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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

QUADRATIC EQUATION & EXPRESSION 4. Conjugate roots :

1. Quadratic expression : Irrational roots and complex roots occur in conjugate pairs
i.e.
A polynomial of degree two of the form ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 is
called a quadratic expression in x. if one root α + iβ, then other root α – iβ

if one root α + β , then other root α – β


2. Quadratic equation :
An equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0, a, b, c ∈ R has two and
only two roots, given by 5. Sum of roots :

−b −Coefficient of x
−b + b2 − 4ac −b − b2 − 4ac S=α+β= =
α= and β= a Coefficient of x2
2a 2a
Product of roots :
3. Nature of roots :
Nature of the roots of the given equation depends upon the c cons tant term
nature of its discriminant D i.e. b2 – 4ac. P = αβ = =
a Coefficient of x2
Suppose a, b, c ∈ R, a ≠ 0 then
(i) If D > 0 ⇒ roots are real and distinct (unequal)
6. Formation of an equation with given roots :
(ii) If D = 0 ⇒ roots are real and equal (Coincident)
x2 – Sx + P = 0
(iii) If D < 0 ⇒ roots are imaginary and unequal i.e.
⇒ x2 – (Sum of roots) x + Product of roots = 0
non real complex numbers.
Suppose a, b, c ∈ Q a ≠ 0 then
7. Roots under particular cases :
(i) If D > 0 and D is a perfect square ⇒ roots are rational
For the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0
& unequal
(i) If b = 0 ⇒ roots are of equal magnitude but of opposite
(ii) If D > 0 and D is not a perfect square ⇒ roots are
sign.
irrational and unequal.
(ii) If c = 0 ⇒ one root is zero and other is –b/a
For a quadratic equation their will exist exactly 2 roots real
or imaginary. If the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is satisfied for (iii) If b = c = 0 ⇒ both roots are zero
more than 2 distinct values of x, then it will be an identity & (iv) If a = c ⇒ roots are reciprocal to each other.
will be satisfied by all x. Also in this case a = b = c = 0.

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(v) If a > 0, c < 0 or a < 0, c > 0 ⇒ roots are of opposite (vi) α4 + β4 = (α2 + β2)2 – 2α2β2

signs
Fb
=G
2
− 2ac I 2
2c2
(vi) If a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 or a < 0, b < 0, c < 0 ⇒ both ={(α + β)2 –2αβ}2 – 2α2β2
H a2
JK –
a2
roots are –ve
(vii) If a > 0, b < 0 , c > 0 or a < 0, b > 0, c < 0 ⇒ both
roots are +ve. −b(b2 − 2ac) b2 − 4ac
(vii) α4 – β4 =(α2 + β2) (α2 – β2) =
a4

8. Symmetric function of the roots :


b2 + ac
If roots of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 are α and β, (viii) α2 + αβ + β2 = (α + β)2 – αβ =
a2
then

b2 − 4ac α β α 2 + β2 (α + β)2 − 2αβ


(i) (α – β) = 2
(α + β) − 4αβ = ± (ix) + = =
a β α αβ αβ

(ii) α2 + β2 = (α + β)2 – 2αβ =


b2 − 2ac FG α IJ 2
FG β IJ 2
α4 + β4 [(b2 − 2ac)2 − 2a2c2 ]
a2 (x)
H βK +
H αK =
α 2 β2
=
a2c 2

−b b2 − 4ac
(iii) α2 – β2 = (α + β) 2
(α + β) − 4αβ =
a2 9. Condition for common roots :
The equations a1 x2 + b1 x + c1 = 0 and a2x2 + b2x + c2 = 0
−b(b2 − 3ac) have
(iv) α3 + β3 = (α + β)3 – 3(α + β) αβ =
a3
b1c2 − b2c1 c1a2 − c2a1
(v) α 3 – β3 = (α – β) [α2+ β2 – αβ] (i) One common root if c1a2 − c2a1 = a1b2 − a2b1
= (α + β)2 − 4αβ [α2+ β2 – αβ]
a1 b1 c1
(ii) Both roots common if a = b = c
2 2 2
(b2 − ac) b2 − 4ac
=
a3

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10. Maximum and Minimum value of quadratic expression :


(v) If both the roots lies in the interval (k1, k2)

LF b I OP
+ bx + c = a MGH x + 2a JK
2
D −b

In a quadratic expression ax 2
MN PQ
4a2 ,
D ≥ 0, a.f(k1) > 0, a.f(k2) > 0, k1 <
2a
< k2

Where D = b2 – 4ac (vi) If k1, k2 lies between the roots

(i) If a > 0, quadratic expression has minimum value a.f(k1) < 0, a.f(k2) < 0

4ac − b2 −b
at x = and there is no maximum value. (vii) λ will be the repeated root of f(x) = 0 if
4a 2a
f(λ) = 0 and f'(λ) = 0
(ii) If a < 0, quadratic expression has maximum value

4ac − b2 −b
at x = and there is no minimum value. 12. For cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 :
4a 2a
−b c −d
We have α + β + γ = , αβ + βγ + γα = and αβγ =
a a a
11. Location of roots :
where α, β, γ are its roots.
Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 then w.r.to f(x) = 0
(i) If k lies between the roots then a.f(k) < 0
(necessary & sufficient) 13. For biquadratic equation ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0 :

(ii) If between k1 & k2 their is exactly one root of k1, k2 b −d


themselves are not roots We have α + β + γ + δ = – , αβγ + βγδ + γδα + γδβ =
a a
f(k1) . f(k2) < 0 (necessary & sufficient)
(iii) If both the roots are less than a number k c e
αβ + αγ + αδ + βγ + βδ + γδ = and αβγδ =
a a
−b
D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0, <k (necessary & sufficient)
2a

(iv) If both the roots are greater than k

−b
D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0, >k (necessary & sufficient)
2a

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* z – z = 2i Im(z) = purely imaginary


COMPLEX NUMBER
* z z = |z|2

1. Complex Number : * z1 + z2 +....+zn = z 1 + z 2 + .......... + z n


A number of the form z = x + iy (x, y ∈ R, i = −1 ) is called
* z1 − z2 = z 1 – z 2
a complex number, where x is called a real part i.e. x = Re(z)
and y is called an imaginary part i.e. y = Im(z).
* z1z2 = z 1 z 2
Modulus |z| = x2 + y2 ,
FG z IJ FG z IJ
Hz K
1
Hz K
1
y * = (provided z2 ≠ 0)
2 2
amplitude or amp(z) = arg(z) = θ = tan–1 .
x
(i) Polar representation : * ez j
n
= ( z )n

x = r cosθ, y = r sinθ, r = |z| = x2 + y2 * c zh = z


(ii) Exponential form :
* If α = f(z), then α = f( z )
z = reiθ , where r = |z|, θ = amp.(z)
Where α = f(z) is a function in a complex variable
(iii) Vector representation : with real coefficients.

P(x, y) then its vector representation is z = OP * z + z = 0 or z = – z ⇒ z = 0 or z is purely imaginary
* z= z ⇒ z is purely real
2. Integral Power of lota :
4. Modulus of a complex number :
i= −1 , i = –1, i = –i , i = 1
2 3 4

Magnitude of a complex number z is denoted as |z| and is


Hence i4n+1 = i, i4n+2 = –1, i4n+3 = –i, i4n or i4(n+1) = 1 defined as

3. Complex conjugate of z :
|z| = (Re(z))2 + (Im(z))2 , |z| ≥ 0

If z = x + iy, then z = x – iy is called complex conjugate (i) z z = |z|2 = | z |2


of z
z
* z is the mirror image of z in the real axis. (ii) z–1 =
|z|2
* |z| = | z |
(iii) |z1 ± z2|2 = |z1|2 + |z2|2 ± 2 Re (z1 z2 )
* z + z = 2Re(z) = purely real
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(iv) |z1 + z2|2 + |z1 – z2|2 = 2 [|z1|2 + |z2|2] 6. Square root of a complex no.

(v) |z1 ± z2| ≤ |z1| + |z2| LM |z|+a


+i
OP
|z|−a
(vi) |z1 ± z2| ≥ |z1| – |z2| a + ib = ± MN 2 2 PQ
, for b > 0

5. Argument of a complex number : LM |z|+a


−i
|z|−a OP
Argument of a complex number z is the ∠ made by its radius
vector with +ve direction of real axis.
= ±
MN 2 2 PQ
, for b < 0

arg z = θ, z ∈ 1st quad.


7. De-Moiver's Theorem :
= π – θ , z ∈ 2nd quad.
It states that if n is rational number, then
= –θ, z ∈ 3rd quad.
(cosθ + isinθ)n = cosθ + isin nθ
= θ – π , z ∈ 4 quad. th
and (cosθ + isinθ)–n = cos nθ – i sin nθ
(i) arg (any real + ve no.) = 0
(ii) arg (any real – ve no.) = π 8. Euler's formulae as z = reiθ, where
(iii) arg (z – z ) = ± π/2 eiθ = cosθ + isinθ and e–iθ = cosθ – i sinθ
(iv) arg (z1.z2) = arg z1 + arg z2 + 2 k π ∴ eiθ + e–iθ = 2cosθ and eiθ – e–iθ = 2 isinθ

FG z IJ
Hz K
1
(v) arg = arg z1 – arg z2 + 2 k π 9. nth roots of complex number z1/n
2

LM FG 2mπ + θ IJ + i sinFG 2mπ + θ IJ OP


FG 1 IJ N H n K H n KQ ,
= r1/n cos
(vi) arg ( z ) = –arg z = arg H zK , if z is non real
where m = 0, 1, 2, ......(n – 1)
= arg z, if z is real
(i) Sum of all roots of z1/n is always equal to zero
(vii) arg (– z) = arg z + π, arg z ∈ (– π , 0]
(ii) Product of all roots of z1/n = (–1)n–1 z
= arg z – π, arg z ∈ (0, π ]
(viii) arg (zn) = n arg z + 2 k π
10. Cube root of unity :
(ix) arg z + arg z = 0 cube roots of unity are 1, ω, ω2 where
argument function behaves like log function.
−1 + i 3
ω= and 1 + ω + ω2 = 0, ω3 = 1
2

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11. Some important result :


z − z1 z − z1
If z = cosθ + isinθ or z − z2 + z − z2 = 0
1
(i) z+ = 2cosθ z1 + z 2 |z1 − z 2 |
z or z− =
2 2
1
(ii) z– = 2 isinθ or |z – z1|2 + |z – z2|2 = |z1 – z2|2
z
Where z1, z2 are end points of diameter and z is any
1 point on circle.
(iii) zn + = 2cosnθ
zn
(iv) If x = cosα + isinα , y = cos β + i sin β & z = cosγ + isinγ 13. Some important points :
and given x + y + z = 0, then (i) Distance formula PQ = |z2 – z1|
(ii) Section formula
1 1 1
(a) + + =0 (b) yz + zx + xy = 0
x y z m1z2 + m2 z1
For internal division = m1 + m2
(c) x +y +z =0
2 2 2
(d) x + y + z = 3xyz
3 3 3

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA - P


12. Equation of Circle : m1z2 − m2 z1
* |z – z1| = r represents a circle with centre z1 and For external division = m1 − m2
radius r.
(iii) Equation of straight line.
* |z| = r represents circle with centre at origin.
* Parametric form z = tz1 + (1 – t)z2 where t ∈ R
* |z – z1| < r and |z – z1| > r represents interior and
exterior of circle |z – z1| = r.
z z 1
* z z + a z + a z + b = 0 represents a general circle
* Non parametric form
z1 z1 1 = 0.
where a ∈ c and b ∈ R.
z2 z2 1
* Let |z| = r be the given circle, then equation of
tangent at the point z1 is z z 1 + z z1 = 2r2
z1 z1 1
* diametric form of circle :
* Three points z1, z2, z3 are collinear if
z2 z2 1 = 0
FG z − z IJ π z3 z3 1
Hz − z K
1
arg = ± ,
2 2
or slope of AB = slope of BC = slope of AC.

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(xii) If z1, z2, z3 be the vertices of a triangle, then the


z − z1 triangle is equilateral
(iv) The complex equation z − z = k represents a circle
2
iff (z1 – z2)2 + (z2 – z3)2 + (z3 – z1)2 = 0.
if k ≠ 1 and a straight line if k = 1. (xiii) If z1, z2, z3 are the vertices of an isosceles triangle,
(v) The triangle whose vertices are the points represented right angled at z2,
by complex numbers z1, z2, z3 is equilateral if then z12 + z22 + z32 = 2z2 (z1 + z3).

1 1 1 (xiv) z1, z2, z3. z4 are vertices of a parallelogram then


z2 − z3 + z3 − z1 + z1 − z2 = 0 z1+ z3 = z2 + z4

i.e. if z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2z3 + z1z3.


(vi) |z – z1| = |z – z2| = λ , represents an ellipse if

|z1 – z2| < λ , having the points z1 and z2 as its foci


and if |z1 – z2| = λ , then z lies on a line segment
connecting z1 & z2
(vii) |z – z1| ~ |z – z2| = λ represents a hyperbola if

|z1 – z2| > λ , having the points z1 and z2 as its foci,


and if |z1 – z2| = λ , then z lies on the line passing
through z1 and z2 excluding the points between z1 & z2.
(viii) If four points z1, z2, z3, z4 are concyclic,

FG z − z2 IJ FG z − z4 IJ
Hz
1
K Hz
3
then
1 − z4 3 − z2 K is purely real.

(ix) If three complex numbers are in A.P., then they lie on


a straight line in the complex plane.
(x) If z1, z2, z3 be the vertices of an equilateral triangle
and z0 be the circumcentre,
then z12 + z22 + z32 = 3z02.
(xi) If z1, z3, z3 ....... zn be the vertices of a regular
polygon of n sides & z0 be its centroid, then
z12 + z22 + ......... + zn2 = nz02.

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PERMUTATION & COMBINATION (iv) If out of n objects, 'a' are alike of one kind, 'b' are alike
of second kind and 'c' are alike of third kind and the
rest distinct, then the number of ways of permuting
1. Factorial notation -
The continuous product of first n natural numbers is called n!
factorial the n objects is
a! b! c!
i.e. n or n! = 1. 2. 3........(n – 1).n
n! = n(n – 1)! = n(n – 1)(n – 2)! & so on 4. Restricted Permutations -
(i) The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken
n!
or n (n – 1)......... (n – r + 1) = r at a time, when m particular things always occupy
(n − r)!
definite places = n–mpr–m
Here 0! = 1 and (–n)! = meaningless. (ii) The number of permutations of n different things taken
r at a time, when m particular things are always to be
2. Fundamental principle of counting - excluded (included)
(i) Addition rule : If there are two operations such that = n–m
Pr (n–mCr–m × r!)
they can be done independently in m and n ways
respectively, then either (any one) of these two
operations can be done by (m + n) ways. 5. Circular Permutations -
Addition ⇒ OR (or) Option When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as
different.
(ii) Multiplication rule : Let there are two tasks of an
operation and if these two tasks can be performed in m (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things
and n different number of ways respectively, then the n
Pr
two tasks together can be done in m × n ways. taken r at a time
r
Multiplication ⇒ And (or) Condition
(ii) The number of circular permutations of n different things
(iii) Bijection Rule : Number of favourable cases
n
= Total number of cases Pn
taken altogether = (n – 1)!
– Unfavourable number of cases. n
When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated
3. Permutations (Arrangement of objects) - as same.
(i) The number of permutations of n different things taken (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things
n! n
Pr
r at a time is npr = taken r at a time
(n − r)! 2r
(ii) The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken (ii) The number of circular permutations of n different things
all at a time is npn = n!
n
(iii) The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken Pn 1
taken all together = (n – 1)!
r at a time, when repetition of objects is allowed is nr. 2n 2

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6. Combination (selection of objects) - (iv) Total number of selections of zero or more objects
The number of combinations of n different things taken r at from n identical objects is n + 1.
a time is denoted by nCr or C (n, r) (v) Total number of selections of zero or more objects
out of n different objects
n! n
Pr
n
Cr = = = n
C0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... + Cn = 2n
n
r !(n − r)! r!
(vi) The total number of selections of at least one out of
(i) n
Cr = nCn–r
a1 + a2 + ...... + an objects where a1 are alike (of
(ii) n
Cr + nCr–1 = n+1Cr
one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ......... an are
(iii) n
Cr = nCs ⇒ r = s or r + s = n alike (of nth kind) is
(iv) n
C0 = Cn = 1
n
[(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) + ...... + (an + 1)] – 1
(v) n
C1 = nCn–1 = n
(vii) The number of selections taking atleast one out of
n a1 + a2 + a3 + ....... + an + k objects when a1 are
(vi) n
Cr = n–1
Cr–1 alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind),
r
........ an are alike (of kth kind) and k are distinct is
1 [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) .......... (an + 1)] 2k – 1
(vii) n
Cr = (n – r + 1) nCr–1
r

9. Division and distribution -


7. Restricted combinations - (i) The number of ways in which (m + n + p) different
The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at objects can be divided into there groups containing m,
a time, when k particular objects are always to be
(m + n + p)!
(i) included is n–kCr–k n, & p different objects respectively is
m! n! p!
(ii) excluded is n–kCr
(iii) included and s particular things are to be excluded is (ii) The total number of ways in which n different objects
are to be divided into r groups of group sizes n1, n2, n3,
n–k–s
Cr–k
............. nr respectively such that size of no two groups

8. Total number of combinations in different cases - n!


is same is n ! n !............n ! .
(i) The number of selections of n identical objects, taken 1 2 r

at least one = n (iii) The total number of ways in which n different objects
(ii) The number of selections from n different objects, taken are to be divided into groups such that k1 groups have
at least one group size n1, k2 groups have group size n2 and so on,
kr groups have group size nr, is given as
= nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... + Cn = 2n – 1
n

(iii) The number of selections of r objects out of n iden- n!


.
tical objects is 1. (n1 !) (n2 !) .............(nr !)k r k1 ! k 2 !............ k r !
k1 k2

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(iv) The total number of ways in which n different objects


(b) Number of total triangles formed by joining the n
are divided into k groups of fixed group size and are
points on a plane of which m(< n) are collinear is
distributed among k persons (one group to each) is n
C3 – m
C3.
given as
(c) Number of diagonals in a polygon of n sides is
(number of ways of group formation) × k!
n
C2 – n.
(d) If m parallel lines in a plane are intersected by a
10. Selection of light objects and multinomial theorem -
family of other n parallel lines. Then total number of
(i) The coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 – x–r) is
parallelogram so formed is mC2 × nC2.
equal to n + r – 1Cr – 1
(e) Given n points on the circumference of a circle, then
(ii) The number of solution of the equation x1 + x2 + ..........
number of straight lines nC2
+ xr = n, n ∈ N under the condition n1 ≤ x1 ≤ n'1,
number of triangles nC3
n2 ≤ x2 ≤ n'2 , ................ nr ≤ xr ≤ n'r
number of quadrilaterals nC4
where all x'is are integers is given as
(f) If n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that
Coefficient of xn is no two lines are parallel and no three lines are
LMex n1 +1
j ex n2 +1
j...ex nr +1
jOQP concurrent. Then the number of part into which these
N
n1 n'1 n2 n'2 nr n'r
+x +...+x +x +...+x +x +...+ x
lines divide the plane is = 1 + Σn
11. Derangement Theorem - (g) Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n × n
(i) If n things are arranged in a row, then the number of n n
ways in which they can be rearranged so that no one is ∑ r3 and number of squares of any size is ∑ r2 .
r =1 r =1
of them occupies the place assigned to it is

L 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 −....+(−1) 1 OP
= n! M1 −
n
(h) Number of rectangles of any size in a rectangle of

N 1! 2! 3! 4! n!Q
n × p is
np
(n + 1) (p + 1) and number of squares
4
(ii) If n things are arranged at n places then the number of
ways to rearrange exactly r things at right places is n
of any size is ∑ (n + 1 – r) (p + 1 – r).
n! LM1 − 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 +....+(−1) n− r 1 OP r =1
=
r N 1! 2! 3! 4! (n − r)! Q
12. Some Important results -
(a) Number of total different straight lines formed by joining
the n points on a plane of which m(<n) are collinear is
n
C2 – mC2 + 1.

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PROBABILITY (vi) P(AB) ≤ P(A) P(B) ≤ P(A + B) ≤ P(A) + P(B)

(vii) P(Exactly one event) = P(A B ) + P( A B)


1. Mathematical definition of probability :
Probability of an event (viii) P( A + B ) = 1 – P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) – 2P(AB)

No. of favourable cases to event A = P(A + B) – P(AB)


=
Total no. of cases (ix) P(neither A nor B) = P ( A B ) = 1 – P(A + B)
Note : (i) 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1 (x) When a coin is tossed n times or n coins are tossed
(ii) Probability of an impossible event is zero
1
(iii) Probability of a sure event is one. once, the probability of each simple event is .
2n
(iv) P(A) + P(Not A) = 1 i.e. P(A) + P( A ) = 1
(xi) When a dice is rolled n times or n dice are rolled once,

2. Odds for an event : 1


the probability of each simple event is .
6n
m n−m
If P(A) = and P( A ) = (xii) When n cards are drawn (1 ≤ n ≤ 52) from well shuffled
n n
deck of 52 cards, the probability of each simple event
P(A) m
Then odds in favour of A = = 1
P(A) n−m is 52 .
Cn

P(A) n−m (xiii) If n cards are drawn one after the other with replace-
and odds in against of A = =
P(A) m
1
ment, the probability of each simple event is .
(52)n
3. Set theoretical notation of probability and some impor-
tant results : (xiv) P(none) = 1 – P (atleast one)

(i) P(A + B) = 1 – P( A B ) (xv) Playing cards :


(a) Total cards : 52 (26 red, 26 black)
P(AB)
(ii) P(A/B) = (b) Four suits : Heart, diamond, spade, club (13 cards
P(B)
each)
(iii) P(A + B) = P(AB) + P( A B) + P(A B ) (c) Court (face) cards : 12 (4 kings, 4 queens, 4
(iv) A ⊂ B ⇒ P(A) ≤ P(B) jacks)
(d) Honour cards : 16 (4 Aces, 4 kings, 4 queens, 4
(v) P( AB ) = P(B) – P(AB)
Jacks)

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(xvi) Probability regarding n letters and their envelopes : 5. Conditional probability :


P(A/B) = Probability of occurrence of A, given that B has
If n letters corresponding to n envelopes are placed in
the envelopes at random, then P(A ∩ B)
already happened =
(a) Probability that all the letters are in right enve- P(B)

1 P(B/A) = Probability of occurrence of B, given that A has


lopes =
n! P(A ∩ B)
already happened =
(b) Probability that all letters are not in right enve- P(A)

1 Note : If the outcomes of the experiment are equally


lopes = 1 –
n! No. of sample pts. in A ∩ B
likely, then P(A/B) = .
(c) Probability that no letters are in right envelope
No. of pts. in B

(i) If A and B are independent event, then P(A/B) = P(A)


1 1 1 1 and P(B/A) = P(B)
= – + .... + (–1)n
2! 3! 4! n!
(ii) Multiplication Theorem :
(d) Probability that exactly r letters are in right P(A ∩ B) = P(A/B). P(B), P(B) ≠ 0

1 LM 1 − 1 + 1 +.....+(−1) n− r 1 OP or P(A ∩ B) = P(B/A) P(A), P(A) ≠ 0


envelopes =
r! N2! 3! 4! (n − r)! Q
Generalized :
P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ ............... ∩ En)
4. Addition Theorem of Probability : = P(E1) P(E2/E1) P(E3/E1 ∩ E2) P(E4/E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3) .........
(i) When events are mutually exclusive If events are independent, then
i.e. n (A ∩ B) = 0 ⇒ P(A ∩ B) = 0 P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ ....... ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2) ....... P(En)
∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B)
(ii) When events are not mutually exclusive i.e. 6. Probability of at least one of the n Independent events :
P(A ∩ B) ≠ 0 If P1, P2, ....... Pn are the probabilities of n independent
events A, A2, .... An then the probability of happening of at
∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B)
least one of these event is.
or P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(AB)
1 – [(1 – P1) (1 – P2)......(1 – Pn)]
(iii) When events are independent i.e. P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P (B)
or P(A1 + A2 + ... + An) = 1 – P ( A 1 ) P ( A 2 ) .... P( A n )
∴ P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A) P(B)

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7. Total Probability : (a) mean E(x) = np


Let A1, A2, ............. An are n mutually exclusive & set of (b) E (x2) = npq + n2 p2
exhaustive events and event A can occur through any one (c) Variance E(x2) – (E(x))2 = npq
of these events, then probability of occurence of A
(d) Standard deviation = npq
P(A) = P(A ∩ A1) + P(A ∩ A2) + ............. + P(A ∩ An)
10. Truth of the statement :
n
(i) If two persons A and B speaks truth with the probabil-
= ∑ P(Ar) P(A/Ar)
ity p1 & p2 respectively and if they agree on a state-
r =1
ment, then the probability that they are speaking truth
will be given by
8. Baye's Rule :
Let A1, A2, A3 be any three mutually exclusive & exhaustive p1p2
events (i.e. A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3 = sample space & A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 = φ) p1p2 + (1 − p1 ) (1 − p2 ) .
an sample space S and B is any other event on sample space
(ii) If A and B both assert that an event has occurred,
then,
probability of occurrence of which is α then the prob-
P(B / A i)P(A i ) ability that event has occurred.
P(Ai/B) = P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) , Given that the probability of A & B speaking truth is p1, p2.
1 1 2 2 3 3

i = 1, 2, 3 αp1p2
αp1p2 + (1 − α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 )
9. Probability distribution : (iii) If in the second part the probability that their lies
(i) If a random variable x assumes values x1, x2, ......xn
(jhuth) coincides is β then from above case required
with probabilities P1, P2, ..... Pn respectively then
probability will be
(a) P1 + P2 + P3 + ..... + Pn = 1
(b) mean E(x) = Σ Pixi αp1p2
(c) Variance = Σx Pi – (mean) = Σ (x ) – (E(x))
2 2 2 2 αp1p2 (1 α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 ) β .
+ −
(ii) Binomial distribution : If an experiment is repeated n
times, the successive trials being independent of one
another, then the probability of -
r success is nCr Pr qn–r
n
atleast r success is ∑ Ck Pk qn–k
n

k =r

where p is probability of success in a single trial, q = 1 – p

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PROGRESSION AND SERIES (iv) If A1, A2,...... An are n A.M's between a and b,
then A1 = a + d, A2 = a + 2d,...... An = a + nd,
1. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) : b−a
(a) General A.P. — a, a + d, a + 2d, ...... , a + (n – 1) d where d =
n+1
where a is the first term and d is the common difference
n
(b) General (nth) term of an A.P. — (v) Sum of n A.M's inserted between a and b is (a + b)
2
Tn = a + (n – 1)d [nth term from the beginning]
(vi) Any term of an A.P. (except first term) is equal to
If an A.P. having m terms, then nth term from end the half of the sum of term equidistant from the
= a + (m – n)d 1
(c) Sum of n terms of an A.P. — term i.e. an = (a + an+r), r < n
2 n–r
n n
Sn = [2a + (n – 1)d] = [a + Tn] 2. Geometric Progression (G.P.)
2 2
(a) General G.P. — a, ar, ar2 , ......
Note : If sum of n terms i.e. Sn is given then Tn = Sn – Sn–1
where a is the first term and r is the common ratio
where Sn–1 is sum of (n – 1) terms.
(b) General (nth) term of a G.P. — Tn = arn–1
(d) Supposition of terms in A.P. —
If a G.P. having m terms then nth term from end = arm–n
(i) Three terms as a - d, a, a + d (c) Sum of n terms of a G.P. —
(ii) Four terms as a – 3d, a – d, a + d, a + 3d
a(1 − r n ) a − Tnr
(iii) Five terms as a – 2d, a – d, a, a + d, a + 2d Sn = = , r<1
1−r 1−r
(e) Arithmetic mean (A.M.) :
(i) A.M. of n numbers A1, A2, ................ An is defined a(r n − 1) Tnr − a
= = ,r>1
as r −1 r −1

A1 + A 2 +.........+ A n ΣA i Sum of numbers a


A.M. = = = (d) Sum of an infinite G.P. — S ∞ = , |r|<1
n n n 1−r
(e) Supposition of terms in G.P. —
(ii) For an A.P., A.M. of the terms taken symmetrically
from the beginning and from the end will always a
(i) Three terms as , a, ar
be constant and will be equal to middle term or r
A.M. of middle term.
a a
(iii) If A is the A.M. between two given nos. a and b, (ii) Four terms as , , ar, ar3
r3 r
then
a a
a+b (iii) Five terms as , , a, ar, ar2
A= i.e. 2A = a + b r2 r
2

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(f) Geometric Mean (G.M.) — Ln(n + 1) OP


= M
2

(c) Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + .... + n
N 2 Q
3 3 3 3 3
(i) Geometrical mean of n numbers x1, x2, .......... xn
is defined as
(d) Σa = a + a + .... + (n times) = na
G.M. = (x1 x2 ............... xn)1/n.
(e) Σ(2n – 1) = 1 + 3 + 5 + .... (2n – 1) = n2
(i) If G is the G.M. between two given numbers a
and b, then (f) Σ2n = 2 + 4 + 6 + .... + 2n = n (n + 1)

G2 = ab ⇒ G = ab 5. Harmonic Progression (H.P)


(ii) If G1, G2, .............. Gn are n G.M's between a
and b, then 1 1 1
(a) General H.P. — , , +......
a a + d a + 2d
F bI
= ar , where r = G J
1/n+1
(b) General (nth term) of a H.P. — Tn
G1 = ar, G2 = ar ,..... Gn
2 n
H aK
1 1
(iii) Product of the n G.M.'s inserted between a & b is = = th
a + (n − 1)d n term coresponding to A.P.
(ab)n/2
(c) Harmonic Mean (H.M.)
3. Arithmetico - Geometric Progression (A.G.P.) : 2ab
(i) If H is the H.M. between a and b, then H =
(a) General form — a, (a + d)r, (a + 2d) r2, ............. a+b
(b) General (nth) term — Tn = [a + (n – 1) d] rn–1 (ii) If H1, H2,......,Hn are n H.M's between a and b,

a d(1 − r n−1) ab(n + 1) ab(n + 1)


(c) Sum of n terms of an A.G.P — Sn = + r. then H1 = , ....., Hn =
1−r (1 − r)2 bn + a na + b

(d) Sum of infinite terms of an A.G.P. 1 1


or first find n A.M.'s between & , then their
a b
a dr
S∞ = +
(1 − r)2
reciprocal will be required H.M's.
1−r

6. Relation Between A.M., G.M. and H.M.


4. Sum standard results : (i) AH = G2
n(n + 1) (ii) A ≥ G ≥ H
(a) Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + ..... + n =
2 (iii) If A and G are A.M. and G.M. respectively between two
+ve numbers, then these numbers are
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
(b) Σn2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + ..... + n2 = A±
6 A 2 − G2

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BINOMIAL THEOREM 3. Properties of Binomial coefficients :

n n
For the sake of convenience the coefficients C0 , C1 ,
1. Binomial Theorem for any +ve integral index :
n n
(x + a) n = nC0 xn + nC1 xn–1 a + nC2 xn–2 a2 + ....... C2 ..... Cr ..... n Cn are usually denoted by C0, C1 ,.....
+ nCr xn–r ar + .... + nCn an C r .......... Cn respectively.
n

= ∑
r=0
n
Cr xn–r ar
* C0 + C1 + C2 + ..... + Cn = 2n

* C0 – C 1 + C2 – C3 + ..... + C n = 0
(i) General term - Tr+1 = nCr xn–r ar is the (r + 1)th term from
beginning. * C0 + C 2 + C4 + ..... = C1 + C 3 + C5 + .... = 2n–1
(ii) (m + 1) term from the end = (n – m + 1) from begin-
th th

ning = Tn–m+1 n n −1 nn−1


n Cr −1 = n−2
(iii) middle term * Cr = Cr −2 and so on ...
r r r −1

Fn I
(a) If n is even then middle term = G + 1J
th

H2 K term 2n!
c hc h
2n
* Cn + r = n−r ! n+r !
FG n + 1IJ th

(b) If n is odd then middle term =


H 2K and
* n
Cr +
n
Cr − 1 = n+1
Cr

FG n + 3IJ th
* C1 + 2C2 + 3C3 + ... + nCn = n.2n–1
H 2 K term
* C1 – 2C2 + 3C3 ......... = 0
Binomial coefficient of middle term is the greatest bino- * C0 + 2C 1 + 3C2 + ......+ (n + 1)Cn = (n + 2)2n–1
mial coefficient.

* C02 + C 12 + C22 + ..... + Cn2 =


c2nh! = 2n
Cn
2. To determine a particular term in the given expasion : cn!h
2

F
Let the given expansion be G x
1 IJ n
* C02 – C 12 + C22 – C32 + .....
H K
α
± , if xn occurs in

|RS 0, if n is odd
T|c−1h
Tr+1 (r + 1)th term then r is given by n α – r (α + β) = m = n/2 n
Cn/2 , if n is even
and for x0, n α – r (α + β) = 0

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Note : 2n + 1
C0 + 2n + 1
C1 + .... + 2n + 1
Cn =
2n + 1
Cn + 1 + n!
(ii) (x + y + z)n = ∑ xr ys z t
r + s + t =n s! r !t !
2n + 1 2n + 1
Cn + 2 + ..... C2n + 1 = 2 2n
Generalized (x1 + x2 +..... xk)n

C1 C2 Cn 2n+1 − 1 n!
* C0 + + + ..... + = ∑ r1 r2 rk
2 3 n+1 n+1 = r1 +r2 +...rk =n r1 ! r2 !....rk ! x1 x2 ..... xk

C1 C2 C3 (−1)n C n 1
* C0 – + – .... + =
2 3 4 n+1 n+1 6. Total no. of terms in the expansion (x1 + x2 +... xn)m is
m+n–1
C n–1

4. Greatest term :

(n + 1)a
(i) If ∈ Z (integer) then the expansion has two
x+a
greatest terms. These are kth and (k + 1)th where x & a
are +ve real nos.

(n + 1)a
(ii) If ∉ Z then the expansion has only one great-
x+a

LM(n + 1)aOP ,
est term. This is (k + 1)th term k =
N x+a Q
{[.] denotes greatest integer less than or equal to x}

5. Multinomial Theorem :

n
(i) (x + a)n = ∑ n
Cr xn–r ar, n ∈N
r =0

n n! n!
= ∑ xn–r ar = r +∑ x s ar ,
r =0 (n − r)! r ! s =n s ! r !

where s = n – r

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3. Trigonometric identities :
TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO AND IDENTITIES
(i) sin2θ + cos2θ = 1
(ii) cosec2θ – cot2θ = 1
1. Some important results :
(iii) sec2θ – tan2θ = 1
(i) Arc length AB = r θ

1 2 4. Sign convention :
Area of circular sector = r θ
2 y
(ii) For a regular polygon of side a and number of sides n II quadrant I quadrant
sin & cosec All +ve
π are +ve
(a) Internal angle of polygon = (n – 2)
n
(b) Sum of all internal angles = (n – 2) π x' O x

a π III quadrant IV quadrant


(c) Radius of incircle of this polygon r = cot
2 n tan & cot cos & sec
(d) Radius of circumcircle of this polygon R are +ve are +ve
y'
a π
= cosec
2 n
5. T-ratios of allied angles : The signs of trigonometrical ratio
1 FG π IJ in different quadrant.
(e) Area of the polygon =
4
na2 cot H nK Allied∠ of (–θ) 900 ± θ 1800 ± θ 2700 ± θ 3600 ± θ
T-ratios
1 2 π sinθ –sinθ cosθ m sinθ –cosθ ±sinθ
(f) Area of triangle = a cos
4 n cosθ cosθ m sinθ –cosθ ±sinθ cosθ

F a πI
Area of incircle = π G cot J
2 tanθ –tanθ m cotθ ±tanθ m cotθ ±tanθ
(g)
H 2 nK cotθ –cotθ m tanθ ±cotθ ±cotθ m tanθ
secθ secθ m cosecθ –secθ ±cosecθ secθ

FG a cos ec π IJ 2 cosecθ –cosecθ secθ m cosecθ –sec θ ±cosecθ


(h) Area of circumcircle = π
H2 nK
6. Sum & differences of angles of t-ratios :
(i) sin(A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB
2. Relation between system of measurement of angles : (ii) cos(A ± B) = cosA cosB ± sinA sinB
D G 2C tan A ± tanB
= = & π radian = 1800 (iii) tan (A ± B) =
90 100 π 1 m tan A tan B

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7. Formulaes for product into sum or difference and vice-


cot A cot B m 1
(iv) cot (A ± B) = versa :
cot B ± cot A
(i) 2sinA cosB = sin(A + B) + sin(A – B)
(v) sin(A + B) sin(A – B) = sin2A – sin2B = cos2 B – cos2 A
(ii) 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) – sin(A – B)
(vi) cos(A + B) cos (A – B) = cos2A – sin2B = cos2B – sin2A
(iii) 2cosA cosB = cos(A + B) + cos(A – B)
(vii) tan(A + B + C)
(iv) 2sinA sinB = cos(A – B) – cos(A + B)

=
tan A + tanB + tan C − tan A tan B tan C S1 − S3
= 1−S FG C + D IJ cos FG C − D IJ
1 − tan A tan B − tanB tan C − tan C tan A 2 (v) H 2 K H 2 K
sinC + sinD = 2sin
Generalized tan (A + B + C + ......... )

S1 − S3 + S5 − S7 +......
F C + D I F C − DI
(vi) sinC – sinD = 2cos GH 2 JK sin GH 2 JK
= 1 − S + S − S + S −......
2 4 6 8

Where S1 = Σ tan A
(vii) cosC + cosD = 2cos GH
F C + D IJ cos FG C − D IJ
S2 = Σ tan A tan B, 2 K H 2 K
S3 = Σ tan A tan B tan C & so on
F C + D IJ sin FG D − C IJ
(viii) cosC – cosD = 2sin GH
2 K H 2 K
(viii) sin (A + B + C) = Σ sin A cos B cos C – Π sin A
= Π cos A (Numerator of tan (A + B + C))
(ix) cos (A + B + C) = Π cos A – Σ sin A sin B cos C sin(A + B)
(ix) tanA + tanB =
= Π cos A (Denominator of tan (A + B + C)) cos A cos B
for a triangle A + B + C = π
Σ tan A = Π tan A 8. T-ratios of multiple and submultiple angles :
Σ sin A = Σ sin A cos B cos C 2 tan A
(i) sin2A = 2sinA cosA =
1 + Π cos A = Σ sin A sin B cos C 1 + tan2 A
= (sin A + cos A)2 – 1 = 1 – (sin A – cos A)2
3 +1
(viii) sin75 = 0
= cos15 0
2 2 2 tan A / 2
⇒ sinA = 2sinA/2 cosA/2 =
1 + tan2 A / 2
3 −1 (ii) cos2A = cos2A – sin2A = 2cos2A – 1
(ix) cos750 = = sin150
2 2
1 − tan2 A
(x) tan75 = 2 + = 1 – 2sin2A =
3 = cot15
0 0
1 + tan2 A
(xi) cot750 = 2 – 3 = tan15
0

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(ii) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = –1– 4cosA cosB cosC


2 tan A 2 tan A / 2
(iii) tan2A = ⇒ tanA = (iii) sinA + sinB + sinC = 4cosA/2 cosB/2 cosC/2
1 − tan2 A 1 − tan2 A / 2
(iv) cosA + cosB + cosC = 1 + 4 sinA/2 sinB/2 sinC/2
(iv) sin3θ = 3sinθ – 4sin3θ = 4sin(600 – θ ) sin(600 + θ ) sin θ
(v) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 1 – 2sinA sinB cosC
= sin θ (2 cos θ – 1) (2 cos θ + 1) (vi) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1 – 2cosA cosB cosC
(v) cos3θ = 4cos3θ – 3cosθ (vii) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC
= 4cos(60 – θ ) cos(60 + θ ) cos θ
0 0
(viii) cotB cotC + cotC cotA + cotA cotB = 1
= cos θ (1 – 2 sin θ ) (1 + 2 sin θ ) (ix) Σ tan A/2 tan B/2 = 1
(x) Σ cot A cot B = 1
3 tan A − tan3 A
(vi) tan3A = (xi) Σ cot A/2 = Π cot A/2
1 − 3 tan2 A
= tan(600 – A) tan(600 + A)tanA
11. Some useful series :
1 − cos A (i) sinα + sin(α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + .... + to nterms
(vii) sinA/2 =
2
LM FG n − 1IJβOP sinLnβ O
N H 2 K Q MN 2 PQ , β ≠ 2nπ
sin α +
1 + cos A
(viii) cosA/2 = = β
2 sin
2
1 − cos A 1 − cos A (ii) cosα + cos(α + β) + cos(α + 2β) + .... + to nterms
(ix) tanA/2 = = , A ≠ (2n + 1)π
1 + cos A sin A
LM FG n − 1IJ βOP sin nβ
N H 2 K Q 2 β ≠ 2nπ
cos α +
9. Maximum and minimum value of the expression :
= β
acosθ + bsinθ sin
2
Maximum (greatest) Value = a2 + b2
sin 2n α
Minimum (Least) value = – a2 + b2 (iii) cosα .cos2α . cos22α ....cos(2n–1 α) = , α ≠ nπ
2n sin α
= 1 , α = 2kπ
10. Conditional trigonometric identities :
= –1 , α = (2k+1)π
If A, B, C are angles of triangle i.e. A + B + C = π, then
(i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4sinA sinB sinC
i.e. Σ sin 2A = 4 Π (sin A)

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TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS Thus the equation reduces to form

c
1. General solution of the equations of the form cos(θ – α) = = cosβ(say)
a + b2
2

(i) sinθ = 0 ⇒ θ = nπ, n∈I


now solve using above formula
π
(ii) cosθ = 0 ⇒ θ = (2n + 1) , n∈I
2
3. Some important points :
(iii) tanθ = 0 ⇒ θ = nπ, n∈I (i) If while solving an equation, we have to square it, then
the roots found after squaring must be checked
π
(iv) sinθ = 1 ⇒ θ = 2nπ + wheather they satisfy the original equation or not.
2
(ii) If two equations are given then find the common val-
(v) cosθ = 1 ⇒ θ = 2πn ues of θ between 0 & 2π and then add 2nπ to this
common solution (value).
π 3π
(vi) sinθ = –1 ⇒ θ = 2nπ – or 2nπ +
2 2
(vii) cosθ = –1 ⇒ θ = (2n + 1)π
(viii) sinθ = sinα ⇒ θ = nπ + (–1)nα
(ix) cosθ = cosα ⇒ θ = 2nπ ± α
(x) tanθ = tanα ⇒ θ = nπ + α
(xi) sin2θ = sin2α ⇒ θ = nπ ± α
(xii) cos2θ = cos2α ⇒ θ = nπ ± α
(xiii) tan2θ = tan2α ⇒ θ = nπ ± α

2. For general solution of the equation of the form

a cosθ + bsinθ = c, where c ≤ a2 + b2 , divide both side by

a2 + b2

a b
and put 2 2 = cosα, = sinα.
a +b a + b2
2

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INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS π


cosec–1 (cosec θ ) = θ provided – ≤ θ < 0
2
1. If y = sin x, then x = sin–1 y, similarly for other inverse T-
π
functions. or 0 < θ ≤
2

2. Domain and Range of Inverse T-functions : (ii) sin (sin–1 x) = x provided – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1

Function Domain (D) Range (R) cos (cos–1 x) = x provided – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1

π π tan (tan–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x < ∞


sin –1
x – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 – ≤ θ ≤
2 2 cot (cot–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x < ∞
cos–1 x – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 0 ≤ θ ≤ π sec (sec–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x ≤ – 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞

π π cosec (cosec–1 x) = x provided – ∞ < x ≤ – 1


tan–1 x – ∞ < x < ∞ – < θ <
2 2
or 1 ≤ x < ∞
cot–1 x – ∞ < x < ∞ 0 < θ < π

π (iii) sin–1 (– x) = – sin–1 x,


sec–1 x x ≤ – 1, x ≥ 1 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, θ ≠ cos–1 (– x) = π – cos–1 x
2
tan–1 (– x) = – tan–1 x
π π
cosec–1 x x ≤ – 1, x ≥ 1 – ≤ θ ≤ , θ ≠ 0 cot–1 (– x) = π – cot–1 x
2 2
cosec–1 (– x) = – cosec–1 x
3. Properties of Inverse T-functions : sec–1 (– x) = π – sec–1 x
π π
(i) sin–1 (sin θ ) = θ provided – ≤ θ ≤ 2
2
π
cos–1 (cos θ ) = θ provided θ ≤ θ ≤ π (iv) sin–1 x + cos–1 x = , ∀ x ∈ [– 1, 1]
2
π π
tan–1 (tan θ ) = θ provided – < θ < π
2 2 tan–1 x + cot–1 x = ,
2 ∀ x ∈ R
cot –1
(cot θ ) = θ provided 0 < θ < π

π π π
sec–1 x + cosec–1 x = , x ∈ (– ∞ , – 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )
sec–1 (sec θ ) = θ provided 0 ≤ θ <
2
or
2
< θ ≤ π 2 ∀

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4. Value of one inverse function in terms of another 5. Formulae for sum and difference of inverse trigonomet-
inverse function : ric function :

FG x + y IJ ; if x > 0, y > 0, xy < 1


(i) sin–1 x = cos–1 1−x 2 = tan–1
x
= cot–1
1 − x2
x
(i) tan–1x + tan–1y = tan–1
H 1 − xy K
1 − x2

1 1
tan x + tan y = π + tan G
F x + y IJ ; if x > 0, y > 0, xy > 1
= sec–1
1−x 2
= cosec–1
x
, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 (ii) –1 –1
H 1 − xy K
–1

x (iii) –1 –1
F x−yI
tan x – tan y = tan GH 1 + xy JK ; if xy > –1
–1
1 − x2
(ii) cos–1 x = sin–1 1 − x2 = tan–1 = cot–1
x 1 − x2

tan x – tan y = π + tan G


F x − y IJ ; if x > 0, y < 0, xy < –1
= sec–1
1
= cosec–1
1
, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
(iv) –1 –1
H 1 + xy K
–1

x 1 − x2

tan x + tan y + tan z = tan G


F x + y + z − xyz IJ
x 1 1
(v) –1 –1 –1
H 1 − xy − yz − zx K
–1

(iii) tan–1 x = sin–1 = cos–1 = cot–1


1 + x2 1 + x2 x
L
sin x ± sin y = sin Mx 1 − y ± y 1 − x P ;
O
N Q
2 2
(vi) –1 –1 –1

1 + x2
= sec–1 1 + x2 = cosec
–1
, x ≥ 0 if x,y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1
x
LM OP
FG 1 IJ N Q
2 2
(vii) sin–1x ± sin–1y = π – sin–1 x 1 − y ± y 1 − x ;
(iv) sin–1 H xK = cosec–1 x , ∀ x ∈ (– ∞ , 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )
if x,y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 > 1

FG 1 IJ LM OP
N Q
2 2
(viii) cos–1x ± cos–1y = cos–1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y ;
(v) cos–1 H xK = sec–1 x, ∀ x ∈ (– ∞ , 1] ∪ [1, ∞ )
if x,y > 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1

FG 1 IJ RS cot x LM OP
N Q
−1 2 2
for x > 0 (ix) cos–1x ± cos–1y = π – cos–1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y ;
(vi) tan–1 H xK =
|T− π + cot x
−1
for x < 0
if x,y > 0 & x2 + y2 > 1

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6. Inverse trigonometric ratios of multiple angles PROPERTIES & SOLUTION OF TRIANGLE


(i) 2sin–1x = sin–1(2x 1 − x2 ), if –1 ≤ x ≤ 1 Properties of triangle :
(ii) 2cos–1x = cos–1(2x2 –1), if –1 ≤ x ≤ 1 1. A triangle has three sides and three angles.

FG 2x IJ = sin FG 2x IJ = cos FG 1 − x IJ 2 In any ∆ABC, we write BC = a, AB = c, AC = b


(iii) 2tan–1x = tan–1 H1 − x K 2
H1 + x K
–1
2
H1 + x K
–1
2
A

A
(iv) 3sin–1x = sin–1(3x – 4x3) c b
(v) 3cos x = cos (4x – 3x)
–1 –1 3

B
F 3x − x I
C
3 B C
GH 1 − 3x JK
a
(vi) 3tan–1x = tan–1 2 and ∠BAC = ∠A, ∠ABC = ∠B, ∠ACB = ∠C

2. In ∆ABC :
(i) A + B + C = π
(ii) a + b > c, b +c > a, c + a > b
(iii) a > 0, b > 0, c > 0

3. Sine formula :

a b c
= = = k(say)
sin A sinB sin C

sin A sinB sinC


or = = = k (say)
a b c

4. Cosine formula :

b2 + c2 − a2
cos A =
2bc

c2 + a2 − b2
cos B =
2ac

a2 + b2 − c2
cos C =
2ab
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5. Projection formula :
a = b cos C + c cos B A (s − b) (s − c)
(c) tan =
b = c cos A + a cos C 2 s (s − a)
c = a cos B + b cos A
B (s − c) (s − a)
tan =
6. Napier's Analogies : 2 s (s − b)

A −B a−b C
tan = cot (s − b) (s − a)
2 a+b 2 C
tan =
2 s (s − c)
B−C b−c A
tan = cot
2 b+c 2
8. ∆, Area of triangle :
C−A c−a B
tan = cot
2 c+a 2 1 1 1
(i) ∆ = 2 ab sin C = 2 bc sin A = 2 ca sin B

7. Half angled formula - In any ∆ABC :


(ii) ∆ = s(s − a) (s − b) (s − c)
A (s − b) (s − c)
(a) sin =
2 bc
A B s −c
9. tan tan =
B (s − c) (s − a) 2 2 s
sin =
2 ca
B C s −a
tan tan =
C (s − a) (s − b) 2 2 s
sin = where 2s = a + b + c
2 ab
C A s −b
tan tan =
2 2 s
A s (s − a)
(b) cos =
2 bc
10. Circumcircle of triangle and its radius :
B s (s − b)
cos =
2 ca a b c
(i) R= = =
2sin A 2sinB 2sin C
C s (s − c)
cos = abc
2 ab (ii) R= Where R is circumradius
4∆

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11. Incircle of a triangle and its radius : (iv) r1 + r2 + r3 – r = 4R



(iii) r= 1 1 1 1
s (v) r1 + r2 + r3 = r
A B C
(iv) r = (s – a) tan = (s – b) tan = (s – c) tan 1 1 1 1 a2 + b2 + c2
2 2 2
(vi) + + + =
r12 r22 r32 r2 ∆2
A B C
(v) r = 4R sin sin sin
2 2 2 1 1 1 1
(vii) + + =
bc ca ab 2Rr
r
(vi) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + (viii) r1r2 + r2r3 + r3r1 = s2
R
A B C
(ix) ∆ = 2R2 sin A sin B sin C = 4Rr cos cos cos
B C A C B A 2 2 2
a sin sin b sin sin c sin sin
(vii) r = 2 2 = 2 2 = 2 2
A B C B C C A
cos cos cos a cos cos b cos cos
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
(x) r1 = , r2 = ,
A B
cos cos
2 2
12. The radii of the escribed circles are given by :

∆ ∆ ∆ A B
(i) r1 = , r2 = , r3 = c cos cos
s−a s −b s−c 2 2
r3 =
C
A B C cos
(ii) r1 = s tan , r2 = s tan , r3 = s tan 2
2 2 2

A B C
(iii) r1 = 4R sin cos cos ,
2 2 2

A B C
r2 = 4R cos sin cos ,
2 2 2

A B C
r3 = 4R cos cos sin
2 2 2

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HEIGHT AND DISTANCE (ii) d = h (cotα – cotβ)

1. Angle of elevation and depression :


If an observer is at O and object is at P then ∠ XOP is h
called angle of elevation of P as seen from O.
α β
d

If an observer is at P and object is at O, then ∠ QPO is


called angle of depression of O as seen from P.
2. Some useful result :
(i) In any triangle ABC if AD : DB = m : n
∠ ACD = α , ∠ BCD = β & ∠ BDC = θ
then (m + n) cotθ = m cotα – ncot β

α β

A θ B
A m D n B

= ncotA – mcotB [m – n Theorem]

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(C) For circumcentre of a triangle :


POINT
Circumcentre of a triangle is equidistant from vertices
1. Distance formula :
i.e. PA = PB = PC.
Distance between two points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) is
Here P is circumcentre and PA is radius.
given by d(P, Q) = PQ
(i) Circumcentre of an acute angled triangle is in-
= (x 2 − x1)2 + (y2 − y1 )2 side the triangle.
(ii) Circumcentre of a right triangle is mid point of
= (Difference of x coordinate)2 + (Difference of y coordinate)2 the hypotenuse.
(iii) Circumcentre of an obtuse angled triangle is
Note : (i) d(P, Q) ≥ 0
outside the triangle.
(ii) d(P, Q) = 0 ⇔ P = Q
(iii) d(P, Q) = d(Q, P) 3. Section formula :
(iv) Distance of a point (x, y) from origin (i) Internally :
(0, 0) = x2 + y2 AP m
= = λ , Here λ > 0
BP n
2. Use of Distance Formula : m n
A(x 1 , y1 ) P B(x 2 , y2 )
(a) In Triangle :
Calculate AB, BC, CA FG mx + nx my 2 + ny1 IJ
H m+n K
2 1
(i) If AB = BC = CA, then ∆ is equilateral. P ,
m+n
(ii) If any two sides are equal then ∆ is isosceles.
(ii) Externally :
(iii) If sum of square of any two sides is equal to
the third, then ∆ is right triangle. m
(iv) Sum of any two equal to left third they do not AP m n
= = λ P
form a triangle BP n A(x 1, y 1 ) B(x 2, y 2 )
i.e. AB = BC + CA or BC = AC + AB
or AC = AB + BC. Here points are collinear. FG mx − nx my 2 − ny1 IJ
H m−n K
2 1
P ,
m−n
(b) In Parallelogram :
Calculate AB, BC, CD and AD. FG x + x2 y1 + y2 IJ
H K
1
(iii) Coordinates of mid point of PQ are ,
(i) If AB = CD, AD = BC, then ABCD is a parallelo- 2 2
gram.
(iv) The line ax + by + c = 0 divides the line joining the
(ii) If AB = CD, AD = BC and AC = BD, then ABCD points
is a rectangle.
(iii) If AB = BC = CD = AD, then ABCD is a rhombus. (ax1 + by + c)
(x1, y1) & (x2, y2) in the ratio = – (ax + by + c)
(iv) If AB = BC = CD = AD and AC = BD, then ABCD 2 2

is a square.

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5. Area of Polygon :
(v) For parallelogram – midpoint of diagonal AC = mid point
of diagonal BD Area of polygon having vertices (x 1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3)
........ (xn, yn) is given by area
FG x + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 IJ
H K
1
(vi) Coordinates of centroid G ,
3 3 x1 y1
(vii) Coordinates of incentre I x2 y2
FG ax + bx + cx ay + by 2 + cy 3 IJ x3 y3
H a+b+c K
1 2 3
, 1
a+b+c
1 M M
(viii) Coordinates of orthocentre are obtained by solving the = . Points must be taken in order.
2
equation of any two altitudes. xn yn
x1 y1
4. Area of Triangle :
The area of triangle ABC with vertices A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2)
6. Rotational Transformation :
and C(x3, y3).
If coordinates of any point P(x, y) with reference to new
x1 y1 1 axis will be (x', y') then

1 x2 y2 1
x B y B
∆= (Determinant method) x' → cosθ sinθ
2
x3 y3 1
y' → –sinθ cosθ

x1 y1 7. Some important points :


x2 y2 (i) Three pts. A, B, C are collinear, if area of triangle is
1 1 zero
= = [x y + x2y3 + x3y1 – x2y1 – x3y2 – x1y3]
2 x3 y3 2 1 2 (ii) Centroid G of ∆ABC divides the median AD or BE or CF in
the ratio 2 : 1
x1 y1
(iii) In an equilateral triangle, orthocentre, centroid,
[Stair method] circumcentre, incentre coincide.
Note : (iv) Orthocentre, centroid and circumcentre are always
collinear and centroid divides the line joining orthocentre
(i) Three points A, B, C are collinear if area of triangle
and circumcentre in the ratio 2 : 1
is zero.
(v) Area of triangle formed by coordinate axes & the line
(ii) If in a triangle point arrange in anticlockwise then
value of ∆ be +ve and if in clockwise then ∆ will be c2
–ve. ax + by + c = 0 is .
2ab

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STRAIGHT LINE (ix) Intercept form : Equation of a line making intercepts a


x y
1. Slope of a Line : The tangent of the angle that a line and b respectively on x-axis and y-axis is + = 1.
a b
makes with +ve direction of the x-axis in the anticlockwise (x) Parametric or distance or symmetrical form of the
sense is called slope or gradient of the line and is generally line : Equation of a line passing through (x1, y1) and
denoted by m. Thus m = tan θ .
π
(i) Slope of line || to x-axis is m = 0 making an angle θ , 0 ≤ θ ≤ π , θ ≠ with the
(ii) Slope of line || to y-axis is m = ∞ (not defined) 2
(iii) Slope of the line equally inclined with the axes is 1 +ve direction of x-axis is
or – 1 x − x1 y − y1
(iv) Slope of the line through the points A(x1, y1) and = = r
cos θ sinθ
y2 − y1 ⇒ x = x1 + r cos θ , y = y1 + r sin θ
B(x2, y2) is x − x .
2 1 Where r is the distance of any point P(x, y) on the
line from the point (x1, y1)
a (xi) Normal or perpendicular form : Equation of a line
(v) Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0, b ≠ 0 is –
b such that the length of the perpendicular from the
(vi) Slope of two parallel lines are equal. origin on it is p and the angle which the perpendicular
(vii) If m1 & m2 are slopes of two ⊥ lines then m1m2 = – 1. makes with the +ve direction of x-axis is α , is
x cos α + y sin α = p.
2. Standard form of the equation of a line :
(i) Equation of x-axis is y = 0 3. Angle between two lines :
(ii) Equation of y-axis is x = 0 (i) Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 & a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 are
(iii) Equation of a straight line || to x-axis at a distance a1 b1 c1
b from it is y = b (a) Parallel if a = b ≠ c
(iv) Equation of a straight line || to y-axis at a distance 2 2 2

a from it is x = a (b) Perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2 = 0


(v) Slope form : Equation of a line through the origin and a1 b1 c1
having slope m is y = mx. (c) Identical or coincident if a = b = c
(vi) Slope Intercept form : Equation of a line with slope m 2 2 2

and making an intercept c on the y-axis is y = mx + c.


a2b1 − a1b2
(vii) Point slope form : Equation of a line with slope m (d) If not above three, then θ = tan–1 a a − b b
and passing through the point (x1, y1) is 1 2 1 2

y – y1 = m(x – x1) (ii) Two lines y = m1 x + c and y = m2 x + c are


(viii) Two point form : Equation of a line passing through (a) Parallel if m1 = m2
the points (x1, y1) & (x2, y2) is (b) Perpendicular if m1m2 = –1
y − y1 x − x1 m1 − m2
y2 − y1 = x2 − x1 (c) If not above two, then θ = tan–1 1 + m m
1 2

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4. Position of a point with respect to a straight line : 12. Homogeneous equation : If y = m1x and y = m2x be the
The line L(xi, yi) i = 1, 2 will be of same sign or of opposite two equations
sign according to the point A(x1, y1) & B (x2, y2) lie on same represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 , then m1 + m2 = –2h/b
side or on opposite side of L (x, y) respectively. and m1m2 = a/b
5. Equation of a line parallel (or perpendicular) to the line
13. General equation of second degree :
ax + by + c = 0 is ax + by + c' = 0 (or bx – ay + λ = 0)
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represent a pair of
6. Equation of st. lines through (x1,y1) making an angle α
with y = mx + c is a h g
straight line if ∆ ≡ h b f =0
m ± tan α
y – y1 = (x – x1) g f c
1 m m tan α

7. length of perpendicular from (x1, y1) on ax + by + c = 0 If y = m1x + c & y = m2x + c represents two straight lines

|ax1 + by1 + c| −2h a


then m1 + m2 = , m1m2 = .
is b b
a2 + b2

8. Distance between two parallel lines ax + by + ci = 0, 14. Angle between pair of straight lines :
The angle between the lines represented by
|c1 − c 2|
i = 1, 2 is ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 or ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0
a2 + b2
2 h2 − ab
9. Condition of concurrency for three straight lines is tanθ = (a + b)
Li ≡ ai x + bi y + ci = 0, i = 1, 2, 3 is
(i) The two lines given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 are
a1 b1 c1
(a) Parallel and coincident iff h2 – ab = 0
a2 b2 c2 = 0
(b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0
a3 b3 c3 (ii) The two line given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c
= 0 are
10. Equation of bisectors of angles between two lines : (a) Parallel if h2 – ab = 0 & af2 = bg2
a1x + b1y + c1 a2 x + b2 y + c 2 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0
2
a +b 2 =± a22 + b22 (c) Coincident iff g2 – ac = 0
1 1

11. Family of straight lines : 13. Combined equation of angle bisector of the angle between
The general equation of family of straight line will be written the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is
in one parameter
2 2
The equation of straight line which passes through point of x −y xy
=
intersection of two given lines L1 and L2 can be taken as a−b h
L1 + λ L2 = 0

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CIRCLE 5. Concentric circles : Two circles having same centre C(h, k)


but different radii r1 & r2 respectively are called concentric
circles.
1. General equation of a circle : x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
where g, f and c are constants
(i) Centre of the cirle is (–g, –f) 6. Position of a point w.r.t. a circle : A point (x1, y1 ) lies
outside, on or inside a circle
FG − 1 coeff. of x, −1 coeff. of yIJ
i.e. H 2 2 K S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 according as
S1 ≡ x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c is +ve, zero or –ve
(ii) Radius is g2 + f 2 − c
7. Chord length (length of intercept) = 2 r2 − p2
2. Central (Centre radius) form of a circle :
(i) (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 , where (h, k) is circle centre and
r is the radius. 8. Intercepts made on coordinate axes by the circle :
(ii) x2 + y2 = r2 , where (0, 0) origin is circle centre and r is (i) x axis = 2 g2 − c
the radius.
(ii) y axis = 2 f 2 − c
3. Diameter form : If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are end pts. of a
diameter of a circle, then its equation is
(x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) = 0 9. Length of tangent = S1

4. Parametric equations :
(i) The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 = r2 are 10. Length of the intercept made by line : y = mx + c with the
x = rcosθ, y = r sinθ , circle x2 + y2 = a2 is

where point θ ≡ (r cos θ , r sin θ )


a2 (1 + m2 ) − c2
(ii) The parametric equations of the circle 2 or (1 + m2) |x1 – x2|
1 + m2
(x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 are x = h + rcosθ, y = k + rsinθ
(iii) The parametric equations of the circle
D
x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are where |x1 – x2| = difference of roots i.e.
a
x = –g + g2 + f 2 − c cosθ, y = –f + g2 + f 2 − c sinθ
(iv) For circle x2 + y2 = a2, equation of chord joining θ 1 & θ 2 is 11. Condition of Tangency : Circle x2 + y2 = a2 will touch the

θ1 + θ2 θ + θ2 θ − θ2 line y = mx + c if c = ±a 1 + m2
x cos + y sin 1 = r cos 1 .
2 2 2
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12. Equation of tangent, T = 0 : 15. The point of intersection of tangents drawn to the circle x2
(i) Equation of tangent to the circle + y2 = r2 at point θ 1 & θ 2 is given as

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point (x1, y1) is


F r cos θ + θ θ1 + θ 2 I
xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0 GG 1
2
2

,
r sin
2 JJ
(ii) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 at any GH cos 2
θ −θ
1 2
cos
θ1 − θ2
2
JK
point (x1, y1) is xx1 + yy1 = a2
(iii) In slope form : From the condition of tangency for
every value of m. 16. Equation of the chord of contact of the tangents drawn
from point P outside the circle is T = 0
The line y = mx ± a 1 + m2 is a tangent to the circle
x2 + y2 = a2 and its point of contact is 17. Equation of a chord whose middle pt. is given by T = S1

F I 18. Director circle : Equation of director circle for x2 + y2 = a2 is


GH ±am
1 + m2
,
±a
1 + m2
JK x2 + y2 = 2a2. Director circle is a concentric circle whose
radius is 2 times the radius of the given circle.
(iv) Equation of tangent at (a cos θ , a sin θ ) to the
circle x2 + y2 = a2 is x cos θ + y sin θ = a. 19. Equation of polar of point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the circle S = 0 is T = 0

20. Coordinates of pole : Coordinates of pole of the line


13. Equation of normal :
F −a l −a mI
2 2

are G n , n J
(i) Equation of normal to the circle
x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point P(x1, y1) is
lx + my + n = 0 w.r.t the circle x + y = a 2 2 2
H K
y1 + f
y – y1 = x + g (x – x1) 21. Family of Circles :
1
(i) S + λS' = 0 represents a family of circles passing through
(ii) Equation of normal to the circle x + y = a 2 2 2
at any the pts. of intersection of
point (x1, y1) is xy1 – x1y = 0 S = 0 & S' = 0 if λ ≠ –1
(ii) S + λ L = 0 represent a family of circles passing through
the point of intersection of S = 0 & L = 0
14. Equation of pair of tangents SS1 = T2 (iii) Equation of circle which touches the given straight line
L = 0 at the given point (x1, y1) is given as
(x – x1)2 + (y – y1)2 + λL = 0.

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(iv) Equation of circle passing through two points A(x1, y1) 25. Equation of tangent at point of contact of circle is
& B(x2, y2) is given as
S 1 – S2 = 0

x y 1
26. Radical axis and radical centre :
x1 y1 1 (i) Equation of radical axis is S – S1 = 0
(x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) + λ = 0.
x2 y2 1 (ii) The point of concurrency of the three radical axis of
three circles taken in pairs is called radical centre of
three circles.

22. Equation of Common Chord is S – S1 = 0.


27. Orthogonality condition :
If two circles S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
23. The angle θ of intersection of two circles with centres C1 and S' = x2 + y2 + 2g'x + 2f'y + c' = 0 intersect each other
& C2 and radii r1 & r2 is given by orthogonally, then 2gg' + 2ff' = c + c'.

r12 + r12 − d2
cosθ = 2r1r2 , where d = C1C2

24. Position of two circles : Let two circles with centres C1, C2
and radii r1, r2 .
Then following cases arise as
(i) C1 C2 > r1 + r2 ⇒ do not intersect or one outside the
other, 4 common tangents.
(ii) C1 C2 = r1 + r2 ⇒ Circles touch externally, 3 common
tangents.
(iii) |r1 – r2| < C1 C2 < r1 + r2 ⇒ Intersection at two real
points, 2 common tangents.
(iv) C1 C2 = |r1 – r2| ⇒ internal touch, 1 common tangent.
(v) C1 C2 < |r1 + r2| ⇒ one inside the other, no tangent.

Note : Point of contact divides C1 C2 in the ratio r1 : r2


internally or externally as the case may be

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PARABOLA
1. Standard Parabola :
Imp. Terms y2 = 4ax y2 = – 4ax x2 = 4ay x2 = – 4ay
Vertex (v) (0, 0) (0, 0) (0, 0) (0, 0)
Focus (f) (a, 0) (–a, 0) (0, a) (0, –a)
Directrix (D) x = –a x = a y = –a y = a
Axis y = 0 y = 0 x = 0 x = 0
L.R. 4a 4a 4a 4a y2 = – 4ax
Focal x + a a – x y + a a – y
distance
Parametric (at2, 2at) (– at2, 2at) (2at, at2) (2at, – at2)
Coordinates
Parametric x = at2 x = – at2 x = 2at x = 2at
Equations y = 2at y = 2at y = 2at2 y = – at2

x2 = 4ay

y2 = 4ax

x2 = – 4ay

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2. Special Form of Parabola 4. Equations of tangent in different forms :


* Parabola which has vertex at (h, k), latus rectum l (i) Point Form / Parametric form
and axis parallel to x-axis is
Equations of tangent of all other standard parabolas
(y – k)2 = l (x – h)
at (x1, y1) / at t (parameter)
FGh + l , kIJ Equation Tangent at Parametric Tangent of 't'
⇒ axis is y = k and focus at H 4 K of parabola (x 1, y1) coordinates't'
y 2=4ax yy 1 =2a(x+x1 ) (at2, 2at) ty=x+at2
* Parabola which has vertex at (h, k), latus rectum l and y 2 =–4ax yy 1=–2a(x+x 1 ) (–at2, 2at) ty=–x+at2
axis parallel to y-axis is x =4ay
2
xx 1 =2a(y+y1 ) (2at, at )
2
tx=y + at2
(x – h)2 = l (y – k) x 2 =–4ay xx 1=–2a(y+y 1 ) (2at, –at2) tx =–y+at2

FGh, k + l IJ
⇒ axis is x = h and focus at H 4K (ii) Slope form
* Equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = y represents Equations of tangent of all other parabolas in slope
parabola. form
Equation Point of Equations Condition of
4ac − b2 b FG IJ 2
of contact in of tangent Tangency
i.e. y –
4a
= a x+
2a H K ,with vertex parabolas terms of
slope(m)
in terms of
slope (m)

F − b , 4ac − b I 2
FG a IJ
GH 2a 4a JK and axes parallel to y-axis y2 = 4ax
Hm 2
,
2a
m K y = mx +
a
m
c =
a
m

FG − a 2a IJ a a
Note : Parametric equation of parabola (y – k)2
= 4a(x – h) are x = h + at2, y = k + 2at
y2 = – 4ax
H m 2
,
m K y = mx –
m
c = –
m
x2 = 4ay (2am, am2) y = mx – am2 c = –am2
3. Position of a point (x1, y1) and a line w.r.t. parabola x 2
= – 4ay (–2am, –am ) 2
y = mx + am 2
c = am2
y2 = 4ax.
* The point (x1, y1) lies outside, on or inside the
5. Point of intersection of tangents at any two points
parabola y2 = 4ax
according as y12 – 4ax1 >, = or < 0 P(at12, 2at1) and Q(at22, 2at2) on the parabola y2 = 4ax
* The line y = mx + c does not intersect, touches, is (at1t2, a(t1 + t2)) i.e. (a(G.M.)2, a(2A.M.))
intersect a parabola y2 = 4ax according as
c > = < a/m 6. Combined equation of the pair of tangents drawn from a
point to a parabola is SS' = T2, where S = y2 – 4ax,
Note : Condition of tangency for parabola y2 = 4ax, we
have c = a/m and for other parabolas check disc. D = 0. S' = y12 – 4ax1 and T = yy1 – 2a(x + x1)

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Note :
7. Equations of normal in different forms
(i) In circle normal is radius itself.
(i) Point Form / Parametric form (ii) Sum of ordinates (y coordinate) of foot of normals
Equations of normals of all other standard parabolas through a point is zero.
at (x1, y1) / at t (parameter) (iii) The centroid of the triangle formed by taking the foot
Eqn. of Normal Point Normals
of normals as a vertices of concurrent normals of
parabola at (x1, y1) 't' at 't'
y2 = 4ax lies on x-axis.

−y1
y2 = 4ax y–y1 = (x–x1) (at2, 2at) y+tx = 2at+at3 8. Condition for three normals from a point (h, 0) on x-axis
2a
to parabola y2 = 4ax
(i) We get 3 normals if h > 2a
y1
y2 = –4ax y–y1 = (x–x1) (–at2, 2at) y–tx = 2at+at3 (ii) We get one normal if h ≤ 2a.
2a
(iii) If point lies on x-axis, then one normal will be x-axis
itself.
2a
x2 = 4ay y–y1 = – (x–x1) (2at, at2) x+ty = 2at+at3
x1 9. (i) If normal of y2 = 4ax at t1 meet the parabola again
2
at t2 then t2 = – t1 – t1
2a
x2 = –4ay y–y1 = (x–x1) (2at, –at2) x–ty = 2at+at3
x1 (ii) The normals to y2 = 4ax at t1 and t2 intersect each
other at the same parabola at t3, then
t1t2 = 2 and t3 = – t1 – t2
(ii) Slope form
10. (i) Equation of focal chord of parabola y2 = 4ax at t1 is
Equations of normal, point of contact, and condition
of normality in terms of slope (m) 2t1
y = (x – a)
Eqn. of Point of Equations Condition of t12 −1
parabola contact of normal Normality If focal chord of y2 = 4ax cut (intersect) at t1 and
y2 = 4ax (am2, –2am) y = mx–2am–am3 c = –2am–am3 t2 then t1t2 = – 1 (t1 must not be zero)
y 2
= – 4ax (–am2, 2am) y = mx+2am+am3 c = am+am3 (ii) Angle formed by focal chord at vertex of parabola is

FG − 2a , a IJ a a tan θ =
2
|t2 – t1|
x2 = 4ay
H m mK 2 y = mx+2a+
m 2 c = 2a+
m 2 3
(iii) Intersecting point of normals at t1 and t2 on the
FG 2a , − a IJ a a parabola y2 = 4ax is
x2 = –4ay Hm m K 2 y = mx–2a– 2
m
c = –2a–
m2 (2a + a(t12 + t22 + t1t2), – at1t2 (t1 + t2))

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11. Equation of chord of parabola y2 = 4ax which is bisected (v) Angle included between focal radius of a point and
at (x1, y1) is given by T = S1 perpendicular from a point to directrix will be bisected
of tangent at that point also the external angle will
12. The locus of the mid point of a system of parallel chords be bisected by normal.
2a (vi) Intercepted portion of a tangent between the point
of a parabola is called its diameter. Its equation is y = . of tangency and directrix will make right angle at
m
focus.
13. Equation of polar at the point (x1, y1) with respect to (vii) Circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will
parabola y2 = 4ax is same as chord of contact and is given touch tangent at vertex.
by (viii) Circle drawn on any focal chord as diameter will touch
T = 0 i.e. yy1 = 2a(x + x1) directrix.
Coordinates of pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the

FG n , −2amIJ
parabola y2 = 4ax is Hl l K

14. Diameter : It is locus of mid point of set of parallel chords


and equation is given by T = S1

15. Important results for Tangent :


(i) Angle made by focal radius of a point will be twice
the angle made by tangent of the point with axis of
parabola
(ii) The locus of foot of perpendicular drop from focus to
any tangent will be tangent at vertex.
(iii) If tangents drawn at ends point of a focal chord are
mutually perpendicular then their point of intersection
will lie on directrix.
(iv) Any light ray travelling parallel to axis of the parabola
will pass through focus after reflection through
parabola.

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ELLIPSE Note : If P is any point on ellipse and length of perpendiculars


from to minor axis and major axis are p1 & p2, then |xp|
= p1 , |yp| = p2
1. Standard Ellipse (e < 1)
p12 p22
Ellipse R|S x2
y 2 U|
= 1V

a2
+
b2
= 1

T| a W|
2
+
b2

Imp. terms
For a > b For b > a
Centre (0, 0) (0, 0)
Vertices (±a, 0) (0, ±b)
Length of major axis 2a 2b
Length of minor axis 2b 2a
Foci (±ae, 0) (0, ±be)
Equation of directrices x = ±a/e y = ±b/e a > b
Relation in a, b and e b2 = a2(1 – e2) a2 = b2(1 – e2)
Length of latus rectum 2b2/a 2a2/b

F ±ae, ± b I 2 F ± a , ± beI
2

Ends of latus rectum GH a JK GH b JK


Parametric coordinates (a cos φ , b sin φ ) (a cos φ , b sin φ )

0 ≤ φ < 2π

Focal radii SP = a – ex1 SP = b – ey1


S'P = a + ex1 S'P = b + ey1
Sum of focal radii SP + S'P = 2a 2b
Distance bt n
foci 2ae 2be b > a
Distance btn directrices 2a/e 2b/e

Tangents at the vertices x = –a, x = a y = b, y = – b

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2. Special form of ellipse : (ii) Slope form : If the line y = mx + c touches the
If the centre of an ellipse is at point (h, k) and the
directions of the axes are parallel to the coordinate axes, x2 y2
ellipse + = 1, then c2 = a2m2 + b2. Hence, the
a2 b2

then its equation is


cx − hh 2

+
(y − k)2
= 1.
b2 straight line y = mx ± a2m2 + b2 always represents
a2
the tangents to the ellipse.
Point of contact :
3. Auxillary Circle : The circle described by taking centre of
an ellipse as centre and major axis as a diameter is called Line y = mx ± a2m2 + b2 touches the ellipse
an auxillary circle of the ellipse.
F ±a2m ±b2 I
If
x2
a2
+
y2
b2
= 1 is an ellipse then its auxillary circle is
x2
a2
+
y2
b2
= 1 at GH a2m2 + b2
,
a2m2 + b2
JK .
x2 + y2 = a2. (iii) Parametric form : The equation of tangent at any
Note : Ellipse is locus of a point which moves in such a
point (a cos φ , b sin φ ) is
way that it divides the normal of a point on diameter of
a point of circle in fixed ratio. x y
cos φ + sin φ = 1.
a b
4. Position of a point and a line w.r.t. an ellipse :
* The point lies outside, on or inside the ellipse if
6. Equation of pair of tangents from (x1, y1) to an ellipse
x12 y12
S1 = 2 + 2 – 1 > , = or < 0 x2 y2
a b + = 1 is given by SS1 = T2
a2 b2
* The line y = mx + c does not intersect, touches,
intersect, the ellipse if
a2m2 + b2 < = > c2 7. Equation of normal in different forms :
(i) Point form : The equation of the normal at (x1, y1)
5. Equation of tangent in different forms :
(i) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the x2 y2
to the ellipse 2 + = 1 is
2 2 a b2
x y
ellipse + = 1 at the point (x1, y1) is
a2 b2
a2 x b2x
– = a2 – b2.
xx1 yy1 x1 y1
+ = 1.
a2 b2

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(ii) Parametric form : The equation of the normal to the (v) Sum of square of intercept made by auxillary circle on
any two perpendicular tangents of an ellipse will be
x2 y2 constant.
ellipse + = 1 at (a cos φ , b sin φ ) is
a2 b2
(vi) If a light ray originates from one of focii, then it will
ax sec φ – by cosec φ = a – b . 2 2 pass through the other focus after reflection from
ellipse.
(iii) Slope form : If m is the slope of the normal to the

x2 y2 9. Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from


ellipse + = 1, then the equation of normal
a2 b2 the external point (x1, y1) to an ellipse is given by

m (a2 − b2 ) xx1 yy1


is y = mx ± . 2 + = 0 i.e. T = 0.
a2 + b2m2 a b2

The co-ordinates of the point of contact are

F ±a2 ±mb2 I x2 y2
GH a2 + b2m2
,
a2 + b2m2
JK . 10. The equation of a chord of an ellipse
a2
+
b2
= 1 whose

mid point is (x1, y1) is T = S1.


Note : In general three normals can be drawn from a point

x2 y2
(x1, y1) to an ellipse + = 1. 11. Equation of chord joining the points (a cos θ , b sin θ ) and
a2 b2
x2 y2
(a cos φ , b sin φ ) on the ellipse + = 1 is
a2 b2
8. Properties of tangents & normals :
(i) Product of length of perpendicular from either focii to
x θ+φ y θ+φ θ−φ
any tangent to the ellipse will be equal to square of cos + sin = cos
a 2 b 2 2
semi minor axis.
(ii) The locus of foot of perpendicular drawn from either (i) Relation between eccentric angles of focal chord
focii to any tangent lies on auxillary circle.
θ1 θ2 ±e − 1
(iii) The circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will ⇒ tan , tan =
2 2 1±e
touch auxillary circle.
(iv) The protion of the tangent intercepted between the (ii) Sum of feet of eccentric angles is odd π.
point and directrix makes right angle at corresponding i.e. θ 1 + θ 2 + θ 3 + θ 4 = (2n + 1) π .
focus.

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12. Equation of polar of the point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the ellipse (c) If CP, CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of

x2 y2 xx1 yy1 x2 y2
+ = 1 is given by + = 0 i.e. T = 0. the ellipse + = 1 and S, S' be two foci
a2 b2 a2 b2 a2 b2
The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the ellipse of the ellipse, then SP.S'P = CQ2

x2 y2 F −a l , −b nI
2 2
(d) The tangents at the ends of a pair of conjugate

a2
+
b2
= 1 is GH n n JK . diameters of an ellipse form a parallelogram.

15. The area of the parallelogram formed by the tangents at


13. Eccentric angles of the extremities of latus rectum of the the ends of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is constant

x2 y2 FG ± b IJ . and is equal to the product of the axis i.e. 4ab.


ellipse
a 2 +
b2 = 1 are tan–1 H aeK 16. Length of subtangent and subnormal at p(x1, y1) to the
14. (i) Equation of the diameter bisecting the chords of ellipse
x2 y2
slope in the ellipse + = 1 is x2 y2 a2
a2 b2 + = 1 is – x1 & (1 – e2) x1
a2 b2 x1
b2
y = – x
a2m
(ii) Conjugate Diameters : The straight lines y = m1x,
y = m2x are conjugate diameters of the ellipse

x2 y2 b2
+ = 1 if m1m2 = – .
a2 b2 a2
(iii) Properties of conjugate diameters :
(a) If CP and CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters
x2 y2
of the ellipse + = 1, then
a2 b2
CP2 + CQ2 = a2 + b2
(b) If θ and φ are the eccentric angles of the
extremities of two conjugate diameters, then
π
θ – φ = ±
2

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HYPERBOLA

1. Standard Hyperbola :

Hyperbola x2 y2 x2 y2
– = 1 – + = 1
a2 b2 a2 b2

x2 y2
Imp. terms or – = – 1
a2 b2
Centre (0, 0) (0, 0)
Length of
transverse axis 2a 2b
Length of
conjugate axis 2b 2a
Foci (±ae, 0) (0, ±be)
Hyperbola
Equation of
directrices x = ±a/e y = ± b/e

Fa + b I
2 2 Fa + b I
2 2
Eccentricity e = GH a JK2 e = GH b JK 2

Length of L.R. 2b2/a 2a2/b


Parametric
co-ordinates (a sec φ , b tan φ ) (b sec φ , a tan φ )

0 ≤ φ < 2π 0 ≤ φ < 2π
Focal radii SP = ex1 – a SP = ey1 – b
S'P = ex1 + a S'P = ey1 + b
S'P – SP 2a 2b
Tangents at
the vertices x = – a, x = a y = – b, y = b
Equation of the y = 0 x = 0
transverse axis
Conjugate Hyperbola
Equation of the x = 0 y = 0
conjugate axis

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2. Special form of hyperbola : (b) Parametric form : The equation of tangent to the
If the centre of hyperbola is (h, k) and axes are parallel hyperbola
to the co-ordinate axes, then its equation is
x2 y2
(x − h)2 (y − k)2 – = 1 at (a sec φ , b tan φ ) is
a2 b2
– = 1.
a2 b2
x y
sec φ – tan φ = 1.
a b
3. Parametric equations of hyperbola :
(c) Slope form : The equations of tangents of slope m
The equations x = a sec φ and y = b tan φ are known to the hyperbola
x2 y2 x2 y2
as the parametric equations of hyperbola – = 1 – = 1 are y = mx ±
a2
b2
a2 b2 a2m2 − b2 and the

co-ordinates of points of contacts are


4. Position of a point and a line w.r.t. a hyperbola :
F± a2m b2 I
The point (x1, y1) lies inside, on or outside the hyperbola
GH a2m2 − b2

a2m2 − b2
JK .
x2 y2
– = 1
a2 b2
6. Equation of pair of tangents from (x1, y1) to the hyperbola
x12 y12
according as
a2
– – 1 is +ve, zero or –ve. x2 y2
b2 – = 1 is given by SS1 = T2
a2 b2
The line y = mx + c does not intersect, touches, intersect
the hyperbola
7. Equations of normals in different forms :
according as c2 <, =, > a2m2 – b2.
(a) Point form : The equation of normal to the hyperbola

5. Equations of tangents in different forms : x2 y2 a2 x b2y


(a) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the – = 1 at (x1, y1) is + = a2 + b2.
a2 b2 x1 y1
x2 y2 (b) Parametric form : The equation of normal at
hyperbola – = 1
a2 b2 (a sec θ , b tan θ ) to the hyperbola

xx1 yy1 x2 y2
at (x1, y1) is 2 – 2 = 1. – = 1 is ax cos θ + by cot θ = a2 + b2
a b a2 b2

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(c) Slope form : The equation of the normal to the 11. Equation of chord joining the points P(a sec φ 1, b tan φ 1)
x2 y2 and Q(a sec φ 2, b tan φ 2) is
hyperbola 2 – 2 = 1 in terms of the slope m of
a b
x FG φ − φ2 IJ y FG φ + φ2 IJ FG φ IJ
+ φ2
H K H K H K
1 1 1
2
m (a + b ) 2 cos – sin = cos .
a 2 b 2 2
the normal is y = mx m
a2 − b2m2
(d) Condition for normality : If y = mx + c is the normal 12. Equation of polar of the point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the hyperbola
is given by T = 0.
x2 y2
of – = 1, The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t.
a2 b2

x2 y2 F − a l , b mI
2 2

then c = m
m (a2 + b2 )
or c2 =
m(a2 + b2 )2
, which a2
–
b2
= 1 is GH n n JK
a2 − b2m2 (a2 − m2b2)
is condition of normality.
(e) Points of contact : Co-ordinates of points of contact 13. The equation of a diameter of the hyperbola

F± a2 mb2 I x2 y2 b2
are GH a2 − b2m2
,m
a2 − b2m2
JK . a2
–
b2
= 1 is y =
a2m
x.

8. The equation of director circle of hyperbola 14. The diameters y = m1x and y = m2x are conjugate if

x2 y2 b2
– = 1 is x + y = a – b .
2 2 2 2 m1m2 =
a2 b2 a2

9. Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from 15. Asymptotes of a hyperbola :
the external point (x1, y1) to the hyperbola is given by * The equations of asymptotes of the hyperbola
xx1 yy1
– = 1. x2 y2 b
a2 b2 – = 1 are y = ± x.
a2 b2 a

Asymptote to a curve touches the curve at infinity.


x2 y2
10. The equation of chord of the hyperbola – = 1 * The asymptote of a hyperbola passes through the
a2 b2
centre of the hyperbola.
whose mid point is (x1, y1) is T = S1.

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* The combined equation of the asymptotes of the * Equation of tangent at (x1, y1) to xy

x2 y2 x2 y2
hyperbola – = 1 is – = 0. x y
a2 b2 a2 b2 = c2 is x + y = 2.
1 1
* The angle between the asymptotes of
Equation of tangent at t is x + yt2 = 2ct
2 2 2
x y y
2 – 2 = 1 is 2 tan–1 or 2 sec–1 e. * Equation of normal at (x1, y1) to xy = c2 is
a b b2

* A hyperbola and its conjugate hyperbola have the xx1 – yy1 = x12 – y12
same asymptotes. * Equation of normal at t on xy = c2 is
* The bisector of the angles between the asymptotes
are the coordinate axes. xt3 – yt – ct4 + c = 0.

* Equation of hyperbola – Equation of asymptotes = (This results shows that four normal can be drawn
Equation of asymptotes – Equation of conjugate from a point to the hyperbola xy = c2)
hyperbola = constant.
* If a triangle is inscribed in a rectangular hyperbola
then its orthocentre lies on the hyperbola.
16. Rectangular or Equilateral Hyperbola :
* A hyperbola for which a = b is said to be rectangular * Equation of chord of the hyperbola xy = c2 whose
hyperbola, its equation is x2 – y2 = a2 middle point is given is T = S1

* xy = c2 represents a rectangular hyperbola with * Point of intersection of tangents at t1 & t2 to the


asymptotes x = 0, y = 0. F 2c t t I
hyperbola xy = c2 is GH t + t
1
1 2

2
,
2c
t1 + t 2
JK
* Eccentricity of rectangular hyperbola is
2 and angle
between asymptotes of rectangular hyperbola is 90º.

* Parametric equation of the hyperbola xy = c2 are

c
x = ct, y = , where t is a parameter.
t

* Equation of chord joining t1, t2 on xy = c2 is

x + y t1t2 = c(t1 + t2)

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MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY 3. Geometric Mean :


AND DISPERSION (i) For ungrouped data
G.M. = (x1 x2 x3 .....xn)1/n
1. Arithmetic mean : F1 I n

G.M. = antilog G n ∑ log x J


(i) For ungrouped data (individual series) x = or
H K i =1
i

n
x1 + x2 +......+ xn Σ xi (ii) For grouped data
= i=1
n(no. of terms) n
n
∑f
1

(ii) For grouped data (continuous series)


e
G.M. = x1f1 x2f2 .... xnfn j N , where N =
i= 1
i

n
F f log x I
n

(a) Direct method x =


Σ fixi
i =1
, where xi , i = 1 .... n GG ∑ JJ i i

= antilog G
GH ∑ f JJK
n i =1
Σ fi n
i=1
i
be n observations and fi be their corresponding i= 1

frequencies

Σfidi 4. Harmonic Mean - Harmonic Mean is reciprocal of arith-


(b) short cut method : x = A + Σf , metic mean of reciprocals.
i

where A = assumed mean, di = xi – A = deviation n


(i) For ungrouped data H.M. =
for each term n
1
∑x
i=1 i

2. Properties of A.M.
(i) In a statistical data, the sum of the deviation of items n

from A.M. is always zero. ∑f i

Ff I
i= 1
(ii) If each of the n given observation be doubled, then (ii) For grouped data H.M. = n
their mean is doubled ∑ GH x JK
i =1
i

i
(iii) If x is the mean of x1, x2, ...... xn. The mean of ax1, ax2
.....axn is a x where a is any number different from
zero. 5. Relation between A.M., G.M and H.M.
(iv) Arithmetic mean is independent of origin i.e. it is x A.M. ≥ G.M. ≥ H.M.
effected by any change in origin. Equality holds only when all the observations in the series
are same.

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6. Median : (ii) For series in descending order


(a) Individual series (ungrouped data) : If data is raw,
FG N − CIJ
arrange in ascending or descending order and n be
the no. of observations. Median = u -
H2 K × i
f
FG n + 1IJ th
where u = upper limit of median class.
If n is odd, Median = Value of
H 2 K observation

1 FG nIJ + value of
th 7. Mode :
If n is even, Median =
2
[Value of
H 2K (i) For individual series : In the case of individual series,
the value which is repeated maximum number of times

FG n + 1IJ ] observation.
th is the mode of the series.

H2 K (ii) For discrete frequency distribution series : In the case


of discrete frequency distribution, mode is the value of
the variate corresponding to the maximum frequency.
(b) Discrete series : First find cumulative frequencies of (iii) For continuous frequency distribution : first find the
the variables arranged in ascending or descending model class i.e. the class which has maximum frequency.
order and
For continuous series
FG n + 1IJ th
LM f − f OP
Median =
H 2 K observation, where n is cumulative 1 0

frequency.
Mode = l 1 +
N2f − f − f Q
1 0 2
× i

(c) Continuous distribution (grouped data) Where l 1 = Lower limit of the model class.
(i) For series in ascending order f1 = Frequency of the model class.

FG N − CIJ f0 = Frequency of the class preceding model

Median = l +
H2 K × i
class.
f2 = Frequency of the class succeeding model
f
class.
Where l = Lower limit of the median class. i = Size of the model class.
f = Frequency of the median class.
N = Sum of all frequencies.
8. Relation between Mean, Mode & Median :
i = The width of the median class
(i) In symmetrical distribution : Mean = Mode = Median
C = Cumulative frequency of the
class preceding to median class. (ii) In Moderately symmetrical distribution : Mode = 3 Me-
dian – 2 Mean

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Measure of Dispersion : fi = Frequency of the corresponding xi


The degree to which numerical data tend to spread about N = Σ f = Total frequency
an average value is called variation or dispersion. (ii) Short cut method
Popular methods of measure of dispersion.
Σfd2 FG IJ
Σfd
2
Σd2 FG IJ
Σd
2

1. Mean deviation : The arithmetic average of deviations σ =


N

N H K or σ=
N

H K
N
from the mean, median or mode is known as mean deviation.
(a) Individual series (ungrouped data) Where d = x – A = Derivation from assumed mean A
f = Frequency of item (term)
Σ|x − S| N = Σf = Total frequency.
Mean deviation =
n
Where n = number of terms, S = deviation of variate Variance – Square of standard direction
from mean mode, median.
i.e. variance = (S.D.)2 = (σ)2
(b) Continuous series (grouped data).
Coefficient of variance = Coefficient of S.D. × 100
Σ f | x − s| Σf |x − s|
Mean deviation = = σ
Σf N = × 100
x
Note : Mean deviation is the least when measured from the
median.

2. Standard Deviation :
S.D. (σ) is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the
squares of the deviations of the terms from their A.M.
(a) For individual series (ungrouped data)

Σ(x − x)2
σ = where x = Arithmetic mean of
N
the series
N = Total frequency
(b) For continuous series (grouped data)

Σfi (xi − x)2


(i) Direct method σ =
N
Where x = Arithmetic mean of series
xi = Mid value of the class

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MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 4. Trace of a matrix : Sum of the elements in the principal
diagonal is called the trace of a matrix.

MATRICES : trace (A ± B) = trace A ± trace B


1. Matrix - A system or set of elements arranged in a rectan- trace kA = k trace A
gular form of array is called a matrix.
trace A = trace AT
trace In = n when In is identity matrix.
2. Order of matrix : If a matrix A has m rows & n columns then
A is of order m × n. trace On = O On is null matrix.
The number of rows is written first and then number of col- trace AB ≠ trace A trace B.
umns. Horizontal line is row & vertical line is column

5. Addition & subtraction of matrices : If A and B are two


3. Types of matrices : A matrix A = (aij)m×n
matrices each of order same, then A + B (or A – B) is defined
A matrix A = (aij)mxn over the field of complex numbers is
said to be and is obtained by adding (or subtracting) each element of B
from corresponding element of A
Name Properties
A row matrix if m = 1
A column matrix if n = 1 6. Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar :
A rectangular matrix if m ≠ n KA = K (aij)m×n = (Ka)m×n where K is constant.
A square matrix if m = n Properties :
A null or zero matrix if aij = 0 ∀ i j. It is denoted by O. (i) K(A + B) = KA + KB
A diagonal matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j.
(ii) (K1 K2)A = K1(K2 A) = K2(K1A)
A scalar matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j
(iii) (K1 + K2)A = K1A + K2A
= k for i = j
i.e. a11 = a22 ....... = ann = k (cons.)
Identity or unit matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j 7. Multiplication of Matrices : Two matrices A & B can be
= 1 for i = j multiplied only if the number of columns in A is same as the
Upper Triangular matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i > j number of rows in B.
Lower Triangular matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i < j Properties :
Symmetric matrix if m = n and aij = aji for all i, j (i) In general matrix multiplication is not commutative i.e.
or AT = A AB ≠ BA.
Skew symmetric matrix if m = n and aij = – aji ∀ i, j
(ii) A(BC) = (AB)C [Associative law]
or AT = – A

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(iii) A.(B + C) = AB + AC [Distributive law] DETERMINANT :

(iv) If AB = AC ⇒
/ B=C 1. Minor & cofactor : If A = (aij)3×3, then minor of a11 is

(v) If AB = 0, then it is not necessary A = 0 or B = 0 a22 a23


M11 = a a33 and so.
(vi) AI = A = IA 32

(vii) Matrix multiplication is commutative for +ve integral


cofactor of an element aij is denoted by Cij or Fij and is equal
i.e. Am+1 = Am A = AAm
to (–1)i+j Mij
or Cij = Mij, if i = j
8. Transpose of a matrix :
= –Mij, if i ≠ j
A' or A T is obtained by interchanging rows into columns or
Note : |A| = a11F11 + a12 F12 + a13 F13
columns into rows
and a11 F21 + a12 F22 + a13 F23 = 0
Properties :
2. Determinant : if A is a square matrix then determinant of
(i) (AT)T = A matrix is denoted by det A or |A|.
(ii) (A ± B)T = AT ± BT expansion of determinant of order 3 × 3
(iii) (AB) = B A
T T T

(iv) (KA)T = KAT a1 b1 c1


b2 c2 a2 c2 a2 b2
a2 b2 c2
(v) IT = I ⇒ = a1 b c3 –b 1 a3 c3 + c1 a3 b3
a3 b3 c3 3

9. Some special cases of square matrices : A square matrix


is called b1 c1 a1 c1 a1 b1
or = –a2 b c3 + b 2 a3 c3 – c2 a3 b3
3
(i) Orthogonal matrix : if AAT = In = ATA
(ii) Idempotent matrix : if A2 = A Properties :
(iii) Involutory matrix : if A = I 2
or A –1
=A (i) |AT| = |A|

(iv) Nilpotent matrix : if ∃ p ∈ N such that Ap = 0 (ii) By interchanging two rows (or columns), value of de-
terminant differ by –ve sign.
(v) Hermitian matrix : if Aθ = A i.e. aij = a ji
(iii) If two rows (or columns) are identical then |A| = 0
(vi) Skew - Hermitian matrix : if A = –Aθ
(iv) |KA| = Kn det A, A is matrix of order n × n

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(v) If same multiple of elements of any row (or column) of Properties :


a determinant are added to the corresponding elements (i) A(adj A) = (adjA) A = |A|In
of any other row (or column), then the value of the (ii) |adj A| = |A|n–1
new determinant remain unchanged.
(iii) (adjAB) = (adjB) (adjA)
(vi) Determinant of :
(iii) (adj AT) = (adjA)T
(a) A nilpotent matrix is 0.
(iv) adj(adjA) = |A|n–2
(b) An orthogonal matrix is 1 or – 1
(v) (adj KA) = Kn–1(adj A)
(c) A unitary matrix is of modulus unity.
(d) A Hermitian matrix is purely real.
2. Inverse of a matrix :
(e) An identity matrix is one i.e. |In| = 1, where In is a
(i) A–1 exists if A is non singular i.e. |A| ≠ 0
unit matrix of order n.
(f) A zero matrix is zero i.e. |0n| = 0, where 0n is a zero adjA
matrix of order n (ii) A–1 = , |A| ≠ 0
| A|
(g) A diagonal matrix = product of its diagonal elements.
(iii) A–1A = In = A A–1
(h) Skew symmetric matrix of odd order is zero.
(iv) (AT)–1 = (A–1)T
(v) (A–1)–1 = A
3. Multiplication of two determinants :
Multiplication of two second order determinants is defined as 1
(vi) |A–1| = |A|–1 =
follows. | A|

(vii) If A & B are invertible square matrices then


a1 b1 l1 m1 a1l1 + b1l2 a1m1 + b1m2
a2 b2 × l2 m2 = a2 l1 + b2 l2 a2m1 + b2m2 (AB)–1 = B–1 A–1

If order is different then for their multiplication, express them


3. Rank of a matrix :
firstly in the same order.
A non zero matrix A is said to have rank r, if
(i) Every square sub matrix of order (r + 1) or more is
MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS :
singular
1. Adjoint of a matrix :
(ii) There exists at least one square submatrix of order r
adj A = (Cij)T , where Cij is cofactor of aij which is non singular.

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4. Homogeneous & non homogeneous system of linear


(b) Solution of homogeneous system of linear equa-
equations :
tions :
A system of equations Ax = B is called a homogeneous sys-
tem if B = 0. If B ≠ 0, then it is called non homogeneous The homogeneous system Ax = B, B = 0 of n equations
system equations. in n variables is
(i) Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and
5. (a) Solution of non homogeneous system of linear for each i = 1, 2, ......... n
equations : xi = 0 is called trivial solution.
(i) Cramer's rule : Determinant method (ii) Consistent (with infinitely many solution),
The non homogeneous system Ax = B, B ≠ 0 of n if |A| = 0
equations in n variables is -
(a) |A| = |Ai| = 0 (for determinant method)
Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and
for each i = 1, 2, ........ n, (b) |A| = 0, (adj A) B = 0 (for matrix method)
NOTE : A homogeneous system of equations is never
det A i
xi = , where Ai is the matrix obtained inconsistent.
det A
from A by replacing ith column with B.
Inconsistent (with no solution) if |A| = 0 and
at least one of the det (Ai) is non zero.
Consistent (With infinite many solution), if
|A| = 0 and all det (Ai) are zero.

(ii) Matrix method :


The non homogeneous system Ax = B, B ≠ 0 of
n equations in n variables is -
Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 i.e.
if A is non singular, x = A–1 B.
Inconsistent (with no solution), if |A| = 0 and
(adj A) B is a non null matrix.
Consistent (with infinitely many solutions), if
|A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a null matrix.

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FUNCTION Properties :

1. Modulus function : (i) loga 1 = 0


(ii) loga a = 1
R|x, x > 0
|x| = S−x, x < 0
|T0, x = 0 (iii) aloga b = b

if k > 0, k = blogb k
Properties :
(i) |x| ≠ ± x (iv) loga b1 + loga b2 + ...... + loga bn = loga (b1 b2 ........bn)
(ii) |xy| = |x||y|
FG bIJ
(iii)
x
=
|x| (v) loga H cK = loga b – loga c
y |y|
(vi) Base change formulae
(iv) |x + y| ≤ |x| + |y|
(v) |x – y| ≥ |x| – |y| or ≤ |x| + |y| logc b 1
loga b = log a or loga b = log a
(vi) ||a| – |b|| ≤ |a – b| for equality a.b ≥ 0. c b
(vii) If a > 0
|x| = a ⇒ x=±a n
(vii) logam bn = loga b
|x| = –a ⇒ no solution m
|x| > a ⇒ x < – a or x > a
1 FG IJ
|x| ≤ a
|x| < –a
⇒ –a ≤ x ≤ a
⇒ No solution.
(viii) loga b H K = – loga b = log1/a b

|x| > –a ⇒ x∈R


FG bIJ FG c IJ
2. Logarithmic Function :
(ix) log1/a H cK = loga H bK
(i) logb a to be defined a > 0, b > 0, b ≠ 1 (x) alogb c = clogb a
(ii) loga b = c ⇒ b=a c

(iii) loga b > c


⇒ b > ac, a>1 3. Greatest Integer function :
or b < ac, 0<a<1 f(x) = [x], where [.]denotes greatest integer function equal
(iv) loga b > loga c or less than x.
⇒ b > c, if a > 1 i.e., defined as [4.2] = 4, [–4.2] = –5
or b < c, if 0 < a < 1 Period of [x] = 1

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Properties : 6. Definition :
(i) x – 1 < [x] ≤ x Let A and B be two given sets and if each element a ∈ A is
(ii) [x + I] = [x] + I associated with a unique element b ∈ B under a rule f, then
[x + y] ≠ [x] + [y] this relation (mapping) is called a function.
(iii) [x] + [–x] = 0, x ∈ I Graphically - no vertical line should intersect the graph of
= –1, x ∉ I the function more than once.
(iv) [x] = I, where I is an integer x ∈ [I, I + 1) Here set A is called domain and set of all f images of the
(v) [x] ≥ I, x ∈ [I, ∞ ) elements of A is called range.
(vi) [x] ≤ I, x ∈ (– ∞ , I + 1] i.e., Domain = All possible values of x for which f(x) exists.
(vii) [x] > I, [x] ≥ I + 1, x ∈ [I + 1, ∞ ) Range = For all values of x, all possible values of f(x).
(viii) [x] < I, [x] ≤ I – 1, x ∈ (– ∞ , I)
Table : Domain and Range of some standard functions -
4. Fractional part function :
Functions Domain Range
f(x) = {x} = difference between number & its integral part
= x – [x]. Polynomial function R R
Properties : Identity function x R R
(i) {x}, x ∈ [0, 1) Constant function K R (K)
(ii) {x + I} = {x}
1
{x + y} ≠ {x} + {y} Reciprocal function R0 R0
x
(iii) {x} + {–x} = 0, x ∈ I
= 1, x ∉ I x2, |x| (modulus function) R R+ ∪{x}
(iv) [{x}] = 0, {{x}} = {x}, {[x]} = 0 x3, x|x| R R

|x|
5. Signum function : Signum function R {-1, 0, 1}
x
R|−1 , x ∈R− x +|x| R R+ ∪{x}
|S 0 , x=0 x -|x| R R- ∪{x}
f(x) = sgn (x) = |
|T 1 , x ∈R+
[x] (greatest integer function)
x - {x}
R
R
1
[0, 1]

|x| x [0, ∞ ) [0, ∞ ]


or f(x) = , x ≠ 0
x ax (exponential function) R R+
= 0, x=0 log x (logarithmic function) R+ R

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7. Kinds of functions :
Trigonometric Domain Range
(i) One-one (injection) function - f : A → B is one-one if
Functions
f(a) = f(b) ⇒ a = b
sin x R [-1, 1]
or a≠b
cos x R [-1, 1]
⇒ f(a) ≠ f(b), a, b ∈ A
RS± π , ± 3π ,...UV Graphically-no horizontal line intersects with the graph
tan x R-
T2 2 W R of the function more than once.
(ii) Onto function (surjection) - f : A → B is onto if
cot x R- {0, ± π , ± 2 π ,...} R
R (f) = B i.e. if to each y ∈ B ∃ x ∈ A s.t. f(x) = y
RS± π , ± 3π ,...UV (iii) Many one function : f : A → B is a many one function
sec x R -
T2 2 W R - (-1,1)
if there exist x, y ∈ A s.t. x ≠ y

cosec x R- {0, ± π , ± 2 π } R - (-1,1) but f(x) = f(y)


Graphically - atleast one horizontal line intersects with
the graph of the function more than once.
Inverse Domain Range
(iv) Into function : f is said to be into function if R(f) < B
Trigo Functions (v) One-one-onto function (Bijective) - A function which

LM −π , π OP is both one-one and onto is called bijective function.


sin x (-1, 1]
N 2 2Q
-1

8. Inverse function : f–1 exists iff f is one-one & onto both


cos -1
x [-1,1] [0, π ] f–1 : B → A, f–1(b) = a ⇒ f(a) = b

FG −π , π IJ
tan-1 x R
H 2 2K 9. Transformation of curves :
(i) Replacing x by (x – a) entire graph will be shifted parallel
cot-1 x R (0, π ) to x-axis with |a| units.

π RS UV If a is +ve it moves towards right.


sec-1 x R -(-1,1) [0, π ]-
2 TW a is –ve it moves toward left.
Similarly if y is replace by (y – a), the graph will be
LM− π , π OP- {0} shifted parallel to y-axis,
cosec-1 x R - (-1,1)
N 2 2Q upward if a is +ve
downward if a is –ve.

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(ii) Replacing x by –x, take reflection of entire curve is y- (g) Zero function i.e. f(x) = 0 is the only function which
axis. is even and odd both.
Similarly if y is replaced by –y then take reflection of (h) If f(x) is odd (even) function then f'(x) is even (odd)
entire curve in x-axis. function provided f(x) is differentiable on R.
(iii) Replacing x by |x|, remove the portion of the curve (i) A given function can be expressed as sum of even
corresponding to –ve x (on left hand side of y-axis) & odd function.
and take reflection of right hand side on LHS. 1 1
i.e. f(x) = [f(x) + f(–x)] + [f(x) – f(–x)]
(iv) Replace f(x) by |f(x)|, if on L.H.S. y is present and 2 2
mode is taken on R.H.S. then portion of the curve below
= even function + odd function.
x-axis will be reflected above x-axis.
(v) Replace x by ax (a > 0), then divide all the value on x-
12. Increasing function : A function f(x) is an increasing function
axis by a.
in the domain D if the value of the function does not decrease
Similarly if y is replaced by ay (a > 0) then divide all the by increasing the value of x.
values of y-axis by a.
13. Decreasing function : A function f(x) is a decreasing function
10. Even and odd function : A function is said to be in the domain D if the value of function does not increase by
increasing the value of x.
(i) Even function if f(–x) = f(x) and
(ii) Odd function if f(–x) = –f(x).
14. Periodic function: Function f(x) will be periodic if a +ve real
number T exist such that
11. Properties of even & odd function : ∀ x ∈ Domain.
f(x + T) = f(x),
(a) The graph of an even function is always symmetric There may be infinitely many such T which satisfy the above
about y-axis. equality. Such a least +ve no. T is called period of f(x).
(b) The graph of an odd function is always symmetric (i) If a function f(x) has period T, then
about origin. Period of f(xn + a) = T/n and
(c) Product of two even or odd function is an even Period of (x/n + a) = nT
function. (ii) If the period of f(x) is T1 & g(x) has T2 then the period
(d) Sum & difference of two even (odd) function is an of f(x) ± g(x) will be L.C.M. of T1 & T2 provided it
even (odd) function. satisfies definition of periodic function.
(iii) If period of f(x) & g(x) are same T, then the period of
(e) Product of an even or odd function is an odd function.
af(x) + bg(x) will also be T.
(f) Sum of even and odd function is neither even nor
odd function.
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Function Period 15. Composite function :


If f : X → Y and g : Y → Z are two function, then the
sin x, cos x 2π composite function of f and g, gof : X → Z will be defined as
sec x, cosec x gof(x) = g(f(x)), ∀ x ∈ X
tan x, cot x π In general gof ≠ fog
sin (x/3) 6π If both f and g are bijective function, then so is gof.
tan 4x π/4
cos 2πx 1
|cos x| π
sin x + cos x 4 4
π/2

FG x − π IJ
2 cos
H 3 K 6π

sin3 x + cos3 x 2π/3


sin x + cos x 3 4

sin x

sin5x
tan2 x – cot2 x π
x – [x] 1
[x] 1

NON PERIODIC FUNCTIONS :

x, x , x , 5
2 3

cos x2
x + sin x
x cos x

cos x

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5. Limit of the greatest integer function :
LIMIT
Let c be any real number
1. Limit of a function : xlim
→ a f(x) = l (finite quantity) Case I : If c is not an integer, then xlim
→ c [x] = [c]

Case II: If c is an integer, then xlim


→ c−
[x] = c – 1, xlim
→ c+
[x] = c
2. Existence of limit : xlim lim lim
→ a f(x) exists iff x → a− f(x) = x → a+ f(x) = l
and xlim
→c
[x] = does not exist

0 ∞ 6. Methods of evaluation of limits :


3. Indeterminate forms : , , ∞ – ∞ , ∞ × 0, ∞ 0 , 0∞ , 1∞
0 ∞ f(x) 0
(i) Factorisation method : If xlim is of form
→a g(x) 0
4. Theorems on limits : then factorize num. & devo. separately and cancel the

lim (k f(x)) = k lim f(x), 0


(i) x→a x→a k is a constant. common factor which is participating in making form.
0
lim (f(x) ± g(x)) = lim f(x) ± Lim g(x) (ii) Rationalization method : If we have fractional powers
(ii) x→a x→a x→a on the expression in num, deno or in both, we rationalize
the factor and simplify.
(iii) lim f(x).g(x) = lim f(x). Lim g(x) (iii) When x → ∞ : Divide num. & deno. by the highest power
x→a x→a x→a

of x present in the expression and then after removing


lim f(x) 1 1
f(x) x→a
the indeterminate form, replace , 2 ,.. by 0.
lim = lim g(x) , provided xlim
(iv) x→a g(x) → a g(x) ≠ 0 x x
x→a
n n
lim x − a = nan–1
(v)
FH IK
lim f(g(x)) = f lim g(x) , provided value of
x→a x→a
(iv) x→a
x −a
(v) By using standard results (limits) :
g(x) function f(x) is continuous. lim
(a) lim sinx = 1 = x → 0 x
x→0
(vi) lim [f(x) + k] = lim f(x) + k x sin x
x→a x→a

lim tan x = 1 = lim x

(vii) xlim lim f(x)


→ a log(f(x)) = log x → a
FH IK (b) x→0
x x→0
tan x

(c) lim sinx = 0


x→0

LM lim f(x)OP lim g(x)

N Q
x→a
(viii) xlim
→ a (f(x))
g(x)
= 1
x→a
(d) lim cosx = lim =1
x→0 x→0
cos x

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(vi) By substitution :
lim sin x = π
0
(e) (a) If x → a, then we can substitute
x→0
x 180 x=a+t ⇒ t=x–a
−1
x If x → a, t → 0.
(f) lim sin x = 1 = lim −1 (b) When x → – ∞ substitute x = – t ⇒ t → ∞
x→0 x→0
x sin x
1
−1
x (c) When x → ∞ substitute t = ⇒ t → 0+
(g) lim tan x = 1 = lim x
x→0
x x→0
tan−1 x
(vii) By using some expansion :
x

(h) lim a − 1 = log a ex = 1 + x +


x2
+
x3
+ .....
x→0
x e
2! 3!
x x2 x3
(i) lim e − 1 = 1 e–x = 1 – x + – + .....
x→0
x 2! 3!

x2 x3
(j) lim log(1 + x) = 1 log(1 + x) = x – + – ......
x→0
x 2 3

x2 x3
1
(k) lim loga (1 + x) = log(1 – x) = –x –
2
–
3
–.....
x→0 x loga
(x loge a)2 (x loge a)3
n ex ln a = ax = 1 + xlogea + + + ......
(l) lim (1 + x) − 1 = n 2! 3!
x→0
x
x3 x5
sinx = x – + –.......
(m) lim sinx = lim cos x = 0 3! 5!
x→∞ x→∞
x x
x2 x4
cosx = 1 – + –......
1 2! 4!
sin
x x3 2
(n) lim =1 tanx = x + + x5 + .....
x→∞ 1
3 15
x
n(n − 1) 2
(1 + x)n = 1 + nx +
x + .....
FG1 + 1 IJ x 2!
(o) lim (1 + x)1/x = e = lim
x→0 x→∞ H xK 7. Sandwich Theorem : In the neighbour hood of x = a
f(x) < g(x) < h(x)

F aI
= lim G1 + J
x
lim f(x) = lim h(x) = l, then lim g(x) = l.
lim
H xK
x →a x →a x →a
(p) x → 0 (1 + ax)
1/x
= ea x→∞

⇒ l < lim
x →a
g(x) < l.

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DIFFERENTIATION 2. FUNDAMENTAL RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION :

d
1. SOME STANDARD DIFFERENTIATION : (i) f(x) = 0 if and only if f(x) = constant
dx
Function Derivative Function Derivative

A cons. (k) 0 xn nxn – 1 (ii)


d
dx
ccf(x)h = c
d
dx
f(x), where c is a constant.

1 1
loga x loge x
x loge a x (iii)
d
dx
cf(x) ± g(x)h =
d
dx
f(x) ±
d
dx
g(x)

ax ax loge a ex ex
d dv du
sin x cos x cos x –sin x (iv) (uv) = u + v , where u & v are functions
dx dx dx
tan x sec2 x cot x –cosec2 x of x. (Product rule)
cosec x –cosec x cot x sec x sec x tan x
d du dv dw
or (uvw) = vw + uw + uv .
1 1 dx dx dx dx
sin–1 x ,–1<x<1 cos–1x – ,–1<x<1
1−x 2
1 − x2
d d
(v) If f(x) = φ(x), then f (ax + b)
dx dx
1 1
sec–1 x ,|x|>1 cosec–1 x – ,–1|x|>|
|x| 1 − x 2
|x| 1 − x2 = a φ(ax + b)

1
,x ∈ R
1 d FG u IJ v
du
−u
dv
tan–1 x
1+x 2 cot–1 x –
1 + x2
, x ∈R (vi)
dx H vK = dx
v 2
dx (quotient rule)

x (vii) If y = f(u), u = g(x) [chain rule or differential co-


[x] 0, x ∉ I |x| , x≠ 0
| x|
efficient of a function of a function]

dy dy du
then = ×
dx du dx
d
NOTE : [x] does not exist at any integral Point.
dx llly If y = f(u), u = g(v), v = h(x), then

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dy dy du dv (xii) Differentiation of implicit function : If f (x, y) = 0,


= × × differentiate w.r.t. x and collect the terms containing
dx du dv dx
dy dy
dy du at one side and find .
i.e if y = un ⇒ = nun–1 dx dx
dx dx
OR [The relation f(x, y) = 0 in which y is not expressible
(viii) Differentiation of composite functions explicitly in terms of x are called implicit functions]
Suppose a function is given in form of fog(x) or
f[g(x)], then differentiate applying chain rule
(xiii) Differentiation of parametric functions : If x = f(t)
d and y = g(t), where t is a parameter, then
i.e., f[g(x)] = f'g(x) . g'(x)
dx

d FG 1IJ −1 du dy
(ix)
dx H uK =
u2 dx
, u ≠ 0 dy
dx
=
dt
dx
=
g'(t)
f'(t)
dt
d u du
(x) |u| = , u ≠ 0
dx |u| dx
(xiv) Differentiation of a function w.r.t. another func-
(xi) Logarithmic Differentiation : If a function is in the tion : Let y = f(x) and z = g(x), then differentiation
f1 ( x ) f2 ( x ).... of y w.r.t. z is
form (f(x))g(x) or g ( x ) g ( x ).... We first take log on
1 2
dy dy / dx f'(x)
both sides and then differentiate. = =
dz dz / dx g'(x)
(a) loge (mn) = logem + logen

m (xv) Differentiation of inverse Trigonometric functions


(b) loge = logm – logen
n using Trigonometrical Transformation : To solve
the problems involving inverse trigonometric functions
(c) loge (m)n = nlogem (d) logn m logm n = 1
first try for a suitable substitution to simplify it and
m then differentiate. If no such substitution is found
(e) logan xm = loga x (f) aloga x
= x
n then differentiate directly by using trigonometrical
formula frequently.
loge m
(g) loge e = 1 (h) logn m = log n
e

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3. Important Trigonometrical Formula :


π π
(xvi) sin–1 sin (x) = x, for – ≤ x ≤
2 tan x 2 2
(i) sin2x = 2sinx. cosx =
1 + tan2 x
cos–1 (cos x) = x, for 0 ≤ x ≤ π

1 − tan2 x
(ii) cos2x = = 2 cos2 x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin2 x π π
1 + tan2 x tan–1 (tan x) = x, for – < x <
2 2

2 tan x (xvii) sin–1 (–x) = –sin–1 x, tan–1 (–x) = – tan–1 x,


(viii) tan2x =
1 − tan2 x cos–1 (–x) = π – cos–1 x

(iii) sin3x = 3sinx – 4sin3 x


FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ
(vi) cos3x = 4cos3 x – 3cosx
(xviii) sin–1 H xK = cosec–1 x, cos–1 H xK = sec–1 x,

(ix) tan3x =
3 tan x − tan3 x FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ
1 − 3 tan2 x tan–1 H xK = cot–1 x, cot–1 H xK = tan–1 x,

(x) sin–1 x + cos–1 x = π /2


FG 1IJ FG 1IJ
(xi) sec–1 x + cosec–1 x = π /2 sec–1 H xK = cos–1 x, cosec–1 H xK = sin–1 x

(xii) tan–1 x + cot–1 x = π /2

FG x ± y IJ Fsin FG π − θIJ I
(xiii) tan–1 x ± tan–1 y = tan–1 H 1 m xy K (xix) sin–1 (cos θ ) = sin–1 GH H 2 K JK =
π
– θ
2

F I
(xiv) sin–1 x ± sin–1 y = sin–1 x 1 − y2 ± y 1 − x2
H K Fcos FG π − θIJ I
cos–1 (sin θ ) = cos–1 GH H 2 K JK =
π
2
– θ

(xv) cos–1 x ± cos–1 y = cos–1 FH xy m 1 − x2 1 − y2 IK


FG tan FG π − θIJ IJ π
tan–1 (cot θ ) = tan–1
H H 2 KK =
2
– θ

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4. Some Useful Substitutions : Part B

Part A Expression Substitution

Expression Substitution Formula Result a2 + x2 x = a tan θ or x = a cot θ

3x – 4x3 x = sinθ 3sinθ – 4sin3 θ sin3θ a− x


a+ x
or x = a tan θ
a− x a+ x
4x3 – 3x x = cosθ 4cos3 θ – 3cosθ cos3θ

a2 – x2 x = a sin θ or x = a cos θ
3x − x3 3 tan θ − tan3 θ
x = tanθ tan3θ
1 − 3x 2 1 − 3 tan2 θ
a+x a−x
or x = a cos θ
a−x a+x
2x 2 tan θ
2 x = tanθ sin2θ
1+x 1 + tan2 θ x 2 – a2 x = a sec θ or x=acosec θ

2x 2 tan θ a2 + x2 a2 − x2
x = tanθ tan2θ or x2 = a2 cos θ
1−x 2
1 − tan θ2 a2 − x2 a2 + x2

1 – 2x2 x = sinθ 1 – 2sin2 θ cos2θ

2x2 – 1 x = cosθ 2cos2 θ – 1 cos2θ 5. Successive differentiations or higher order derivatives :

1 – x2 x = sinθ 1 – sin2 θ cos2 θ dy


(a) If y = f(x) then = f'(x) is called the first deriva-
dx
x = cosθ 1 – cos2 θ sin2 θ
tive of y w.r.t. x
x 2
– 1 x = secθ sec θ – 1
2
tan θ2

d2 y FG dy IJ
x = cosecθ cosec2 θ – 1 cot 2 θ ⇒
dx 2 =
d
dx H dx K =
d
dx
c
f'(x)h
1 + x2 x = tanθ 1 + tan2 θ sec2 θ
is called the second derivative of y w.r.t. x
x = cotθ 1 + cot2 θ cosec2 θ

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FG nπ IJ
llly
d3 y
dx3
=
d2
dx2
cf'(x)h etc......
(f) If y = sin (ax + b), then yn = an sin ax + b + H 2 K
Thus, This process can be continued and we can FGax + b + nπ IJ
obtain derivatives of higher order If y = cos (ax + b), then yn = an cos H 2K

Note : To obtain higher order derivative of parametric


6. nth Derivatives of Some Functions :
functions we use chain rule

i.e. if x = 2t, y = t2
dn
(i)
dxn
ex j
n
= n!
dy
⇒ = t
dx
dn
csin xh FG
nπ IJ
d2 y FG dy IJ
(ii)
dx n H
= sin x + 2 K
d d dt 1

dx 2
=
dx H dx K =
dx
(t) = 1.
dx
=
t
dn FG πn IJ
(b) If y = (ax + b)m m ∉ I, then (iii)
dx n (cos x) = cos x + H 2 K
yn = m(m–1) (m–2) ..... (m–n+1) (ax + b)m–n .an

(c) If m ∈I, then dn


(iv) (emx ) = mn emx
dx n
ym = m! am and ym+1 = 0

dn
1 (−1)n n! (v) (log x) = (– 1)n–1 (n–1)! x–n
(d) If y = , then yn = an dx n
ax + b (ax + b)n+1

NOTE : If u = g(x) is such that g'(x) = K (constant)


n−1

LM d OP
(−1) (n − 1)!
(e) If y = log (ax + b), then yn = an n
(ax + b)n dn
then
dx n c h
f g(x) = Kn
MNdu
n
f(u)
PQ u= g(x)

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7. Differentiation of Infinite Series : method is illustrated 9. Differentiation of Determinant :


with the help of example

x x− −∞ R1
if y = x then function becomes y = xy now taking log R2
∆ = = |C1 C2 C3|
on both sides R3
i.e logy = y log x, differentiating both sides w.r.t. x

1 dy 1 dy R'1 R1 R1
we get = y + logx
y dx x dx ∆' = R 2 + R'2 + R 2
R3 R3 R'3

y = |C'1 C2 C3| + |C1 C'2 C3| + |C1 C2 C'3|


dy x y2

dx
=
FG 1 − log xIJ =
x(1 − y log x)
Hy K
8. L-hospital rule :
if as x → a f(x) & g(x) either both → 0 or both → ∞, then

f(x) f'(x)
lim = lim
x →a g(x) x →a g'(x)

(a) it can be applied only on 0/0 or ∞/∞ form


(b) Numerator & denominator are differentiated separately

u
not formulae.
v

(c) If R.H.S. exist or d'not exist because value → ∞, then


L.H rule can be applied.
But if value fluctuate on R.H.S. then L.H. rule can't
be applied.
If it is applied continuously then at each step 0/0 or
∞/∞ should be checked.

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APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 7. Length of intercepts made on axes by the tangent :

TANGENT AND NORMAL : R| U|


| y |V
– S F dy I
1. Geometrically f'(a) represents the slope of the tangent to 1

the curve y = f(x) at the point (a, f(a)) x – intercept = x1


|| GH dx JK ||
2. If the tangent makes an angle ψ (say) with +ve x direction T (x , y )
1 1 W
then

FG dy IJ FG dy IJ
f'(x) = H dx K (x1 , y1)
= tan ψ = slope of the tangent. y – intercept = y1 – x1 H dx K (x , y )
1 1

3. If the tangent is parallel to x-axis, ψ = 0


8. Length of perpendicular from origin to the tangent :
FG dy IJ
⇒ H dx K (x1 , y1)
= 0.

FG dy IJ
4. If the tangent is perpendicular to x-axis, ψ =
π
y1 − x1
H dx K (x1 ,y1 )
2
= F dy I
1+G J
2

FG dy IJ H dx K (x1 , y1 )

⇒ H dx K (x1 , y1)
→ ∞

5. If the tangent line makes equal angle with the axes, then 1
9. Slope of the normal =–
Slope of the tan gent
FG dy IJ
H dx K (x1 , y1)
= ± 1.
FG dx IJ
6. Equation of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at a point
=– H dy K (x 1 , y 1 )

(x1, y1) is
10. If normal makes an angle of φ with +ve direction of x-axis,
FG dy IJ
y – y1 = H dx K (x1 , y1)
(x – x1)
then
dy
= – cot φ .
dx

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FG dy IJ 17. Angle of intersection of the two curves :


11. If the normal is parallel to x-axis ⇒ H dx K (x1 , y1)
= 0.
FG dy IJ − FG dy IJ
FG dy IJ H dx K H dx K FG dy IJ
12. If the normal is perpendicular to x-axis ⇒ H dx K = 0.
tanθ = ±
F dy I F dy I
1−G J G J
1 2
where H dx K 1
is the slope of first
(x1 , y1) H dx K H dx K
1 2

13. If normal is equally inclined from both the axes or cuts

FG dy IJ FG dy IJ of second. If both curves intersect orthogo-


equal intercept then H dx K = ± 1. curve & H dx K 2

14. The equation of the normal to the curve y = f(x) at a point


(x1, y1) is F dy I F dy I
nally then GH dx JK GH dx JK = –1
1 2

1
y – y1 = –
FG dy IJ (x – x1)

H dx K (x1 , y1 )
18. Length of tangent, normal, subtangent & subnormal :

15. Length of intercept made on axes by the normal : FG dy IJ 2

FG dy IJ
y 1+
H dx K
x – intercept = x1 + y1 H dx K (x1 ,y1 )
Length of tangent = dy
dx

FG dx IJ
y – intercept = y1 + x1 H dy K (x1 ,y1 )

FG dy IJ 2

16. Length of perpendicular from origin to normal :


Length of normal = y 1+
H dx K

F dy I
+y G J
Length of sub-tangent =
y
x1
H dx K
1
(x1 ,y1 )
dy / dx

=
F dy I
1+G J
2
dy
H dx K Length of sub-normal = y
dx

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MONOTONICITY, MAXIMA & MINIMA : (ii) Sufficient condition :


1. A function is said to be monotonic function in a domain if it is (a) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is
either monotonic increasing or monotonic decreasing in that maximum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) < 0.
domain
(b) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is
minimum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) > 0.
2. At a point function f(x) is monotonic increasing if f'(a) > 0
At a point function f(x) is monotonic decreasing if f'(a) < 0 6. Working rule for finding local maxima & Local Minima :
(i) Find the differential coefficient of f(x) w.r.to x, i.e.
3. In an interval [a, b], a function f(x) is f'(x) and equate it to zero.
Monotonic increasing if f'(x) ≥ 0 (ii) Solve the equation f'(x) = 0 and let its real roots
(critical points) be a, b, c ......
Monotonic decreasing if f'(x) ≤ 0
(iii) Now differentiate f'(x) w.r.to x and substitute the
constant if f'(x) = 0 ∀ x ∈ (a, b) critical points in it and get the sign of f"(x) for each
Strictly increasing if f'(x) > 0 critical point.
Strictly decreasing if f'(x) < 0 (iv) If f"(a) < 0, then the value of f(x) is maximum at
x = 0 and if f"(a) > 0, then the value of f(x) is
4. Maximum & Minimum Points : minimum at x = a. Similarly by getting the sign of f"(x)
for other critical points (b, c, ......) we can find the
Maxima : A function f(x) is said to be maximum at x =
points of maxima and minima.
a, if there exists a very small +ve number h, such that
f(x) < f(a), ∀ x ∈ (a – h, a + h), x ≠ a.
7. Absolute (Greatest and Least) values of a function in
Minima : A function f(x) is said to be minimum at x = b, a given interval :
if there exists a very small +ve number h, such that (i) A minimum value of a function f(x) in an interval [a,
f(x) > f(b), ∀ x ∈ (b – h, b + h), x ≠ b. b] is not necessarily its greatest value in that interval.
Similarly a minimum value may not be the least value
Remark :
of the function.
(a) The maximum & minimum points are also known as
(ii) If a function f(x) is defined in an interval [a, b], then
extreme points.
greatest or least values of this function occurs either
(b) A function may have more than one maximum & at x = a or x = b or at those values of x for which
minimum points. f'(x) = 0.
Thus greatest value of f(x) in interval [a, b]
5. Conditions for Maxima & Minima of a function : = max [f(a), f(b), f(c), f(d)]
(i) Necessary condition : A point x = a is an extreme Least value of f(x) in interval [a, b]
point of a function f(x) if f'(a) = 0, provided f'(a) = min. [f(a), f(b), f(c), f(d)]
exists. Where x = c, x = d are those points for which f'(x) = 0.

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8. Some Geometrical Results : ROLLE'S THEOREM & LAGRANGES THEOREM:


In Usual Notations Results 1. Rolle's Theorem : If f(x) is such that
(a) It is continuous on [a, b]
3 (b) It is differentiable on (a, b) and
Area of equilateral (side)2.
4 (c) f(a) = f(b), then there exists at least one point
and its perimeter 3 (side) c ∈ (a, b) such that f'(c) = 0.
Area of square (side)2 2. Mean value theorem [Lagrange's theorem] :
Perimeter 4(side) (i) If f(x) is such that
(a) It is continuous on [a, b]
Area of rectangle l × b
(b) It is differentiable on (a, b), then
Perimeter 2(l × b)
there exists at least one c ∈ (a, b) such that
1 f(b) − f(a)
Area of trapezium (sum of parallel sides)
2 = f'(c)
b−a
× (distance between them) (ii) If for c in lagrange's theorem (a < c < b) we can say
Area of circle πr2 that c = a + θ h where 0 < θ < 1 and h = b – a
Perimeter 2πr the theorem can be written as
f(a + h) = f(a) + h f'(a + θ h), 0 < θ < 1, h = b – a
4 3
Volume of sphere πr
3
Surface area of sphere 4πr2

1 2
Volume of cone πr h
3
Surface area of cone πrl
Volume of cylinder πr2h
Curved surface area 2πrh
Total surface area 2πr(h + r)
Volume of cuboid l × b × h
Surface area of cuboid 2(lb + bh + hl)
Area of four walls 2(l × b) h
Volume of cube l3
Surface area of cube 6l2
Area of four walls of cube 4l2

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Function Integration
INDEFINITE INTEGRATION
z cos x
zch
dx sin x + c

1. (i) If
d
dx
F(x) = f(x), then f x dx = F(x) + c
z sec2 x dx tan x + c

Here zm r dx is the notation of integration, f(x) is the


z cos ec2x dx – cot x + c
integrand, c is any real no. (integrating constant)
z
zch
sec x tan x dx sec x + c

z
d
(ii) f x dx = f(x) cos ec x cot xdx –cosec x + c
dx

(iii) z chf' x dx = f(x) + c, c ∈ R z


z
tanx dx –log|cos x| + c = log|sec x| + c

(iv) z chk f x dx = k f(x) dxz


z
cot x dx log|sin x| + c = –log|cosec x| + c

FG π + x IJ +c
(v) z ch ch
(f x ± g x ) dx = zch zch
f x dx ± g x dx
sec x dx log|sec x + tan x|+c = log tan
H 4 2K
2. FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE :
z cos ec x dx
x
log|cosec x – cot x|+c = log tan +c
2
Function Integration
z dx
sin–1 x + c = –cos–1x + c
z
n+1
n x 1 − x2
x dx + c, n ≠ –1
n+1

c h z dx x x

zc
n+1 sin–1 + c = –cos–1 + c
ax + b dx h n 1 ax + b
a
.
n+1
+ c, n ≠ –1
2
a −x 2 a a

z 1
dx log|x| + c
z 1 + x2
dx
tan–1x + c = –cot–1x + c
x

z 1
ax + b
dx
1
a
(log|ax + b|) + c z a2 + x2
dx 1
a
tan–1
x
a
+ c =
−1
a
x
cot–1 a + c

z ex dx ex + c
z |x| x2 − 1
dx
sec–1x + c = –cosec–1x + c

z ax dx
ax
loge a
+ c
z dx 1
sec–1
x
+ c =
−1 x
cosec–1 a + c
z sinx dx –cos x + c
|x| x2 − a2 a a a

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3. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION : SOME RECOMMENDED SUBSTITUTION :

By suitable substitution, the variable x in

into another variable t so that the integrand f(x) is changed


z ch
f x dx is changed
Function

a −x , 2 2
1
, a2 – x 2
Substitution

x = a sin θ or a cos θ
a2 − x2
into F(t) which is some standard integral. Some following
1
suggestions will prove useful.
x2 + a2 , x + a2
2 , x2 + a2 x = a tanθ or x = a sinhθ

Function Substitution Integration 1


x −a , 2 2 , x 2 – a2 x = a sec θ

zc h
x2 − a2
1 or x = a cosh θ
f ax + b dx ax + b = t F(ax + b) + c
a
x a+ x
, ,

zch ch
a+ x x
f x f' x dx f(x) = t
dfcxhi 2

+c 1
2
c
x a+ x . x a+ x h c h x = a tan2 θ

z d c hi c h
fφx φ x dx φ(x) = t z ch
f t dt x
a− x
,
a− x
x
,

z cc hh f' x
f x
dx f(x) = t log|f(x)| + c
x a−x , c h c
1
x a− x h x = a sin2 θ

x x−a

z d c hi c h
, ,
f x
n
f' x dx f(x) = t
cf(x)h n+1
+ c, n ≠ – 1
x−a x
n+1
x x−a , c h c
x a− x
1
h
x = a sec2 θ

z cc hh f' x
fx
dx f(x) = t 2[f(x)]1/2 + c a− x
a+ x
,
a+x
a−x
x = a cos 2θ

x−α
β−x
, cx − αh cβ − xh ,(β > α) x = α cos2 θ + β sin2 θ

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IMPORTANT RESULTS USING STANDARD SUBSTITUTIONS : INTEGRATION OF FUNCTIONS USING ABOVE STANDARD
RESULTS :
Function Integration
Function Method

z x −a 2
1
2
1
2a
log
x−a
x+a
+ c
z 2
1
dx or Express : ax2 + bx + c =
ax + bx + c
−1 x
LMF OP
z
= coth–1 a + c when x > a
a
IJ 2

MNGH
1 b 4ac − b2
dx or a x+
K +
PQ
z
2a 2
1 1 a+ x ax2 + bx + c 4a
dx log + c
a −x2 2
2a a− x

1 x
= tanh–1 a + c, when x < a
z (ax2 + bx + c) dx then use appropriate formula
a

z x −a
dx
2 2
log{|x + x − a |} + c
2 2
z 2
px + q
ax + bx + c
dx or Express : px + q

= cosh–1
FG x IJ + c
H aK z px + q
ax2 + bx + c
dx or = λ
d
dx
(ax2 + bx + c) + µ

z x +a
dx
2 2
log{|x + x2 + a2 |} + c
z (px + q) (ax2 + bx + c) dx evaluate λ & µ by equat

ing coefficient of x and


FG IJ
x constant, the integral reduces to
= sinh–1
H K
a
+ c
known form

FG x IJ + c z ax P(x)
z a − x dx
2 2
1
2
x a2 − x2 +
1 2
2
a sin–1
H aK 2
+ bx + c
dx , Apply division rule and express it

ch
R x
z x − a dx
2 2
1
2
1
x x2 − a2 – a2 log {|x +
2
2 2
x − a |} + c
where P(x) is a in form Q(x) + 2
ax + bx + c

polynomial of degree The integral reduces to known


z x2 + a2 dx
1
2
1
x x2 + a2 + a2 log {|x +
2
x2 + a2 |} + c 2 or more form

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z 1
a sin x + b cos2 x + c
2
dx Divide numerator & denominator
z x2
x + kx 2 + a 4
4
dx Divide numerator & denominator
by cos x,
2

zc
by 2 and then add & sub. a2.
1 Thus the form reduces as above.
dx
or
h
2 then put tanx = t & solve.

z
a sin x + b cos x
dx

z
Divide num & deno. by 2a2 and
2 tan x / 2 x + kx2 + a2
4
dx
dx Replace sin x = , then add & sub x2. Thus the form
a sin x + b cos x + c 1 + tan2 x / 2
reduces to the known form.
1 − tan2 x / 2
cos x =
1 + tan2 x / 2 4. INTEGRATION BY PARTS :
then put tan x/2 = t and when integrand involves more than one type of functions
replace 1 + tan2 x/2 = sec2 x/2 the formula of integration by parts is used to integrate the

z
product of the functions i.e.
a sin x + b cos x

z z z LMN FHz
dx Express : num. = λ(deno.) +
c sin x + d cos x du
υ dx IK OP dx
µ
d
(deno.) Evaluate λ & µ. Thus
(i) u. υ dx = u. υ dx –
dx Q
zc
dx
integral reduces to known form. or h c
1st fun. . 2nd fun. dx h
z a sin x + b cos x + c
dx

z LMNFGH IJ ez 2nd fun.dxjOP dx


Express : Num. = λ(deno.) +
p sin x + q cos x + r

µ
d
(deno.) + ν Evaluate λ, µ, ν.
= (1st fun) z 2nd fun. dx –
d
dx
1st fun.
K Q
dx
Thus integral reduces to known (ii) Rule to choose the first function : first fun. should
form. be choosen in the following order of preference (ILATE).

z
[The fun. on the left is normally chosen as first
x 2 ± a2
dx Divide numerator & denominator function]
x 4 + kx 2 + a 4
I – Inverse trigonometric function
Fx ± a I 2

by x2 and put GH x JK = t, the


L – Logarithmic function
A – Algebraic function
integral becomes one of standard T – Trigonometric function
forms. E – Exponential function

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(iii) (a) z ch ch
ex f x + f' x dx = ex f(x) + c
5. INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
USING PARTIAL FRACTION :
c h,
z
Px
ch ch Qcxh
mx Every Rational fun. may be represented in the form
(b) e mf x + f' x dx = e mx
f(x) + c
where P(x), Q(x) are polynomials.

z
If degree of numerator is less than that of denominator,
LM f' cxh OP dx ch
MN c h m PQ
emx f x the rational fun. is said to be proper other wise it is
(c) emx f x + = + c. improper. If deg (num.) ≥ deg(deno.) apply division rule
m
ch
f x c h , for integrating rcxh , resolve the
r x

z gcxh gcxh gcxh


i.e. = q(x) +
(iv) ch ch
xf' x + f x dx = x f(x) + c.
fraction into partial factors. The following table illustrate
the method.
NOTE : Breaking (iii) & (iv) integral into two integrals.
Integrate one integral by parts and keeping other integral Types of proper Types of partial
as it is by doing so we get the result (integral). rational functions fractions
px + q A B
c hc h
z z
x−a x−b , a ≠ b x−a
+
x −b
(v) eax sinbx dx and c
eax sin bx + c dx h px2 + qx + r A B C
c x−a x−b x−c hc ,
hc h x−a
+
x −b
+
x−c
e ax
= (a sin bx – b cos bx) + k and a, b, c are distinct
a2 + b2
px2 + qx + r A B C
e ax cx − ah cx − bh , a
2 ≠ b
x−a
+
cx − ah 2
+
x−b
2 2 [a sin (bx + c) – b cos(bx + c)] + k1
a +b
px2 + qx + r Bx + C
A
c he
x − a x2 + bx + c , where j + 2

z z
x−a x + bx + c
(vi) e ax
cos bx dx and ax
e c
cos bx + c dx h x2 + bx + c can
not be factorised

=
e ax
cacos bx + b sinbxh + k
px3 + qx2 + rx + s Ax + B Cx + D
2
a +b 2
ex 2
je
+ ax + b x2 + cx + d , j 2
x + ax + b
+ 2
x + cx + d
where x + ax + b, 2

and
eax
a2 + b2
c h
a cos bx + c + b sin bx + c c h + k1. x2 + cx + d can not
be factorised

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6. INTEGRATION OF IRRATIONAL ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS :


(i) If integrand is a function of x & (ax + b)1/n then put (viii) To evaluate z dx
quad. quad
or z linear
quad. quad
dx
(ax + b) = tn
and if the quadratic not under the square root can
(ii) If integrand is a function of x, (ax + b)1/n and be resolved into real linear factors, then resolve
(ax + b)1/m then put (ax + b) = tp
1 FG linear IJ
where p = (L.C.M. of m & n). quadratic
or
H quadratic K into partial fractions and

z
split the integral into two, each of which is of the
dx
(iii) To evaluate
linear linear
put linear = t
form : z dx
linear quad.

(iv) To evaluate z quad. linear


dx
put linear = t2
7. INTEGRATION USING TRIGONOMETRICAL IDENTITIES :
(A) To evaluate trigonometric functions transform the

(v) To evaluate z dx
linear. quadratic
put linear = 1/t
function into standard integrals using trigonometric
identities as
1 − cos 2 mx
(i) sin2 mx =
or zc h 2
linear . quadratic
dx 2

1 + cos 2mx
(ii) cos2 mx =
2

or zc h
x dx
2
linear . quadratic (iii) sin mx = 2sin
mx
2
cos
mx
2

3 sin mx − sin 3mx


(vi) To evaluate z dx
pure quad. pure quad
put
(iv) sin3 mx =
4

3 cos mx + cos 3mx


(v) cos3 mx =
pure quad = t 4
(vi) tan2 mx = sec2 mx – 1

(vii) To evaluate z dx
pure quad. pure quad
put x =
1
t
and
(vii)
(viii)
cot2 mx
2 cos A
= cosec2 mx – 1
cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B)
(ix) 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B)
then is the resulting integral, put pure quad = u (x) 2 sin A sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B)

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(B) z
(i)
sinm x cosm xdx .

if m is odd put cos x = t z secn x dx


secn−2 x tan x
+
n−2
I
n−1 n − 1 n–2
(ii) if m is even put sin x = t
(iii)
(iv)
if m & n both odd put sin x or cos x as t
if m & n both even use the formula of sin2x & cos2x z cos ecnx dx –
cos ecn−2 x cot x
n−1
+
n−2
I
n − 1 n–2

z c h
m+n−2
(v) if m & n rational no. & is –ve integer cosn−1 x sinm+1 x + n − 1 Im, n−2
2 sinm x cosn x dx
put tan x = t cm + nh
–sinm–1x cosn+1x + (m – 1) Im–2,n
8. INTEGRATION BY SUCCESSIVE REDUCTION (REDUCTION
FORMULA) :
Function Integration

z
NOTE : These formulae are specifically useful when m & n
1 n ax n are both even nos.
xneaxdx , n ∈ N x e – I
a a n–1

where In–1 = z xn−1eax dx

z xn sin x dx –xn cos x + nxn–1sin x – n(n – 1) In–2

z sinn x dx –
sinn−1 cos x
n
+
n−1
n
In–2

z cosn x dx
cosn−1 x sin x
n
+
n−1
n
In–2

z tann x dx ctanxh
n−1
n−1
– In–2

z cotn x dx –
ccot xh
n−1
n−1
– In–2

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z zch
DEFINITE INTEGRATION b

ch
a
II. f x dx = – f x dx
a b
1. Definite Integration :

If z ch
f x dx = F(x) + c, then III. z
b

a
ch
f x dx = zch
c

a
f x dx + zch
b

c
f x dx where a < c < b

zb

a
ch
f x dx = F x + c ch b
a
= F(b) – F(a) is called definite integral
This property is mainly used for modulus function,
greatest integer function & breakable function

zch zc zch zc
a a a a
of f(x) w.r.t. x from x = a to x = b Here a is called lower
limit and b is called upper limit.
IV. f x dx = h
f a + b − x dx or f x dx = h
f a − x dx
b b 0 0
Remarks :

z z ch
* To evaluate definite integral of f(x). First obtain the a a

indefinite integral of f(x) and then apply the upper V. ch


f x dx = c h
f x + f −x dx
−a
and lower limit. 0

* For integration by parts in definite integral we use


R|2 f x dx
S| z c h
following rule. a

=
ch
, if f x is an even function

z {uz v.dx} z FGH z IJ , if f cxh is an odd function


0

T 0
b b
b du
a
uv dx =
a
–
a
dx K
. v. dx dx

R|
zch z
a
* When we use method of substitution. We note that
S|2 fcxh dx c h ch
2a
, if f 2a − x = f x
while changing the independent variable in a definite VI. f x dx =
|T 0 , if f c2a − xh = − f cxh
0
integral, the limits of integration must also we changed 0

accordingly.
VII. If f(x) is a periodic function with period T, Then
PROPERTIES OF DEFINITE INTEGRAL :

I. zch
b
f x dx = z
b

ch
f t dt
zch
nT

0
f x dx = n f x dx zch
T

a a
and further if a ∈ R+, then

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zch zch zch


(ii) If the function φ(x) and ψ(x) are defined on [a, b]

zch
a+nT a nT T
and differentiable at a point x ∈ (a, b), and f(x, t)
f x dx = f x dx , f x dx = (n – m) f x dx ,
is continuous, then,
nT 0 mT 0

LM OP
z z RSdψ (x) UV f(x,
ψ (x) ψ (x)

zch zch
d
MN PQ =
b +nT f (x, t) dt +
T dx W
b f (x, t) dt
f x dx = f x dx dx
φ(x) φ(x)
a+ nT a

RSdφ(x) UV f(x,
VIII. If m and M are the smallest and greatest values of
ψ(x)) –
T dx W φ(x)).

a function f(x) on an interval [a, b], then


3. Reduction Formulae :

zch
b

z z
m(b – a) < f x dx < M(b – a) π /2 π /2
a (i) cosn x dx = sinn x dx
a 0

z z ch
b b

IX. ch
f x dx < |f x dx| R| n − 1 . n − 3 ..... 2 .1, if n is odd
a a
= S|n −n1 nn−−32 13 π
|T n . n − 2 ...... 2 . 2 , if n is even

z zch
b b

X. If f(x) < g(x) on [a, b], then ch


f x dx ≤ g x dx

z
π /2
a a
(ii) For integration sinm x cosn x dx follow the following
2. Differentiation Under Integral Sign : 0

Leibnitz's Rule : steps


(i) If f(x) is continuous and u(x), v(x) are differentiable (a) If m is odd put cos x = t

z
v(x)
(b) If n is odd put sin x = t
d (c) If m and n are even use sin2x = 1– cos2x
functions in the interval [a, b], then, f(t) dt =
dx or cos2x = 1 – sin2x and then use
u(x)

z z
π /2 π /2
d d
f{v(x)} {v(x)} – f{u(x)} {u(x)}.
n
sin x dx or cosn x dx
dx dx
0 0

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z
∞ 4. Summation of series by Definite integral or limit as a
a
(iii) e − ax
cos bx dx = sum :
a2 + b2

zch
0
b
lim h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) +.....
f x dx = h→0

z
(i)

b a
(iv) e−ax sinbx dx =
a + b2
2
0 +f(a + (n – 1)h]
where nh = b – a.

z

n!
FI
zch
(v) e −ax xndx = n 1

∑ GH JK
n
a +1 1 r
0 (ii) lim f = f x dx
n→∞ n r =1 n
0

z
π /2

(vi)
0
sinn x cosm x dx
[i.e. exp. the given series in the form
FrI
∑ n f GH nJK
1

LM m − 1 . m − 3 .... 2 . 1 ; if m is odd and n may be even or odd


OP r 1
replace by x and by dx and the limit of the
MM m + n m + n − 2 3 + n 1 + n PP n n
= MM mm +− 1n. mm+ n− 3− 2.... 2 1+ n. n n− 1. nn −− 32 .... 23 ; if m is enen and n is odd PP

zch
MMm − 1. m − 3 .... 1 . n − 1. n − 3.... 1 . π ; if m is even and n is even
PP 1
Nm + n m + n − 2 2 + n n n − 2 2 2 Q sum is f x dx ]
0
These formulae can be expressed as a single formula :

z
π /2
5. Key Results :
sinm x cos n x dx

z z
0 π /2 π /2
−π
* logsin x dx = logcos x dx = log2
2
[(m − 1) (m − 3)....] [(n − 1) (n − 3) .....] 0 0
=
(m − n) (m + n − 2) ....

z c h
zc c h
π /2 π /2
f sin x f cos x
π
to be multiplied by
2
when m and n are both even * f csin xh + fccos xh dx = h c h
f sin x + f cos x dx
0 0

integers.

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z c h
z c h dx ze 1
π /2 a
π /2 x dx
f tan x f sec x * dx = .
=
0 c h c
f tan x + f cot x h dx =
0
f csec xh + f ccos ecxh 0 a2 + x2 j
3/2 2a2

c h dx
zc c h
z z
π /2
f cos ec x f cot x a
πa4
=
f cos ec x + f sec x h c h dx=
0
fctan xh + fccot xh = π/4. * x2 a2 − x2 dx =
16
0

z z z FG IJ
π /2 π /2
a π 2
a2 − x2
*
0
sinmx sin nx dx =
0
cos mx . cos nx dx
* x2
a+ x

dx = a3 4 3 H K if a > 0
0

R|0
z
if m, n are different + ve int egers
S| π
2a
= πa2
* 2ax − x2 dx =
T2 if m = n
0
2

* z
a

0
a2 − x2 dx =
π 2
4
a * If n ∈ N, then
ze
a

0
a2 − x2 j
n 2. 4. 6...... 2n
c
c h
dx = 3.5 . 7..... 2n + 1 a
2n+1
h

z
* If a < b then
a
1 π

z
* dx =
a2 − x2 2 b
dx
0
(i) =π
a
x−a b−x

z
a
x

z
* dx = a
0 a − x2
2
(ii)
a
x−a
dx =
π b−a c h
a+x 2
0

z
a 2 2
x 2 πa 3a
+

zc
* dx =
6 8 a
0 a2 − x2
(iii) hc h
x − a b − x dx = π b − a 2
2
c h
0

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z
b
* If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] then there exists a

zch
dx π
2

cx − ahcb − xh
b
(iv) = ab > 0
a x ab point c ∈ (a, b) s.t f x dx = f(c) [b – a]. The no.
a
* If a > 0 then

(i) z
a
a+x
a−x
dx =
a
2
π +2 c h
f(c) =
1
b−a zch
b
f x dx is called the mean value of the
a
0 fun. f(x) on the interval [a, b]. The above result is
called the first mean value theorem for integrals.

z zd
a
a− x
c h
a 2k
(ii)
0
a + x dx = 2
π −2 * i
x − x dx = k, where k ∈ I,
0

z
a
Q x – [x] is a periodic function with period 1.
a+ x 10 a a * If f(x) is a periodic fun. with period T, then
(iii) dx =
a− x

zch
0 3
a+ T
f x dx is independent of a.

(iv) z
a
a+ x
a − x dx =
FG π + 1IJ a
H2 K
a

z c
0 π /4

* If a > 0, n ∈ N, then
* h
log 1 + tan x dx =
π
8
log2
0

z

π
(i) x e −ax dx = a > 0
0
2a a

z

2 2 π
(ii) e −r x
dx = (r > 0)
0
2r

z

e−ax − e −bx
(iii) dx = loge(b/a) (a, b > 0)
x
0

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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (B) Variable Separable Form : Differential equation of


dy
1. Order of a differential equation : The order of a differential the form = f(x) g(y)
dx
equation is the order of the highest derivative occurring in
This can be integrated as
it.

2. Degree of a differential equation : The degree of a z dy


g(y)
= z f(x) dx + c
differential equation is the degree of the highest order (C) Homogeneous Equations : It is a differential equation
derivative occurring in it when the derivatives are made
free from the radical sign. dy f(x, y)
of the form = , where f(x, y) and g(x,
dx g(x, y)
d2 y dy y) are homogeneous functions of x and y of the same
Eg. (i) 2 + + 5y = 0
dx dx degree. A function f(x, y) is said to be homogeneous
y FG IJ FG IJ
x
dy F dy I
1+G J
2
of degree n if it can be written as xn f x H K H K
or yn f y .
(ii) y = x
dx
+
H dx K Such an equation can be solved by putting y = vx or
x = vy. After substituting y = vx or x = vy. The given
F d yI
3
2
FG1 + dy IJ 2 equation will have variables separable in v and x.
(iii) GH dx JK 3 +
H dx K + 5y = 0
(D) Equations Reducible to Homogeneous form and
variable separable form
order of (i) 2 (ii) 1 & (iii) 3,
dy ax + by + c
degree of (i) 1 (ii) 2 & (iii) 2 * Form = ........... (1)
dx Ax + By + C
3. SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST a b
ORDER AND FIRST DEGREE : where ≠
A B
dy This is non Homogeneous
(A) Differential equation of the form = f(x) or
dx Put x = X + h and y = Y + k in (1)

dy dy dY
= f(y) ∴ = Put ah + bk + c = 0, Ah + Bk + C = 0,
dx dx dX
find h, k
Integrate both sides i.e. z dy = z f(x) dx
Then
dY
dX
=
aX + bY
AX + BY
. This is homogeneous.

or z dy
f(y)
= z dx to get its solution.
Solve it and then put X = x – h, Y = y – k we shall
get the solution.

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dy ax + by + c dx
* Form = ..... (1), * In x : + Rx = S, where R, S are functions of y
dx Ax + By + C dy

a b alone or constant.
where = = k say
A B


dy
=
k (Ax + By) + c
its solution x e z R dy
= z S. e
z R.dy
dy + c

dx Ax + By + C

dy dz
where
e
z R.dy is called the integrating factor (I.F.) of
Put Ax + By = z ⇒ A + B =
dx dx the equation.
dz kz + c
⇒ = A + B
dx z+c (F) Equation reducible to linear form :
This is variable separable form and can be solved.
dy
dy * Differential equation of the form + Py = Qyn
* Form = f(ax + by + c) dx
dx
where P and Q are functions of x or constant is called
dy dz Bernoulli's equation. On dividing through out by yn, we
Put ax + by = z ⇒ a + b =
dx dx get

dz dy
∴ = a + b f(z) y–n + py–n + 1
= Q
dx dx
This is variable separable form and can be solved.
Put y–n + 1
= z

(E) Linear equation : ⇒ The given equation will be linear in z and can be
solved in the usual manner.
dy Note : In general solution of differential equation we can
* In y : + Py = Q, where P, Q are function of x
dx take integrating constant c as tan–1 c, ec, log c etc.
alone or constant. according to our convenience.

its solution ye
z P dx
= z Qe
z P dx
dx + c

where
e
z P dx is called the integrating factor (I.F.) of

the equation.

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4. Vectors in terms of position vectors of end points -
VECTORS
AB = OB – OA = Position vector of B – position vector of A
i.e. any vector = p.v. of terminal pt – p.v. of initial pt.
1. Types of vectors :
(a) Zero or null vector : A vector whose magnitude is
zero is called zero or null vector. 5. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar :
r r
r If a is a vector and m is a scalar, then m a is a vector and
a Vector a r
(b) Unit vector : a$ = | | = magnitude of m a = m|a|
a Magnitude of a
r $
(c) Equal vector : Two vectors a and b are said to be and if a = a1 $i + a2 j + a3 k$
equal if |a| = |b| and they have the same direction. r $
then m a = (ma1) $i + (ma2) j + (ma3) k$

2. Triangle law of addition : AB + BC = AC 6. Distance between two points :


Distance between points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2)
c = a + b
C →
= Magnitude of AB
–b
–a + = (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1)2 + (z2 − z1 )2
–c = –
b

7. Position vector of a dividing point :


r
A –
a B (i) If A( a ) & B( b ) be two distinct pts, the p.v. c of the
point C dividing [AB] in ratio m1 : m2 is given by
3. Parallelogram law of addition : OA + OB = OC
r r
r m1b + m2a
c = m +m
a + b = c 1 2

B
C 1
(ii) p.v. of the mid point of [AB] is [p.v. of A + p.v. of B]
2
–
b
(iii) If point C divides AB in the ratio m1 : m2 externally,

m1 b − m2 a
D A then p.v. of C is c =
–
a m1 − m2
where OC is a diagonal of the parallelogram OABC

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10. Coplanar and non coplanar vector :


(iv) p.v. of centriod of triangle formed by the points A( a ),
(i) If a , b , c be three non coplanar non zero vector
r r a+b+c
B( b ) and C ( c ) is then x a + y b + z c = 0
3
(v) p.v. of the incentre of the triangle formed by the points ⇒ x = 0, y = 0, z = 0
r r r
A( α ), B( β ) and C( γ ) is (ii) If a , b , c be three coplanar vectors, then a vector
c can be expressed uniquely as linear combination of
aα + bβ + cγ remaining two vectors i.e. c = λ a + µ b
where a = |BC|, b = |CA|, c = |AB|
a+b+c
(iii) Any vector r can be expressed uniquely as inner com-
bination of three non coplanar & non zero vectors a ,
8. Some results :
b and c i.e. r = x a + y b + z c
(i) If D, E, F are the mid points of sides BC, CA & AB
respectively, then AD + BE + CF = 0 11. Products of vectors :
(ii) If G is the centriod of ∆ABC, then GA + GB + GC = 0 (I) Scalar or dot product of two vectors :

(iii) If O is the circumcentre of a ∆ABC, then (i) a . b = |a| |b| cosθ

OA + OB + OC = 3 OG = OH where G is centriod and a. b


H is orthocentre of ∆ABC. (ii) Projection of a in the direction of b =
| b|
(iv) If H is orthocentre of ∆ABC, then
a. b
HA + HB + HC = 3 HG = OH & Projection of b in the direction of a =
| a|

9. Collinearity of three points : r. a FG IJ


(i) Three points A, B and C are collinear if AB = λ AC for
(iii) Component of r on a =
|a|2 H Ka
some non zero scalar λ.
F r. a IJ
to a = r – G
(ii) The necessary and sufficient condition for three points Component of r ⊥
H|a| K a 2

with p.v. a , b , c to be collinear is that there exist


three scalars l, m, n all non zero such that (iv) $i . $i = $j . $j = k$ . k$ = 1

l a + m b + n c = 0, l + m + n = 0 $i . $j = $j . k$ = k$ . $i = 0
(v)

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(vi) If a and b are like vectors, then a . b = | a || b | and (vii) a × ( b × c ) = ( a × b ) × c

If a and b are unlike vectors, then a . b = –| a || b | (viii) a × ( b + c ) = ( a × b ) + ( a × c )

(vii) a , b are ⊥ ⇔ a . b = 0 (ix) $i × $i = $j × $j = k$ × k$ = 0 , $i × $j = k$ ,

$j $
(viii) ( a . b ). b is not defined × k$ = $i , k$ × $i = j
(ix) ( a ± b )2 = a2 ± 2 a . b + b2 (x) Area of triangle :

(x) | a + b | = | a| + | b | ⇒ a || b 1
(a) AB × AC
2
(xi) | a + b |2 = |a|2 + |b|2 ⇒ a ⊥ b
(b) If a , b , c are p.v. of vertices of ∆ABC,
(xii) | a + b | = | a – b | ⇒ a ⊥ b
(xiii) work done by the force : 1
then = |( a × b ) + ( b × c ) + ( c × a )|
2
work done = F . d , where F is force vector and d
(xi) Area of parallelogram :
is displacement vector.
(a) If a & b are two adjacent sides of a parallelo-
(II) Vector or cross product of two vectors : gram, then area = | a × b |
(i) a × b = |a| |b| sinθ n$ (b) If a and b are two diagonals of a parallelogram,
(ii) if a , b are parallel ⇔ a × b = 0 1
then area = |a × b |
(iii) 2
a × b = –( b × a )
(xii) Moment of Force :
a×b Moment of the force F acting at a point A about O is
(iv) n$ = ±
| a × b| Moment of force = OA × F = r × F
$ $
(v) let a = a1 $i + a2 j + a3 k$ & b = b1 $i + b2 j + b3 k$ , then a. a a. b
(xiii) Lagrange's identity : | a × b |2 =
a. b b. b
$i $j k$
a a2 a3 (III) Scalar triple product :
a × b = 1
b1 b2 b3 r r
(i) If a = a1 $i + a2 $j + a3 k$ , b = b1 $i + b2 $j + b3 k$ and
r
(vi) a × a =0 c = c1 $i + c2 $j + c3 k$ then

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r r r r r
(d) If a , b , c are coplanar, then so are a × b,
a1 a2 a3 r r r r
r r r r r r b1 b2 b3 b × c , c × a and
( a × b ). c = [ a b c ] = r r r r r r r r r r
c1 c 2 c 3 a + b , b + c , c + a and a – b , b – c,
r r
r r r c – a are also coplanar.
and [ a b c ] = volume of the parallelopiped whose
r r r (IV) Vector triple Product :
coterminus edges are formed by a , b , c
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
(ii) [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ], If a , b , c be any three vectors, then ( a × b ) × c
r r r
r r r r r r r r r and a × ( b × c ) are known as vector triple product
but [ a b c ] = – [ b a c ] = – [ a c b ] etc.
and is defined as
r r r r r r
(iii) [ a b c ] = 0 if any two of the three vectors a , b , r r r r r r r r
r ( a × b ) × c = ( a . c ) b – (b . c ) a
c are collinear or equal. r r r r r r r r r
r r r r r r and a × ( b × c ) = ( a . c ) b – ( a . b ) c
(iv) ( a × b ). c = a .( b × c ) etc. r r r r r r
Clearly in general a × ( b × c ) ≠ ( a × b ) × c but
(v) [ $i $j k$ ] = 1 r r r r r r r r
( a × b ) × c = a × ( b × c ) if and only if a , b
r r r r r r r
(vi) If λ is a scalar, then [λ a b c ] = λ[ a b c ] & c are collinear
r r r r r r r r r r
(vii) [ a + d b c ] = [ a b c ] + [ d b c ]
12. Application of Vector in Geometry :
r r r r r r
(viii) a , b , c are coplanar ⇔ [ a b c ] = 0
r a b c
1 → → (i) Direction cosines of r = ai$ + bj$ + ck$ are r , r , r .
→ |r | |r | |r |
(ix) Volume of tetrahedron ABCD is | AB × AC . AD |
6
(ii) Incentre formula : The position vector of the incentre
r r r r r
(x) Four points with p.v. a , b , c , d will be coplanar if r r
aa + bb + cc
r r r r r r r r r r r r of ∆ ABC is .
[d b c ] + [d c a] + [d a b] = [a b c ] a+b+c
(xi) Four points A, B, C, D are coplanar if (iii) Orthocentre formula : The position vector of the
→ → → r r r
[ AB AC AD ] = 0 a tan A + b tan B + c tan C
orthocentre of ∆ ABC is
r r r r r r r r r tan A + tan B + tan C
(xii) (a) [ a + b b + c c + a ] = 2[ a b c ]
r r (iv) Vector equation of a straight line passing through a
r r r r r
(b) [ a – b b – c c – a] = 0 fixed point with position vector a and parallel to a
r r r r r r r r r r r r r
(c) [ a × b b × c c × a ] = [ a b c ]2 given vector b is r = a + λb .

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(v) The vector equation of a line passing through two (viii) The equation of the plane passing through a point
r r r r
r having position vector a and parallel to b and c is
points with position vectors a and b is
r r r r rrr rrr
r r r r r = a + λb + µc or [ r bc ] = [ abc ], where λ and µ are
r =a+ λb−a . e j scalars.
(ix) Vector equation of a plane passing through a point
(vi) Shortest distance between two parallel lines : Let l1 r
rrr
and l2 be two lines whose equations are l 1 :
r r
r r
c
abc is r = 1 − s − t a + sbt + c
r
h
r r r r
r r r r r r r
r = a1 + λb1 and l2 : r = a2 + µb2 respectively.
e rrr
or r. b × c + c × a + a × b = [ abc ]. j
Then, shortest distance (x) The equation of any plane through the intersection
r r r r
cb h c
× b2 . a2 − a1 h= c
b1 b2 a2 − a1 h of planes r . n1 = d1 and r . n2 = d2 is
r r
c h
1
PQ = |b1 × b2 | |b1 × b2 | r . n1 + λn2 = d1 + λd2, where λ is an arbitrary
constant.
shortest distance between two parallel lines : The (xi) The perpendicular distance of a point having position
r r r r
r r vector a from the plane r.n = d is given by
shortest distance between the parallel lines r = a1 + λb r r
r |a.n − d|
r r r
and r = a2 + µb is given by d =
r r
| a2 − a1 × b|
r .
c h p= r
|n|
.
r r
|b| (xii) An angle θ between the planes r1.n1 = d1 and
r r r r r r r r n1 . n2
If the lines r = a1 + λb1 and r = a2 + µb2 intersect, r2 .n2 = d2 is given by cos θ = ± |n ||n | .
1 2
then the shortest distance between them is zero.
(xiii) The equation of the planes bisecting the angles
c
Therefore, [ b1 b2 a2 − a1 ] = 0 h r r
between the planes r1 .n1 = d1
r r r r
r r r r r |r.n1 − d1| |r.n2 − d2|
⇒ c
r
h
[ a2 − a1 b1b2 ] = 0 ⇒ car 2
r
h e
− a1 . b1 × b2 j = 0. r r
and r2 .n2 = d2 are r
|n1|
= r
|n2|
r r r r r
(vii) Vector equation of a plane normal to unit vector n and (xiv) The plane r .n = d touches the sphere | r − a | = R,
at a distance d from the origin is r r
|a.n − d|
r if r = R.
r . n$ = d. |n|
r (xv) If the position vectors of the extremities of a diam-
If n is not a unit vector, then to reduce the equation r
r r r
r eter of a sphere are a and b , then its equation is
r . n = d to normal form we divide both sides by | n |
r r r r r
r n
r
d r d
r r r r
e
( r − a ).( rr − b ) = 0 or | r |2 – r. a − b + a.b = 0.j
to obtain r . r = r or r . n$ = r .
|n| |n| |n|
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THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY * Coordinates of the centroid of a triangle are

FG x + x 2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y 3 z1 + z 2 + z3 IJ
H K
1
, ,
1. Points in Space : 3 3 3
(i) Origin is (0, 0, 0)
* Coordinates of centroid of a tetrahedron
(ii) Equation of x-axis is y = 0, z = 0
(iii) Equation of y-axis is z = 0, x = 0 FG x + x2 + x3 + x 4 y1 + y2 + y3 + y 4 z1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 IJ
H K
1
, ,
(iv) Equation of z-axis is x = 0, y = 0 4 4 4

(v) Equation of YOZ plane is x = 0 Note :


(vi) Equation of ZOX plane is y = 0
* Area of triangle is given by ∆ = ∆2x + ∆2y + ∆2z
(vii) Equation of XOY plane is z = 0

2. Distance formula : y1 z1 1
1 y z2 1
(i) Distance between two points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, Where ∆x = 2 and so.
y2, z2) is given by 2 y z3 1
3

AB = (x 2 − x1 )2 + (y 2 − y1 )2 + (z 2 − z1 )2 x1 − x2 y1 − y2 z1 − z2
* Condition of collinearity x − x = y − y = z − z
(ii) Distance between origin (0, 0, 0) & point (x, y, z) 2 3 2 3 2 3

= x12 + y12 + z12 x1 y1 z1 1


(iii) Distance of a point p(x, y, z) from coordinate axes x2 y2 z2 1
OX, OY, OZ is given by
1
* Volume of tetrahedron = x3 y3 z3 1
6
x4 y4 z4 1
y 2 + z2 , z2 + x2 and x2 + y2

3. Section formula : 4. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line :


The coordinates of a point which divides the join of (x1, * If α , β , γ are the angles which a directed line
y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) in the ratio m : n segment makes with the +ve direction of the coordinate
FG mx + nx my 2 + ny1 mz 2 + nz1 IJ axes, then l = cos α , m = cos β , n = cos γ are
H m+n K
2 1
* Internally are , ,
m+n m+n called direction cosines of the line and cos2 α + cos2
β + cos2 γ = 1 i.e. l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1, where 0 ≤
FG mx − nx my2 − ny1 mz − nz I
J α, β, γ ≤ π
H m−n m−n K
2 1 2 1
* Externally are , ,
m−n

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* If l , m, n are direction cosines of a line and a, b, x − x1 y − y1 z − z1


c are proportional to l , m, n respectively, then a, b, x2 − x1 = y2 − y1 = z2 − z1
c are called direction ratios of the line and
* The angle θ between the lines whose d.c.'s are l 1,
1 m1, n1 and l 2, m2, n2 is given by
l m n l 2 + m2 + n2
= = =± =± . cos θ = l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2.
a b c a2 + b2 + c 2 a + b2 + c2
2

* Direction cosines of x-axis are 1, 0, 0, similarly direction l1 m1 n1


The lines are || if l2 = m2 = n2 and
cosines of y-axis and z-axis are respectively 0, 1, 0
and 0, 0, 1.
The lines are ⊥ if l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0
* If l , m, n are d.c.s of a line OP and (x, y, z) are
* The angle θ between the lines whose d.r.s are a1, b1,
coordinates of P then x = l r, y = mr and z = nr where
c1 and a2, b2, c2 is given by
r = OP.
* Direction cosines of PQ = r, where P is (x1, y1, z1) and a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2
Q(x2, y2, z2) are cos θ = ±
a12 + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c22
x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z 2 − z1
, ,
r r r a1 b1 c1
* If a, b, c are direction no. of a line, then The lines are || if a2 = b2 = c2 and
a2 + b2 + c2 need not to be equal to 1.
The lines are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0
* Length of the projection of PQ upon AB with d.c.,
Note : Direction cosines of a line are unique but the
direction ratios of line are not unique. l , m, n
If P(x1, y1, z1) & Q(x2, y2, z2) be two points and L be a = (x2 – x1) l + (y2 – y1)m + (z2 – z1)n, where
line with d.c.'s l , m, n, then projection of [PQ] on p(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2).
L = l (x2 – x1) + m(y2 – y1) + n(z2 – z1) * Two straight lines in space (not in same plane) which
are neither parallel nor intersecting are called skew
5. Straight line in space : lines.
* Equation of a straight line passing through a fixed * Shortest distance between two skew lines,
point and having d.r.'s a, b, c is x − x1 y − y1 z − z1
l1 = m1 = n1 and
x − x1 y − y1 z − z1
= = (is the symmetrical
a b c
form) x − x2 y − y2 z − z2
l2 = m2 = n2 is given
* Equation of a line passing through two points is

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x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 * Normal form of the equation of plane is l x + my +


l1 m1 n1 nz = p, where l , m, n are the d.c.'s of the normal
l2 m2 n2 to the plane and p is the length of perpendicular from
s.d. = ±
the origin.
(m1n2 − m2n1)2 + (n1 l2 − l1n2 )2 + (l1m2 − m1 l2 )2
* ax + by + cz + k = 0 represents a plane || to the
* Two straight lines are coplanar if they are intersecting plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 and ⊥ to the line
or parallel
x y z
= = .
x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 a b c

condition
l1 m1 n1 = 0 * Equation of plane through three non collinear points
l2 m2 n2 is

x y z 1
6. Plane : A plane is a surface such that if two points are
x1 y1 z1 1
taken in it, straight line joining them lies wholly in the
x2 y2 z2 1 = 0
surface.
x3 y3 z3 1
* Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 represents a plane whose
normal has d.c.s proportional to A, B, C.
* Equation of plane through origin is given by Ax + By x − x1 y − y1 z − z1
+ Cz = 0.
or x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 = 0
* Equation of plane passing through a point (x1, y1, z1) x3 − x1 y3 − y1 z3 − z1
is A(x – x1) + B(y – y1) + C(z – z1) = 0, where A,
B, C are d.r.'s of a normal to the plane. * The angle between the two planes is given by
* Equation of plane through the intersection of two
planes a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2
cos θ = ±
P ≡ a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a12 + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c22
Q ≡ a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is P + λ Q = 0.
where θ is the angle between the normals.
* Equation of plane which cuts off intercepts a, b, c
plane are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0
respectively on the axes x, y and z is

x y z a1 b1 c1
+ + = 1. plane are || if a = b = c = 0.
a b c 2 2 2

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* If AP be the ⊥ from A to the given plane, then it 7. Line and Plane :


is || to the normal, so that its equation is If ax + by + cz + d = 0 represents a plane and

x−α y−β z−γ x − x1 y − y1 z − z1


= = = r (say) = = represents a straight line, then
a b c l m n

Any point P on it is (ar + α , br + β , cr + γ ) a b c


* The line is ⊥ to the plane if = =
l m n
* Length of the ⊥ from P(x1, y1, z1) to a plane
* The line is || to the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0.
ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by
* The line lies in the plane if
ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d a l + bm + cn = 0 and ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0
p= * The angle θ between the line and the plane is given
a2 + b2 + c 2
by
* Distance between two parallel planes
al + bm + cn
(ax + by + cz + d1 = 0, ax + by + cz + d2 = 0) is sin θ =
a2 + b2 + c2 l2 + m2 + n2
d2 − d1
given by * General equation of the plane containing the line
a + b2 + c2
2
x − x1 y − y1 z − z1
= = is
* Two points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) lie on the l m n
same or different sides of the plane A(x – x1) + B(y – y1) + C(z – z1) = 0. where
ax + by + cz + d = 0, according as the expression A l + Bm + Cn = 0.
ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d and ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d are of * Length of the perpendicular from a point (x1, y1, z1)
same or different sign.
x−α y−β z−γ
* Bisector of the angles between the planes to the line = = is given by
l m n
a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0
p2 = (x1 – α )2 + (y1 – β )2 + (z1 – γ )2 – [ l (x1 – α )
and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are
+ m(y1 – β ) + n(z1 – γ )]2
a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 a2 x + b2 y + c2 z + d2
= ±
a12 + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c22

if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 is –ve then origin lies in the acute


angle between the planes provided d1 and d2 are of
same sign.

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