A (ii) cosα + cos(α + β) + cos(α + 2β) + .... + to nterms

(ix) tanA/2 = = , A ≠ (2n + 1)π

1 + cos A sin A

LM FG n − 1IJ βOP sin nβ

N H 2 K Q 2 β ≠ 2nπ

cos α +

9. Maximum and minimum value of the expression :

= β

acosθ + bsinθ sin

2

Maximum (greatest) Value = a2 + b2

sin 2n α

Minimum (Least) value = a2 + b2 (iii) cosα .cos2α . cos22α ....cos(2n1 α) = , α ≠ nπ

2n sin α

= 1 , α = 2kπ

10. Conditional trigonometric identities :

= 1 , α = (2k+1)π

If A, B, C are angles of triangle i.e. A + B + C = π, then

(i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4sinA sinB sinC

i.e. Σ sin 2A = 4 Π (sin A)

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c

1. General solution of the equations of the form cos(θ α) = = cosβ(say)

a + b2

2

now solve using above formula

π

(ii) cosθ = 0 ⇒ θ = (2n + 1) , n∈I

2

3. Some important points :

(iii) tanθ = 0 ⇒ θ = nπ, n∈I (i) If while solving an equation, we have to square it, then

the roots found after squaring must be checked

π

(iv) sinθ = 1 ⇒ θ = 2nπ + wheather they satisfy the original equation or not.

2

(ii) If two equations are given then find the common val-

(v) cosθ = 1 ⇒ θ = 2πn ues of θ between 0 & 2π and then add 2nπ to this

common solution (value).

π 3π

(vi) sinθ = 1 ⇒ θ = 2nπ or 2nπ +

2 2

(vii) cosθ = 1 ⇒ θ = (2n + 1)π

(viii) sinθ = sinα ⇒ θ = nπ + (1)nα

(ix) cosθ = cosα ⇒ θ = 2nπ ± α

(x) tanθ = tanα ⇒ θ = nπ + α

(xi) sin2θ = sin2α ⇒ θ = nπ ± α

(xii) cos2θ = cos2α ⇒ θ = nπ ± α

(xiii) tan2θ = tan2α ⇒ θ = nπ ± α

a2 + b2

a b

and put 2 2 = cosα, = sinα.

a +b a + b2

2

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cosec1 (cosec θ ) = θ provided ≤ θ < 0

2

1. If y = sin x, then x = sin1 y, similarly for other inverse T-

π

functions. or 0 < θ ≤

2

sin 1

x 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 ≤ θ ≤

2 2 cot (cot1 x) = x provided ∞ < x < ∞

cos1 x 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 0 ≤ θ ≤ π sec (sec1 x) = x provided ∞ < x ≤ 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞

tan1 x ∞ < x < ∞ < θ <

2 2

or 1 ≤ x < ∞

cot1 x ∞ < x < ∞ 0 < θ < π

sec1 x x ≤ 1, x ≥ 1 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, θ ≠ cos1 ( x) = π cos1 x

2

tan1 ( x) = tan1 x

π π

cosec1 x x ≤ 1, x ≥ 1 ≤ θ ≤ , θ ≠ 0 cot1 ( x) = π cot1 x

2 2

cosec1 ( x) = cosec1 x

3. Properties of Inverse T-functions : sec1 ( x) = π sec1 x

π π

(i) sin1 (sin θ ) = θ provided ≤ θ ≤ 2

2

π

cos1 (cos θ ) = θ provided θ ≤ θ ≤ π (iv) sin1 x + cos1 x = , ∀ x ∈ [ 1, 1]

2

π π

tan1 (tan θ ) = θ provided < θ < π

2 2 tan1 x + cot1 x = ,

2 ∀ x ∈ R

cot 1

(cot θ ) = θ provided 0 < θ < π

π π π

sec1 x + cosec1 x = , x ∈ ( ∞ , 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )

sec1 (sec θ ) = θ provided 0 ≤ θ <

2

or

2

< θ ≤ π 2 ∀

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4. Value of one inverse function in terms of another 5. Formulae for sum and difference of inverse trigonomet-

inverse function : ric function :

(i) sin1 x = cos1 1−x 2 = tan1

x

= cot1

1 − x2

x

(i) tan1x + tan1y = tan1

H 1 − xy K

1 − x2

1 1

tan x + tan y = π + tan G

F x + y IJ ; if x > 0, y > 0, xy > 1

= sec1

1−x 2

= cosec1

x

, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 (ii) 1 1

H 1 − xy K

1

x (iii) 1 1

F x−yI

tan x tan y = tan GH 1 + xy JK ; if xy > 1

1

1 − x2

(ii) cos1 x = sin1 1 − x2 = tan1 = cot1

x 1 − x2

F x − y IJ ; if x > 0, y < 0, xy < 1

= sec1

1

= cosec1

1

, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

(iv) 1 1

H 1 + xy K

1

x 1 − x2

F x + y + z − xyz IJ

x 1 1

(v) 1 1 1

H 1 − xy − yz − zx K

1

1 + x2 1 + x2 x

L

sin x ± sin y = sin Mx 1 − y ± y 1 − x P ;

O

N Q

2 2

(vi) 1 1 1

1 + x2

= sec1 1 + x2 = cosec

1

, x ≥ 0 if x,y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1

x

LM OP

FG 1 IJ N Q

2 2

(vii) sin1x ± sin1y = π sin1 x 1 − y ± y 1 − x ;

(iv) sin1 H xK = cosec1 x , ∀ x ∈ ( ∞ , 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )

if x,y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 > 1

FG 1 IJ LM OP

N Q

2 2

(viii) cos1x ± cos1y = cos1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y ;

(v) cos1 H xK = sec1 x, ∀ x ∈ ( ∞ , 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )

if x,y > 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1

FG 1 IJ RS cot x LM OP

N Q

−1 2 2

for x > 0 (ix) cos1x ± cos1y = π cos1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y ;

(vi) tan1 H xK =

|T− π + cot x

−1

for x < 0

if x,y > 0 & x2 + y2 > 1

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(i) 2sin1x = sin1(2x 1 − x2 ), if 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 Properties of triangle :

(ii) 2cos1x = cos1(2x2 1), if 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 1. A triangle has three sides and three angles.

(iii) 2tan1x = tan1 H1 − x K 2

H1 + x K

1

2

H1 + x K

1

2

A

A

(iv) 3sin1x = sin1(3x 4x3) c b

(v) 3cos x = cos (4x 3x)

1 1 3

B

F 3x − x I

C

3 B C

GH 1 − 3x JK

a

(vi) 3tan1x = tan1 2 and ∠BAC = ∠A, ∠ABC = ∠B, ∠ACB = ∠C

2. In ∆ABC :

(i) A + B + C = π

(ii) a + b > c, b +c > a, c + a > b

(iii) a > 0, b > 0, c > 0

3. Sine formula :

a b c

= = = k(say)

sin A sinB sin C

or = = = k (say)

a b c

4. Cosine formula :

b2 + c2 − a2

cos A =

2bc

c2 + a2 − b2

cos B =

2ac

a2 + b2 − c2

cos C =

2ab

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5. Projection formula :

a = b cos C + c cos B A (s − b) (s − c)

(c) tan =

b = c cos A + a cos C 2 s (s − a)

c = a cos B + b cos A

B (s − c) (s − a)

tan =

6. Napier's Analogies : 2 s (s − b)

A −B a−b C

tan = cot (s − b) (s − a)

2 a+b 2 C

tan =

2 s (s − c)

B−C b−c A

tan = cot

2 b+c 2

8. ∆, Area of triangle :

C−A c−a B

tan = cot

2 c+a 2 1 1 1

(i) ∆ = 2 ab sin C = 2 bc sin A = 2 ca sin B

(ii) ∆ = s(s − a) (s − b) (s − c)

A (s − b) (s − c)

(a) sin =

2 bc

A B s −c

9. tan tan =

B (s − c) (s − a) 2 2 s

sin =

2 ca

B C s −a

tan tan =

C (s − a) (s − b) 2 2 s

sin = where 2s = a + b + c

2 ab

C A s −b

tan tan =

2 2 s

A s (s − a)

(b) cos =

2 bc

10. Circumcircle of triangle and its radius :

B s (s − b)

cos =

2 ca a b c

(i) R= = =

2sin A 2sinB 2sin C

C s (s − c)

cos = abc

2 ab (ii) R= Where R is circumradius

4∆

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∆

(iii) r= 1 1 1 1

s (v) r1 + r2 + r3 = r

A B C

(iv) r = (s a) tan = (s b) tan = (s c) tan 1 1 1 1 a2 + b2 + c2

2 2 2

(vi) + + + =

r12 r22 r32 r2 ∆2

A B C

(v) r = 4R sin sin sin

2 2 2 1 1 1 1

(vii) + + =

bc ca ab 2Rr

r

(vi) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + (viii) r1r2 + r2r3 + r3r1 = s2

R

A B C

(ix) ∆ = 2R2 sin A sin B sin C = 4Rr cos cos cos

B C A C B A 2 2 2

a sin sin b sin sin c sin sin

(vii) r = 2 2 = 2 2 = 2 2

A B C B C C A

cos cos cos a cos cos b cos cos

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

(x) r1 = , r2 = ,

A B

cos cos

2 2

12. The radii of the escribed circles are given by :

∆ ∆ ∆ A B

(i) r1 = , r2 = , r3 = c cos cos

s−a s −b s−c 2 2

r3 =

C

A B C cos

(ii) r1 = s tan , r2 = s tan , r3 = s tan 2

2 2 2

A B C

(iii) r1 = 4R sin cos cos ,

2 2 2

A B C

r2 = 4R cos sin cos ,

2 2 2

A B C

r3 = 4R cos cos sin

2 2 2

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If an observer is at O and object is at P then ∠ XOP is h

called angle of elevation of P as seen from O.

α β

d

called angle of depression of O as seen from P.

2. Some useful result :

(i) In any triangle ABC if AD : DB = m : n

∠ ACD = α , ∠ BCD = β & ∠ BDC = θ

then (m + n) cotθ = m cotα ncot β

α β

A θ B

A m D n B

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POINT

Circumcentre of a triangle is equidistant from vertices

1. Distance formula :

i.e. PA = PB = PC.

Distance between two points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) is

Here P is circumcentre and PA is radius.

given by d(P, Q) = PQ

(i) Circumcentre of an acute angled triangle is in-

= (x 2 − x1)2 + (y2 − y1 )2 side the triangle.

(ii) Circumcentre of a right triangle is mid point of

= (Difference of x coordinate)2 + (Difference of y coordinate)2 the hypotenuse.

(iii) Circumcentre of an obtuse angled triangle is

Note : (i) d(P, Q) ≥ 0

outside the triangle.

(ii) d(P, Q) = 0 ⇔ P = Q

(iii) d(P, Q) = d(Q, P) 3. Section formula :

(iv) Distance of a point (x, y) from origin (i) Internally :

(0, 0) = x2 + y2 AP m

= = λ , Here λ > 0

BP n

2. Use of Distance Formula : m n

A(x 1 , y1 ) P B(x 2 , y2 )

(a) In Triangle :

Calculate AB, BC, CA FG mx + nx my 2 + ny1 IJ

H m+n K

2 1

(i) If AB = BC = CA, then ∆ is equilateral. P ,

m+n

(ii) If any two sides are equal then ∆ is isosceles.

(ii) Externally :

(iii) If sum of square of any two sides is equal to

the third, then ∆ is right triangle. m

(iv) Sum of any two equal to left third they do not AP m n

= = λ P

form a triangle BP n A(x 1, y 1 ) B(x 2, y 2 )

i.e. AB = BC + CA or BC = AC + AB

or AC = AB + BC. Here points are collinear. FG mx − nx my 2 − ny1 IJ

H m−n K

2 1

P ,

m−n

(b) In Parallelogram :

Calculate AB, BC, CD and AD. FG x + x2 y1 + y2 IJ

H K

1

(iii) Coordinates of mid point of PQ are ,

(i) If AB = CD, AD = BC, then ABCD is a parallelo- 2 2

gram.

(iv) The line ax + by + c = 0 divides the line joining the

(ii) If AB = CD, AD = BC and AC = BD, then ABCD points

is a rectangle.

(iii) If AB = BC = CD = AD, then ABCD is a rhombus. (ax1 + by + c)

(x1, y1) & (x2, y2) in the ratio = (ax + by + c)

(iv) If AB = BC = CD = AD and AC = BD, then ABCD 2 2

is a square.

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5. Area of Polygon :

(v) For parallelogram midpoint of diagonal AC = mid point

of diagonal BD Area of polygon having vertices (x 1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3)

........ (xn, yn) is given by area

FG x + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 IJ

H K

1

(vi) Coordinates of centroid G ,

3 3 x1 y1

(vii) Coordinates of incentre I x2 y2

FG ax + bx + cx ay + by 2 + cy 3 IJ x3 y3

H a+b+c K

1 2 3

, 1

a+b+c

1 M M

(viii) Coordinates of orthocentre are obtained by solving the = . Points must be taken in order.

2

equation of any two altitudes. xn yn

x1 y1

4. Area of Triangle :

The area of triangle ABC with vertices A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2)

6. Rotational Transformation :

and C(x3, y3).

If coordinates of any point P(x, y) with reference to new

x1 y1 1 axis will be (x', y') then

1 x2 y2 1

x B y B

∆= (Determinant method) x' → cosθ sinθ

2

x3 y3 1

y' → sinθ cosθ

x2 y2 (i) Three pts. A, B, C are collinear, if area of triangle is

1 1 zero

= = [x y + x2y3 + x3y1 x2y1 x3y2 x1y3]

2 x3 y3 2 1 2 (ii) Centroid G of ∆ABC divides the median AD or BE or CF in

the ratio 2 : 1

x1 y1

(iii) In an equilateral triangle, orthocentre, centroid,

[Stair method] circumcentre, incentre coincide.

Note : (iv) Orthocentre, centroid and circumcentre are always

collinear and centroid divides the line joining orthocentre

(i) Three points A, B, C are collinear if area of triangle

and circumcentre in the ratio 2 : 1

is zero.

(v) Area of triangle formed by coordinate axes & the line

(ii) If in a triangle point arrange in anticlockwise then

value of ∆ be +ve and if in clockwise then ∆ will be c2

ve. ax + by + c = 0 is .

2ab

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x y

1. Slope of a Line : The tangent of the angle that a line and b respectively on x-axis and y-axis is + = 1.

a b

makes with +ve direction of the x-axis in the anticlockwise (x) Parametric or distance or symmetrical form of the

sense is called slope or gradient of the line and is generally line : Equation of a line passing through (x1, y1) and

denoted by m. Thus m = tan θ .

π

(i) Slope of line || to x-axis is m = 0 making an angle θ , 0 ≤ θ ≤ π , θ ≠ with the

(ii) Slope of line || to y-axis is m = ∞ (not defined) 2

(iii) Slope of the line equally inclined with the axes is 1 +ve direction of x-axis is

or 1 x − x1 y − y1

(iv) Slope of the line through the points A(x1, y1) and = = r

cos θ sinθ

y2 − y1 ⇒ x = x1 + r cos θ , y = y1 + r sin θ

B(x2, y2) is x − x .

2 1 Where r is the distance of any point P(x, y) on the

line from the point (x1, y1)

a (xi) Normal or perpendicular form : Equation of a line

(v) Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0, b ≠ 0 is

b such that the length of the perpendicular from the

(vi) Slope of two parallel lines are equal. origin on it is p and the angle which the perpendicular

(vii) If m1 & m2 are slopes of two ⊥ lines then m1m2 = 1. makes with the +ve direction of x-axis is α , is

x cos α + y sin α = p.

2. Standard form of the equation of a line :

(i) Equation of x-axis is y = 0 3. Angle between two lines :

(ii) Equation of y-axis is x = 0 (i) Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 & a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 are

(iii) Equation of a straight line || to x-axis at a distance a1 b1 c1

b from it is y = b (a) Parallel if a = b ≠ c

(iv) Equation of a straight line || to y-axis at a distance 2 2 2

(v) Slope form : Equation of a line through the origin and a1 b1 c1

having slope m is y = mx. (c) Identical or coincident if a = b = c

(vi) Slope Intercept form : Equation of a line with slope m 2 2 2

a2b1 − a1b2

(vii) Point slope form : Equation of a line with slope m (d) If not above three, then θ = tan1 a a − b b

and passing through the point (x1, y1) is 1 2 1 2

(viii) Two point form : Equation of a line passing through (a) Parallel if m1 = m2

the points (x1, y1) & (x2, y2) is (b) Perpendicular if m1m2 = 1

y − y1 x − x1 m1 − m2

y2 − y1 = x2 − x1 (c) If not above two, then θ = tan1 1 + m m

1 2

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4. Position of a point with respect to a straight line : 12. Homogeneous equation : If y = m1x and y = m2x be the

The line L(xi, yi) i = 1, 2 will be of same sign or of opposite two equations

sign according to the point A(x1, y1) & B (x2, y2) lie on same represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 , then m1 + m2 = 2h/b

side or on opposite side of L (x, y) respectively. and m1m2 = a/b

5. Equation of a line parallel (or perpendicular) to the line

13. General equation of second degree :

ax + by + c = 0 is ax + by + c' = 0 (or bx ay + λ = 0)

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represent a pair of

6. Equation of st. lines through (x1,y1) making an angle α

with y = mx + c is a h g

straight line if ∆ ≡ h b f =0

m ± tan α

y y1 = (x x1) g f c

1 m m tan α

7. length of perpendicular from (x1, y1) on ax + by + c = 0 If y = m1x + c & y = m2x + c represents two straight lines

then m1 + m2 = , m1m2 = .

is b b

a2 + b2

8. Distance between two parallel lines ax + by + ci = 0, 14. Angle between pair of straight lines :

The angle between the lines represented by

|c1 − c 2|

i = 1, 2 is ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 or ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

a2 + b2

2 h2 − ab

9. Condition of concurrency for three straight lines is tanθ = (a + b)

Li ≡ ai x + bi y + ci = 0, i = 1, 2, 3 is

(i) The two lines given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 are

a1 b1 c1

(a) Parallel and coincident iff h2 ab = 0

a2 b2 c2 = 0

(b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0

a3 b3 c3 (ii) The two line given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c

= 0 are

10. Equation of bisectors of angles between two lines : (a) Parallel if h2 ab = 0 & af2 = bg2

a1x + b1y + c1 a2 x + b2 y + c 2 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0

2

a +b 2 =± a22 + b22 (c) Coincident iff g2 ac = 0

1 1

11. Family of straight lines : 13. Combined equation of angle bisector of the angle between

The general equation of family of straight line will be written the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is

in one parameter

2 2

The equation of straight line which passes through point of x −y xy

=

intersection of two given lines L1 and L2 can be taken as a−b h

L1 + λ L2 = 0

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but different radii r1 & r2 respectively are called concentric

circles.

1. General equation of a circle : x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

where g, f and c are constants

(i) Centre of the cirle is (g, f) 6. Position of a point w.r.t. a circle : A point (x1, y1 ) lies

outside, on or inside a circle

FG − 1 coeff. of x, −1 coeff. of yIJ

i.e. H 2 2 K S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 according as

S1 ≡ x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c is +ve, zero or ve

(ii) Radius is g2 + f 2 − c

7. Chord length (length of intercept) = 2 r2 − p2

2. Central (Centre radius) form of a circle :

(i) (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 , where (h, k) is circle centre and

r is the radius. 8. Intercepts made on coordinate axes by the circle :

(ii) x2 + y2 = r2 , where (0, 0) origin is circle centre and r is (i) x axis = 2 g2 − c

the radius.

(ii) y axis = 2 f 2 − c

3. Diameter form : If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are end pts. of a

diameter of a circle, then its equation is

(x x1) (x x2) + (y y1) (y y2) = 0 9. Length of tangent = S1

4. Parametric equations :

(i) The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 = r2 are 10. Length of the intercept made by line : y = mx + c with the

x = rcosθ, y = r sinθ , circle x2 + y2 = a2 is

a2 (1 + m2 ) − c2

(ii) The parametric equations of the circle 2 or (1 + m2) |x1 x2|

1 + m2

(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 are x = h + rcosθ, y = k + rsinθ

(iii) The parametric equations of the circle

D

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are where |x1 x2| = difference of roots i.e.

a

x = g + g2 + f 2 − c cosθ, y = f + g2 + f 2 − c sinθ

(iv) For circle x2 + y2 = a2, equation of chord joining θ 1 & θ 2 is 11. Condition of Tangency : Circle x2 + y2 = a2 will touch the

θ1 + θ2 θ + θ2 θ − θ2 line y = mx + c if c = ±a 1 + m2

x cos + y sin 1 = r cos 1 .

2 2 2

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12. Equation of tangent, T = 0 : 15. The point of intersection of tangents drawn to the circle x2

(i) Equation of tangent to the circle + y2 = r2 at point θ 1 & θ 2 is given as

F r cos θ + θ θ1 + θ 2 I

xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0 GG 1

2

2

,

r sin

2 JJ

(ii) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 at any GH cos 2

θ −θ

1 2

cos

θ1 − θ2

2

JK

point (x1, y1) is xx1 + yy1 = a2

(iii) In slope form : From the condition of tangency for

every value of m. 16. Equation of the chord of contact of the tangents drawn

from point P outside the circle is T = 0

The line y = mx ± a 1 + m2 is a tangent to the circle

x2 + y2 = a2 and its point of contact is 17. Equation of a chord whose middle pt. is given by T = S1

GH ±am

1 + m2

,

±a

1 + m2

JK x2 + y2 = 2a2. Director circle is a concentric circle whose

radius is 2 times the radius of the given circle.

(iv) Equation of tangent at (a cos θ , a sin θ ) to the

circle x2 + y2 = a2 is x cos θ + y sin θ = a. 19. Equation of polar of point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the circle S = 0 is T = 0

13. Equation of normal :

F −a l −a mI

2 2

are G n , n J

(i) Equation of normal to the circle

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point P(x1, y1) is

lx + my + n = 0 w.r.t the circle x + y = a 2 2 2

H K

y1 + f

y y1 = x + g (x x1) 21. Family of Circles :

1

(i) S + λS' = 0 represents a family of circles passing through

(ii) Equation of normal to the circle x + y = a 2 2 2

at any the pts. of intersection of

point (x1, y1) is xy1 x1y = 0 S = 0 & S' = 0 if λ ≠ 1

(ii) S + λ L = 0 represent a family of circles passing through

the point of intersection of S = 0 & L = 0

14. Equation of pair of tangents SS1 = T2 (iii) Equation of circle which touches the given straight line

L = 0 at the given point (x1, y1) is given as

(x x1)2 + (y y1)2 + λL = 0.

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(iv) Equation of circle passing through two points A(x1, y1) 25. Equation of tangent at point of contact of circle is

& B(x2, y2) is given as

S 1 S2 = 0

x y 1

26. Radical axis and radical centre :

x1 y1 1 (i) Equation of radical axis is S S1 = 0

(x x1) (x x2) + (y y1) (y y2) + λ = 0.

x2 y2 1 (ii) The point of concurrency of the three radical axis of

three circles taken in pairs is called radical centre of

three circles.

27. Orthogonality condition :

If two circles S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

23. The angle θ of intersection of two circles with centres C1 and S' = x2 + y2 + 2g'x + 2f'y + c' = 0 intersect each other

& C2 and radii r1 & r2 is given by orthogonally, then 2gg' + 2ff' = c + c'.

r12 + r12 − d2

cosθ = 2r1r2 , where d = C1C2

24. Position of two circles : Let two circles with centres C1, C2

and radii r1, r2 .

Then following cases arise as

(i) C1 C2 > r1 + r2 ⇒ do not intersect or one outside the

other, 4 common tangents.

(ii) C1 C2 = r1 + r2 ⇒ Circles touch externally, 3 common

tangents.

(iii) |r1 r2| < C1 C2 < r1 + r2 ⇒ Intersection at two real

points, 2 common tangents.

(iv) C1 C2 = |r1 r2| ⇒ internal touch, 1 common tangent.

(v) C1 C2 < |r1 + r2| ⇒ one inside the other, no tangent.

internally or externally as the case may be

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PARABOLA

1. Standard Parabola :

Imp. Terms y2 = 4ax y2 = 4ax x2 = 4ay x2 = 4ay

Vertex (v) (0, 0) (0, 0) (0, 0) (0, 0)

Focus (f) (a, 0) (a, 0) (0, a) (0, a)

Directrix (D) x = a x = a y = a y = a

Axis y = 0 y = 0 x = 0 x = 0

L.R. 4a 4a 4a 4a y2 = 4ax

Focal x + a a x y + a a y

distance

Parametric (at2, 2at) ( at2, 2at) (2at, at2) (2at, at2)

Coordinates

Parametric x = at2 x = at2 x = 2at x = 2at

Equations y = 2at y = 2at y = 2at2 y = at2

x2 = 4ay

y2 = 4ax

x2 = 4ay

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* Parabola which has vertex at (h, k), latus rectum l (i) Point Form / Parametric form

and axis parallel to x-axis is

Equations of tangent of all other standard parabolas

(y k)2 = l (x h)

at (x1, y1) / at t (parameter)

FGh + l , kIJ Equation Tangent at Parametric Tangent of 't'

⇒ axis is y = k and focus at H 4 K of parabola (x 1, y1) coordinates't'

y 2=4ax yy 1 =2a(x+x1 ) (at2, 2at) ty=x+at2

* Parabola which has vertex at (h, k), latus rectum l and y 2 =4ax yy 1=2a(x+x 1 ) (at2, 2at) ty=x+at2

axis parallel to y-axis is x =4ay

2

xx 1 =2a(y+y1 ) (2at, at )

2

tx=y + at2

(x h)2 = l (y k) x 2 =4ay xx 1=2a(y+y 1 ) (2at, at2) tx =y+at2

FGh, k + l IJ

⇒ axis is x = h and focus at H 4K (ii) Slope form

* Equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = y represents Equations of tangent of all other parabolas in slope

parabola. form

Equation Point of Equations Condition of

4ac − b2 b FG IJ 2

of contact in of tangent Tangency

i.e. y

4a

= a x+

2a H K ,with vertex parabolas terms of

slope(m)

in terms of

slope (m)

F − b , 4ac − b I 2

FG a IJ

GH 2a 4a JK and axes parallel to y-axis y2 = 4ax

Hm 2

,

2a

m K y = mx +

a

m

c =

a

m

FG − a 2a IJ a a

Note : Parametric equation of parabola (y k)2

= 4a(x h) are x = h + at2, y = k + 2at

y2 = 4ax

H m 2

,

m K y = mx

m

c =

m

x2 = 4ay (2am, am2) y = mx am2 c = am2

3. Position of a point (x1, y1) and a line w.r.t. parabola x 2

= 4ay (2am, am ) 2

y = mx + am 2

c = am2

y2 = 4ax.

* The point (x1, y1) lies outside, on or inside the

5. Point of intersection of tangents at any two points

parabola y2 = 4ax

according as y12 4ax1 >, = or < 0 P(at12, 2at1) and Q(at22, 2at2) on the parabola y2 = 4ax

* The line y = mx + c does not intersect, touches, is (at1t2, a(t1 + t2)) i.e. (a(G.M.)2, a(2A.M.))

intersect a parabola y2 = 4ax according as

c > = < a/m 6. Combined equation of the pair of tangents drawn from a

point to a parabola is SS' = T2, where S = y2 4ax,

Note : Condition of tangency for parabola y2 = 4ax, we

have c = a/m and for other parabolas check disc. D = 0. S' = y12 4ax1 and T = yy1 2a(x + x1)

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Note :

7. Equations of normal in different forms

(i) In circle normal is radius itself.

(i) Point Form / Parametric form (ii) Sum of ordinates (y coordinate) of foot of normals

Equations of normals of all other standard parabolas through a point is zero.

at (x1, y1) / at t (parameter) (iii) The centroid of the triangle formed by taking the foot

Eqn. of Normal Point Normals

of normals as a vertices of concurrent normals of

parabola at (x1, y1) 't' at 't'

y2 = 4ax lies on x-axis.

−y1

y2 = 4ax yy1 = (xx1) (at2, 2at) y+tx = 2at+at3 8. Condition for three normals from a point (h, 0) on x-axis

2a

to parabola y2 = 4ax

(i) We get 3 normals if h > 2a

y1

y2 = 4ax yy1 = (xx1) (at2, 2at) ytx = 2at+at3 (ii) We get one normal if h ≤ 2a.

2a

(iii) If point lies on x-axis, then one normal will be x-axis

itself.

2a

x2 = 4ay yy1 = (xx1) (2at, at2) x+ty = 2at+at3

x1 9. (i) If normal of y2 = 4ax at t1 meet the parabola again

2

at t2 then t2 = t1 t1

2a

x2 = 4ay yy1 = (xx1) (2at, at2) xty = 2at+at3

x1 (ii) The normals to y2 = 4ax at t1 and t2 intersect each

other at the same parabola at t3, then

t1t2 = 2 and t3 = t1 t2

(ii) Slope form

10. (i) Equation of focal chord of parabola y2 = 4ax at t1 is

Equations of normal, point of contact, and condition

of normality in terms of slope (m) 2t1

y = (x a)

Eqn. of Point of Equations Condition of t12 −1

parabola contact of normal Normality If focal chord of y2 = 4ax cut (intersect) at t1 and

y2 = 4ax (am2, 2am) y = mx2amam3 c = 2amam3 t2 then t1t2 = 1 (t1 must not be zero)

y 2

= 4ax (am2, 2am) y = mx+2am+am3 c = am+am3 (ii) Angle formed by focal chord at vertex of parabola is

FG − 2a , a IJ a a tan θ =

2

|t2 t1|

x2 = 4ay

H m mK 2 y = mx+2a+

m 2 c = 2a+

m 2 3

(iii) Intersecting point of normals at t1 and t2 on the

FG 2a , − a IJ a a parabola y2 = 4ax is

x2 = 4ay Hm m K 2 y = mx2a 2

m

c = 2a

m2 (2a + a(t12 + t22 + t1t2), at1t2 (t1 + t2))

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11. Equation of chord of parabola y2 = 4ax which is bisected (v) Angle included between focal radius of a point and

at (x1, y1) is given by T = S1 perpendicular from a point to directrix will be bisected

of tangent at that point also the external angle will

12. The locus of the mid point of a system of parallel chords be bisected by normal.

2a (vi) Intercepted portion of a tangent between the point

of a parabola is called its diameter. Its equation is y = . of tangency and directrix will make right angle at

m

focus.

13. Equation of polar at the point (x1, y1) with respect to (vii) Circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will

parabola y2 = 4ax is same as chord of contact and is given touch tangent at vertex.

by (viii) Circle drawn on any focal chord as diameter will touch

T = 0 i.e. yy1 = 2a(x + x1) directrix.

Coordinates of pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the

FG n , −2amIJ

parabola y2 = 4ax is Hl l K

and equation is given by T = S1

(i) Angle made by focal radius of a point will be twice

the angle made by tangent of the point with axis of

parabola

(ii) The locus of foot of perpendicular drop from focus to

any tangent will be tangent at vertex.

(iii) If tangents drawn at ends point of a focal chord are

mutually perpendicular then their point of intersection

will lie on directrix.

(iv) Any light ray travelling parallel to axis of the parabola

will pass through focus after reflection through

parabola.

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from to minor axis and major axis are p1 & p2, then |xp|

= p1 , |yp| = p2

1. Standard Ellipse (e < 1)

p12 p22

Ellipse R|S x2

y 2 U|

= 1V

⇒

a2

+

b2

= 1

T| a W|

2

+

b2

Imp. terms

For a > b For b > a

Centre (0, 0) (0, 0)

Vertices (±a, 0) (0, ±b)

Length of major axis 2a 2b

Length of minor axis 2b 2a

Foci (±ae, 0) (0, ±be)

Equation of directrices x = ±a/e y = ±b/e a > b

Relation in a, b and e b2 = a2(1 e2) a2 = b2(1 e2)

Length of latus rectum 2b2/a 2a2/b

F ±ae, ± b I 2 F ± a , ± beI

2

Parametric coordinates (a cos φ , b sin φ ) (a cos φ , b sin φ )

0 ≤ φ < 2π

S'P = a + ex1 S'P = b + ey1

Sum of focal radii SP + S'P = 2a 2b

Distance bt n

foci 2ae 2be b > a

Distance btn directrices 2a/e 2b/e

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2. Special form of ellipse : (ii) Slope form : If the line y = mx + c touches the

If the centre of an ellipse is at point (h, k) and the

directions of the axes are parallel to the coordinate axes, x2 y2

ellipse + = 1, then c2 = a2m2 + b2. Hence, the

a2 b2

cx − hh 2

+

(y − k)2

= 1.

b2 straight line y = mx ± a2m2 + b2 always represents

a2

the tangents to the ellipse.

Point of contact :

3. Auxillary Circle : The circle described by taking centre of

an ellipse as centre and major axis as a diameter is called Line y = mx ± a2m2 + b2 touches the ellipse

an auxillary circle of the ellipse.

F ±a2m ±b2 I

If

x2

a2

+

y2

b2

= 1 is an ellipse then its auxillary circle is

x2

a2

+

y2

b2

= 1 at GH a2m2 + b2

,

a2m2 + b2

JK .

x2 + y2 = a2. (iii) Parametric form : The equation of tangent at any

Note : Ellipse is locus of a point which moves in such a

point (a cos φ , b sin φ ) is

way that it divides the normal of a point on diameter of

a point of circle in fixed ratio. x y

cos φ + sin φ = 1.

a b

4. Position of a point and a line w.r.t. an ellipse :

* The point lies outside, on or inside the ellipse if

6. Equation of pair of tangents from (x1, y1) to an ellipse

x12 y12

S1 = 2 + 2 1 > , = or < 0 x2 y2

a b + = 1 is given by SS1 = T2

a2 b2

* The line y = mx + c does not intersect, touches,

intersect, the ellipse if

a2m2 + b2 < = > c2 7. Equation of normal in different forms :

(i) Point form : The equation of the normal at (x1, y1)

5. Equation of tangent in different forms :

(i) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the x2 y2

to the ellipse 2 + = 1 is

2 2 a b2

x y

ellipse + = 1 at the point (x1, y1) is

a2 b2

a2 x b2x

= a2 b2.

xx1 yy1 x1 y1

+ = 1.

a2 b2

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(ii) Parametric form : The equation of the normal to the (v) Sum of square of intercept made by auxillary circle on

any two perpendicular tangents of an ellipse will be

x2 y2 constant.

ellipse + = 1 at (a cos φ , b sin φ ) is

a2 b2

(vi) If a light ray originates from one of focii, then it will

ax sec φ by cosec φ = a b . 2 2 pass through the other focus after reflection from

ellipse.

(iii) Slope form : If m is the slope of the normal to the

ellipse + = 1, then the equation of normal

a2 b2 the external point (x1, y1) to an ellipse is given by

is y = mx ± . 2 + = 0 i.e. T = 0.

a2 + b2m2 a b2

F ±a2 ±mb2 I x2 y2

GH a2 + b2m2

,

a2 + b2m2

JK . 10. The equation of a chord of an ellipse

a2

+

b2

= 1 whose

Note : In general three normals can be drawn from a point

x2 y2

(x1, y1) to an ellipse + = 1. 11. Equation of chord joining the points (a cos θ , b sin θ ) and

a2 b2

x2 y2

(a cos φ , b sin φ ) on the ellipse + = 1 is

a2 b2

8. Properties of tangents & normals :

(i) Product of length of perpendicular from either focii to

x θ+φ y θ+φ θ−φ

any tangent to the ellipse will be equal to square of cos + sin = cos

a 2 b 2 2

semi minor axis.

(ii) The locus of foot of perpendicular drawn from either (i) Relation between eccentric angles of focal chord

focii to any tangent lies on auxillary circle.

θ1 θ2 ±e − 1

(iii) The circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will ⇒ tan , tan =

2 2 1±e

touch auxillary circle.

(iv) The protion of the tangent intercepted between the (ii) Sum of feet of eccentric angles is odd π.

point and directrix makes right angle at corresponding i.e. θ 1 + θ 2 + θ 3 + θ 4 = (2n + 1) π .

focus.

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12. Equation of polar of the point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the ellipse (c) If CP, CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of

x2 y2 xx1 yy1 x2 y2

+ = 1 is given by + = 0 i.e. T = 0. the ellipse + = 1 and S, S' be two foci

a2 b2 a2 b2 a2 b2

The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the ellipse of the ellipse, then SP.S'P = CQ2

x2 y2 F −a l , −b nI

2 2

(d) The tangents at the ends of a pair of conjugate

a2

+

b2

= 1 is GH n n JK . diameters of an ellipse form a parallelogram.

13. Eccentric angles of the extremities of latus rectum of the the ends of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is constant

ellipse

a 2 +

b2 = 1 are tan1 H aeK 16. Length of subtangent and subnormal at p(x1, y1) to the

14. (i) Equation of the diameter bisecting the chords of ellipse

x2 y2

slope in the ellipse + = 1 is x2 y2 a2

a2 b2 + = 1 is x1 & (1 e2) x1

a2 b2 x1

b2

y = x

a2m

(ii) Conjugate Diameters : The straight lines y = m1x,

y = m2x are conjugate diameters of the ellipse

x2 y2 b2

+ = 1 if m1m2 = .

a2 b2 a2

(iii) Properties of conjugate diameters :

(a) If CP and CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters

x2 y2

of the ellipse + = 1, then

a2 b2

CP2 + CQ2 = a2 + b2

(b) If θ and φ are the eccentric angles of the

extremities of two conjugate diameters, then

π

θ φ = ±

2

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HYPERBOLA

1. Standard Hyperbola :

Hyperbola x2 y2 x2 y2

= 1 + = 1

a2 b2 a2 b2

x2 y2

Imp. terms or = 1

a2 b2

Centre (0, 0) (0, 0)

Length of

transverse axis 2a 2b

Length of

conjugate axis 2b 2a

Foci (±ae, 0) (0, ±be)

Hyperbola

Equation of

directrices x = ±a/e y = ± b/e

Fa + b I

2 2 Fa + b I

2 2

Eccentricity e = GH a JK2 e = GH b JK 2

Parametric

co-ordinates (a sec φ , b tan φ ) (b sec φ , a tan φ )

0 ≤ φ < 2π 0 ≤ φ < 2π

Focal radii SP = ex1 a SP = ey1 b

S'P = ex1 + a S'P = ey1 + b

S'P SP 2a 2b

Tangents at

the vertices x = a, x = a y = b, y = b

Equation of the y = 0 x = 0

transverse axis

Conjugate Hyperbola

Equation of the x = 0 y = 0

conjugate axis

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2. Special form of hyperbola : (b) Parametric form : The equation of tangent to the

If the centre of hyperbola is (h, k) and axes are parallel hyperbola

to the co-ordinate axes, then its equation is

x2 y2

(x − h)2 (y − k)2 = 1 at (a sec φ , b tan φ ) is

a2 b2

= 1.

a2 b2

x y

sec φ tan φ = 1.

a b

3. Parametric equations of hyperbola :

(c) Slope form : The equations of tangents of slope m

The equations x = a sec φ and y = b tan φ are known to the hyperbola

x2 y2 x2 y2

as the parametric equations of hyperbola = 1 = 1 are y = mx ±

a2

b2

a2 b2 a2m2 − b2 and the

4. Position of a point and a line w.r.t. a hyperbola :

F± a2m b2 I

The point (x1, y1) lies inside, on or outside the hyperbola

GH a2m2 − b2

,±

a2m2 − b2

JK .

x2 y2

= 1

a2 b2

6. Equation of pair of tangents from (x1, y1) to the hyperbola

x12 y12

according as

a2

1 is +ve, zero or ve. x2 y2

b2 = 1 is given by SS1 = T2

a2 b2

The line y = mx + c does not intersect, touches, intersect

the hyperbola

7. Equations of normals in different forms :

according as c2 <, =, > a2m2 b2.

(a) Point form : The equation of normal to the hyperbola

(a) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the = 1 at (x1, y1) is + = a2 + b2.

a2 b2 x1 y1

x2 y2 (b) Parametric form : The equation of normal at

hyperbola = 1

a2 b2 (a sec θ , b tan θ ) to the hyperbola

xx1 yy1 x2 y2

at (x1, y1) is 2 2 = 1. = 1 is ax cos θ + by cot θ = a2 + b2

a b a2 b2

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(c) Slope form : The equation of the normal to the 11. Equation of chord joining the points P(a sec φ 1, b tan φ 1)

x2 y2 and Q(a sec φ 2, b tan φ 2) is

hyperbola 2 2 = 1 in terms of the slope m of

a b

x FG φ − φ2 IJ y FG φ + φ2 IJ FG φ IJ

+ φ2

H K H K H K

1 1 1

2

m (a + b ) 2 cos sin = cos .

a 2 b 2 2

the normal is y = mx m

a2 − b2m2

(d) Condition for normality : If y = mx + c is the normal 12. Equation of polar of the point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the hyperbola

is given by T = 0.

x2 y2

of = 1, The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t.

a2 b2

x2 y2 F − a l , b mI

2 2

then c = m

m (a2 + b2 )

or c2 =

m(a2 + b2 )2

, which a2

b2

= 1 is GH n n JK

a2 − b2m2 (a2 − m2b2)

is condition of normality.

(e) Points of contact : Co-ordinates of points of contact 13. The equation of a diameter of the hyperbola

F± a2 mb2 I x2 y2 b2

are GH a2 − b2m2

,m

a2 − b2m2

JK . a2

b2

= 1 is y =

a2m

x.

8. The equation of director circle of hyperbola 14. The diameters y = m1x and y = m2x are conjugate if

x2 y2 b2

= 1 is x + y = a b .

2 2 2 2 m1m2 =

a2 b2 a2

9. Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from 15. Asymptotes of a hyperbola :

the external point (x1, y1) to the hyperbola is given by * The equations of asymptotes of the hyperbola

xx1 yy1

= 1. x2 y2 b

a2 b2 = 1 are y = ± x.

a2 b2 a

x2 y2

10. The equation of chord of the hyperbola = 1 * The asymptote of a hyperbola passes through the

a2 b2

centre of the hyperbola.

whose mid point is (x1, y1) is T = S1.

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* The combined equation of the asymptotes of the * Equation of tangent at (x1, y1) to xy

x2 y2 x2 y2

hyperbola = 1 is = 0. x y

a2 b2 a2 b2 = c2 is x + y = 2.

1 1

* The angle between the asymptotes of

Equation of tangent at t is x + yt2 = 2ct

2 2 2

x y y

2 2 = 1 is 2 tan1 or 2 sec1 e. * Equation of normal at (x1, y1) to xy = c2 is

a b b2

* A hyperbola and its conjugate hyperbola have the xx1 yy1 = x12 y12

same asymptotes. * Equation of normal at t on xy = c2 is

* The bisector of the angles between the asymptotes

are the coordinate axes. xt3 yt ct4 + c = 0.

* Equation of hyperbola Equation of asymptotes = (This results shows that four normal can be drawn

Equation of asymptotes Equation of conjugate from a point to the hyperbola xy = c2)

hyperbola = constant.

* If a triangle is inscribed in a rectangular hyperbola

then its orthocentre lies on the hyperbola.

16. Rectangular or Equilateral Hyperbola :

* A hyperbola for which a = b is said to be rectangular * Equation of chord of the hyperbola xy = c2 whose

hyperbola, its equation is x2 y2 = a2 middle point is given is T = S1

asymptotes x = 0, y = 0. F 2c t t I

hyperbola xy = c2 is GH t + t

1

1 2

2

,

2c

t1 + t 2

JK

* Eccentricity of rectangular hyperbola is

2 and angle

between asymptotes of rectangular hyperbola is 90º.

c

x = ct, y = , where t is a parameter.

t

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

AND DISPERSION (i) For ungrouped data

G.M. = (x1 x2 x3 .....xn)1/n

1. Arithmetic mean : F1 I n

(i) For ungrouped data (individual series) x = or

H K i =1

i

n

x1 + x2 +......+ xn Σ xi (ii) For grouped data

= i=1

n(no. of terms) n

n

∑f

1

e

G.M. = x1f1 x2f2 .... xnfn j N , where N =

i= 1

i

n

F f log x I

n

Σ fixi

i =1

, where xi , i = 1 .... n GG ∑ JJ i i

= antilog G

GH ∑ f JJK

n i =1

Σ fi n

i=1

i

be n observations and fi be their corresponding i= 1

frequencies

(b) short cut method : x = A + Σf , metic mean of reciprocals.

i

(i) For ungrouped data H.M. =

for each term n

1

∑x

i=1 i

2. Properties of A.M.

(i) In a statistical data, the sum of the deviation of items n

Ff I

i= 1

(ii) If each of the n given observation be doubled, then (ii) For grouped data H.M. = n

their mean is doubled ∑ GH x JK

i =1

i

i

(iii) If x is the mean of x1, x2, ...... xn. The mean of ax1, ax2

.....axn is a x where a is any number different from

zero. 5. Relation between A.M., G.M and H.M.

(iv) Arithmetic mean is independent of origin i.e. it is x A.M. ≥ G.M. ≥ H.M.

effected by any change in origin. Equality holds only when all the observations in the series

are same.

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(a) Individual series (ungrouped data) : If data is raw,

FG N − CIJ

arrange in ascending or descending order and n be

the no. of observations. Median = u -

H2 K × i

f

FG n + 1IJ th

where u = upper limit of median class.

If n is odd, Median = Value of

H 2 K observation

1 FG nIJ + value of

th 7. Mode :

If n is even, Median =

2

[Value of

H 2K (i) For individual series : In the case of individual series,

the value which is repeated maximum number of times

FG n + 1IJ ] observation.

th is the mode of the series.

of discrete frequency distribution, mode is the value of

the variate corresponding to the maximum frequency.

(b) Discrete series : First find cumulative frequencies of (iii) For continuous frequency distribution : first find the

the variables arranged in ascending or descending model class i.e. the class which has maximum frequency.

order and

For continuous series

FG n + 1IJ th

LM f − f OP

Median =

H 2 K observation, where n is cumulative 1 0

frequency.

Mode = l 1 +

N2f − f − f Q

1 0 2

× i

(c) Continuous distribution (grouped data) Where l 1 = Lower limit of the model class.

(i) For series in ascending order f1 = Frequency of the model class.

Median = l +

H2 K × i

class.

f2 = Frequency of the class succeeding model

f

class.

Where l = Lower limit of the median class. i = Size of the model class.

f = Frequency of the median class.

N = Sum of all frequencies.

8. Relation between Mean, Mode & Median :

i = The width of the median class

(i) In symmetrical distribution : Mean = Mode = Median

C = Cumulative frequency of the

class preceding to median class. (ii) In Moderately symmetrical distribution : Mode = 3 Me-

dian 2 Mean

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The degree to which numerical data tend to spread about N = Σ f = Total frequency

an average value is called variation or dispersion. (ii) Short cut method

Popular methods of measure of dispersion.

Σfd2 FG IJ

Σfd

2

Σd2 FG IJ

Σd

2

N

−

N H K or σ=

N

−

H K

N

from the mean, median or mode is known as mean deviation.

(a) Individual series (ungrouped data) Where d = x A = Derivation from assumed mean A

f = Frequency of item (term)

Σ|x − S| N = Σf = Total frequency.

Mean deviation =

n

Where n = number of terms, S = deviation of variate Variance Square of standard direction

from mean mode, median.

i.e. variance = (S.D.)2 = (σ)2

(b) Continuous series (grouped data).

Coefficient of variance = Coefficient of S.D. × 100

Σ f | x − s| Σf |x − s|

Mean deviation = = σ

Σf N = × 100

x

Note : Mean deviation is the least when measured from the

median.

2. Standard Deviation :

S.D. (σ) is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the

squares of the deviations of the terms from their A.M.

(a) For individual series (ungrouped data)

Σ(x − x)2

σ = where x = Arithmetic mean of

N

the series

N = Total frequency

(b) For continuous series (grouped data)

(i) Direct method σ =

N

Where x = Arithmetic mean of series

xi = Mid value of the class

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 4. Trace of a matrix : Sum of the elements in the principal

diagonal is called the trace of a matrix.

1. Matrix - A system or set of elements arranged in a rectan- trace kA = k trace A

gular form of array is called a matrix.

trace A = trace AT

trace In = n when In is identity matrix.

2. Order of matrix : If a matrix A has m rows & n columns then

A is of order m × n. trace On = O On is null matrix.

The number of rows is written first and then number of col- trace AB ≠ trace A trace B.

umns. Horizontal line is row & vertical line is column

3. Types of matrices : A matrix A = (aij)m×n

matrices each of order same, then A + B (or A B) is defined

A matrix A = (aij)mxn over the field of complex numbers is

said to be and is obtained by adding (or subtracting) each element of B

from corresponding element of A

Name Properties

A row matrix if m = 1

A column matrix if n = 1 6. Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar :

A rectangular matrix if m ≠ n KA = K (aij)m×n = (Ka)m×n where K is constant.

A square matrix if m = n Properties :

A null or zero matrix if aij = 0 ∀ i j. It is denoted by O. (i) K(A + B) = KA + KB

A diagonal matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j.

(ii) (K1 K2)A = K1(K2 A) = K2(K1A)

A scalar matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j

(iii) (K1 + K2)A = K1A + K2A

= k for i = j

i.e. a11 = a22 ....... = ann = k (cons.)

Identity or unit matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j 7. Multiplication of Matrices : Two matrices A & B can be

= 1 for i = j multiplied only if the number of columns in A is same as the

Upper Triangular matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i > j number of rows in B.

Lower Triangular matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i < j Properties :

Symmetric matrix if m = n and aij = aji for all i, j (i) In general matrix multiplication is not commutative i.e.

or AT = A AB ≠ BA.

Skew symmetric matrix if m = n and aij = aji ∀ i, j

(ii) A(BC) = (AB)C [Associative law]

or AT = A

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(iv) If AB = AC ⇒

/ B=C 1. Minor & cofactor : If A = (aij)3×3, then minor of a11 is

M11 = a a33 and so.

(vi) AI = A = IA 32

cofactor of an element aij is denoted by Cij or Fij and is equal

i.e. Am+1 = Am A = AAm

to (1)i+j Mij

or Cij = Mij, if i = j

8. Transpose of a matrix :

= Mij, if i ≠ j

A' or A T is obtained by interchanging rows into columns or

Note : |A| = a11F11 + a12 F12 + a13 F13

columns into rows

and a11 F21 + a12 F22 + a13 F23 = 0

Properties :

2. Determinant : if A is a square matrix then determinant of

(i) (AT)T = A matrix is denoted by det A or |A|.

(ii) (A ± B)T = AT ± BT expansion of determinant of order 3 × 3

(iii) (AB) = B A

T T T

b2 c2 a2 c2 a2 b2

a2 b2 c2

(v) IT = I ⇒ = a1 b c3 b 1 a3 c3 + c1 a3 b3

a3 b3 c3 3

is called b1 c1 a1 c1 a1 b1

or = a2 b c3 + b 2 a3 c3 c2 a3 b3

3

(i) Orthogonal matrix : if AAT = In = ATA

(ii) Idempotent matrix : if A2 = A Properties :

(iii) Involutory matrix : if A = I 2

or A 1

=A (i) |AT| = |A|

(iv) Nilpotent matrix : if ∃ p ∈ N such that Ap = 0 (ii) By interchanging two rows (or columns), value of de-

terminant differ by ve sign.

(v) Hermitian matrix : if Aθ = A i.e. aij = a ji

(iii) If two rows (or columns) are identical then |A| = 0

(vi) Skew - Hermitian matrix : if A = Aθ

(iv) |KA| = Kn det A, A is matrix of order n × n

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a determinant are added to the corresponding elements (i) A(adj A) = (adjA) A = |A|In

of any other row (or column), then the value of the (ii) |adj A| = |A|n1

new determinant remain unchanged.

(iii) (adjAB) = (adjB) (adjA)

(vi) Determinant of :

(iii) (adj AT) = (adjA)T

(a) A nilpotent matrix is 0.

(iv) adj(adjA) = |A|n2

(b) An orthogonal matrix is 1 or 1

(v) (adj KA) = Kn1(adj A)

(c) A unitary matrix is of modulus unity.

(d) A Hermitian matrix is purely real.

2. Inverse of a matrix :

(e) An identity matrix is one i.e. |In| = 1, where In is a

(i) A1 exists if A is non singular i.e. |A| ≠ 0

unit matrix of order n.

(f) A zero matrix is zero i.e. |0n| = 0, where 0n is a zero adjA

matrix of order n (ii) A1 = , |A| ≠ 0

| A|

(g) A diagonal matrix = product of its diagonal elements.

(iii) A1A = In = A A1

(h) Skew symmetric matrix of odd order is zero.

(iv) (AT)1 = (A1)T

(v) (A1)1 = A

3. Multiplication of two determinants :

Multiplication of two second order determinants is defined as 1

(vi) |A1| = |A|1 =

follows. | A|

a1 b1 l1 m1 a1l1 + b1l2 a1m1 + b1m2

a2 b2 × l2 m2 = a2 l1 + b2 l2 a2m1 + b2m2 (AB)1 = B1 A1

3. Rank of a matrix :

firstly in the same order.

A non zero matrix A is said to have rank r, if

(i) Every square sub matrix of order (r + 1) or more is

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS :

singular

1. Adjoint of a matrix :

(ii) There exists at least one square submatrix of order r

adj A = (Cij)T , where Cij is cofactor of aij which is non singular.

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(b) Solution of homogeneous system of linear equa-

equations :

tions :

A system of equations Ax = B is called a homogeneous sys-

tem if B = 0. If B ≠ 0, then it is called non homogeneous The homogeneous system Ax = B, B = 0 of n equations

system equations. in n variables is

(i) Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and

5. (a) Solution of non homogeneous system of linear for each i = 1, 2, ......... n

equations : xi = 0 is called trivial solution.

(i) Cramer's rule : Determinant method (ii) Consistent (with infinitely many solution),

The non homogeneous system Ax = B, B ≠ 0 of n if |A| = 0

equations in n variables is -

(a) |A| = |Ai| = 0 (for determinant method)

Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and

for each i = 1, 2, ........ n, (b) |A| = 0, (adj A) B = 0 (for matrix method)

NOTE : A homogeneous system of equations is never

det A i

xi = , where Ai is the matrix obtained inconsistent.

det A

from A by replacing ith column with B.

Inconsistent (with no solution) if |A| = 0 and

at least one of the det (Ai) is non zero.

Consistent (With infinite many solution), if

|A| = 0 and all det (Ai) are zero.

The non homogeneous system Ax = B, B ≠ 0 of

n equations in n variables is -

Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 i.e.

if A is non singular, x = A1 B.

Inconsistent (with no solution), if |A| = 0 and

(adj A) B is a non null matrix.

Consistent (with infinitely many solutions), if

|A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a null matrix.

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FUNCTION Properties :

(ii) loga a = 1

R|x, x > 0

|x| = S−x, x < 0

|T0, x = 0 (iii) aloga b = b

if k > 0, k = blogb k

Properties :

(i) |x| ≠ ± x (iv) loga b1 + loga b2 + ...... + loga bn = loga (b1 b2 ........bn)

(ii) |xy| = |x||y|

FG bIJ

(iii)

x

=

|x| (v) loga H cK = loga b loga c

y |y|

(vi) Base change formulae

(iv) |x + y| ≤ |x| + |y|

(v) |x y| ≥ |x| |y| or ≤ |x| + |y| logc b 1

loga b = log a or loga b = log a

(vi) ||a| |b|| ≤ |a b| for equality a.b ≥ 0. c b

(vii) If a > 0

|x| = a ⇒ x=±a n

(vii) logam bn = loga b

|x| = a ⇒ no solution m

|x| > a ⇒ x < a or x > a

1 FG IJ

|x| ≤ a

|x| < a

⇒ a ≤ x ≤ a

⇒ No solution.

(viii) loga b H K = loga b = log1/a b

FG bIJ FG c IJ

2. Logarithmic Function :

(ix) log1/a H cK = loga H bK

(i) logb a to be defined a > 0, b > 0, b ≠ 1 (x) alogb c = clogb a

(ii) loga b = c ⇒ b=a c

⇒ b > ac, a>1 3. Greatest Integer function :

or b < ac, 0<a<1 f(x) = [x], where [.]denotes greatest integer function equal

(iv) loga b > loga c or less than x.

⇒ b > c, if a > 1 i.e., defined as [4.2] = 4, [4.2] = 5

or b < c, if 0 < a < 1 Period of [x] = 1

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Properties : 6. Definition :

(i) x 1 < [x] ≤ x Let A and B be two given sets and if each element a ∈ A is

(ii) [x + I] = [x] + I associated with a unique element b ∈ B under a rule f, then

[x + y] ≠ [x] + [y] this relation (mapping) is called a function.

(iii) [x] + [x] = 0, x ∈ I Graphically - no vertical line should intersect the graph of

= 1, x ∉ I the function more than once.

(iv) [x] = I, where I is an integer x ∈ [I, I + 1) Here set A is called domain and set of all f images of the

(v) [x] ≥ I, x ∈ [I, ∞ ) elements of A is called range.

(vi) [x] ≤ I, x ∈ ( ∞ , I + 1] i.e., Domain = All possible values of x for which f(x) exists.

(vii) [x] > I, [x] ≥ I + 1, x ∈ [I + 1, ∞ ) Range = For all values of x, all possible values of f(x).

(viii) [x] < I, [x] ≤ I 1, x ∈ ( ∞ , I)

Table : Domain and Range of some standard functions -

4. Fractional part function :

Functions Domain Range

f(x) = {x} = difference between number & its integral part

= x [x]. Polynomial function R R

Properties : Identity function x R R

(i) {x}, x ∈ [0, 1) Constant function K R (K)

(ii) {x + I} = {x}

1

{x + y} ≠ {x} + {y} Reciprocal function R0 R0

x

(iii) {x} + {x} = 0, x ∈ I

= 1, x ∉ I x2, |x| (modulus function) R R+ ∪{x}

(iv) [{x}] = 0, {{x}} = {x}, {[x]} = 0 x3, x|x| R R

|x|

5. Signum function : Signum function R {-1, 0, 1}

x

R|−1 , x ∈R− x +|x| R R+ ∪{x}

|S 0 , x=0 x -|x| R R- ∪{x}

f(x) = sgn (x) = |

|T 1 , x ∈R+

[x] (greatest integer function)

x - {x}

R

R

1

[0, 1]

or f(x) = , x ≠ 0

x ax (exponential function) R R+

= 0, x=0 log x (logarithmic function) R+ R

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7. Kinds of functions :

Trigonometric Domain Range

(i) One-one (injection) function - f : A → B is one-one if

Functions

f(a) = f(b) ⇒ a = b

sin x R [-1, 1]

or a≠b

cos x R [-1, 1]

⇒ f(a) ≠ f(b), a, b ∈ A

RS± π , ± 3π ,...UV Graphically-no horizontal line intersects with the graph

tan x R-

T2 2 W R of the function more than once.

(ii) Onto function (surjection) - f : A → B is onto if

cot x R- {0, ± π , ± 2 π ,...} R

R (f) = B i.e. if to each y ∈ B ∃ x ∈ A s.t. f(x) = y

RS± π , ± 3π ,...UV (iii) Many one function : f : A → B is a many one function

sec x R -

T2 2 W R - (-1,1)

if there exist x, y ∈ A s.t. x ≠ y

Graphically - atleast one horizontal line intersects with

the graph of the function more than once.

Inverse Domain Range

(iv) Into function : f is said to be into function if R(f) < B

Trigo Functions (v) One-one-onto function (Bijective) - A function which

sin x (-1, 1]

N 2 2Q

-1

cos -1

x [-1,1] [0, π ] f1 : B → A, f1(b) = a ⇒ f(a) = b

FG −π , π IJ

tan-1 x R

H 2 2K 9. Transformation of curves :

(i) Replacing x by (x a) entire graph will be shifted parallel

cot-1 x R (0, π ) to x-axis with |a| units.

sec-1 x R -(-1,1) [0, π ]-

2 TW a is ve it moves toward left.

Similarly if y is replace by (y a), the graph will be

LM− π , π OP- {0} shifted parallel to y-axis,

cosec-1 x R - (-1,1)

N 2 2Q upward if a is +ve

downward if a is ve.

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(ii) Replacing x by x, take reflection of entire curve is y- (g) Zero function i.e. f(x) = 0 is the only function which

axis. is even and odd both.

Similarly if y is replaced by y then take reflection of (h) If f(x) is odd (even) function then f'(x) is even (odd)

entire curve in x-axis. function provided f(x) is differentiable on R.

(iii) Replacing x by |x|, remove the portion of the curve (i) A given function can be expressed as sum of even

corresponding to ve x (on left hand side of y-axis) & odd function.

and take reflection of right hand side on LHS. 1 1

i.e. f(x) = [f(x) + f(x)] + [f(x) f(x)]

(iv) Replace f(x) by |f(x)|, if on L.H.S. y is present and 2 2

mode is taken on R.H.S. then portion of the curve below

= even function + odd function.

x-axis will be reflected above x-axis.

(v) Replace x by ax (a > 0), then divide all the value on x-

12. Increasing function : A function f(x) is an increasing function

axis by a.

in the domain D if the value of the function does not decrease

Similarly if y is replaced by ay (a > 0) then divide all the by increasing the value of x.

values of y-axis by a.

13. Decreasing function : A function f(x) is a decreasing function

10. Even and odd function : A function is said to be in the domain D if the value of function does not increase by

increasing the value of x.

(i) Even function if f(x) = f(x) and

(ii) Odd function if f(x) = f(x).

14. Periodic function: Function f(x) will be periodic if a +ve real

number T exist such that

11. Properties of even & odd function : ∀ x ∈ Domain.

f(x + T) = f(x),

(a) The graph of an even function is always symmetric There may be infinitely many such T which satisfy the above

about y-axis. equality. Such a least +ve no. T is called period of f(x).

(b) The graph of an odd function is always symmetric (i) If a function f(x) has period T, then

about origin. Period of f(xn + a) = T/n and

(c) Product of two even or odd function is an even Period of (x/n + a) = nT

function. (ii) If the period of f(x) is T1 & g(x) has T2 then the period

(d) Sum & difference of two even (odd) function is an of f(x) ± g(x) will be L.C.M. of T1 & T2 provided it

even (odd) function. satisfies definition of periodic function.

(iii) If period of f(x) & g(x) are same T, then the period of

(e) Product of an even or odd function is an odd function.

af(x) + bg(x) will also be T.

(f) Sum of even and odd function is neither even nor

odd function.

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If f : X → Y and g : Y → Z are two function, then the

sin x, cos x 2π composite function of f and g, gof : X → Z will be defined as

sec x, cosec x gof(x) = g(f(x)), ∀ x ∈ X

tan x, cot x π In general gof ≠ fog

sin (x/3) 6π If both f and g are bijective function, then so is gof.

tan 4x π/4

cos 2πx 1

|cos x| π

sin x + cos x 4 4

π/2

FG x − π IJ

2 cos

H 3 K 6π

sin x + cos x 3 4

2π

sin x

2π

sin5x

tan2 x cot2 x π

x [x] 1

[x] 1

x, x , x , 5

2 3

cos x2

x + sin x

x cos x

cos x

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5. Limit of the greatest integer function :

LIMIT

Let c be any real number

1. Limit of a function : xlim

→ a f(x) = l (finite quantity) Case I : If c is not an integer, then xlim

→ c [x] = [c]

→ c−

[x] = c 1, xlim

→ c+

[x] = c

2. Existence of limit : xlim lim lim

→ a f(x) exists iff x → a− f(x) = x → a+ f(x) = l

and xlim

→c

[x] = does not exist

3. Indeterminate forms : , , ∞ ∞ , ∞ × 0, ∞ 0 , 0∞ , 1∞

0 ∞ f(x) 0

(i) Factorisation method : If xlim is of form

→a g(x) 0

4. Theorems on limits : then factorize num. & devo. separately and cancel the

(i) x→a x→a k is a constant. common factor which is participating in making form.

0

lim (f(x) ± g(x)) = lim f(x) ± Lim g(x) (ii) Rationalization method : If we have fractional powers

(ii) x→a x→a x→a on the expression in num, deno or in both, we rationalize

the factor and simplify.

(iii) lim f(x).g(x) = lim f(x). Lim g(x) (iii) When x → ∞ : Divide num. & deno. by the highest power

x→a x→a x→a

lim f(x) 1 1

f(x) x→a

the indeterminate form, replace , 2 ,.. by 0.

lim = lim g(x) , provided xlim

(iv) x→a g(x) → a g(x) ≠ 0 x x

x→a

n n

lim x − a = nan1

(v)

FH IK

lim f(g(x)) = f lim g(x) , provided value of

x→a x→a

(iv) x→a

x −a

(v) By using standard results (limits) :

g(x) function f(x) is continuous. lim

(a) lim sinx = 1 = x → 0 x

x→0

(vi) lim [f(x) + k] = lim f(x) + k x sin x

x→a x→a

→ a log(f(x)) = log x → a

FH IK (b) x→0

x x→0

tan x

x→0

N Q

x→a

(viii) xlim

→ a (f(x))

g(x)

= 1

x→a

(d) lim cosx = lim =1

x→0 x→0

cos x

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(vi) By substitution :

lim sin x = π

0

(e) (a) If x → a, then we can substitute

x→0

x 180 x=a+t ⇒ t=xa

−1

x If x → a, t → 0.

(f) lim sin x = 1 = lim −1 (b) When x → ∞ substitute x = t ⇒ t → ∞

x→0 x→0

x sin x

1

−1

x (c) When x → ∞ substitute t = ⇒ t → 0+

(g) lim tan x = 1 = lim x

x→0

x x→0

tan−1 x

(vii) By using some expansion :

x

x2

+

x3

+ .....

x→0

x e

2! 3!

x x2 x3

(i) lim e − 1 = 1 ex = 1 x + + .....

x→0

x 2! 3!

x2 x3

(j) lim log(1 + x) = 1 log(1 + x) = x + ......

x→0

x 2 3

x2 x3

1

(k) lim loga (1 + x) = log(1 x) = x

2

3

.....

x→0 x loga

(x loge a)2 (x loge a)3

n ex ln a = ax = 1 + xlogea + + + ......

(l) lim (1 + x) − 1 = n 2! 3!

x→0

x

x3 x5

sinx = x + .......

(m) lim sinx = lim cos x = 0 3! 5!

x→∞ x→∞

x x

x2 x4

cosx = 1 + ......

1 2! 4!

sin

x x3 2

(n) lim =1 tanx = x + + x5 + .....

x→∞ 1

3 15

x

n(n − 1) 2

(1 + x)n = 1 + nx +

x + .....

FG1 + 1 IJ x 2!

(o) lim (1 + x)1/x = e = lim

x→0 x→∞ H xK 7. Sandwich Theorem : In the neighbour hood of x = a

f(x) < g(x) < h(x)

F aI

= lim G1 + J

x

lim f(x) = lim h(x) = l, then lim g(x) = l.

lim

H xK

x →a x →a x →a

(p) x → 0 (1 + ax)

1/x

= ea x→∞

⇒ l < lim

x →a

g(x) < l.

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d

1. SOME STANDARD DIFFERENTIATION : (i) f(x) = 0 if and only if f(x) = constant

dx

Function Derivative Function Derivative

d

dx

ccf(x)h = c

d

dx

f(x), where c is a constant.

1 1

loga x loge x

x loge a x (iii)

d

dx

cf(x) ± g(x)h =

d

dx

f(x) ±

d

dx

g(x)

ax ax loge a ex ex

d dv du

sin x cos x cos x sin x (iv) (uv) = u + v , where u & v are functions

dx dx dx

tan x sec2 x cot x cosec2 x of x. (Product rule)

cosec x cosec x cot x sec x sec x tan x

d du dv dw

or (uvw) = vw + uw + uv .

1 1 dx dx dx dx

sin1 x ,1<x<1 cos1x ,1<x<1

1−x 2

1 − x2

d d

(v) If f(x) = φ(x), then f (ax + b)

dx dx

1 1

sec1 x ,|x|>1 cosec1 x ,1|x|>|

|x| 1 − x 2

|x| 1 − x2 = a φ(ax + b)

1

,x ∈ R

1 d FG u IJ v

du

−u

dv

tan1 x

1+x 2 cot1 x

1 + x2

, x ∈R (vi)

dx H vK = dx

v 2

dx (quotient rule)

[x] 0, x ∉ I |x| , x≠ 0

| x|

efficient of a function of a function]

dy dy du

then = ×

dx du dx

d

NOTE : [x] does not exist at any integral Point.

dx llly If y = f(u), u = g(v), v = h(x), then

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= × × differentiate w.r.t. x and collect the terms containing

dx du dv dx

dy dy

dy du at one side and find .

i.e if y = un ⇒ = nun1 dx dx

dx dx

OR [The relation f(x, y) = 0 in which y is not expressible

(viii) Differentiation of composite functions explicitly in terms of x are called implicit functions]

Suppose a function is given in form of fog(x) or

f[g(x)], then differentiate applying chain rule

(xiii) Differentiation of parametric functions : If x = f(t)

d and y = g(t), where t is a parameter, then

i.e., f[g(x)] = f'g(x) . g'(x)

dx

d FG 1IJ −1 du dy

(ix)

dx H uK =

u2 dx

, u ≠ 0 dy

dx

=

dt

dx

=

g'(t)

f'(t)

dt

d u du

(x) |u| = , u ≠ 0

dx |u| dx

(xiv) Differentiation of a function w.r.t. another func-

(xi) Logarithmic Differentiation : If a function is in the tion : Let y = f(x) and z = g(x), then differentiation

f1 ( x ) f2 ( x ).... of y w.r.t. z is

form (f(x))g(x) or g ( x ) g ( x ).... We first take log on

1 2

dy dy / dx f'(x)

both sides and then differentiate. = =

dz dz / dx g'(x)

(a) loge (mn) = logem + logen

(b) loge = logm logen

n using Trigonometrical Transformation : To solve

the problems involving inverse trigonometric functions

(c) loge (m)n = nlogem (d) logn m logm n = 1

first try for a suitable substitution to simplify it and

m then differentiate. If no such substitution is found

(e) logan xm = loga x (f) aloga x

= x

n then differentiate directly by using trigonometrical

formula frequently.

loge m

(g) loge e = 1 (h) logn m = log n

e

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π π

(xvi) sin1 sin (x) = x, for ≤ x ≤

2 tan x 2 2

(i) sin2x = 2sinx. cosx =

1 + tan2 x

cos1 (cos x) = x, for 0 ≤ x ≤ π

1 − tan2 x

(ii) cos2x = = 2 cos2 x 1 = 1 2 sin2 x π π

1 + tan2 x tan1 (tan x) = x, for < x <

2 2

(viii) tan2x =

1 − tan2 x cos1 (x) = π cos1 x

FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ

(vi) cos3x = 4cos3 x 3cosx

(xviii) sin1 H xK = cosec1 x, cos1 H xK = sec1 x,

(ix) tan3x =

3 tan x − tan3 x FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ

1 − 3 tan2 x tan1 H xK = cot1 x, cot1 H xK = tan1 x,

FG 1IJ FG 1IJ

(xi) sec1 x + cosec1 x = π /2 sec1 H xK = cos1 x, cosec1 H xK = sin1 x

FG x ± y IJ Fsin FG π − θIJ I

(xiii) tan1 x ± tan1 y = tan1 H 1 m xy K (xix) sin1 (cos θ ) = sin1 GH H 2 K JK =

π

θ

2

F I

(xiv) sin1 x ± sin1 y = sin1 x 1 − y2 ± y 1 − x2

H K Fcos FG π − θIJ I

cos1 (sin θ ) = cos1 GH H 2 K JK =

π

2

θ

FG tan FG π − θIJ IJ π

tan1 (cot θ ) = tan1

H H 2 KK =

2

θ

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a+ x

or x = a tan θ

a− x a+ x

4x3 3x x = cosθ 4cos3 θ 3cosθ cos3θ

a2 x2 x = a sin θ or x = a cos θ

3x − x3 3 tan θ − tan3 θ

x = tanθ tan3θ

1 − 3x 2 1 − 3 tan2 θ

a+x a−x

or x = a cos θ

a−x a+x

2x 2 tan θ

2 x = tanθ sin2θ

1+x 1 + tan2 θ x 2 a2 x = a sec θ or x=acosec θ

2x 2 tan θ a2 + x2 a2 − x2

x = tanθ tan2θ or x2 = a2 cos θ

1−x 2

1 − tan θ2 a2 − x2 a2 + x2

(a) If y = f(x) then = f'(x) is called the first deriva-

dx

x = cosθ 1 cos2 θ sin2 θ

tive of y w.r.t. x

x 2

1 x = secθ sec θ 1

2

tan θ2

d2 y FG dy IJ

x = cosecθ cosec2 θ 1 cot 2 θ ⇒

dx 2 =

d

dx H dx K =

d

dx

c

f'(x)h

1 + x2 x = tanθ 1 + tan2 θ sec2 θ

is called the second derivative of y w.r.t. x

x = cotθ 1 + cot2 θ cosec2 θ

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FG nπ IJ

llly

d3 y

dx3

=

d2

dx2

cf'(x)h etc......

(f) If y = sin (ax + b), then yn = an sin ax + b + H 2 K

Thus, This process can be continued and we can FGax + b + nπ IJ

obtain derivatives of higher order If y = cos (ax + b), then yn = an cos H 2K

6. nth Derivatives of Some Functions :

functions we use chain rule

i.e. if x = 2t, y = t2

dn

(i)

dxn

ex j

n

= n!

dy

⇒ = t

dx

dn

csin xh FG

nπ IJ

d2 y FG dy IJ

(ii)

dx n H

= sin x + 2 K

d d dt 1

⇒

dx 2

=

dx H dx K =

dx

(t) = 1.

dx

=

t

dn FG πn IJ

(b) If y = (ax + b)m m ∉ I, then (iii)

dx n (cos x) = cos x + H 2 K

yn = m(m1) (m2) ..... (mn+1) (ax + b)mn .an

(iv) (emx ) = mn emx

dx n

ym = m! am and ym+1 = 0

dn

1 (−1)n n! (v) (log x) = ( 1)n1 (n1)! xn

(d) If y = , then yn = an dx n

ax + b (ax + b)n+1

n−1

LM d OP

(−1) (n − 1)!

(e) If y = log (ax + b), then yn = an n

(ax + b)n dn

then

dx n c h

f g(x) = Kn

MNdu

n

f(u)

PQ u= g(x)

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with the help of example

x x− −∞ R1

if y = x then function becomes y = xy now taking log R2

∆ = = |C1 C2 C3|

on both sides R3

i.e logy = y log x, differentiating both sides w.r.t. x

1 dy 1 dy R'1 R1 R1

we get = y + logx

y dx x dx ∆' = R 2 + R'2 + R 2

R3 R3 R'3

dy x y2

⇒

dx

=

FG 1 − log xIJ =

x(1 − y log x)

Hy K

8. L-hospital rule :

if as x → a f(x) & g(x) either both → 0 or both → ∞, then

f(x) f'(x)

lim = lim

x →a g(x) x →a g'(x)

(b) Numerator & denominator are differentiated separately

u

not formulae.

v

L.H rule can be applied.

But if value fluctuate on R.H.S. then L.H. rule can't

be applied.

If it is applied continuously then at each step 0/0 or

∞/∞ should be checked.

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| y |V

S F dy I

1. Geometrically f'(a) represents the slope of the tangent to 1

|| GH dx JK ||

2. If the tangent makes an angle ψ (say) with +ve x direction T (x , y )

1 1 W

then

FG dy IJ FG dy IJ

f'(x) = H dx K (x1 , y1)

= tan ψ = slope of the tangent. y intercept = y1 x1 H dx K (x , y )

1 1

8. Length of perpendicular from origin to the tangent :

FG dy IJ

⇒ H dx K (x1 , y1)

= 0.

FG dy IJ

4. If the tangent is perpendicular to x-axis, ψ =

π

y1 − x1

H dx K (x1 ,y1 )

2

= F dy I

1+G J

2

FG dy IJ H dx K (x1 , y1 )

⇒ H dx K (x1 , y1)

→ ∞

5. If the tangent line makes equal angle with the axes, then 1

9. Slope of the normal =

Slope of the tan gent

FG dy IJ

H dx K (x1 , y1)

= ± 1.

FG dx IJ

6. Equation of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at a point

= H dy K (x 1 , y 1 )

(x1, y1) is

10. If normal makes an angle of φ with +ve direction of x-axis,

FG dy IJ

y y1 = H dx K (x1 , y1)

(x x1)

then

dy

= cot φ .

dx

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11. If the normal is parallel to x-axis ⇒ H dx K (x1 , y1)

= 0.

FG dy IJ − FG dy IJ

FG dy IJ H dx K H dx K FG dy IJ

12. If the normal is perpendicular to x-axis ⇒ H dx K = 0.

tanθ = ±

F dy I F dy I

1−G J G J

1 2

where H dx K 1

is the slope of first

(x1 , y1) H dx K H dx K

1 2

equal intercept then H dx K = ± 1. curve & H dx K 2

(x1, y1) is F dy I F dy I

nally then GH dx JK GH dx JK = 1

1 2

1

y y1 =

FG dy IJ (x x1)

H dx K (x1 , y1 )

18. Length of tangent, normal, subtangent & subnormal :

FG dy IJ

y 1+

H dx K

x intercept = x1 + y1 H dx K (x1 ,y1 )

Length of tangent = dy

dx

FG dx IJ

y intercept = y1 + x1 H dy K (x1 ,y1 )

FG dy IJ 2

Length of normal = y 1+

H dx K

F dy I

+y G J

Length of sub-tangent =

y

x1

H dx K

1

(x1 ,y1 )

dy / dx

=

F dy I

1+G J

2

dy

H dx K Length of sub-normal = y

dx

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1. A function is said to be monotonic function in a domain if it is (a) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is

either monotonic increasing or monotonic decreasing in that maximum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) < 0.

domain

(b) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is

minimum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) > 0.

2. At a point function f(x) is monotonic increasing if f'(a) > 0

At a point function f(x) is monotonic decreasing if f'(a) < 0 6. Working rule for finding local maxima & Local Minima :

(i) Find the differential coefficient of f(x) w.r.to x, i.e.

3. In an interval [a, b], a function f(x) is f'(x) and equate it to zero.

Monotonic increasing if f'(x) ≥ 0 (ii) Solve the equation f'(x) = 0 and let its real roots

(critical points) be a, b, c ......

Monotonic decreasing if f'(x) ≤ 0

(iii) Now differentiate f'(x) w.r.to x and substitute the

constant if f'(x) = 0 ∀ x ∈ (a, b) critical points in it and get the sign of f"(x) for each

Strictly increasing if f'(x) > 0 critical point.

Strictly decreasing if f'(x) < 0 (iv) If f"(a) < 0, then the value of f(x) is maximum at

x = 0 and if f"(a) > 0, then the value of f(x) is

4. Maximum & Minimum Points : minimum at x = a. Similarly by getting the sign of f"(x)

for other critical points (b, c, ......) we can find the

Maxima : A function f(x) is said to be maximum at x =

points of maxima and minima.

a, if there exists a very small +ve number h, such that

f(x) < f(a), ∀ x ∈ (a h, a + h), x ≠ a.

7. Absolute (Greatest and Least) values of a function in

Minima : A function f(x) is said to be minimum at x = b, a given interval :

if there exists a very small +ve number h, such that (i) A minimum value of a function f(x) in an interval [a,

f(x) > f(b), ∀ x ∈ (b h, b + h), x ≠ b. b] is not necessarily its greatest value in that interval.

Similarly a minimum value may not be the least value

Remark :

of the function.

(a) The maximum & minimum points are also known as

(ii) If a function f(x) is defined in an interval [a, b], then

extreme points.

greatest or least values of this function occurs either

(b) A function may have more than one maximum & at x = a or x = b or at those values of x for which

minimum points. f'(x) = 0.

Thus greatest value of f(x) in interval [a, b]

5. Conditions for Maxima & Minima of a function : = max [f(a), f(b), f(c), f(d)]

(i) Necessary condition : A point x = a is an extreme Least value of f(x) in interval [a, b]

point of a function f(x) if f'(a) = 0, provided f'(a) = min. [f(a), f(b), f(c), f(d)]

exists. Where x = c, x = d are those points for which f'(x) = 0.

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

In Usual Notations Results 1. Rolle's Theorem : If f(x) is such that

(a) It is continuous on [a, b]

3 (b) It is differentiable on (a, b) and

Area of equilateral (side)2.

4 (c) f(a) = f(b), then there exists at least one point

and its perimeter 3 (side) c ∈ (a, b) such that f'(c) = 0.

Area of square (side)2 2. Mean value theorem [Lagrange's theorem] :

Perimeter 4(side) (i) If f(x) is such that

(a) It is continuous on [a, b]

Area of rectangle l × b

(b) It is differentiable on (a, b), then

Perimeter 2(l × b)

there exists at least one c ∈ (a, b) such that

1 f(b) − f(a)

Area of trapezium (sum of parallel sides)

2 = f'(c)

b−a

× (distance between them) (ii) If for c in lagrange's theorem (a < c < b) we can say

Area of circle πr2 that c = a + θ h where 0 < θ < 1 and h = b a

Perimeter 2πr the theorem can be written as

f(a + h) = f(a) + h f'(a + θ h), 0 < θ < 1, h = b a

4 3

Volume of sphere πr

3

Surface area of sphere 4πr2

1 2

Volume of cone πr h

3

Surface area of cone πrl

Volume of cylinder πr2h

Curved surface area 2πrh

Total surface area 2πr(h + r)

Volume of cuboid l × b × h

Surface area of cuboid 2(lb + bh + hl)

Area of four walls 2(l × b) h

Volume of cube l3

Surface area of cube 6l2

Area of four walls of cube 4l2

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

Function Integration

INDEFINITE INTEGRATION

z cos x

zch

dx sin x + c

1. (i) If

d

dx

F(x) = f(x), then f x dx = F(x) + c

z sec2 x dx tan x + c

z cos ec2x dx cot x + c

integrand, c is any real no. (integrating constant)

z

zch

sec x tan x dx sec x + c

z

d

(ii) f x dx = f(x) cos ec x cot xdx cosec x + c

dx

z

tanx dx log|cos x| + c = log|sec x| + c

z

cot x dx log|sin x| + c = log|cosec x| + c

FG π + x IJ +c

(v) z ch ch

(f x ± g x ) dx = zch zch

f x dx ± g x dx

sec x dx log|sec x + tan x|+c = log tan

H 4 2K

2. FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE :

z cos ec x dx

x

log|cosec x cot x|+c = log tan +c

2

Function Integration

z dx

sin1 x + c = cos1x + c

z

n+1

n x 1 − x2

x dx + c, n ≠ 1

n+1

c h z dx x x

zc

n+1 sin1 + c = cos1 + c

ax + b dx h n 1 ax + b

a

.

n+1

+ c, n ≠ 1

2

a −x 2 a a

z 1

dx log|x| + c

z 1 + x2

dx

tan1x + c = cot1x + c

x

z 1

ax + b

dx

1

a

(log|ax + b|) + c z a2 + x2

dx 1

a

tan1

x

a

+ c =

−1

a

x

cot1 a + c

z ex dx ex + c

z |x| x2 − 1

dx

sec1x + c = cosec1x + c

z ax dx

ax

loge a

+ c

z dx 1

sec1

x

+ c =

−1 x

cosec1 a + c

z sinx dx cos x + c

|x| x2 − a2 a a a

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

z ch

f x dx is changed

Function

a −x , 2 2

1

, a2 x 2

Substitution

x = a sin θ or a cos θ

a2 − x2

into F(t) which is some standard integral. Some following

1

suggestions will prove useful.

x2 + a2 , x + a2

2 , x2 + a2 x = a tanθ or x = a sinhθ

x −a , 2 2 , x 2 a2 x = a sec θ

zc h

x2 − a2

1 or x = a cosh θ

f ax + b dx ax + b = t F(ax + b) + c

a

x a+ x

, ,

zch ch

a+ x x

f x f' x dx f(x) = t

dfcxhi 2

+c 1

2

c

x a+ x . x a+ x h c h x = a tan2 θ

z d c hi c h

fφx φ x dx φ(x) = t z ch

f t dt x

a− x

,

a− x

x

,

z cc hh f' x

f x

dx f(x) = t log|f(x)| + c

x a−x , c h c

1

x a− x h x = a sin2 θ

x x−a

z d c hi c h

, ,

f x

n

f' x dx f(x) = t

cf(x)h n+1

+ c, n ≠ 1

x−a x

n+1

x x−a , c h c

x a− x

1

h

x = a sec2 θ

z cc hh f' x

fx

dx f(x) = t 2[f(x)]1/2 + c a− x

a+ x

,

a+x

a−x

x = a cos 2θ

x−α

β−x

, cx − αh cβ − xh ,(β > α) x = α cos2 θ + β sin2 θ

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

IMPORTANT RESULTS USING STANDARD SUBSTITUTIONS : INTEGRATION OF FUNCTIONS USING ABOVE STANDARD

RESULTS :

Function Integration

Function Method

z x −a 2

1

2

1

2a

log

x−a

x+a

+ c

z 2

1

dx or Express : ax2 + bx + c =

ax + bx + c

−1 x

LMF OP

z

= coth1 a + c when x > a

a

IJ 2

MNGH

1 b 4ac − b2

dx or a x+

K +

PQ

z

2a 2

1 1 a+ x ax2 + bx + c 4a

dx log + c

a −x2 2

2a a− x

1 x

= tanh1 a + c, when x < a

z (ax2 + bx + c) dx then use appropriate formula

a

z x −a

dx

2 2

log{|x + x − a |} + c

2 2

z 2

px + q

ax + bx + c

dx or Express : px + q

= cosh1

FG x IJ + c

H aK z px + q

ax2 + bx + c

dx or = λ

d

dx

(ax2 + bx + c) + µ

z x +a

dx

2 2

log{|x + x2 + a2 |} + c

z (px + q) (ax2 + bx + c) dx evaluate λ & µ by equat

FG IJ

x constant, the integral reduces to

= sinh1

H K

a

+ c

known form

FG x IJ + c z ax P(x)

z a − x dx

2 2

1

2

x a2 − x2 +

1 2

2

a sin1

H aK 2

+ bx + c

dx , Apply division rule and express it

ch

R x

z x − a dx

2 2

1

2

1

x x2 − a2 a2 log {|x +

2

2 2

x − a |} + c

where P(x) is a in form Q(x) + 2

ax + bx + c

z x2 + a2 dx

1

2

1

x x2 + a2 + a2 log {|x +

2

x2 + a2 |} + c 2 or more form

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

z 1

a sin x + b cos2 x + c

2

dx Divide numerator & denominator

z x2

x + kx 2 + a 4

4

dx Divide numerator & denominator

by cos x,

2

zc

by 2 and then add & sub. a2.

1 Thus the form reduces as above.

dx

or

h

2 then put tanx = t & solve.

z

a sin x + b cos x

dx

z

Divide num & deno. by 2a2 and

2 tan x / 2 x + kx2 + a2

4

dx

dx Replace sin x = , then add & sub x2. Thus the form

a sin x + b cos x + c 1 + tan2 x / 2

reduces to the known form.

1 − tan2 x / 2

cos x =

1 + tan2 x / 2 4. INTEGRATION BY PARTS :

then put tan x/2 = t and when integrand involves more than one type of functions

replace 1 + tan2 x/2 = sec2 x/2 the formula of integration by parts is used to integrate the

z

product of the functions i.e.

a sin x + b cos x

z z z LMN FHz

dx Express : num. = λ(deno.) +

c sin x + d cos x du

υ dx IK OP dx

µ

d

(deno.) Evaluate λ & µ. Thus

(i) u. υ dx = u. υ dx

dx Q

zc

dx

integral reduces to known form. or h c

1st fun. . 2nd fun. dx h

z a sin x + b cos x + c

dx

Express : Num. = λ(deno.) +

p sin x + q cos x + r

µ

d

(deno.) + ν Evaluate λ, µ, ν.

= (1st fun) z 2nd fun. dx

d

dx

1st fun.

K Q

dx

Thus integral reduces to known (ii) Rule to choose the first function : first fun. should

form. be choosen in the following order of preference (ILATE).

z

[The fun. on the left is normally chosen as first

x 2 ± a2

dx Divide numerator & denominator function]

x 4 + kx 2 + a 4

I Inverse trigonometric function

Fx ± a I 2

L Logarithmic function

A Algebraic function

integral becomes one of standard T Trigonometric function

forms. E Exponential function

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

(iii) (a) z ch ch

ex f x + f' x dx = ex f(x) + c

5. INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS

USING PARTIAL FRACTION :

c h,

z

Px

ch ch Qcxh

mx Every Rational fun. may be represented in the form

(b) e mf x + f' x dx = e mx

f(x) + c

where P(x), Q(x) are polynomials.

z

If degree of numerator is less than that of denominator,

LM f' cxh OP dx ch

MN c h m PQ

emx f x the rational fun. is said to be proper other wise it is

(c) emx f x + = + c. improper. If deg (num.) ≥ deg(deno.) apply division rule

m

ch

f x c h , for integrating rcxh , resolve the

r x

i.e. = q(x) +

(iv) ch ch

xf' x + f x dx = x f(x) + c.

fraction into partial factors. The following table illustrate

the method.

NOTE : Breaking (iii) & (iv) integral into two integrals.

Integrate one integral by parts and keeping other integral Types of proper Types of partial

as it is by doing so we get the result (integral). rational functions fractions

px + q A B

c hc h

z z

x−a x−b , a ≠ b x−a

+

x −b

(v) eax sinbx dx and c

eax sin bx + c dx h px2 + qx + r A B C

c x−a x−b x−c hc ,

hc h x−a

+

x −b

+

x−c

e ax

= (a sin bx b cos bx) + k and a, b, c are distinct

a2 + b2

px2 + qx + r A B C

e ax cx − ah cx − bh , a

2 ≠ b

x−a

+

cx − ah 2

+

x−b

2 2 [a sin (bx + c) b cos(bx + c)] + k1

a +b

px2 + qx + r Bx + C

A

c he

x − a x2 + bx + c , where j + 2

z z

x−a x + bx + c

(vi) e ax

cos bx dx and ax

e c

cos bx + c dx h x2 + bx + c can

not be factorised

=

e ax

cacos bx + b sinbxh + k

px3 + qx2 + rx + s Ax + B Cx + D

2

a +b 2

ex 2

je

+ ax + b x2 + cx + d , j 2

x + ax + b

+ 2

x + cx + d

where x + ax + b, 2

and

eax

a2 + b2

c h

a cos bx + c + b sin bx + c c h + k1. x2 + cx + d can not

be factorised

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

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(i) If integrand is a function of x & (ax + b)1/n then put (viii) To evaluate z dx

quad. quad

or z linear

quad. quad

dx

(ax + b) = tn

and if the quadratic not under the square root can

(ii) If integrand is a function of x, (ax + b)1/n and be resolved into real linear factors, then resolve

(ax + b)1/m then put (ax + b) = tp

1 FG linear IJ

where p = (L.C.M. of m & n). quadratic

or

H quadratic K into partial fractions and

z

split the integral into two, each of which is of the

dx

(iii) To evaluate

linear linear

put linear = t

form : z dx

linear quad.

dx

put linear = t2

7. INTEGRATION USING TRIGONOMETRICAL IDENTITIES :

(A) To evaluate trigonometric functions transform the

(v) To evaluate z dx

linear. quadratic

put linear = 1/t

function into standard integrals using trigonometric

identities as

1 − cos 2 mx

(i) sin2 mx =

or zc h 2

linear . quadratic

dx 2

1 + cos 2mx

(ii) cos2 mx =

2

or zc h

x dx

2

linear . quadratic (iii) sin mx = 2sin

mx

2

cos

mx

2

(vi) To evaluate z dx

pure quad. pure quad

put

(iv) sin3 mx =

4

(v) cos3 mx =

pure quad = t 4

(vi) tan2 mx = sec2 mx 1

(vii) To evaluate z dx

pure quad. pure quad

put x =

1

t

and

(vii)

(viii)

cot2 mx

2 cos A

= cosec2 mx 1

cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A B)

(ix) 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A B)

then is the resulting integral, put pure quad = u (x) 2 sin A sin B = cos (A B) cos (A + B)

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

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(B) z

(i)

sinm x cosm xdx .

secn−2 x tan x

+

n−2

I

n−1 n − 1 n2

(ii) if m is even put sin x = t

(iii)

(iv)

if m & n both odd put sin x or cos x as t

if m & n both even use the formula of sin2x & cos2x z cos ecnx dx

cos ecn−2 x cot x

n−1

+

n−2

I

n − 1 n2

z c h

m+n−2

(v) if m & n rational no. & is ve integer cosn−1 x sinm+1 x + n − 1 Im, n−2

2 sinm x cosn x dx

put tan x = t cm + nh

sinm1x cosn+1x + (m 1) Im2,n

8. INTEGRATION BY SUCCESSIVE REDUCTION (REDUCTION

FORMULA) :

Function Integration

z

NOTE : These formulae are specifically useful when m & n

1 n ax n are both even nos.

xneaxdx , n ∈ N x e I

a a n1

z sinn x dx

sinn−1 cos x

n

+

n−1

n

In2

z cosn x dx

cosn−1 x sin x

n

+

n−1

n

In2

z tann x dx ctanxh

n−1

n−1

In2

z cotn x dx

ccot xh

n−1

n−1

In2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

z zch

DEFINITE INTEGRATION b

ch

a

II. f x dx = f x dx

a b

1. Definite Integration :

If z ch

f x dx = F(x) + c, then III. z

b

a

ch

f x dx = zch

c

a

f x dx + zch

b

c

f x dx where a < c < b

zb

a

ch

f x dx = F x + c ch b

a

= F(b) F(a) is called definite integral

This property is mainly used for modulus function,

greatest integer function & breakable function

zch zc zch zc

a a a a

of f(x) w.r.t. x from x = a to x = b Here a is called lower

limit and b is called upper limit.

IV. f x dx = h

f a + b − x dx or f x dx = h

f a − x dx

b b 0 0

Remarks :

z z ch

* To evaluate definite integral of f(x). First obtain the a a

f x dx = c h

f x + f −x dx

−a

and lower limit. 0

R|2 f x dx

S| z c h

following rule. a

=

ch

, if f x is an even function

0

T 0

b b

b du

a

uv dx =

a

a

dx K

. v. dx dx

R|

zch z

a

* When we use method of substitution. We note that

S|2 fcxh dx c h ch

2a

, if f 2a − x = f x

while changing the independent variable in a definite VI. f x dx =

|T 0 , if f c2a − xh = − f cxh

0

integral, the limits of integration must also we changed 0

accordingly.

VII. If f(x) is a periodic function with period T, Then

PROPERTIES OF DEFINITE INTEGRAL :

I. zch

b

f x dx = z

b

ch

f t dt

zch

nT

0

f x dx = n f x dx zch

T

a a

and further if a ∈ R+, then

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

(ii) If the function φ(x) and ψ(x) are defined on [a, b]

zch

a+nT a nT T

and differentiable at a point x ∈ (a, b), and f(x, t)

f x dx = f x dx , f x dx = (n m) f x dx ,

is continuous, then,

nT 0 mT 0

LM OP

z z RSdψ (x) UV f(x,

ψ (x) ψ (x)

zch zch

d

MN PQ =

b +nT f (x, t) dt +

T dx W

b f (x, t) dt

f x dx = f x dx dx

φ(x) φ(x)

a+ nT a

RSdφ(x) UV f(x,

VIII. If m and M are the smallest and greatest values of

ψ(x))

T dx W φ(x)).

3. Reduction Formulae :

zch

b

z z

m(b a) < f x dx < M(b a) π /2 π /2

a (i) cosn x dx = sinn x dx

a 0

z z ch

b b

IX. ch

f x dx < |f x dx| R| n − 1 . n − 3 ..... 2 .1, if n is odd

a a

= S|n −n1 nn−−32 13 π

|T n . n − 2 ...... 2 . 2 , if n is even

z zch

b b

f x dx ≤ g x dx

z

π /2

a a

(ii) For integration sinm x cosn x dx follow the following

2. Differentiation Under Integral Sign : 0

(i) If f(x) is continuous and u(x), v(x) are differentiable (a) If m is odd put cos x = t

z

v(x)

(b) If n is odd put sin x = t

d (c) If m and n are even use sin2x = 1 cos2x

functions in the interval [a, b], then, f(t) dt =

dx or cos2x = 1 sin2x and then use

u(x)

z z

π /2 π /2

d d

f{v(x)} {v(x)} f{u(x)} {u(x)}.

n

sin x dx or cosn x dx

dx dx

0 0

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

z

∞ 4. Summation of series by Definite integral or limit as a

a

(iii) e − ax

cos bx dx = sum :

a2 + b2

zch

0

b

lim h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) +.....

f x dx = h→0

z

(i)

∞

b a

(iv) e−ax sinbx dx =

a + b2

2

0 +f(a + (n 1)h]

where nh = b a.

z

∞

n!

FI

zch

(v) e −ax xndx = n 1

∑ GH JK

n

a +1 1 r

0 (ii) lim f = f x dx

n→∞ n r =1 n

0

z

π /2

(vi)

0

sinn x cosm x dx

[i.e. exp. the given series in the form

FrI

∑ n f GH nJK

1

OP r 1

replace by x and by dx and the limit of the

MM m + n m + n − 2 3 + n 1 + n PP n n

= MM mm +− 1n. mm+ n− 3− 2.... 2 1+ n. n n− 1. nn −− 32 .... 23 ; if m is enen and n is odd PP

zch

MMm − 1. m − 3 .... 1 . n − 1. n − 3.... 1 . π ; if m is even and n is even

PP 1

Nm + n m + n − 2 2 + n n n − 2 2 2 Q sum is f x dx ]

0

These formulae can be expressed as a single formula :

z

π /2

5. Key Results :

sinm x cos n x dx

z z

0 π /2 π /2

−π

* logsin x dx = logcos x dx = log2

2

[(m − 1) (m − 3)....] [(n − 1) (n − 3) .....] 0 0

=

(m − n) (m + n − 2) ....

z c h

zc c h

π /2 π /2

f sin x f cos x

π

to be multiplied by

2

when m and n are both even * f csin xh + fccos xh dx = h c h

f sin x + f cos x dx

0 0

integers.

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

z c h

z c h dx ze 1

π /2 a

π /2 x dx

f tan x f sec x * dx = .

=

0 c h c

f tan x + f cot x h dx =

0

f csec xh + f ccos ecxh 0 a2 + x2 j

3/2 2a2

c h dx

zc c h

z z

π /2

f cos ec x f cot x a

πa4

=

f cos ec x + f sec x h c h dx=

0

fctan xh + fccot xh = π/4. * x2 a2 − x2 dx =

16

0

z z z FG IJ

π /2 π /2

a π 2

a2 − x2

*

0

sinmx sin nx dx =

0

cos mx . cos nx dx

* x2

a+ x

−

dx = a3 4 3 H K if a > 0

0

R|0

z

if m, n are different + ve int egers

S| π

2a

= πa2

* 2ax − x2 dx =

T2 if m = n

0

2

* z

a

0

a2 − x2 dx =

π 2

4

a * If n ∈ N, then

ze

a

0

a2 − x2 j

n 2. 4. 6...... 2n

c

c h

dx = 3.5 . 7..... 2n + 1 a

2n+1

h

z

* If a < b then

a

1 π

z

* dx =

a2 − x2 2 b

dx

0

(i) =π

a

x−a b−x

z

a

x

z

* dx = a

0 a − x2

2

(ii)

a

x−a

dx =

π b−a c h

a+x 2

0

z

a 2 2

x 2 πa 3a

+

zc

* dx =

6 8 a

0 a2 − x2

(iii) hc h

x − a b − x dx = π b − a 2

2

c h

0

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

z

b

* If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] then there exists a

zch

dx π

2

cx − ahcb − xh

b

(iv) = ab > 0

a x ab point c ∈ (a, b) s.t f x dx = f(c) [b a]. The no.

a

* If a > 0 then

(i) z

a

a+x

a−x

dx =

a

2

π +2 c h

f(c) =

1

b−a zch

b

f x dx is called the mean value of the

a

0 fun. f(x) on the interval [a, b]. The above result is

called the first mean value theorem for integrals.

z zd

a

a− x

c h

a 2k

(ii)

0

a + x dx = 2

π −2 * i

x − x dx = k, where k ∈ I,

0

z

a

Q x [x] is a periodic function with period 1.

a+ x 10 a a * If f(x) is a periodic fun. with period T, then

(iii) dx =

a− x

zch

0 3

a+ T

f x dx is independent of a.

(iv) z

a

a+ x

a − x dx =

FG π + 1IJ a

H2 K

a

z c

0 π /4

* If a > 0, n ∈ N, then

* h

log 1 + tan x dx =

π

8

log2

0

z

∞

π

(i) x e −ax dx = a > 0

0

2a a

z

∞

2 2 π

(ii) e −r x

dx = (r > 0)

0

2r

z

∞

e−ax − e −bx

(iii) dx = loge(b/a) (a, b > 0)

x

0

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

dy

1. Order of a differential equation : The order of a differential the form = f(x) g(y)

dx

equation is the order of the highest derivative occurring in

This can be integrated as

it.

g(y)

= z f(x) dx + c

differential equation is the degree of the highest order (C) Homogeneous Equations : It is a differential equation

derivative occurring in it when the derivatives are made

free from the radical sign. dy f(x, y)

of the form = , where f(x, y) and g(x,

dx g(x, y)

d2 y dy y) are homogeneous functions of x and y of the same

Eg. (i) 2 + + 5y = 0

dx dx degree. A function f(x, y) is said to be homogeneous

y FG IJ FG IJ

x

dy F dy I

1+G J

2

of degree n if it can be written as xn f x H K H K

or yn f y .

(ii) y = x

dx

+

H dx K Such an equation can be solved by putting y = vx or

x = vy. After substituting y = vx or x = vy. The given

F d yI

3

2

FG1 + dy IJ 2 equation will have variables separable in v and x.

(iii) GH dx JK 3 +

H dx K + 5y = 0

(D) Equations Reducible to Homogeneous form and

variable separable form

order of (i) 2 (ii) 1 & (iii) 3,

dy ax + by + c

degree of (i) 1 (ii) 2 & (iii) 2 * Form = ........... (1)

dx Ax + By + C

3. SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST a b

ORDER AND FIRST DEGREE : where ≠

A B

dy This is non Homogeneous

(A) Differential equation of the form = f(x) or

dx Put x = X + h and y = Y + k in (1)

dy dy dY

= f(y) ∴ = Put ah + bk + c = 0, Ah + Bk + C = 0,

dx dx dX

find h, k

Integrate both sides i.e. z dy = z f(x) dx

Then

dY

dX

=

aX + bY

AX + BY

. This is homogeneous.

or z dy

f(y)

= z dx to get its solution.

Solve it and then put X = x h, Y = y k we shall

get the solution.

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

dy ax + by + c dx

* Form = ..... (1), * In x : + Rx = S, where R, S are functions of y

dx Ax + By + C dy

a b alone or constant.

where = = k say

A B

∴

dy

=

k (Ax + By) + c

its solution x e z R dy

= z S. e

z R.dy

dy + c

dx Ax + By + C

dy dz

where

e

z R.dy is called the integrating factor (I.F.) of

Put Ax + By = z ⇒ A + B =

dx dx the equation.

dz kz + c

⇒ = A + B

dx z+c (F) Equation reducible to linear form :

This is variable separable form and can be solved.

dy

dy * Differential equation of the form + Py = Qyn

* Form = f(ax + by + c) dx

dx

where P and Q are functions of x or constant is called

dy dz Bernoulli's equation. On dividing through out by yn, we

Put ax + by = z ⇒ a + b =

dx dx get

dz dy

∴ = a + b f(z) yn + pyn + 1

= Q

dx dx

This is variable separable form and can be solved.

Put yn + 1

= z

(E) Linear equation : ⇒ The given equation will be linear in z and can be

solved in the usual manner.

dy Note : In general solution of differential equation we can

* In y : + Py = Q, where P, Q are function of x

dx take integrating constant c as tan1 c, ec, log c etc.

alone or constant. according to our convenience.

its solution ye

z P dx

= z Qe

z P dx

dx + c

where

e

z P dx is called the integrating factor (I.F.) of

the equation.

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

4. Vectors in terms of position vectors of end points -

VECTORS

AB = OB OA = Position vector of B position vector of A

i.e. any vector = p.v. of terminal pt p.v. of initial pt.

1. Types of vectors :

(a) Zero or null vector : A vector whose magnitude is

zero is called zero or null vector. 5. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar :

r r

r If a is a vector and m is a scalar, then m a is a vector and

a Vector a r

(b) Unit vector : a$ = | | = magnitude of m a = m|a|

a Magnitude of a

r $

(c) Equal vector : Two vectors a and b are said to be and if a = a1 $i + a2 j + a3 k$

equal if |a| = |b| and they have the same direction. r $

then m a = (ma1) $i + (ma2) j + (ma3) k$

Distance between points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2)

c = a + b

C →

= Magnitude of AB

b

a + = (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1)2 + (z2 − z1 )2

c =

b

r

A

a B (i) If A( a ) & B( b ) be two distinct pts, the p.v. c of the

point C dividing [AB] in ratio m1 : m2 is given by

3. Parallelogram law of addition : OA + OB = OC

r r

r m1b + m2a

c = m +m

a + b = c 1 2

B

C 1

(ii) p.v. of the mid point of [AB] is [p.v. of A + p.v. of B]

2

b

(iii) If point C divides AB in the ratio m1 : m2 externally,

m1 b − m2 a

D A then p.v. of C is c =

a m1 − m2

where OC is a diagonal of the parallelogram OABC

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

(iv) p.v. of centriod of triangle formed by the points A( a ),

(i) If a , b , c be three non coplanar non zero vector

r r a+b+c

B( b ) and C ( c ) is then x a + y b + z c = 0

3

(v) p.v. of the incentre of the triangle formed by the points ⇒ x = 0, y = 0, z = 0

r r r

A( α ), B( β ) and C( γ ) is (ii) If a , b , c be three coplanar vectors, then a vector

c can be expressed uniquely as linear combination of

aα + bβ + cγ remaining two vectors i.e. c = λ a + µ b

where a = |BC|, b = |CA|, c = |AB|

a+b+c

(iii) Any vector r can be expressed uniquely as inner com-

bination of three non coplanar & non zero vectors a ,

8. Some results :

b and c i.e. r = x a + y b + z c

(i) If D, E, F are the mid points of sides BC, CA & AB

respectively, then AD + BE + CF = 0 11. Products of vectors :

(ii) If G is the centriod of ∆ABC, then GA + GB + GC = 0 (I) Scalar or dot product of two vectors :

H is orthocentre of ∆ABC. (ii) Projection of a in the direction of b =

| b|

(iv) If H is orthocentre of ∆ABC, then

a. b

HA + HB + HC = 3 HG = OH & Projection of b in the direction of a =

| a|

(i) Three points A, B and C are collinear if AB = λ AC for

(iii) Component of r on a =

|a|2 H Ka

some non zero scalar λ.

F r. a IJ

to a = r G

(ii) The necessary and sufficient condition for three points Component of r ⊥

H|a| K a 2

three scalars l, m, n all non zero such that (iv) $i . $i = $j . $j = k$ . k$ = 1

l a + m b + n c = 0, l + m + n = 0 $i . $j = $j . k$ = k$ . $i = 0

(v)

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

$j $

(viii) ( a . b ). b is not defined × k$ = $i , k$ × $i = j

(ix) ( a ± b )2 = a2 ± 2 a . b + b2 (x) Area of triangle :

(x) | a + b | = | a| + | b | ⇒ a || b 1

(a) AB × AC

2

(xi) | a + b |2 = |a|2 + |b|2 ⇒ a ⊥ b

(b) If a , b , c are p.v. of vertices of ∆ABC,

(xii) | a + b | = | a b | ⇒ a ⊥ b

(xiii) work done by the force : 1

then = |( a × b ) + ( b × c ) + ( c × a )|

2

work done = F . d , where F is force vector and d

(xi) Area of parallelogram :

is displacement vector.

(a) If a & b are two adjacent sides of a parallelo-

(II) Vector or cross product of two vectors : gram, then area = | a × b |

(i) a × b = |a| |b| sinθ n$ (b) If a and b are two diagonals of a parallelogram,

(ii) if a , b are parallel ⇔ a × b = 0 1

then area = |a × b |

(iii) 2

a × b = ( b × a )

(xii) Moment of Force :

a×b Moment of the force F acting at a point A about O is

(iv) n$ = ±

| a × b| Moment of force = OA × F = r × F

$ $

(v) let a = a1 $i + a2 j + a3 k$ & b = b1 $i + b2 j + b3 k$ , then a. a a. b

(xiii) Lagrange's identity : | a × b |2 =

a. b b. b

$i $j k$

a a2 a3 (III) Scalar triple product :

a × b = 1

b1 b2 b3 r r

(i) If a = a1 $i + a2 $j + a3 k$ , b = b1 $i + b2 $j + b3 k$ and

r

(vi) a × a =0 c = c1 $i + c2 $j + c3 k$ then

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

r r r r r

(d) If a , b , c are coplanar, then so are a × b,

a1 a2 a3 r r r r

r r r r r r b1 b2 b3 b × c , c × a and

( a × b ). c = [ a b c ] = r r r r r r r r r r

c1 c 2 c 3 a + b , b + c , c + a and a b , b c,

r r

r r r c a are also coplanar.

and [ a b c ] = volume of the parallelopiped whose

r r r (IV) Vector triple Product :

coterminus edges are formed by a , b , c

r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r

(ii) [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ], If a , b , c be any three vectors, then ( a × b ) × c

r r r

r r r r r r r r r and a × ( b × c ) are known as vector triple product

but [ a b c ] = [ b a c ] = [ a c b ] etc.

and is defined as

r r r r r r

(iii) [ a b c ] = 0 if any two of the three vectors a , b , r r r r r r r r

r ( a × b ) × c = ( a . c ) b (b . c ) a

c are collinear or equal. r r r r r r r r r

r r r r r r and a × ( b × c ) = ( a . c ) b ( a . b ) c

(iv) ( a × b ). c = a .( b × c ) etc. r r r r r r

Clearly in general a × ( b × c ) ≠ ( a × b ) × c but

(v) [ $i $j k$ ] = 1 r r r r r r r r

( a × b ) × c = a × ( b × c ) if and only if a , b

r r r r r r r

(vi) If λ is a scalar, then [λ a b c ] = λ[ a b c ] & c are collinear

r r r r r r r r r r

(vii) [ a + d b c ] = [ a b c ] + [ d b c ]

12. Application of Vector in Geometry :

r r r r r r

(viii) a , b , c are coplanar ⇔ [ a b c ] = 0

r a b c

1 → → (i) Direction cosines of r = ai$ + bj$ + ck$ are r , r , r .

→ |r | |r | |r |

(ix) Volume of tetrahedron ABCD is | AB × AC . AD |

6

(ii) Incentre formula : The position vector of the incentre

r r r r r

(x) Four points with p.v. a , b , c , d will be coplanar if r r

aa + bb + cc

r r r r r r r r r r r r of ∆ ABC is .

[d b c ] + [d c a] + [d a b] = [a b c ] a+b+c

(xi) Four points A, B, C, D are coplanar if (iii) Orthocentre formula : The position vector of the

→ → → r r r

[ AB AC AD ] = 0 a tan A + b tan B + c tan C

orthocentre of ∆ ABC is

r r r r r r r r r tan A + tan B + tan C

(xii) (a) [ a + b b + c c + a ] = 2[ a b c ]

r r (iv) Vector equation of a straight line passing through a

r r r r r

(b) [ a b b c c a] = 0 fixed point with position vector a and parallel to a

r r r r r r r r r r r r r

(c) [ a × b b × c c × a ] = [ a b c ]2 given vector b is r = a + λb .

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(v) The vector equation of a line passing through two (viii) The equation of the plane passing through a point

r r r r

r having position vector a and parallel to b and c is

points with position vectors a and b is

r r r r rrr rrr

r r r r r = a + λb + µc or [ r bc ] = [ abc ], where λ and µ are

r =a+ λb−a . e j scalars.

(ix) Vector equation of a plane passing through a point

(vi) Shortest distance between two parallel lines : Let l1 r

rrr

and l2 be two lines whose equations are l 1 :

r r

r r

c

abc is r = 1 − s − t a + sbt + c

r

h

r r r r

r r r r r r r

r = a1 + λb1 and l2 : r = a2 + µb2 respectively.

e rrr

or r. b × c + c × a + a × b = [ abc ]. j

Then, shortest distance (x) The equation of any plane through the intersection

r r r r

cb h c

× b2 . a2 − a1 h= c

b1 b2 a2 − a1 h of planes r . n1 = d1 and r . n2 = d2 is

r r

c h

1

PQ = |b1 × b2 | |b1 × b2 | r . n1 + λn2 = d1 + λd2, where λ is an arbitrary

constant.

shortest distance between two parallel lines : The (xi) The perpendicular distance of a point having position

r r r r

r r vector a from the plane r.n = d is given by

shortest distance between the parallel lines r = a1 + λb r r

r |a.n − d|

r r r

and r = a2 + µb is given by d =

r r

| a2 − a1 × b|

r .

c h p= r

|n|

.

r r

|b| (xii) An angle θ between the planes r1.n1 = d1 and

r r r r r r r r n1 . n2

If the lines r = a1 + λb1 and r = a2 + µb2 intersect, r2 .n2 = d2 is given by cos θ = ± |n ||n | .

1 2

then the shortest distance between them is zero.

(xiii) The equation of the planes bisecting the angles

c

Therefore, [ b1 b2 a2 − a1 ] = 0 h r r

between the planes r1 .n1 = d1

r r r r

r r r r r |r.n1 − d1| |r.n2 − d2|

⇒ c

r

h

[ a2 − a1 b1b2 ] = 0 ⇒ car 2

r

h e

− a1 . b1 × b2 j = 0. r r

and r2 .n2 = d2 are r

|n1|

= r

|n2|

r r r r r

(vii) Vector equation of a plane normal to unit vector n and (xiv) The plane r .n = d touches the sphere | r − a | = R,

at a distance d from the origin is r r

|a.n − d|

r if r = R.

r . n$ = d. |n|

r (xv) If the position vectors of the extremities of a diam-

If n is not a unit vector, then to reduce the equation r

r r r

r eter of a sphere are a and b , then its equation is

r . n = d to normal form we divide both sides by | n |

r r r r r

r n

r

d r d

r r r r

e

( r − a ).( rr − b ) = 0 or | r |2 r. a − b + a.b = 0.j

to obtain r . r = r or r . n$ = r .

|n| |n| |n|

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FG x + x 2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y 3 z1 + z 2 + z3 IJ

H K

1

, ,

1. Points in Space : 3 3 3

(i) Origin is (0, 0, 0)

* Coordinates of centroid of a tetrahedron

(ii) Equation of x-axis is y = 0, z = 0

(iii) Equation of y-axis is z = 0, x = 0 FG x + x2 + x3 + x 4 y1 + y2 + y3 + y 4 z1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 IJ

H K

1

, ,

(iv) Equation of z-axis is x = 0, y = 0 4 4 4

(vi) Equation of ZOX plane is y = 0

* Area of triangle is given by ∆ = ∆2x + ∆2y + ∆2z

(vii) Equation of XOY plane is z = 0

2. Distance formula : y1 z1 1

1 y z2 1

(i) Distance between two points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, Where ∆x = 2 and so.

y2, z2) is given by 2 y z3 1

3

AB = (x 2 − x1 )2 + (y 2 − y1 )2 + (z 2 − z1 )2 x1 − x2 y1 − y2 z1 − z2

* Condition of collinearity x − x = y − y = z − z

(ii) Distance between origin (0, 0, 0) & point (x, y, z) 2 3 2 3 2 3

(iii) Distance of a point p(x, y, z) from coordinate axes x2 y2 z2 1

OX, OY, OZ is given by

1

* Volume of tetrahedron = x3 y3 z3 1

6

x4 y4 z4 1

y 2 + z2 , z2 + x2 and x2 + y2

The coordinates of a point which divides the join of (x1, * If α , β , γ are the angles which a directed line

y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) in the ratio m : n segment makes with the +ve direction of the coordinate

FG mx + nx my 2 + ny1 mz 2 + nz1 IJ axes, then l = cos α , m = cos β , n = cos γ are

H m+n K

2 1

* Internally are , ,

m+n m+n called direction cosines of the line and cos2 α + cos2

β + cos2 γ = 1 i.e. l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1, where 0 ≤

FG mx − nx my2 − ny1 mz − nz I

J α, β, γ ≤ π

H m−n m−n K

2 1 2 1

* Externally are , ,

m−n

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E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

c are proportional to l , m, n respectively, then a, b, x2 − x1 = y2 − y1 = z2 − z1

c are called direction ratios of the line and

* The angle θ between the lines whose d.c.'s are l 1,

1 m1, n1 and l 2, m2, n2 is given by

l m n l 2 + m2 + n2

= = =± =± . cos θ = l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2.

a b c a2 + b2 + c 2 a + b2 + c2

2

The lines are || if l2 = m2 = n2 and

cosines of y-axis and z-axis are respectively 0, 1, 0

and 0, 0, 1.

The lines are ⊥ if l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0

* If l , m, n are d.c.s of a line OP and (x, y, z) are

* The angle θ between the lines whose d.r.s are a1, b1,

coordinates of P then x = l r, y = mr and z = nr where

c1 and a2, b2, c2 is given by

r = OP.

* Direction cosines of PQ = r, where P is (x1, y1, z1) and a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2

Q(x2, y2, z2) are cos θ = ±

a12 + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c22

x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z 2 − z1

, ,

r r r a1 b1 c1

* If a, b, c are direction no. of a line, then The lines are || if a2 = b2 = c2 and

a2 + b2 + c2 need not to be equal to 1.

The lines are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0

* Length of the projection of PQ upon AB with d.c.,

Note : Direction cosines of a line are unique but the

direction ratios of line are not unique. l , m, n

If P(x1, y1, z1) & Q(x2, y2, z2) be two points and L be a = (x2 x1) l + (y2 y1)m + (z2 z1)n, where

line with d.c.'s l , m, n, then projection of [PQ] on p(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2).

L = l (x2 x1) + m(y2 y1) + n(z2 z1) * Two straight lines in space (not in same plane) which

are neither parallel nor intersecting are called skew

5. Straight line in space : lines.

* Equation of a straight line passing through a fixed * Shortest distance between two skew lines,

point and having d.r.'s a, b, c is x − x1 y − y1 z − z1

l1 = m1 = n1 and

x − x1 y − y1 z − z1

= = (is the symmetrical

a b c

form) x − x2 y − y2 z − z2

l2 = m2 = n2 is given

* Equation of a line passing through two points is

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510 PAGE # 181 , 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510 PAGE # 182

E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

l1 m1 n1 nz = p, where l , m, n are the d.c.'s of the normal

l2 m2 n2 to the plane and p is the length of perpendicular from

s.d. = ±

the origin.

(m1n2 − m2n1)2 + (n1 l2 − l1n2 )2 + (l1m2 − m1 l2 )2

* ax + by + cz + k = 0 represents a plane || to the

* Two straight lines are coplanar if they are intersecting plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 and ⊥ to the line

or parallel

x y z

= = .

x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 a b c

condition

l1 m1 n1 = 0 * Equation of plane through three non collinear points

l2 m2 n2 is

x y z 1

6. Plane : A plane is a surface such that if two points are

x1 y1 z1 1

taken in it, straight line joining them lies wholly in the

x2 y2 z2 1 = 0

surface.

x3 y3 z3 1

* Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 represents a plane whose

normal has d.c.s proportional to A, B, C.

* Equation of plane through origin is given by Ax + By x − x1 y − y1 z − z1

+ Cz = 0.

or x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 = 0

* Equation of plane passing through a point (x1, y1, z1) x3 − x1 y3 − y1 z3 − z1

is A(x x1) + B(y y1) + C(z z1) = 0, where A,

B, C are d.r.'s of a normal to the plane. * The angle between the two planes is given by

* Equation of plane through the intersection of two

planes a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2

cos θ = ±

P ≡ a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a12 + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c22

Q ≡ a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is P + λ Q = 0.

where θ is the angle between the normals.

* Equation of plane which cuts off intercepts a, b, c

plane are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0

respectively on the axes x, y and z is

x y z a1 b1 c1

+ + = 1. plane are || if a = b = c = 0.

a b c 2 2 2

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510 PAGE # 183 , 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510 PAGE # 184

E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

is || to the normal, so that its equation is If ax + by + cz + d = 0 represents a plane and

= = = r (say) = = represents a straight line, then

a b c l m n

* The line is ⊥ to the plane if = =

l m n

* Length of the ⊥ from P(x1, y1, z1) to a plane

* The line is || to the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0.

ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by

* The line lies in the plane if

ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d a l + bm + cn = 0 and ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0

p= * The angle θ between the line and the plane is given

a2 + b2 + c 2

by

* Distance between two parallel planes

al + bm + cn

(ax + by + cz + d1 = 0, ax + by + cz + d2 = 0) is sin θ =

a2 + b2 + c2 l2 + m2 + n2

d2 − d1

given by * General equation of the plane containing the line

a + b2 + c2

2

x − x1 y − y1 z − z1

= = is

* Two points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) lie on the l m n

same or different sides of the plane A(x x1) + B(y y1) + C(z z1) = 0. where

ax + by + cz + d = 0, according as the expression A l + Bm + Cn = 0.

ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d and ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d are of * Length of the perpendicular from a point (x1, y1, z1)

same or different sign.

x−α y−β z−γ

* Bisector of the angles between the planes to the line = = is given by

l m n

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0

p2 = (x1 α )2 + (y1 β )2 + (z1 γ )2 [ l (x1 α )

and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are

+ m(y1 β ) + n(z1 γ )]2

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 a2 x + b2 y + c2 z + d2

= ±

a12 + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c22

angle between the planes provided d1 and d2 are of

same sign.

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510 PAGE # 185 , 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510 PAGE # 186

E D U C A T I O N S E D U C A T I O N S

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