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+ exam s't:rat:egies anid lips

+ sam,ple answer she'ets



te,ac:hing

not j!ust tes,t'in,g

I Contents- ,.' . _ .. . --.- _- _ A ••

Tesfl: 11 Paper l IPaper .2 Paper ;3 Pap€r .,¢ Paper 5

le:st :I Papef 1 IPapet 2 Paper 3 Pciper 4 Paper :s

Test 3:

PaJpe:rl Paper 2: raper 3 Paper 4 Paper .5

lest 4 Paper 1 Paper 2 P'a1J€r 3. Paper 4 Paper :;

lest: S Paper 1 Pap@r 2: p,pper 3 Papew 4 Paper 5

'Jest 6 Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper '3 'Paper 4

Paper .5

Read~ng! W~iting'

[Eng 1 ish in Use Ustenfng ;Sp.eaking

6 6 15 '1 9 15 29

Readirigl Wriitirig English in U~e, Ustening Speaking

.30 30 3'9 41 47 511

R,eliiloing Writing

Eng 11 sh in Use. iList~nijl'lg Spe.aking

5,2 52 6d 63 69 73

RJeadii ng' Writing IEngHsll in Use, list!@:n~ng Speaking

7:4, 74 ·83. SS 91 95'

R,e,adlng Wridng:

Engl ~5h in Use Listening Speaking

96

96 105 ~m 113 117

Re;:lding WritJing

'Eng Hslh in Use. Li:5te~1fi ng ~peakil1g

1'18 118 127 ~29 135 139

Visl!l~l[s~or P~IP"eir 5 OMIR Allil'swell' !;!he,ets:

AJII~.w,eir Key Ta,pesc1ripts

141) 1157 161 U8

CONTENTS

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Gukie to Paper 1~ Reading,

In totiJI1 the~e are ;1pproximately 350() 'W'Ords.'of reading ted in each p,aper with ~50 :qu-e~tlol1s aimed to t~t a riJ n ge of reading 1;ktlls, P~rts 2: and 3 ejlch contain one' long text, whilst Parts,' iilrld 41 may contain either ill series of short texts 01"1 a related theme. OJ il IOllger text divided into ~ectionSc. PIa,rt 4 generally contains the- lOll"g,est amount of teoct with IJIP to, 1200 WOfflS,

Texts ~re all taKen flrtrrn aLithenuc sources and may lndude extracts hom ne .... .rspa,per,s. rnaqazmes and l1on-fictlon book:i as well as informa:Uonal or publicity matr?rial. There is B fang,e of sl~es of writing, register and purpose amongst the< texts chosen, but the target audience is alw.ays the educated non ... sp~ciaUS"l re~de-r.

E.o1Ich 1a'~k is designed to reflect the readi,ng, s.kills most appropriate- to th e text type and students sh.ou'ld approacneach m the most soitabl~ way. For example, P.a,rl$ 11 and 4 Illtp.lIre students to find information ilnd ideas in long, and O'iteff'l 'I,r,ery detalil~d. t~Xt5, (lose reading of th~ whole b~xt 1$, theflefore. unnecessary ilnd may waste valuable time, Conver~ely, the tasks in P,atts 2. and 3, although ta'Fg,etlrlig. qUite differ-en! ~ktlls. do require a dose re'ading of the whole tEl-lit A~ce about how to approach each or tne Pap-er 1 tasks i~ 9'lv,eo in the context of the te:dS in Test 1 of thIs book.

The .. reading p(!per ;accounts for 20% of the total marks for the whole eX1'Imlnatior). Given: the nature of tt~1i' 'tasks. Pans 1 and 4- tend to have more questlci"lS (12-22) than taSl<3 in Pa'rts :2 and 3 (5-7), Each part IS, howeller, equrally important. and ~he marks are adjust.ed a,cco~dingly_ Each question in lP:arts 1 and 4 Is, ttler'efore, worth 1 malt;, whilst each question in IPa'ns 2 and 3 IS worth 2 ma,rks. Students record thebr answers directly onto

the: a,n~wer sheet irl pencil, These are If'eatl dilrectly by a computerised optical mark reader in Cambridge.. lh"er'e is art e~ample ,jIos.wer sheet on page 157,

Guide to Paper 2 Wlriting

~fI the Writing paper students produce two pi~e'5 or writing,. escn of ~mlJn.d 250 words, A variety of task types may feature in erthef pert of the e>(a;lm, indud~r1g forma I a nd informal letters, articles, feports and review!>. Each piece of writing has fl conte>:.t T~X!: type and target r,eild~r ar,e defined by the rubric,

P,art: 1 is a comp.lJIlcrory' task: which is based on input infol1mation total,l ing am'Ul1d 400 ViIOrds. rh~5 gen.erally takes the fOl'lm of a nUlmber of 'l:exts- releva nt to the 'gillen situation, The:)e te~s may be letters, 'reports, ad'ii'erttisem~nts or handwritten J'IIOtes. Stude:n'l.s rnust read these texts c!ilrenully and use them as 'the basis for tlle W'xt they produce. The skill tested here is the. ability to absorb and oombine information from a varrie-ly of sources and to re .. present bt 1r! a diHe'fertt form,

Part l offers a choice of tasks, ]he fi na,l w.sk on e·ach pa per is a 'wnrt-r'I;lateQ' qUe$t1on whkhallcrws those wi,th €lxiperieillce of tt"Je lNOrld of work to use this ,n their ,a(l$wer. This option should only be chosen by stuqents with relevant VIIO'rk eX'p-erienc:e. Iii Pan. 2: tasks. stlJdents shoulld follow the instructlons gllven in the ruiuic:;, but' will irfa\l'!i! the freedom to intrroclu(;€1; their own idE-as. into the b'llSks as the cont'eot information IS not prOVided.

..

EXAM OViERVllEW

Papliir 1. acc.Ounts fOl" 2.0'% of the marks Tn tlle whole ~j(,aminatlon. Eac!J,piece of writing is double marked by ful'y~tr.'J;rled examiners using detailed criteJia. In both IPalns 1 and' 2, task aL:hiev~ment isa k~y feature in aS$~ssmelit Air! arnswe:r which f"ari'lsto lndude all the relevant infotmation, or address the poinb out1ined ill the rubric 'Ii'o'iU net mLe hl'El! good mi1lrks, no matter how good ths language. Tilll! crlteria used by the! examll1~r~ are: content, task achlev~ment. organi$01!ition and linking of ide'3$, accuracy of lang.uagoe, range of vocabulal)' and 9rammaticlIl structures., appropriate registe·r <1m:! tneeffect on the talr.get reader.

Guide to Paper 3 EngUsh in Use

Eacn of the: s~ parts of the Engl ish in USf1 paper ijs based on an input text, These t.exts pro!,r.jde a (ontext for tes,til"ig the use of grammar, vocabulary, spelling and punctuation, as well as control of s.tyle, regis,ter, c;ohesion and coherence,

Pari!: , fsa multiple-choice ~Io:le- task bas:ed Oill a tel« of around .250 words_ Knowledge of voc~bulary is being 'tested here, and So each, oJ the multiple-chOice optiOl'105 fits grammatk.a~ly and logkallv into th~ text, but only one combines with the bMe te~t tofullye:!l.pre'~s the lnten:ded meaning ..

'Pa'rt 2: is- 011"1 op~n doze t.as~ baQ!!c;I on oil tel't of around 250 word.s. The 'focus "'ere is 01') gram miSlo', and missing wards will mclude pronouns, e'onjuncliom, verbal auxiliaries: etc: Some qu.esth:ms, particularly where keys are negatives, linking expres:iiioi:1'5., etc, will focus on me~ningl ~nd the le1,1el (l,f th.e immediate phrase- or Se!f'!terTCe!.

'Pa'rt :5 is an error correction task, There ill re l~vo pOSSible variations to this rask, Un th>e iLrsl version, rnest Ilines 'oflhe 2(l0~ word text ,cohtain an uflnec:e:ssa'fY word_ In the second versIon. most li,l"les in the ted contain either a misspel'led \NOrd" or an m-appmpriate pUrlcwatio:n mark, In bo~h versions, ed,oh line of text is either coHeet, or contains one error of the typr;: defined in the I"Ub·ri(:,

P,art 4! is a word~buildillg task" besed M two short unconnected tex.ts of around 125 'WOrds each .. The base form of each target 'NOrd is Qliven, stud,ems Inserting tl1e correct (orm in the context of the p.nsag,e. Thb;, til$.~ tests knDlNlecfge of ~II kinds of affixation, part,iwl.1ul'y the formation of" flOUfl!i and tlie 'Use of prefl)i;~$ to modifY'lUE!aning ..

PaJrt!5 is an irnfmmatlon-tri'ioUer task which involves Mo texts o,f a round 1 S'1 words, Tile fil'St i1i an Imp ut text '/Nhi6h contains

a~1 the information needed to (om ple-t,e the task. The second is ill tex.t which conveys the 5.ilroe information from a di"ff@rent standpoint or which is addre5sed to il diffe,rent target rleade,r, For exam pIe, a formal I~flet provides information fOI" a note to a fri~nd, or vice' versa, Students:, through reference to, the inpot t€'~t. comple1re gaps with one or two v..rords .-J ppropricue to the style and tons of thi? second text, The focus him~ is on range of expreS'.siOn and the .ability to use language of an appropriate register.

Part 6, IS iI discourse doze based on a text of around 250 words" S:I!uden,:t5 must decide which of the listed! phrases Of dB'uses fits each gap. What is tested her'~ is kn.owledg{l of tru::t structure arid coher-ence at senten(€' level,

T~~ Engrish in Use pa per srcounts fo,r 20 % 'Of Ute rna rks in the< e::(;1Imfniltion <liS a whol&, St1udents mark their .:mgwers dfrett1ly on to the answer sheet (we, p~g6 158-1159'). Each ta$k beglin;!;, wirth an ~;.:ample th~t :s,hows how answers should be recorded. Eacb q"reSlion is worth 1 mark.

Guide to Paper 4 Uste n i ngl

__ ---

Eilbh of 1!he four parts of the Liitening pap~r is based On ,3 text reooi'ded on tape-. Plii!1S 1. 2 amI 3 each 'c,o~ain on e ton 9 text, wh~lsl P,art 4 contains a series of short texts on, a related theme, T~xts may include extracts from radio pro9lrammes, talks,

INillfe5 and 'ere~,hot'le inmrmatlon lines as \~II as informal CMWlSation , there lis 11 ra n:ge of aCQn-t, register and purpcse amol1!il!rt the textsdiesen, bllit the tar'get audience is always he educated non.~e-c!allst listener.

Th~ ~ are bssed on al.J'threntlc SiO UoFces. but ame pro'fessionaUy reoorded in a stJuoioto ensure clarity snd uniform sound qualuty. Each te(;{t is heard tlNlce, witlhthe exeeption"l ,of P,i:llrt 2, which is ile'aFd cm,e only. In Palrt ,4,. wi"le'f'e a Sieries of SQmt texts is heard., tlie, rompf~te series is pta,ye.rj th roug h once and then mp~i1ltetl. Earn part of the test has two po!;sible task types, each of which Is fOGus,ed on the l.iste.ning skill appropriate to tile text type, The rlJoriG, reooreoo on thetape and w,rilUr! on'tlle page, .. 5uppl les mfurmi1ltion about the sp~k:er, th~ context and the 'task, 'Studelllts, !>rnolJld pay careful attention to these to ~nSiJr~ that th~y know which task ,type ls being used.

P:art 1 is a[:1 lnfmma'tional mOl'lot'oglue 'Of around two and a halt mtnl.l~_ Students show understanding of the ted es a whole by 'ompleting g,1IPS in 21 set Orf sentenoes or notes that sum manse fue main information ,conveyed i r1 th,@' text. Where the task jlequlre'; sentencs comple.tion, .lIJ1SINEHS must fi r gram maticafly

ill 0 tl'le sentences, 10 no~e-taking ta_sks. answers rnustfit rogiGlllly mto the tables or lists o:f ,points lmdl1!,f .heading~. In 1b00th tasks, most ans;wer~ ~n he si ng'le woms, num tiers or very short pnrall~, As 'the 'focus IS on information, eoncrets nOUI"I$ ,and nOUfl phras~s are the commonest words found as, keys. S.tudents can e~p~ct to bear the' words the.y have to write on th e tape,

I:!jJit the sentence, er liSt of points, they complete wi III be a summary of what is hea:rd, not a tra,,!;criptiQfi, Although

clrfswers, must be spelled correctly. keys ~llfoQls on words, that s.tlJd'en~ at this, ~8""el: s,hQuld be: able to spell without diffu~ulty,

Pilirl 2: al&o fea:tur,es all infcrrmatiortal monologue at around two mill1l1t~, with either a s~flWrl('e·OOIllIipletiolf'l or note-takin,g 'task, Th~ main ,d if'Wen(e ~$ that the text is played once on Iy. In addition. the t~Th used ilre those which tend 'to r,ecyc:ie key lnoformati.of), Some' words whichtea,ture in the answer key will, ~h.€fdofe, be repeeted, o,theranS'NElrS will be, reinforced by the piece af Mxt wh lch foll'O'W'S, them,

IPont J featuli"ti a longer teKt 'Of around tou.r minutes, whnch fNtiJrre5 two Or three interacting speakers, As well as, wnveying s:pedJlc irriormO'l,tjQn" these texl$ deal with the attitudes and oprnro0:5 of speakers and the q~estio ns focus lar,g'ety 01"1 thecse a§pect5 of tine text. The!1l! may be either a sentence-completion task or more prob~bly a set of four-cpnon multiplll!-choice questi(ln~.

Part '. consists of a series of five short monologues on ,a related Ih-em~_ rne task may take the form 01 either a .sst of th rea-item f'IiIt.lItij;1r,g-choioo questlons, two per m onolog'ue, or a muHip!e-

ma't"h~ng task. In e:a,ch am~. the t1:!5kfoCU~6 on elements of

glist meaning ,and students are as.lked to identify. fur example, each spe,aker's ooQupation, feelingl opinion, main point, etc. Where them is a multiple-choloe task. the quasuens foillow the orderet the speakers_ In tnli.! muHipre-matching tesk, howElv.er, there are 'two tasks to perform, one each 'timli! the text is played, and stude-nts have two lists of! eig!1t. prornots to look alt. During the f rst playmg, for exa mple, the students may be aSK'!!d to jd~:n:tJlfy the '$peake~'s oc:c~p1lltlon from a list of eight possibilities; du~lng th~ ~Peat ,of the mcordi ng they ill ight have to ehoose the main point earn speaker is maki'ng from a choiLe of eight.

llhe U!'>t,r;1nil:"lgl pilp~r i1l~OO'LlU'lt5 for 20% of the marks in the

exam i~atTon as iii wIlor,e. As they listen. students record their answers on the question paper. They then haVE! ten rninutss at the end of the examinmcol1 to copy their anS'Ner.s from the qu:est~on paJpe~ on to the sepalfaote al1SWlllf sheet (see pag'e 16'0), Each q,u~ion is wortn 1 mart.

-- -

Guide to Paper 5_ Spea.king

The Speaking paper of the ,examunat:io:1'I is taken by pairs of c<Imltdates alld is designed 'to eliti'l a range of spontaneous spoken language in responss tq varioUiS prompt ma'1erials. The UlS~ are :de5igne'd ttl allow students to' expr,ess their own thoughts and 'fee:lio9~ 011 0111 range of topiCS, and to show how effectively ihey can communicate in th€! .reCiI world In 11 rang:e (If 9lttuatti'Ons<

The test lasts 1 5 minutes a nd is divided into four dh;.ti net partS'. Part 1 focuses. on general 'soctal inleraction. Once the examin.er hss estabrishe.d na rnss and personal detairs,stuclents- are ili~ked to f,ind out il'l'f,o~mQlti:on ab-o/l.!ft each other on a glVe'n theme, 11"1 fart ,2, ~a(h student is g,jven th~ chanee to ta'l~ fnr one minwe I.ls.~ng a visual prompt, uS1uaily a set of photographs, on a theme, This task focuses Of"l th e llanguage- of desl:;liption. hyp.othesis and specula.tion _ The list~nillg student is as~d tQ comment en what has been said at the end of the;! long turn. ,'.u1.3 is; a collaborative task basedon a visual prompt 1lJ5ualll,y a S'et of images reJated to .<1 theme or sttuatlen, Stu dents talk a bout the

i mages in r,e'aticm to the taSik Bind \N()~k. towards SO'ffl@ kind of joint c,ondusron which is than repcrted back to tne ~)(aminer. In Part 4. the e)(aimioer le'ads. a clscussion which dever,0p5 further the theme eXp:k;II"€!lCl 111 P!ilr1i: 3,

The Speaking paperaCcounlii for 2'Cl% ohne total marks in the examination:. The.n~ ar:e two examiners; one interacts with th.e ~t:udents, nancinn 9 outth e prompt materials, reading the rubrk,s a nd making a global amssment of the studerlits' a'b ijity, The other observes the iiUeractron, giwill9 the students mark'S based on the assessment of dletailed Lr'i'teri~. The cri~eria fQf assessment are: gramm.ar and vocab uia ry, discolJ r~E!

rna na.g I:1ment. pronunciation, communlcative abi Ility ~od gllobal achievement.

..

R.e,ading (1 hour 1 S minutes)

PAP'E,R1

tip Stri,

., R@ad the IIlstmctie1ils i!I.~id 'qjll:eSf~olilS-.

• li!ea,!il through tbi ~ te.xt qliiil:l<~y to ge,t agelileral ide~ Qfwtla:t Ws abblWt and how Tt's (li'!'din u!ied. ll'OlIl't WlHry if yo III do,n't !,IliIilel'st3:nd i<t I'uUV.

• UnderHrniE! tl1,e Ik:~w words In each qUlls,tUQIiI <lin ci fil'llHl:le ~a,j't(s)' of the text w'~'ere,tlJeslil

~ deal> are d iscu:s:sed.

• Th~' words used iin UiJe ql!:l.estiollls are ullU,kelV to. ij,p'l'Il!oiIr in the tex,t. Leok for parts of 1m: text conltaillilinsorelated i~'I!i!S and vocal:i!u~ary. H;iI~Wi light napfle.s Illt'id ~ey wards i III the te~t.

,it R,ead ca ~efuUy tlil~

pie ~.QS of te'~t wllere tint ilHsweor is m~e,ty tn be found.

<ii, Note: fhe, mitt 'Qfltpiilil~ i ImmnnatiQ'1I you ~",iU not Iile~.

Qll:e'5ifi01i15, :2,;a, and 4= Three' Q'f the sJifdlons mefll1hMl the need to change. "Ia'ils Ollrtt1'leV donO( use thesa WOt,d s. Unde-rUne t~ e ~ej(t: wh Il!re plans q.r,~ d!la1I'1.g~d. Qu:eslion §r= Sedilil'lIs 'C,. E <11'1,01 F im:llUd~ wol'd~,that . t;alk abeut eXp~1'I5es. 'In wlhiclll~edion is an extra, '~!lenS!ii! J I,d stifle"? 'Q:J,!e.stiQi!l'~51 and :10: 'lR!esoUJful'ut' m~j(ins rul~ of gmtd' practical ideas

a mid '5l~~J)tio DS .. WlhlJ ml1!i ~nisdescrif'ption? W;I1n:dll P<lrts Elf the "text 13,11(. abm.U tlhi:s persQIiI~?

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:P ART 1

Answen:luestiOrlS 1- n by referring to 'the magazIne artiel e a bout orchestras 0111 on pagu; 7'.

Ind1icate you r iii nswers on th e separ,ate ens-w,er she,et.

Forquesfioos 1-r:7, answer by cho.osinQ from the sections of the article A~H. Som e of thec hokes m'EiY be ['€l'.quii red more than once.

Note: When more then one answer IS required, these may be given in any'

Wh'h::h section stSltes that

soms muslci,ans take precautions with their equilpfTIent7 1

plans sometimes have to be changed because of 2,

'Llnforese en dr,c'l.I rnsta ness?

so rnetlrnes extr a expense can be j ustihed? 5:

if tours are over-ambitious, the music will suffer? 6

a tour hats more imp"act when the concerts ar,e' 1

themartically linked?

:3 .•. " 4 .".

i nternatJion al tou rs can benefit the caH3ers of certain perform ers?

:8 .,"

'Wlhk:h settJ]olll lindu:d es

sorneo ne who has to be v>ery resou rcefu1?

9

10 ....

someon e who ten ds to rep eat the sa me m i sta ke? 11

a diisa'greemeFlt over a fundamental matter? 12

a musician who was allowed a special favour? '13

someone who refuses to com rnent? 114

a musircian who takes a calculated risk? 15

musicians narrowly a~oiding dhsaster? 116

c!, m isu ndersta nding over a booking? 17

TESTL PAPER 1

B F:aa::~ng_ the' Icha Illenge

For Sue MaLlet,the ol'cilestm's; administratcr; such diffi"cuU~s are a]] part of the ehaUe:nge of getting a symphony orehestea and ~ts instrLlmerrl,'S on . taJge, on time and in one pieoo. N orrniilly, she P1Lll,tg the players, on planes arnd sends the instrum.ent& on in a lon-y because it. is less E'Xpe.nei ve. ,HnwI~lvl,'n:, on one towr 'of Seanmna'ria. som,le last-minute rescheduling meant transfe,rring tbli,l instruments onto the plane \vith the (Jin;;hestra. The airHne obliig'mgly andmgeniously ~moved several rows ,cf seats to aecommedate SOme or the instru]lJ!Ients ~n the cabin at 110 e.l!ttra eost, On the gl1:n.iJnd" nrucl1 oonsternation W,fl.!ll eaused ott the bOlrder crossings when the LSO Jerry tll..Tned up carrying nat the ,oonos and oboes listed on the custems document" but JlI;jlW8 ,of aircraft seats,

II Pmizedl p osses$iiDII'I

Fur eellist, Francis Sa undw:'G. a good iIns't.nunent is one of the necesstdes O'f belonging to a world-class oouri.ng Qfchestra. And while some (if his eolleagues Cho.O~0 to Ieave their favourite ;in~tTUllllenl safely at hnme, Saunders not only takes his much. loved and prieelees cella 1.Vith him, he actu.ally chance.s putting it in the hold of the aircraft, Mind you, ~t does have a specially constructed. cas!;}. so nine times out. of t~n Saunders eantake it out 'of the hold and find it b1ilXl,g on tune. Vilhat he does have to do is keep an eye on - the~€!'mp~'ratur,e and hum.i.dity.. Like m~ny :players, h"€ puts a sii:mple ,humidifier in the ~r hole and leaves it there when the in~trument is not in 'Me.

II Res'oll't to anythmll1lg

However wen Sue I';,.~.,,]]et planseach tour. and she cloeS, her pl!jIJJlni~ with. ,aU the JI:l'ie,ci$:i.o:n. and pr.ecautions of a NASA sc.ie:n'l;~st plarrning aspaee G.;q>edl.tiOD:~ events sOl1lietim~s tattle the upper hand, While otherrs IJhillk on tbeilr feet" l\.1& Mall.e;t does her I'e-tlrinkingon the run. She will resort to anytlldngtlo ensure things, zun ,s:m,Qo~b~J, but nc amount of ps,rsu.as:i:on wOllJ1d IdraW her on wh at she did 00 Ieso,lve the situation when one European hotel hilt other people bOl;lk into, t.he rooms i.ntende.d. fOr' her musicians. while the concert was in progress.

m A. mOVing e.xperllsnce

'Touring ill: tir:inS and str.essfnl, horwll:ver' we]] it goos: sa.ys Francis Saunders. And yet OD balance he says thBl.t flying r-ound the wl)fld is one of the real perks ill the job, He wnn't fu.get the time he went with the orchesha t9 A;:m;tralia and the pilot, who was a great mu~ic fan" let him. watch the approa..ch to Syduey froOm the .flight dllick. N 0'1;' 'wiJ1 he Forget the end o·f ,<1 concert in Moscow, wnen ,liLn eLd,er]y lady pressed a piece of paper into his hand .. ~t said, sim.ply lind wuch~ngly" what lovely musk she had. heard,

Orchesltra on Tour

Org,anlsing an international tour by a large orchestra is not an easy project R,ob';'n Lau."ence has been talking to the people involved"

II GI!obe~jrotl:iinrg adVleil1l!um

The London S~i'111phouy Orchestra (LC';IO) has been tnwemng since it was for:llled almos,t ,a century ago. A bench of ,50 rebellious musicians who had. le:lt Sit Henry Wood's w:ch(!i8tr.a: in 'high dudgeon ove:r pay ,and principia set up the ['sO lin 190'4 and were· quick to estahlish the spiili'~ of gilob~Uing adventure In HI12 ,they Seit sail for Anu~rieHto become the 6rSit British orehe'str,a to play the eoncert halls of the Ne,w Wodd. In so doing, they just missed loortain oblivion when atypicaUy last-minuteelteration to. the iJ;iJlera"l'Jl' led to the c'aJl!ce.UaUon of their b~okin,g on that famously il[·.fated sbiiip, the Titan~c.

m Iintemafiolilall r,epldaUon

On. that fiNt Anl!ll!lican tour, 'the orehfl$tra pla.yed! 28 eencerte in 21 days. Today tha,t kind of programme would be. )lilthmk~.ble. ~lf::; just Dot good {or the musie,' says Olive GillinsoIll, a former ,cellist m'th the orbhestr,a_ and now its Managing DiteC'~or. GiUinson "spares th.~ orchestra such grtIlellJng t1i:ps by ~eepiIllg tours down to a maximum of twoweeks, None1;h,eles5l he is, 6nthm~i<listic about their value, bot;hoo, the orehestra and. to its :i ndividual msrnbers, ~ great inten1LattionaI orchestra needs to w(ld" with the greatest condu'c:tors and soJ.O]sts. No recording eompany wi]} record a conductor or soloist if he Of ~hCl does not have an ioce,rna.tiolOJal. reputatien. 80 fm: .the ~etordin,g' side Y,DU [teed to vts:i~ tlie lo;;ey

markets: '

• Nlot eas:illy '~Olrgotten,

Gillinsoll l;'iimlll to, create 1m event not just a series

of co,n(;crt-s,. and so his tours are whole" pJ'1Qjects and f~stiV'flJs au a pm'nculi31l' focuS. 'And t'h 1;1 II y'()U "have: a sWry IlIIIOUtt,d whi:l;:h you can build 11 :pubJre relations eam.paign. It~s m()f, . cost1y to do, but when you. leave 'wwn yl)iuar~ not so easily furgot-ten. It i$ simply a matter (If good business practice/ The audlim;ce might not forget, but othiliiI'S d{l\, WbentJne freight handlen lraf't the iQs'~rum~,nili,ts on. th.e tarmac ;at Atlantt'i akfJ!lrt. undee the heat of the southern aUD, the varnish melted. on two of th.e dcuble-basses, among the "'most expensive items in the orchestra.

OJ Da,rng,erOI1J1S, lequipment

Airport. security can present problems for the orehestr-a~s chairman ,John Lawley, who plays the oboe. He earries witb him a couple of rather dangerous knives -and a .set of l';;lZ!I)(r blades to pre'pare the reeds far the a,bae. Strangely €inough, everything goes ~motl'tlily ifhe re:m.emQe'r:soo pa:ckl;:hlml in rus 6wtcas'fl.ff he rorgets and has to carry them as hand Lu,ggag,e he invariably has them (.'tmnsoCl'i.wd. '1'hey promise t«), give 'the..m bai:iktt. the end aBhe flight, hut somehow th~y seem to go a"Strny.'

TIEST 1. PAPER

For questions 1'8-23" yeu must c:nooQe which of the paragraphs A-GI en page 9' fit 1 nto the numbered gaps in thetol lowl ng mag,flIzi ne a rtlde, Thews is one extra pa:ragr aph which does not fiit i r1I a ny of the gaps.

I ndicflIte your an !}W8Jr.& on ilthe :sepalrate answer sh'aet.

PAR T 2:

Th i:s was espedt'lUy apparent i:n the MedHterranean Sea, Whrdh J1:5 an enclosed, ne<arly ti,(te~e's.sr sea wi:~h manlY of the ~Gharad:elistics (Ita. lake, SiOI that any el1ivi rcn m ental inteJiererlce wo Il.dd not talkie lo I1gm shiew il:s!!":i:f. La,t..er Cousteau went onthe high seas, ~,~bJrnilrYgto AS'SiLil'lfiption Ilsll9!nd i 1'1 the Iindian Ooean, wheir:e many yeNS beJore, he had fiIIm ad much ttt The Silerrt World,

Jdcqllfes~ Yves C:ouste<a~lI, 19110-1997" wa'S one of the grea:tt1:st fr,en cllmen of the 2Qth tentu.-y. He inivented the mlod!em dive~'s breaJ.th in,g 'OliPiP(!mtus 1 I1nd Wieli1lton to becorn e one of the wor~d 's b~st·,knOcwil1 e:xplorer;;., A new era of mlui ne

explo rolll.tion b e:ganl i nthe SIlJ m mer 'ott 1943 ~n .01 secluded Fr€'IiI.ch c'Ove when CeIJsteau first.sUpped into the sea weaJring his Aqua.~tungl the simple but ele,ga!lit iinlventitln that ella:b~e:d humans to taike

th €lif' breath wil:h them beneo2i.th the see,

He knew Whillit J:1ewootelj',. but it did not exist What he wanted wa!S·self-colilt1irileicl compressed-aur cy~inde,rs plus & devioo with hoses and mOlJ'Hn pj'ece. lhis devi~Ce WOIJI 1e:1 feed h 1m aii r ,o'l1ly on tJh.e ~fiI~Keo, at the pressure of the s.urrounding ~~&" ~hultt[n1gQff the ~Io,w whe n he exhar:ed.

1191

For human use the devio;' prolVe:d remarkabl'y ,effective, so mucn 50 that today' mm~o ns of dive~ put on th1:s devire \'l!'iihC:H.!t a tho ugbt. BUltat the '~ime. the Aqua.~lllng was history in the making. It opened the subm'arirlie wo.rldroa new .age 'Of

disc,O'very. <

The e~d Of World War III fr6ed nalial' off1ioer

Cia us~ei3JlJI fur further ]oyhJ ~ undenv(f,ter pursuits. H~ Wised a we odellil-!huUed ,fC:Jrrme'r m~ nesweeper, the Calyp.'S'Q, to cOMlt~nu€! hhs flxpl1oratilon or il:f:le ocean depths. He recorded f1~s exp~U'iflnc~s 'iril his book, The SilerJt World (1'953:), a plllbl~s:h1Ili1g·sensa.tion that 'S:o·I:cj fiillE! m lillion copies ami was traJl1~~aited i !(Ito

22 lan guages, hi! subsequent years. CQUlsma~ deve!opeaa mil nt1iLtlii re submaJline I.~he :Diving Sauce.r, built undel'W'aJ.ter dwelmngs for pmlong€!d dMng, and prod uced asenes of te~evHs:foEilfHlms tha,t woulld make him one Of th,€' world's b~st-krrown faces, But AS the year.s pe-ood. hie ;~eganro' n Q~l>cEl

bIO_2m_1_et.._t_~IiI_g_· _di_S!!1_'. U_i_€ti_- rl_g __ io_t_h_'E:_M_.' •. _€I_d_irt.e_II_.r"OO_.1 _El_<l_t1_s_e_a_, ---"I I

tHe f,ou nded the Cousteau Sodety to ,PubUdse end su pport hi'S new passion. ~etook Ca fypso< .aU over the wo~q! docum.enlting the un cih.eckiecl looti ng, as, he cai~ed it; of the oceans and rivers" Everywhere he wenttQ talked to tsherm en I farm ers, and even to rflres~d ents,

,Cotl:stea:u wiill be remem pe red for hlls abUity to com m uniic('),te, justas hils nam e wi,! ~ alwa)ls be eon l1I;ec;.ted wiU11 water, ~n 1'992 he attended the

IJ I1IJted Natil()ns COlnierence on the El1ivill'Onm ent and Develppmetnt in Rlo!de Janeiro, plead ing forth€! 'SaDl1e US€ of EartJh"sfin~t.e reso urcss, 1M 13: sp~nt tlhe ffist df his: life TIliI ti,r€!less adv'Ocacy ,Q1f the -sea, nully. Ja.c:qu@os-"f\!"€!s cousteau was thel 'ma.:stell' oFt~e d!e~\p".,

A He was bOl'irified to flndthe same sid::liJ.~ss. What had been anaquatic paradise, pulsati'ng with Ufe

an d ablaze' with 'Colour, was neat1y lifCl!less. AppaHed <lind angered, Coustea:u the di'vel' and f1lm·maiker became, COlJste$J the envi ronm entanst.

B 'At iii iight I b a.d often had vis]ons O'f fliying by extending my arms as wings,' Cousteau wl';ote in his cHary. • Now I 1flew without wings" OPi that T,i rst Aqua,·LlJIllg dive! I exper:lmfH'ntedwith loops and somersaults. II s~ood upside down on one finger. Deiilve red from gravity and buoyancy; 1f;,llew around as fif iln spaoe.'

C, Hlis dhrers were having problems with their bulbs 'foT Nash phot'Ographs: ~1'iI th e high pre:ssEJI M of deep water they ~en.ded to Ileak around tihe,ir base, causing them to mlsftlre. Cous:ite:au's solution was

Ii iflspked. The ship~s engineer- drilled 't\No smailll holes i nthe bases" the cook melted wax for them ,an d' the surgeon ~ nj-ected t~Ei liquid VII,ax intO them using a syringe. When it solidified, undervvaterlighlling was ass u roo .

10, Go UsteaJu wlishedto be abh! to swi m horizontal ~y I'ilke afsh weightless" and manoeuvering easilly in three dimenslons. He wou~d have nothllil,gtCl[ do with the dlvers in the standard diving dress of the time, whom the Frelilch called 'heavy feet', wih their copper helmet and lead-soled boots, making their pondercus waya.cross the seabed,

• Rie.lld t~e main tE'Jt. ~f,st. i~1iI 0 ring It rn~ laJp:S~ to ge'E ag-ene.al 1!J1'l1iI,eI'5t,an~il1g of its !ilubjed mlatt,er aVId ICFgl1nisaUlm.

• R:e'ad the text a~o~m'.f each g.ap ca~1il!II~

.. Read: pa r3graph~ ,A--G. Check for hjlpiC a' d lill!lgJ.!age tfnb with Ule pi! ra~aph51ln UI~ b'3ise ~e:xit.

• High nght words that refer to, P!.H),pCe .and p~liil!::es (rn l:io!th the mail1 text <fna pa1raJiephs.

• Highl.fght tlnte Ir'eiefel'luS--lhis will he·lp VOY1:Cfo:l!QI,lI tihe 'S€ii:!ueIW;! of e.WJ'f£$i,

• ,Highlight lirildflg words ill bl!lith time main le<Jd am!! pal'ag!r,~ph5 - this wllUt he Ip Y1Zl1l tokllllow the dll!¥elopmeJil t I)f titer is fglll ment

'" Re·,r~ad the c'Qm13tebed 1!elllt ~(I be 51l1Hl it Imakes st!l1se.

E Unm~e many blilll'iant technical men, Cousreal!J was supremely art:iclJla~e and conveyed hls compelling ideas with eloqueace, He lectured equally wei'l tn French or !English. often without notes, with a VII'IIid ,I ma,g)ery in both tonjgu es that a poet would have been proud of,

F Cousteau took hi:s idea to an englneer called Emile Ga,gnan. He was asu,onisi1eci when Gagnan p~cked somethilng up from his wolt surface and said' "~o'!.! mean lik!e th~s:?" It was the: valive for the ',ga:zogel1le"" a gadget designed to enab lie motor cars to ru n on domesttc gas in times; of petrol shortage.

G lin many places fish were growing scarce, and once rFC1hly·carpeted seabeds now ~ay bare .. ~armed, he began a survey; testing water qua!liity and ana~ys;ing seabed sedi ments, .Ev,erywh ereth e message Wail'> the same: ,overfishing, pollution, and unrestrained 'd~elopmel1t' of the shores had reduced its marine ~ ire by 30' to 40 percent, Cousteau estimated.

IQye-s1iiullll <119: irl:l,e firs,· liM oHext Ol!rte:r the'alil tjjJlks a b r;J lI't 'tile liI.evke'. Whtch'optiten cIl!scrililes a del/ice. gives ita name' and also uses another wQrs! with <I simil.an'~'eali1ilil.~ qlJ&e!;tlon 2Q~ 1I"Iiqe second Une ake-, t~e g:a~ talks ,about ·~l:.InMj' j,eyliLll plnsuiits·, III v/lilh:h (iiptian lifaes 1(€llJsteiul des;cribe.m ll'liIj:O)!able eXp'!:!vie'I:tL"e'!'

Q;uestlO'Iii ,2:1: Before the gap, W,!! read a~Q1Jt COllilSlltau retumilng to A:sls'Llmp~ion lsland, WIil~(IIi1IiJ'~fion de'51(:rlbe<s wl1'a~ hE! fuun:d Y~hen he gtrt ttuin;e? .A'fil:er the rap. we lread about (4uUealj.l's 'new passio:n'. 'Whalt does this ~·efer 1::0 ]nl t~~mi5sin'g ~arag;ra~~?

..

R!ead the foHowin.g maglazine article about e-mail and answer cuestions 2:4-28 on page 111. On your answer sheet, indicate the letter A. B,. Cor D against the number of each questlon. Gh],e only one answer to each question.

Ind i cate you r a I1SW'€'r'5 on tbe srepara,te ans,we r sheet

WH,EN E-MAIL

- --

BECOMES E-NOUGH

TI he 1filr,st.pel'SOln I came across wno'd got the mea, sure of', e-m, G, i I.wa, Sial,.'ril Am e",riQ3," ,~, friend _ whow,aiS, high up m a big corporatum,

Some years ago, when this method of

co m m u nicath:m 'first see ped into busi ness Ilife hom academia! hiisoompalrilY in NewYotk,and its, satellites across the gllobe were among thefirst to g:et it. In the world"s glreat seats of learningl, e-mail ha,d '1'0 r some years a II owed resea rche rs to share vihll new j en kes: And -if the re was reutting-edge wit to be h ad, there was no way my friend's corporeticn would be without. it

One even~nglin New York, he, was late fur 11 drink we'd srra ng ed, 'Sorry: he said, 'I've been away

a nd ha d to dee I w,ith 998 e-m ails in my queue,' 'Wow,' I said, "I'm realilly surprised you made it before midnight'

'It. doesn't really take that 1011g,' he explained, 'if

you s[i rnp Iy delete them ~ n.' .

20 lme to form, he had developed a strategy before most of us had even heard of a-mail. ilf ,any ir'lform,l'viorl he was sent was.sll'ffioiemly vital, his I,ac:~ oi response would ensure thesender tallllg 111m IIJP. IJ the sender wasn't impOlti3ll1t elloUrgh~o have his p dVGllte, IlIU mbe r, the commlJl n,i cation .colJildn't be sufficiently important. My roiand is now even more senior iln tl1~ same company. $fa the; strategy must wo rlit, a Ithoug h tih.Sise deli}!?, I don't tend to se rid him rna ny e-ma Us.

Almost IWiny week now, there seems to be <!Ifii,other report s!Jg,gesti I'Ig th,i:\t we are a!11 bsl og

32 dirillE!1'I crazy !:ly the torment of e-ma i I. But If t.h ls is the case" it's only because we Iha\l''tm~t d1eve1loped the same dlscrimination in dea iii ngl with ~maH as we do with post H ave you ever misteken en

j mporta nt letter for 13 piece of unsol ioited lldQ'erti'shlg and thrown it: oJt?' Of course you haven't This is because of the olbliging stupidity of 99 per cent: of o1ildvertisers, who ju,st can't Mlp m alk i,ng theIr ma ilstrots Ilook I ike the junk m ai i that t~ey a 00:. J U~ l< e-maq II ooks 6qjualll,y ~,mn~.t:essairy to read. Why anyone WOLI lid feelthe sli 9 htest compulslon to open the .sert of thing entitled S:PECIAlOFFER@junlk.tom I coo not b~gi n to Uil'lderstarnd. E.\I"~1lI vims~s, those sneaky messages th alt contal n 'ill bug wlh ich can Gormpt i'0U r whol e oompuoorsyst@m, come. helpfll.Jil,ly Ilarbel'led Wlid'l packa_ging '~hillt $Ihriel<:s 'danger" do not open',

Handlling 'e.·maiil is an art Firs-tlIY, you junk

a nrythi ng wuth an e.xcla matkm m ai~k or a liitrll n..9 '()If capital letters, or from allY addres~ you dOI1I't recognise Olf feel confident about Secondly, while I, can't qluite support my Amerkan fiiend's rculica,l poHcy" e-ma i,ls don't alII haw 'to be 1'lIr1SW€ffl:L Because e-mali ~i rig is, SG e¢!rsy. there's a t~nd ~ncy lor correspendence to Ci31l1ry on for ev€lr. but it is permissible to end a' strand ol'f d,iscu!ision by

si mply not disc.lJissillfg it 11 ny longer - Ilr to accept a pai nt 'or ~l1formatiQ,n sent by a coHe13 9 lwe without a,cknmvl'edglng it.

Thirdly. a reply e·mall doe.s~·thave to be the same Ilength'sS the ofi~im91. We all !lave €Hil1,ail blJdd~es who S'e'l:1:d II ong:, chatty e·maj I:~ wlil idh aJ-e nice to roc.eive'. but. who then el<ipect al1l equ~Hy long: rep~~ TOlUlgh. The r:ha.rm of e-mail can Ii,e in the simple, susp~nd'ed sentence, with 'rota I: disregard for the forma~ itie:5" of the. lette,F sel1l't by post ¥o.u are penec,Uywithil1i the bQullds'D'r politeness in respondirrg to a marathon e-mail! with a terse one-liner, lilke: 'How dis,t 'essing.I'm sm,s it wi:11 dear up,,'

rEST~, PA..PER 1

• The ql.l'e$ti9l11S 'Fptlow Hie order cftthe teltt.

iI ~e.l!!adlhe tex.t for gist.

Don't w1or.ry if yOI;! donft IJlflderstan dI every '!.'~Qrd.

'" aead tile quastiens without loakil'lg at eptlons A. 13., ,and 0'. '1l>!iI may bt1 abl!e to 811'1SWer some,Qf tht!, qluestiDns fulm yotlr pre Imi niairy r,eadi1'lg.

'. Uind,eliline. key words in the qlul!'stiol'l stem, them find titre parts £If the tE',Y;t thillt ~el;at~IQ each qUUtlOJiI. Ulllderlille the cOlrm~,p{')l'Iding wmds tner,e.

• OeEit!e whidl option best iitI ~tChe$ the Ie:;.:.t. H~81hl:ight pa rts o~ the text tHat wll'fi rm ~hle aI'1SWf'r.

• n you're 5,Wl net sure, try b:9 a,rill'Ehat 'th'e d~ht 8'liiswer by a praeess of ellllll1if1la~lo,n.

24 AO::{llrdli n QI to the wr~ter; why d ~cI the c,ompa ny he mentions deci de to adopt the e.-mail system?

A so thet.employees could contact ecademks more easily B to avoid missing out IOn any amusing nov,elty

Ie because it had been tried and tested in universities

D' to cope, wlththe vast amount of correspondence they received

25: 1:1l,e 'strategy' referred to in Iline 20 is a way of .Ag!nslJ ring that ,i m portent matters, a Fe dee It with. B pr10ritising whiich me5sa.g:es to respond to.

C limitinQl e-mail correspondence to urgent matters. II) en o)uraglinga m me E!'fiicie fit use of e-rna i I.,

26 A.ccGtding to the writer, whst is causing the 'torment of e-rneil' (line 32) de:scribe,d ~ n reports f'

A the perslstenc.e of advertisers

B problems ca used by cornp uter vi ruses. ( the attitu de of those recel,vi r1g e" malils

ID' lessons learnt from d,eal:ing with junk maill

27 In the sixth paragraph, which of the fo~k)Wdn9 pieces of advice is given?

A Forget about a-mails wh i rh ybiJ do not intend to acknowled!Qie. B, USie e·maill as, ,is! way.of avoiding unnecessary conversafions,

,e Be prepared to break off overl~ong e-mail communicatrons.

D ,Read your e-meils even lf you're not going, to answer thsrn.

28 According to the writer, what advants'9fa does e.-mail correspondence have over the tracltional letter?

A It is more convenient to send,

B tt causes fewer misunderstandil19s.

C I,t can be written in a [less conversanonal styl,e,

D I t does not have ·the same titne-consum~ ng OOl1ventions.

Q.ue's11i111i1 ~4' Afll~f relldulRg the whol~e tie:<t. di() vou te-t'll it's 5'E!l'lio'I!JIS I!!Ilr ligli'l-heart'edl This wUi. ~1I~~P yo IJ to anSwer t!he I'iI'S't qruesticlIiIlif. fil1d '!W,!) wo Jds in lJifle text t'liiat suggest the first >e·mails weoo o;fteq 'i.'j1m<tlsing".

Ques",iori :25: Ffn d the palrat'ni!~'h whric:hr dill'5dlbe\$' the ·'nr,ate"gy'. The' writew's frf'E!nd (Hdl f1~l read ,orr r-esprll'l CiI to his ,e-mails, btU t!'ttl he mimagre to dll!a U with IJlrge rlt m aH!elrs?

Qu,esliioIil28i: Find the ~entierJCie [n the lii"s't par.agrap~ where e-mailsJlndleUlerssentbY~i]l.SLiH~ c® lI'i'palred" Wrhidi Q~~i:UJlll1 wntains a wfli,rdf which flai .a s,rmil,'lr hllll,ranling til • f~rmil Un~!i'?

TEST 1. P'APER 1

... 1

Tip Strip

• I~rb. 1 and if a.~eoo1!h mu ~tipll'e·tm~td'ling las~ The read~ IIIg sl(n,tis. \tQ!iI n.l!l!ec:l are the :oa iiU~",> but p,aU 4 COliltains. ,a lOl1gefte~t,

• 'Riead lh~ iOSl!l'lI~t~~n!$.

IilIIiI d QiLit'5tiol'lJ.s

ca ~erul.lv. In t~i;s l'alS:k, '!{(II:! don't n l1!i'1iml til rrllalill each sec.tiol1 of the t!ext do~~ly befQf;e ~Ol.l Ib~~ln the t;3iSik..

• ~eadl throJUgh time text <!'uWckIV bll' g,eta

g'en ewal td'l!<i! Of wt!a:Ut 1:5 ~bo:ut [lInd mow iit Is 1(1 rrg:<I!l'Ilsecl. I!:!on't 'WIilUY ifvoll do!1i't IIrnJ.dle~s;:t11lrrd ~~ fultV'

~ Uln(lIIHI~ne ~hie kiey words ~III e!lcliii q.uest!lOIll .and hd the parH!il of the~eiJllt!:~il'lte ~e 'l:tf.e'ie ud!ll!:as aUl~ d:istill $<$ll!d.

II The words uS"ecil I n til II!

I~ IiIIIe!s[iio r15 are unliikely t'0 a P:P all1i illl tlUl ~ed" l{ln~fOT pOlUS of tlfil·e te~t 00 ~t~illilrlg r,e~ledl ic!'ellls <!IliIti \!\QCllDllllary; H1ilhltglrrft mimes <l.II'H:i Kelt woilds.ln thete%t.

• R~i.d c,ave'Fl:Illy t.~~e SiectioillS of t ~e t~t whe re r~ Ii! <lIfI!ilWIlH is U ~e.~y ~ b ~ fQund.

• Re!T!:ern b er thefe~t il;!

IOl'lg an~oocnllall'ls il1foi'lrlr<lti~'n wlli i.e tily.oWl

willhlOt n!E!eG. C

---- --- --

PAR T 4

- - -

Answer questions 29~414 by j\efening to the ma9;alzine! artrde on pag.es 13-1.4, lin which variot:is.peop!~e uiJIk ·about tneirexper~e:Mes of educatinq the.ir childw€:n at horns,

Indi.cate you r a n:swers 01111 the sepaw,arIle aTils.weli" she-Got.

~or quastlerrs :2:9'~Mj' answer b~ choosing from paragraphs A~D· on pa'ges 1]-:1141. Some '~Qite~ may be req u i:red more than onee ..

Which Ipers'o n

beUeve5. in tn eeducatiana I value of the outsid e wctrld?

has two children, one of whom is. Hither mate :sociable than the other? be'l iev@ i n le"tt~ing you ng (:h~ I d [@F1 take rsspo nsihi I:ityfor the·ir own le:amin~g?

concede.s that in on e ar-e.a of the 'curriCU'~um her chilld ren mig ht be la grging beh if! d thei r pe·ers7

lis able to -educaite her ch iIId ren at hom@ becau s,e of th@ n atur·e off he·r OC(Up911jon?

deeided 10 sducste her chi ld ren at home pa rt'l~ out of f rnmda I m!cessuty?

stl(:iaUses with ot~erl~ke-minded peopl'e7

beHev8s home eduCGIlt~on mearrsc h i I dl'ien n:l'l ElIte better to other people? bellieves that edu,u.Elting orne's chi~dren is a fundame.r:rtaII part of par-errting?

~uggelsts that in her opin~on, schools can be r€5trictive and o;ppressive? has lea med not to tie ~oo strh:t about her ·ern I dire n 's stllfd r~s?

becomes con cerned whe n elM Illdlrenar·e faced witiM d1 aHeng i ng ideas? rations the time her ,children cand!f;;!\;t'obe to, their favQuriite hobby?

says that d~cfisi·on~ about her children's life'Styh~ are not aIIWi3J~ fuilly accepted by both the 'hiki ren 7

hd~ a st:rutture:d plan ,OTWQ'fik wnl~n the children fDHow? thinks that home edu·catklln Saves ch~cre:n a ~OL of lime?

2,9 .. ~ ""
3~O
.31
3:2
33
34
35
3·6
37
3:8
39
~.o
41
42
of3
M Q.ue'5~~1lI1i1 310: "i:a&~ .~ f~he m oliielrs iii MIll dhi~~rlllll. Thev <lin. '~1I1 kalbO.lilt fiielll a~ er SJJdiill.lif-e, but.

only @l:Ie of th~m (n~ilnt$ W' ~ ifl~ I bet~en her ~wg d"l ~Idrellll fliii t~~s respect.

(WtJi~!1Inl :3:il= 'Laggl!1lg belmtlildthe b; !me r~' !llH1<l rms no1 dQinlg~s w,eH as other ell Udren of the s~rne age. Ja.rie. Gllild Di~1iI1i! rbo~~ 1fili!l'Iti 1il1'i1 "p{~er ~f'~S:U. re', b!JIt they arE! n.~t lalk.ili!i ~boWit the 'cu rrltlLi ~um' whelll Uiey ·dll 00. Q)III~ QUihe liJ1:i~rr MiO :mlot~ers does ,think. ner childw~nl iire less good in one slJlb1e~jt, bow~,

~ie1i~bQliIlIi5. 'L]~-[I1linded pe(l:p~F;' ha",e~.he Si;i[l1l.e ide:as 1IIIul opin iOIllSlIS QU me ~V~~. Which !'11 either m~liItion!s ill. g~lJ~ P or p'~m~l1ils \t~hQ e,d ~~ate tihi~lr (;I1iU.d'l'e!1 at nQme1 i!leil:di tltl!! ~Tec!! Qf ti!l'I!t. .ca,reftJlly t(i make suri! ~h~srgroWl,p meet.s fur ;s.Qtiall.eV'e rUS.

My Children don't go to School

F'OU!lrpairenls telll us why they chose to, educate, t:he!ir chiildr,en alt hom.e, rather than send therm to scheol,

Ii knew very earlry on that my,chHd'ren'l, Caroline. 13,. and Edwin, 9. were gifted, but {10=QlrH~

se em ed to rooognise it at school, I tr,i ed state and independent sef ools, IFor vari:OLJIS reasons w,e d ~dn 't want our ehlldren to go to start'e scnoots .• , and the priv.ate ones were n 't worth 1I:1i:6 deprivation I'd haV,ij to go tiHOUgl1 to afvQr:d them.

Because my two are so motivated, irs naaHy quite easy. I buy the books and the materialls they 'need for the sYllabuses 'and Ibasica!lly just let them get on with it •. th,ougl') obviousliy II !keep an 'ElY'E! on th em. From the outset. II Ileft. them to choose wiil jcll bits ttl study from th e'syillabUl5es - I don't want ~hings to g:et roo ~gimentat Why make ,ohi Id r'S'n) unhappy by forel ng them to do things they don't want. to. do if they learn as much dohlg what they Ii ke? I; m mth.er bitter about. my Owiil school education:; frankly, with sOI''I1e of tne I;essons I feel I'd! have learnt ImQre by lust going to the' school library.

The chHd'r,e·n's number one tlning at the moment is computers, tJtiough I restrict the I nternet to the evenl Ilgs ,as II don 'twant thern starihg at sereens for too long. I hope lim not too pushy 'With them. tMugh" Sometimes, you do worry becau se they' re often wrestling with ·adult qluestions ,Q,f eth~,cs and phillosophy befor,e they're realily old enougn, but. to be honest I don't. mind

if their personaUties are rather .edullt - that's better than belng tOIO ehlldish, Edwllfl sees his friends reglllilarliy and while Carollne's more selifeontetned, she's adamant she's not JOllE!'ly.

Because l'm freelance I've ailwa,ys. be'1;i}labl,e to W91rk from hom)€! a t1d be wifthth.e chik~ reno ~ th ink a Ifot more peopl e wou~d do ti1l is if they '0 idn 't

i1 a,\I'i;! to go out to work,

B Jane

When we started te,achi~g Helen, we ~o,f

togeth €-r with other horne educato rs to she re our :problems. and wou1ld meet ,j3·very Thursday lnthe villlaJ~e oCiI:;nmunit,y _9E!ntre, talkingtJ.;lH'hS to prepare a ibopi,c,. These m€stJi tDgs deve loped into a k~nd of rm~ n i cO-Operative I al most a n Blltemative school, if you lilke. But w.hen II-I'elen started exam work ~ theage of 15, she started to take the initiative in ner learning. For instance, she WQuid draw up her OWf)1 tJmetab!l.e,. wtl ilch wa's marvellous ..

II think tile fact that we 've never had a television has been a big factor ~n tihelTr being. SO interested ~ ill ev.~rytJhi ng Bind so articu late. M!lt son grumbles about a oo~asionaUy, but when you"re not at school there lsn't peer pressure to watch it. That's not to' s~ my ci1li1ldren haven't got '11riends - they h.ave! They'rEi certarinly not missing out socially - indeed I think nome-educated kids are actually more sociarilly skililed, because they spend so much tiime watching adults.

He I en is now 16 and has just sta ned at St M a.ry' s M usle Schoo:! ~n Edi nburgWl .. W@ were never serlous I.y te m pted to change to

m a lnstream schooling until Hele n decided she wanb~d to tske her m u sic seriously. I was a bit nervous - wi1,Q, wouldn't be, sending their ci1i~d 400 miles away at 15 - but wMn chll'dlr,sl1I are old, enOu'~h to make a reasoned decision you have te trust their Judg~ment.

...1

T'UiT 1, PAPcER

-

I C Diane _

e'en was at schoo] tot a year but 'on siick a lot ~ I think he was too young at 4 and ~o.t exhausted - and I fo LInd he learned mor~ at ho me, Whe n we moved to another part of the. cOl!n'try, ~ used Ul'€ move as an opportunity to ke,ep him out 'o,f seho 0 I., and it. W:e S such a suecess that I d!i,d tne same th~ng for Tao,itha .. At first II was vety 'formal atlou[ it and had fii)(.ed hours, but I SOO'I1I retaxed,

We'Ve got 'bo,o~ks fan- rneths ann En~lish thattle in to the N s,tJiolii all Curriculum, whilCh ,chilldren fo'ilow at seheol, 'but we also do a ~ot of topic work on thlings that Interest {h,em. Tabitha

~f:ol~'ows 61 clmi.culum called Primary Maths., ,and B,en vo,lllows the Bobby Moore Schoo:1 ,of Fo otball Maths BOOk, which makes the suoject fun.

Now we mlghtstsrt off with ~ '[JUt of mathsand then write to a pen friend and then go to tile shops: ~ don't eonsc tous Iy tliJ r.n a. s no ~p~ rng t:~ p tnto a lesson. but when we' g,et back, I U realise they have iea m1L m in,gs I ilKe matns, gecgra phy and even 1 ssues such as l1ailr 'tJradllng.

We meet up wlfjl1 other home ,e.chJCi3iors tnro ugh a parents' group. We go on. o'Uti ngs or just get togetner lin our free time to. relax lboge,ther.

OthelJ ~eople I: '\Ie' ta I,k.~d to say hom,9-:e:ducated child re ril are less m~ely to bestropPfteen~g,!j!'n"s., perMps because they're isn't the 'same pe:el' pressure, Certainl,y, my two are at ease ~n adutt company and seem to be well~alanced people. Mind )Iou, ~'f tbey re;a'lly wanted to go' to school, I would n 't stop them.

•••

-

Ii) Sa'rah

'Ws' made a ccnselous ·d,ecision ,. long before they wer,e :due to start, not to send thet\o,rins to, school. We rea llsed that they woo uJd 'be ssrrt away roT tJhehr educati,ClI"I. that we would say goodb¥e' to them at haltf past seven and not ~ee them a,gai!1l tiI~ som.etlnirlg liik~ h~lf past four; Just I ~ke busInes~ peo pIe. It just didn't see m rightfo.r us to be f;)lassi:ng the r,esponsibmty of bringing up our chiUdreno,n to somebody eJs1e. MaiYbe we're just different from other people, but it sleem~ pe:rfectly normslli and healthy to h,ave' 'our fiamlly all together at home untU they've grOWri up.

I actuaUy used to work as a teacher, '50

edlu c.ati ng my Q,wn chi lidiren irs second nfa,lUre to me.

EYen SIS a former teacher II'm ]nclilned to th ~nk ~hat some of wnatch,illdlnen do at. SChOOll, troma strictly ~~aming point of 'View, is unnecessary. Uke g(olJlpwork, for exam pl:e. Cut tJl1at out by te'a,cl'lilf1g ail: home a -d we can give our children the individual att'e!lnJi,o nth ey need, and talke short cuts, towards whal: they rea.lly heed to know.

The kids are happy,. pleasant ilndividualls. with plenty pf friends. I couldn't say fif ti'n'ey're more or !I,ess ,sociable 'than mn,er k!,t]s, beeaoss 'I'm bla.sed! It's diffi.CliIlit to say now they'tJ match

up witl1 th.eir friends if they tOOl< a school test,

I think they're OK as far as reading and wfitiing, .are eoneerned, but they might not do SO well In matJhs:. My hu sbana ,and I 'fee I tnst '~he kJ!d$ ere stilll too young, at 6 and 8 to grapple With

math e matical ecnceots . so 'We do try and rsnon this old tavou rite ,~Of the moment At the moment there'ssnn plenty of time" and above

. alt plenty ool tl,m,9' s till I to pI a;y end enjoy life •

PAP'ER 2

Wriiti ngl (2 hours)

Tip Strip

Ge:n:elfa'illips,

., n is es'seinll,al ful) spe'lIId at I~e~~t 10 mi'I1J1.1t,e51~~iI:nning VO.l.lr writiJJlg. '¥oJl!lr wor~ must Ele wen· I1rg,alnised wilde'll de,ar lill'lkiing iJetween simleru:e.s ,and paragfaphs.

.. Yrm do l1I"t h~:t tJllIrI,etli)i1;vritJl! Q t a rough <lill sw,er gnc:! then a !iI~t CiID py, n YQ_II have plallud

properly, this willllot be Tle~essa:ry .

• ' "(l()11i! sh.ou Id' lriilli¥e tJi dial" bIl',ginntin.!g. 1m lddlle a nd ~nd for e.a ~ n lil,'lE!ee you, wrlne •

• ' ¥l()1!I! mllst t~ ~ill!i de a ,r,~'V about who you are Writing to - do )i'0'U need II fo:roma'l Qr tn Mlrm'all styhf? • Y~1lI mlilst use an appmprioam 1.a!y<l:IlJlt fur ,the task (!;!SIJlec'i'illly r,eports and le,afters. for et.x;,ample),. ii, Ma~~ time to che,r;k 'Y0UI!" gr<llmma r ilnd sp alli'llg;

Ii Also cheQ<, thatvotll have in&~lIde,1lI aU th~ necessary C;(IlIIt:ent points. ii, D[I write :tegiM'y" wirth 'rIery dear g~ps betltll~€m Pii ragraphs.

I! Y'CI LI ,ean III sIr eiU'l~r odtHs'n o:r Ameri'call Ell'rgllsh speUi ng, blll.l don!'t. m ilX the'm up .

• Do ma:k'e sure ¥Qtllr ,answer ts 1I0t 11)1)' ShllHl. Ge'ttil'lg your writing near 00 tile m.!mb@r ofworlili!,; spedfied is all ,rnrrt of t.iII'E! task.

Ii IfY01!l wilifte mll;l,c~ too much. V9i.! are' proba.~ly w<lsllngyour time,. as y ~ will p~e,bably be' w.l'itll n:c' ~h in g:s, wiil idl are i rre~wil:nt ~f this j,!>, the !i!'ie', YOli wi U rCl$lenHJr~~.

l~piS ',or P,art '1

• lilil Palrt 1 the IriQsr i m J!lO rlal'lt thi iilg is how WeU VOl! do ~l1e task. Ma~ ,sure YI)U c;OV.er aU the pointsln theoQjJ'IJ~sti@'IIl.

~ ~Ii)o not "UM y,@!ll'F im~ginat&Gn" <li1li~dI invent lots of extra delail$ - tiill:s is for Part li!!

iI Malt1£! sure ~ihat vou use illformation from aU the. JI11Put '~e:tt$. Y\i:liIl will! need I~Q tlmil1l nine ,and PrQce;s,!5 UiJI! info,rmati:olll befurfl: }!,Ol!l can ewn start wriUnrg your ll~lIn.

• .~. filiI" <IS possible, de liIot copy f]'\Q,m the' QwestflOIl paper, "tOll must use the ideas [Ill fwnt of YOll, batt YOllr own W'Ql1ds 'mO,e;l;jpreSS them.

1iip~for Part ,;3

• llill P"a~t 2 thiere is fflGr.!! scolll! foOT }lQ'1II to i nve iilt :[11· d be u m'ilIgill'iati'l.l'e. But do choose q lJi,esblc ns you fe,e.L commrtable wUh- I'iIO.\'o' IS n,St the time to experimerlil!

• 11'1 p.lIrticul<lr, if you are not f<lmWO)r wah English illll the wOirkpl,aoo" you should pmba,b,ly liIvoi~ QuesHo'n 5.

IP_A_R r 11

1 A locel college is organisin'9 a careers day fur tts students. Ma'eve Porter. Head of the Careers Office, has written to you, askhlgl for help in drawing up the progwam me. RJead Maeve~ leUe r, the feed back: on last year's event and the proposed pnJgramme for thls ~ar. Then, usin'9 this information, write QI report (iontaining yo:ur comments on the proposed pruqramms togetne.r with any recornmen dations fur furth er cha nge that you mi 9 ht have.

Please don °t \VI'ite. our a re0sed .schW't,lle- yW Cdn leav;e thaf fo !AS! - \'!,t\€. simply want your c.omn-tenfs. as Qi re~n+ <lfi,\i'e member of +he 'OC<;lJ CQ~nify. Can ycu bok at fhe timings Cir"Jd order of events, and atso wJ.efMr ~ '\i'€. done erol.A9h +0 ump-ov.e +he.' per,5cria' touch' +~ SOme 5~tdents thougM w<35lacJGrg .~a.5t ~ See the er1Closed e-mai' from my aSSjst.snf, Brvce. ~ ihink the. draft po9ral'fll:t1e r5 a .9r€-.iif !mprovemen+ on last year - we ~ you'll agree! By t~ way~ pease Ie+ LAS know .wMt- yru +j:unk about the timirg of t~ br'eQk5~ WHich ~ in fOI".il lot of CrirkC.r5rn '~t frme. I" m not cOrlVJoced we' ve do~ them any .be#er thrs ti~ ~ncL

Regards /VIaeve

•.

1U

Rrcm: Bruce

To: Maeve

Rei: Careers OeJY f'eed~d(.

1i'v<E had a lOOk: at~.e S"tiUU'mts;"fee:fb<SQ; qUJastkmn~r@5 fn:m last 1~r's ey·ent. as r~ted. My coml'T'iEllts:

• 9,00 ~tart tme was too ;aarty!

.. StlJdeill:s want plenty of th1e' for 1Und1!

• AftetlflOtOl"! d"iOiC02 of $~~ on W'i'ii1t19 015, 'po prospect~. Int:~tettrique· etc, W~ 'Vt'Jt)i IXlpUlar. Students want short, refeva1t presenttloons, .~ixllOts of d'IOi::~.

.. Students would have' Iked the dhan:::e to a5k qu~ ~~ to the company rEpS.

TEST 1, PA!PER 2

L

6.00

9.30

Principal of College introduces the convention

9.40

Openmg guest speaker: Jasper Heggs: The lmpOi'ttlnce 0/ the Manager in Indusltry

»> l&st ye.ar ?JO-~ .35 Coffee break

Skldoots call meet company representati '!lei) rnio,rmally

11.00

11.10

Second guest speaker: Dr J 0'00. Coulson; Jobs iu .the Media

]2.40

Qu.estion and Answer se~,ion with the morning speakers

LOO

LW1Ch I~'st ~r ~s was one, haur eiTher Side:

/ of jurclj, wit~t +~ "~me5" rd~

Students A-lL. [surnames) visit ,@rltib~tion room to vie\l'll stalls and meet company representatives

1.30

3.30

Students M -_Z visit 'l'!;dtibru'tion room to V[€'w stalls and meet

company representatives . . I j~+ pshort ~, ,bre.3~

Maeve Porter, Head of Careers, thanks speakers and representatives

5,.5'0

MoW' write yo u r reIPo'rtf.or the head of the Careers Office" You should use' yom own words as fair as possible. W~ite approximatel~ 250 words,

Ti,p Strip

• In Pliirt'l tasks, es p eclaUy this one, th ere is a I,()'~ of h1follUnatic:m, to precess, Yc():tI must be clear in you m[l1d exar;;t~y' wOaJt is, !napp'e'n fll1lg. ,For each oH~e 3 .i~leces lQPinpu;l'., who ls wriUIiI,g 00 whom, about what?

-II." Parct 1 YOUI wiU I'u!ed to cornlbill1~' in~~m'll'ilItion from ali[ then "[put \exts. ,For t~ is que-stionl, rellate the j,nlFof1m~tio'nfirom llimee t~J'the dlril'ft programme {fur example, lUI! proposed h!ilrf~htH!r tunch DJr1eak mall b.e t)(io, snor(l.

• liiI '~~is question VOU na">!le to pr;m:!uce a single pleee oi' wlriltillg, areport, In U~e exam fOI!! m'ay bave tn flrodlUlc€!'t\!10 (fur ,e!!:a.mlpb~, a teu~r al'l~ tl! nol'e).

• ~ igbllght wh at \lOIll a ~e b ei 1fI~ a:s~e'l!l to do (tl:! e "colltent poiilt:s:1. Ma:eVJ!'s Letter asks you EO louk at timillfgs~ the order of events, Hfe pell',$I(HUil t@'lIC~ ,ami the Uminls ~f the breaks .. DOl1il:. miss 'illl:y .of them out er YOIl: wilt] '~Ii.).5Je iTlQim_s!

, Note tha.! the I:jue:s'tion alsrn invites you to :m.alC!e aclillditiollaL suggestions if VQu Wish til dp so. 8.ut01llly do tb us ".,he'lil YOlD"rll ~ OIIPiPY y,o'lli~ ooll'iriE!d 'thee-ssent'iiltl thi'lfIgs~

, UIl1:m'~ usc. y.QI.H ima'gil1lafiOiIil lind tll1verut lo,ls of d:etaitsthis iswr ~rt 2.

• lit Is, importillllt to Oibs'llrve th,e COiliVentiCljil!i Illf a ~port, wlttl"l \I~ry dear p\!lJI'agrap.1fI civisions, maklng u~e iii'. htladil!lg8, IIiIl,uTlb<errftillg,s. and/or bull.et~(ilnts;. :00 IiIOt. wri~ ilf1lleU',er 'or essay fOlimat (1116 'near S!ir' for ~xampt€!)

• "tou, need a: ~I!:!ar ilitrodUlc1lon st'a!tiI!lg tlliTe aims of ~ne re'~ a: t. whQ c,o'lfI1Imissiol'l~d it ,and \lJIllult n rer-efS '!Q.

• Vol\! al:so iIIeed a dllil.1i ci)'liIch!s.ion . -sulmlmar[lslflg 'your comments on the, poogta:mme., allil,G your re_i":'9mmeJi,~aniCIIIIIS fol' change:.

TEST 1. PAPER 2

Ii, Stlrip

'Que-.sti>O:r!z

• Guidebooks dlOI 11l.~.~ reqilliwe a very rormiiilli style., . .so Sl:illllil r,oU6CjllliBI ~iliog:uge(:af'l h~ used.

• OlWlQusW Y:OH.I will need~liJ!ge~ "idl~as from peraenal ~xpeir!!l·l!Ice''~~Tn'" (If wa~ks you h~v~ do liIe 1m VQ~l;lr r.egion. I tI!Ul, d iild I W~~11 ycru were 0111 hoJi:i:tay.

QlII[l!cstion .3

~. YO~~lre wdt~·ng.atenl~ tG a.frr·ienCli aft;el' a ~I(IUdilY, I>@' you. wilt lIIeed ill n urrkl ~m~'~ s!y·ll1., 'Ii) ear "first iii arne"·' ilInd 'lo,w from' er 'ISe:s.t wi!ih~~' ..

.. ~ 1I'l~~dll a teticerr ill Na~ lVliIi!. ~liIfl WQl!litd exp.ed. some op~nii ng p~lj'a$e~, sucfi a S:'SOHV I 11~~!rI't. been il'l to:l:l~h for liO· long', 'IH~ pie yo.u're in gijl1i)!~ h~all'th:

• Al1llhe- bllla~t pllFil'llts lia""e~(l be' add retiseiil~ - b~t i~ is IJIP ~o ~Ollli wha;l yO!IJ cno ese t(! ~Xpj;Hlid ilnd etanralfi(;lllil.

O:IJesti:o:n >4

• 'YOllr .artide is" .~~ a~.corupal'i,y O'l,llIadv'I!'rt.. YOil s%QU td! sOLln~ WJIIJI~Htiv~alboutthe ,ex'Periellf~.

• irlw readernihlj,p is .stlRllenlts, ln <I rnaga2cTne, $iQ·lti,e.ii"e [,s plern.,!(off seope for coU"qil)l!ial e'XljlDl!>es5iol'ls, Rdh:!:m:s" 31'1d otb'er inF®lITll<li1 ftilllt~re$ ofl';linig:u.age.

Q;lI~lo'n. 5

• f~,e 1 ;;}'!f(Illt. d'o:y,~d be sl IiIiI ~I~r to a l"ElJP(li't, IJsi~g i:le:<U he:otI:UmJ'g!l, :!1um'~,el'lig >®rr huUet I~OqmJt'S, wh~:r,e 'alppropri'ii!~e.

" lit seemS ~i:j.le ly tih~t t!:li£'! t:h ~rd rJ:Ol1ltll'lIIIt point (why ffi~lS pe:rSj®i1lll 1l1i!~elV~sto wiill) win IQct:I,IP'lI' m'®st of yO~lr ~e1(t. OOIll't l~a!Je it. III "t~l. i! :liilmal SIi1lQN pall'agrapb.

c hcose o~e 'm the following \lViriti tlI·g tasks, Your ans.W€l1F snow M TOUOW E:XactiIY th e rnstrL!!ctiotl!'S gl[rven, WriteaPlJlrQximafe~y 250 words,

2 Yo u have bee n Mke{j to co:ntrib ule to a ssries of g u idebooks'for' people wh Q enjoy wa1 King. The becks descri be rQutj3s which tio nJot r1equi re an uv,erIll1'9 ht stay,.

[)escribemo, different waltks,. one wa!1 k which would appeal to fit, you ng people, and ~mother whirc~ would be suitalble' for a famUy with young chUdr€llil. Inform readers of some pr~aica] deta U.s, such eseati n,g p!l,a.ces and su iteb I e clotses,

Write your 9uh:leibook ·COmltri butiion_

3 YOU( recent holiday abroad was spoi~t bytne theft of one 0:1' your bags on the first day. On the whole .• yOJU std'l managed to enjoy YtlJ,Ilr holfdi3yln, gpite. of tne

'i nco nven lenoe ,

! Are you up to the challe·nlge? '

-- -~- - - -

:P ART 2 :

WritE a leUer toa friend, s,ayiirlg:

• how tihe theft affected yOiur n ol~day .. how and WheJif~ ~()U [mit your bag

" what WEllS in it.

" whether bin er people Vilere: lu~!'I pful

Wnite your Iletter.

41 An organisation ca lied ~ nternstional Cons;~rva.tibn \fiolunhi%'!·rs has placed thefoillowing advertisement i n a student magaz:i ne,

k QI ree.ent volur:rt~l;"r, yQlJI have been asked by Intematio:na II c.onservaiti:tml Vol LJ nteers to wrirte an a iil.ide to

CICCO m pany the .ath)'i!?ftisem1!ot S1li'Y Wh,f;!it ~m.J cd iel: ii n Y9pr c ho:sen post why !{CM:J fou nd it rewa rdi nrg. and why others should app~y-

Wri~te jfl)ur a rtkh~.

Three-month vohulltary posts :il!ibro:ad am aV<L¥]ahlel b~lptng e:X.peden.cftd strlff r!1 areas such as tea~hhlLg; m'ed]~]n€'. i\g[~rul WI't',. construction, etc. In some of: the poorest '~I1IRS off the world.

5 The mrnparliY you work 'ffor off.ers an annual award to one FlIe\iV.:employee who has roadle al1le~€~lent start li1'e aw~rd iis normally gii.>iE'n t,O a YOl,J.ng Ae:r.son in tJh,ei:r firs) year of ~m:I=lI.Qyment. Candidates fot ~he award must:be nominated i,n wj"itin~g by aboss or .mlleag IU e ,

Write your ptop.elsa!_ r(omi nallin.e' y01i r NeW Emplo~ df the Y&1f_ Destri be· the p erSOrl and their mle in the Qompany,. saying wh!y you tbi n k they 'Il'Ieserv,e to win ~ne awa:rd.

Wlrite your pr,Q PQSilIll:,

TEST 1, PAIPUl: 2:

'Ii Readl the rext lihr'I!lIll_glhi fn,rgel'le rat

uhd~r'sl~rn ding bero~e, \(011/ tro{ tie, d:o the'taiSk.

,. Check the words before <In,di ~rfiter tile. gllp careruUV.

• AU the optlp'IfIS are g!<lmmjitit.al'iy po:ssible. ,~IlI! onIV(lJ!u~ fits fhe gap.

• The word or phra.s-e y.ou Ch oos~ must fit th Ii! me~1'I ing 'Qlf the piils:sage as Oil whole.

• Some WQJllIs may fonm pa.rtbH'iM'd! ~p~eSSrGIlS qr common c-.o;llocatilms.

• WhenyQ[!~\le' finished, rlt\3d thfolIg;h the whole ~ext ag.aill to cl1eck:.

o.Ji!,e$liol1l~3,: Wl:ikh word tarl be used wIth a plaoo?

Qlleslloll :1:1:, Which 'WOld collocates ~vith tll,e word, 'weather?

Question 12: AU of thes~ words ean he 1lI~~d ~ 'tilll!~ i3Jbllll:tt pe·oplE:. but wffili:cJl {If t\n~1iiiI is m,1Jcs:tflilJlmp,riate flil,r ~alkinlg a.bo Ult <I pie(e' aif equipll1ilent"f

(W~"StIQrnl ili4; Which of these W'I!IOOS (i;olloeates \vifl:i 'eha nee;:;"?

Quru!l:ion 1.5;: lNhltti 'Of UII~ Yilinrn's com'pll;:'t'ElS th e fil!i~d expr€!ssi'!J1II with 'Wind 'f'

Eng lish in Us,s (1 hour 3D mkllUtes)

For questions 11-15, read the text below and then ilecide which word best fits each space. Put the letter you cheese for each question ill the correct box on your answer sheet. The exerdse hegins w.ith 11m examp,!e (0).

E:xamph1!::

A BAlLlJONING CHALLENGE

For mU!!ie people 'who go out in (0) ." .. of adventure, iii long-distance flight in a hot-<]ir balloon is a particularly cxchlng (1) ..... Indeed, <L round-the-world balloon trip ]51, \'liddy regarded as the (2) .... challenge. One well-known .ad\ICrll:urer. David Hemplemann-Adams would. not a:g&'tl(;:, however; Recently, he became the farst man to (3) .... the l\~O:rlh PoOle in a hor...;aiJr tm]klOu. a (note significa.m (4) ..... in hi, eyes,. Civen rhat the disiano and a11iwdc.s (5) .... are conrparatively mod S{, you m~ght wonder why the trip from Canada to (he Pole, should present snell Oil dlid]eng,e.

Part of the (iii,) .•... 'W3S thar su, 11. a flight had .not even been auempted for over a cenrury In those days, such expedhionswere huge events, willi 0\. nation's pride (7) .... on thei r IIOU.cC,esS,. and £0 re ..... ources were (8) .".. to them. A.IIf:hough. he evenmally managed to secure a' ubstantial sponsorship {9) .... from ito insurance campa.ny. Hemplemann-Adams had tb added challenge of h~\'!\-i.ng to (10) ....

s ullicient; funds for his tri.p.

Then, of course.Jie had to f.'l'C," major survival concerns, such <IS predicting' the 'weather (11) ... ,. aJTld coping with the danger©lutly 101V remperature '. BlIJ.l most ,chaUeog]i:l.g of aU was the incrf!\dl~)ly complex problem of na\iig<lti.O]J.ru (he eartb's magnetic field gelS stronger; only the mosr (12') .... of 5aJl:.enhe·HJlb~d navigation sYSt"t'l'lS can (13) ..... tha t one' lila. s got to the Pole, W:it.hout them. the chances of getting 3JJ}"w'here near ~~ are extremely (14) ." •. Not to mention ~HI even greaeer pt'obk:ni ILhnt (5) .. ". on Hemplcrearm-Adams' mind: g,u:Llir1g back'

0 @ seareh :B chase c s-eek DI hunt
1 A campaign 18 prospect C motion D' eng'aglement
2: A. uitilmaue IB extreme C utmost IDI eventual
3 A meet B reach C; attain ID fulfill
4. A rscoqnltion B acquisltion C achievement ID realisation
5 A engaged e, regarded C involved ID connected
6 /Ai appeal 8, beauty C charm D allure
1 A leaning B, resting C waitJing D standing
8 A commended B confided 0( confirmeo D cornmltted
91 A barqaln B purchase' C tr ensectlon Il deal
10 A e leva b? B lift c raise 0 build
11 A tendencies B conditions I( c:i rcumstances DI elements
12 A soph istuQlted 18 refined 1(: cultured DI educated
13 .A approV',e B (0 nf rm ( reinTclfoee ID' support
14 A thin B sllight C .slim ID' tight
115 .A, pushed B stressed C pressed D welghed
li E ST 1 . P'A I? E R :iI ... Tip S,tri!p

• ~,ea.d th.e ~It!!l(t fur

ge ".eral undersral1ldil'l"g belove YOIl try to do UIi~ task.

'iii Wl'itti:liii1 ~V nllle word in el\l:Elhg~p .

• ' lhink ab~~,t the type of word wnicl'l is miSlslllg •

• ' 'The word or p'tu',ase

you choose musf lit 'th_~ mi.aUl~mI,g ,fIIUhe pa~sage as iCI who~,e.

til Check. the word's, '~..fun:n'illrd afteHl'le gap c,m:!ruUy.

Q.uli'siii:m 16~ lh us ga,p nl.eed5 a p,repIlSTtion. Wl'lIcll prepositiflll'l is used ilbr ',al'lfiul1l,aUve'? tlu'!!S'UOIii j8. n is word i'llt:~oWlu 00$ a t~a;u!S~. Is

till T~ dil'h1se a'tildiing

i mifo,f1l1 atlioll. or ma ki 1iI,g aJ contrast?'

Io.~e$ti;l) n 24: This we ~d is mlil,kil1~ Oil ~.'O'!1iI p~fiso'll, bllit is it lPo.5ii,ti'!l!! 0 r l'Iega:¢llIe?

Q!H~stlolm j'O: Wflklil word! compl'etecs this commG'n expressin(l'! Think. allout th~ Il1 ej!,n'I ini!5 of the, wholl2 sefden~.

'R!JI

---

PAR T :2

For questions '1 fhJilt complete the foillowil'lg: article by Wrltung each missinlg wend in the correct box on your answer sheet. Use onlly one wo:rd for each space. The exen:h:;e begins with an example (O).

CAN HONEY HEAL?

Peter M.ahln" a doctor fro'Rl Ne:w Zealand, is a specialist (01) ' ••

stomach disorders, He offers his, patients a simple, but ,eifectiv·e ~tte:matiViE! (1l6,) ..•. , ...... taking medicine; hone'y. Dr Mo]a:n claims the actiVie component in honey is an antihacterial agent called! llMF. There is

some doubt in the mediic:al w,o,xld (17) , to whether UMF can

d.estroy bacteria cotliLpletely, (1,8) .... r research cle1arly' shows that

people with stomach problems expleriencE! so:me f'etief soon (.1'$1') ...••. , .•... takinq honey.

(21) •....... , .. we have always, known?' After all, it is common know~edlge

(22) . '.... soothing hot water laced with honey and lemon can be for

sere-throat .snfferers. In accepting the. 'ben.e,fi.ci,al ,effects of honey" how,ever~ fl. (23) ..• ", ...... reservations should be: borne in mind . .Firstly" the popular belief that honey iis heald-rier than suqar isn't ,entirely

weU-fmmded. (2:4) aU foods, honey can be healthy {.25) .

eaten ill modaratian, hut m.ay aJiso hav,e seme dOW'lilsides • .Ho,ney contains

the (26) number of calories as other types: of suqar, and it can

cause blood-sugar levels tc rise quic~ly. Secondly; eating (2'7] .~oco .

much hOfl€~1 on an emlJlt'y stomach can. cause disiClomoort. That is

(28) .. it's best to line the stomach with. some fibre first. for

example by foUovnng a main meal (29) , ...... a dessert that

incorporates honey. Thirdly, under (30) , m· ••• ·• circumstances should a

baby s d 1!lmmy be dipp'ed in honey before the, bally sucks it" as this, is Just as likely to cause tooth decay as any other .sugazy treat.

TE5,T 1, PAPIER 3

• S61i1l.e o:f the Iln~ at'!!! correct, btU usually [In mere t hn five.

.. TIiie1re is no more

tJirlaJlii Cine error per tine.

.. UTlderiune ,any wMds vou tihTn!!:. may- bt missp~lt~d .. (h~'(k that tlt~r(l are flO eliner lurors aTl that line.

_. Underlille any IllJne:tlJ<lUon'l marks YOU 'think !illHlY bol! wtol1l.g en missing. ti1llirl ~eadl iihe w!;lole :S'E!nte'IIi':~ tlilot Just the liliie) to se@ hllw ij't shl)uld be!

rJ UIr)Ch.lil'~ed"

" Look out for things Iluke: wrong lIs.e ~f ap0l\;bopl'les. ui1ldoSjed sp.e·eth marks and rni$$i IiIg capital le;tte:rs.

QuesUIl,1iI 32: WI!fn rC:in 'Wi!)r(I in this Iitle (10 ifIt:ai IlS -a

SOU IIld ilii EliIgUsh that ClI 1!11 be s~el~Bd ijml twn ways? Q,Uestion 3.4: Mak'e :51J1~e that at! pfmalsare oonectl,y fOrmed.

'Qu&etIQIlS ,3'5 and ]6\:

Re~1iI the whole seollhmoe" fhene are tW(I eemma s ln the se'lIt'llm::e~ but. anly one it!l'fUI.~m is ne'll!decd. IQ.ueSCIiOIlI$ JI8 ,aiifd 45=

Th in k cflfieruliv atu>I!J,1 t~'e lise ,(d til til apostm I'IJlle when ~,eadlllg th~se que:stJi ens,

--

P'ARl 3

In most Hnes of the followj'ng text, there is either a :sp@lIinQl mistake or a punctuation error. For es ch n umbere-d lin e ,rn -,46,. write the corrertly-spelled word or s how the correct punctuation. S'ome' Eines, an! QO'Fir,ect Indicate these \lVith a tick (.I). The exercise begins with three @,xamples (01)" (00) and (OOID).

E,xamrpmes:

n 1=:::1-

(]I c:::J _

Tbe Big List

o Jon Sandys, a 20-year",old acournancy student has produced

00 it deeument called rite Big Li'sf. of Movie Mis takes. we list,

000 which has 'been compiled with the help of hawk-eyed movie

FilliS, shows 'linn many HgUywood blockbusters are peppered with miseakes, He has found examples of microfones which

31 32 33

pop up during ancient battles. cliothei[lg wh:ich changes colour

34

dunng carchases and dead bodys that keep blinking, Movle fans from around the world, have sent Jon examples thcli have come across. <Inti he now has a colection of more than 2,.400 mistakes from 700 dUlper.an~ films. Most 'of the \exampl,es. quoted

35 36 3:1 3:8 39 40 41 42, 43 44 45 46

appear to come from well-known fi lms, but irs not clear whether this is because Iheyoont"dln more errors . or simply because more peopl e watch them and SiO not ice the mi shape, Jon stoo1oo the

list because he is ,[1 big film fan himself and 'thwu,ght it would

be Interesting .. 'Some people accuse him of wanting to spoil

wags, however. that spotting errors can be contagous .. A lot

of people have admlued tobinlll:h.u they now borrow film's from a, video Ilbary just tu try and :spot ~he bow lerson the ] ist,

• IRe-ad th'ec 'fe'~t5 aU tjlfllr~~:gin Uio:r ~e 1iIi:!rn:~ utndersl;aJn~,ing be'klcrr,e ~OIJ tfl)' m do llletasl\:

• 11le_«:il:le whiGh t1fP I! (if WQ'r,~ is In¢ed~d f.or eadl g,ap I(e.g. M'L!m" adil@cU\l'~ e!t(;.).,

• wok ·iinhe whole SlE!nl!!H'!!!, 1i1'llt just the U ne iinGlutlq,ngthe (<lip.

• r,he(k that YOIJI l'Iowe sp ~n~~ tlte words oo~rellfly.

.. Wil eln yo L!'il'~ flnllsll~~,. ffiadhfllnmgh tlhe wllol'e b~.)I[s !lgai'll to ~ ~etj:"

CliUestiilllllll lfl; wn~ thll! new word .D e 5illlgl.!~ar c,r p~.l!Irca!l'?

CWesffi:lofl 49': '¥<OU 'CfIIl'I m<illke tWQ adj,E'!c:ti'i.1'e!$ho,m: 'fI1eez.e'., Wh[cJh f,s th~ formed mUI' he ~e? Q.lIe+stil1l:n '5'!i~ Which sum"" i<\; fle~deml 'to maRe a f1~lJIfi fr'O<m l1l~s,~tll'E1Cti~

Q~mij,un 53:= W'Ii;at type of 'Wortl is liI'etj,dI sd ~~. modiiffy the corn[p'<Ifatill'e gllJl]ecnve 'imotl'erc'?

(}!d)~~~irllil 60: How ~ oe:s ~h'E! 5pelUJil g ~f tilris a:died~e tll<llll~ ¥!Illen we add the sJJJffixmrn [lk'l! ~flIOlJrn?

For questions 47'~6t read the two texts b.elow. Use the words in 1he boxto the right of ttl€< t.ext, to form one word thatf~ts in the same I1l,Jmbered space in the text. Wnlte thE' rJ ew word ~n the 'omre;ci b o.x~"on your answer ~heet. T~ eex''e'rcise beg1 ns wU!h an example (6).

II NIFI()RMA1~ON LEA.FILIEl

F'ortunatlely for life 011 Earth, ths Sun's (0) ..... " .... of heM: lS remar&;ab~ ctmsis1:tern:. But sdentis:ts, ale aware '1lf"t even a fornall chai1I5e W\Q\J ld have' grave (4'7) .. , .. " , .• ' for the [ut.ul:e, triggering either 1;1 nev\.l r(.~ age, Or rLIrJiiJ.wa:y global ¥'Iarrning,There if$ (AI:8) , .. "."., thai: this has happened before. In 11th cetTblJt)I En.gland, for e:-;;[)mph~. the River Thames in l.ondori was regu~a,fly (49, .,.," -". over. St.i€:fltk5tS now think that fluctuabons Ii"! the Sun's t~tnp~raJlu~ caused ,ft 'Lr'tl:~e Ice Age' .art that time. IMeed, the late'sl1.Jheory is that the processes goi'~ on

i n 1!he centrte of the SUFI 2~ Inherl1l111ly 0;,1) ., .. " ..... ,

If the exp.~1'ts aroe right. th~~ could be many d11i1!'l,ges: in th€: Su niB (s: I ) ... " ..... tfi is century, and the

(5:2:)" ... ,,,,, is that me'\.'el1!per:aWre here orr Earth wil~ get (53:) "''''''.'' hotter arid hatter.

(0)

PRODUCE

NIIEWSPAP~l ARTICLE

'fll!B giving OIfgi_1ts h~ been pract']setl! inevHr)' (54) "" .. "'.'" ~ve:r sfi,uilied . .It is. a (55) .... , ..• , .. human ritual fhJlt ha,s a [:)1ace in every culDure and reiliglio<]l, Glrf:ts are g.i.wnlo mark eccastans tnwugh@1i.li:~]:i:l.'e~ sueb $ (!ill} ." ,.,' ,.. ,lll.aTriage 8Jnd {57) ".,. ,. ,... , Sodo']f)(g,iSts V].6'W gifts 'a~ a marker of tbe social re]ati;on:s:llip hehveen giver an.drecip:ient. Wh@tn frl.end:s sw~p gnts. for ex..ample.tth.ere is @III. unwritten (5:S) "" .... , ... ili~lth~ gilfts wm I:JG of rou;ghly: the samrev.aJlfeJ show:i:t1.lt ,th~;t the: fiiends have (59),.,.,.,... of status, In hl~ra:re'hical relatlo[!slltps it me. dillerent story. ]I an emp]oyeeand boss were ex:cmal'\g]ngpreSl€:nts, the boss would 'be' expected!. to give it lar{jer .:prOOlent In. ~·@tUtl'.Il. (Of

lli:i:S (6f1) . , th~ enwi~yee wr:;Iy]d he.expe~t.ed to both

wO'rk bard and. b~ (61) .... ,.,. , .....

TEST l,PAIPER,3

(47) S ~QUENCE

(48) IEV!1 [) E U'!JT

(4,9) IFREEZE (50) SlABLE (51} BRIGHT (52) UKUY (S3) SHADY

(54) C]~ll (55) SASE

(5161) BO IRN

(57) REfiRE (5S~ EXPiECT (S9) EQUAL

(60" Gil:: NIE R:O US,

(61} RE5PB~T

• Rea.d both tlihi!1:exts for ge'neral !Jflde(!sVallldilng: 'be~cn,~e yoo try to dQ the task.

~Read tthl1 'task, CifI'E!ck, whe'~h,e.r l!OU an! ktlQking fa r more forma I or le'~s fo rma:1 ~xp:l1e5~iQns.

• Umle rTi ne the seii:nltll1l ofth~ ~ rsr ttexl (!cmtaining llrlf! rnfs,s1lng inFo:rmatc<ln.

• Make slJroe Y.O'UF aJQswer is 11'1 the st~;~ of t!ile SieoCiliid p'CIS~i:lge.

Q;lIl!stion 6J: Which verb cOmpJel~es We expression witI'! 'mrlJ!J IjU~'?

Q,uesti1l'1l 66;: 'Thi~ "Illeslicn," fJ!OOrs t.o the phrase 'pm(le gr,ealter vatu,e ClIiI' hI the base l!bit.

Q,w'IlStilOl1 6 8J~ This e)lp,t,essJliil'll ifltrodlllc.es a list (lif 11l')(<lm p~le~,

Qlll!SUlln 71': Wha,'~'s a less tormal waV o'f S~il1g '~I?4!lpre wi~1il ,ill good lellel ~f b,aci1:gr'olru rna riilulwledge'~ Po 'll'e:rlr is lIl!ededl her,e to' ~OItlll,lillell! ttlile expreSsiOn.

Q~~iol!i 14: If somethilng.. ics aWli Fal:d'l!, it's '011 •. :. tlirrotl1er way of sayinlg' :a,vailable"ttlil'atf'oUows

'the prop li!lisHion ·orn- :r,s needed,.

PAR T 5

For questions ,6,2-74, read ths following formal extract from Q' book on careers and: use the inform atlon to !::omp~ete the nu m b ersd gaps Ii n the infomla I leaflet a i m ed at stiudents. Then write the new words in the COIFr@ct spaces on your answer sheet. Use no, more' than twOI w'Qilds for ~ach galp. The words you n eed do not Q'CCU r j I'l1 the I'eafilet, Th e eXe'ocise begins with an exa m piE! (0).

p.1any parents try to discourage their offspring from em barking 01'1 a career in the musk busmess. They £eei that the music industry is not the glamorous. one that young people imagine it to be', and that the chances. of their son 001" daughter becoming a Mghlygpahi star are extremely sUm. Although this is quite correct, globd opportunities do exist foryou:ng people in the music i:ndustry, particularly .for those' who place' greater value on job satisfaction

than on sa lary Ievels, .

Naturally, thelle are opportuni'!ie.s for those who have studied au. illstrum.ent. but many jobs in the' mdustry do not require elther fnchnlcal O1ihiJHy or performing ~]s. There <'Ire marty openings, for example, in pubLislliJ1Lg, retail and in :recoQrdipg studios where what is required is a Uvely interest in music and a good Ievelof background knowledge. A degree in a relevant subject" w hilstnot absolutely essential, can also be l.lISefuJ. and courses specifically d~5fgned tomeetthe needs of '~he music- industry rue now aV<lH<llbie.

iLEAHET FOR STII.IIOoENTS

I'f you'r,e dream]ng .of a career in the musrcindustry, don't he (0) ••...•• , .. by parents who say it's not a's ,glamorous as (62) •.......... I or that it won't

(6J) a fortllme. T~ey're probably (64) one tl1i1ing tnrclIlj,gh;

you're ~6S) 'to become a star. But if job sati.sfactkm (66) " .. to

you than pay, then music could ac.wally be a ,good choice, And you

don't haVie 0(67) ••... "..... how to ,p~.Giy an ~ ns~ru rnent eitin er, Th IEire are' rna ny

other branches of the iindustlry, (68) recording studios, publisilhe'lis

and record shops, where'they are (69) " people Who, are reaUy

(70) musk and who Ik,now what they're (71) ebout when

it comes to the music business. Although you don't cu:tlLJally need to

(72) " a perticula r sulbj'Eict:. at un iVE'rs iitYf ~ rei evant d'~91ree

(73) ....•...... ! snd s,ome courses are now.an ('74) , .. with aspects. of

the music industry in rnlnd,

TEST L PAP'IER 3

'filp Stl'lip

• ~eadl tile text ;Qjl~ U:noll[~h fm gel,lierral

U,I ndil~nsrtrandi ng befQI'e ¥iI)~ nyt~ dQ.,ruliHl fusk.

.' Rl'ead l'~~ QI1,~I.()'IiI!; ,cOlirefWl U". Th.ey fIlIai:!ll ail haw the same

g~am liIili!l~~ ~<ll roJUII"I {e.~, '~i!lllS~S} or may be ,~ 5!!~(;I:f ,tiliff![,elll ful'm,~

-Thrree O!f theoptiQlls do n,Qit. {it .inlttl tIh~ t:e>;t at ·aH.

.. l~olt ca~,efuU~ ~(lr WQrds arid! phlras~s whl,"h f>efer furwlillrdS a 11Ii:i ba,ckil\'llard:6,~1:1 Ule t~~ '(~.g,. PfOl'I(i!J11'I5, ml~tilli!'S. HllikerS~ tljjlilJunrdiillJs, etc.).

• Whll'ii1 ¥iQill"W '~Ili:!iilhedi lreaa tbrolu~ Uita w;niO'te be&l aJlarlfil i~ ~h:ec.k".

Q.!I:e:!i~ion i'5'~ E,'!.Iie:1iI tho~gill all~l1re c®'",tiol'ls ha'¢ ~~e !S;(lJ!TIe gram iiIi'I,atJtc~1 farm, G[p~uon B. whrc~~ atreeady ends with 'ofr", tilil be! mLedl)L11

g)rarnmi1Uka:nV,

,Qmt~ti~):I'J 76: Loo'k for the moM logi,a] tiS! OIf ja~,

!ll!!eMi:llJ:lI 18~ Wllkh Ollfiol] i liudlUdtes ~ne \C(ll1te:D1lpora~ m,Elanling' of the symbol?

Qjt!e5t1QI1I 8,1)I~ l(llOlk ea;rU,er ill M'H! ~aF.lig~a III ~: Wl'rlilt are pJ:lople'lrn ,a'r:a~le' to flfld?

-- --

PART 6,

For qu€'stion:5, 7'5-8Q', read the foll.owing! text arne!: then choose 'from th~ [list A,-.[I 9~ven bel,Qw thE! best phrase 'to fill each of the spaces. [ndh~ar'te Y()iI.:!r a I'Iswar 0111 iIlhe, sepalll'aiOO aI1'!l5,w1Qrslhee-il::. Each correct :ph rase !may only be used once, 5:ome !I)·f the 5.u:£l'9'ested anSW€!l:5 do, n.otfiit at all!1.

The IIistory of @

T h.e universal synD,bo] of Il11iernet era OOmmJI.uri!Cat~Olls. the @ sigp used. im!! e-[il'Hli] acldre:!'lse.s[o s~gnify the word 'at", 'Vi; actually Jl 500~yean.'~Cl.kl il:1l.ven't~.on. of Hali.aIll merd:uLnw,f1, RiQm.e atad.e,ITl.l,c hils revealed, Giorgio Sq.lbile" a scue:m.ce ijl)o(e:5S9i~ at La Sapienza UniVle:rstty, elaims (75) .,. ,of the syrnboll's use, a:sailllnd]~~ijoR ,or a measure of weiigh:tQif volume, He s.ay!>, tilJe ~,i,gnrep[eSell.~l> en mnpbm,lI., OiL measure of ca:p~dty based on the ~el.TIli.cQ:tta jars IJ sed (76), ..... in lfrtie a!ltcJe;..1]t Mcid:ite!1<l!ll,e~:m. wOidd.

The professor 1!l!~e;arUu:d 'the anetent symbol inthe eourse b.f:' regeardh ;[01" avlsual bffis(o.~ .of Me 2016, terl'l:l'i:ry.f

("77) . ... ~ The fiffit known instance OF ·U:syse.. he says, occijlt"!I:ed in alener wrluen by a Florentine. mer,c;haftll: on M.llY 4. 15j~5.. .H.e says tbe, sign made it s wilfy iI!]ong U"a.c1e mutesto roonh;eTll E~rope;. where tt eame (7S) .... , its:

CQUJtem~Qr.aty aCcoulIlitMa.cy m.e:lllilYg.

"Professor StahUe believes that Italian banks Illia.y po.."5e5j e;W;-D earlkwd[)cumeo.u bearing the symbe] Fy~~ forgotten in their ardn,[ve5. <l'h,(: oble;8t examp~e COY ld beof fea[value. It could be used for l1ruJ1li1 lcity P:p:l"JWB<e5 and (7J) .... " he says .. The race lis on between iJl!e merc.mtile wo:rrld and th.e ba.nkin"gwmLd~80) ..•. .

.A. to descri be the now omn~plie.s.enlt squigg le IS 'to' repfles,ent 'at the price pf'

t t9 ~ae who has the: o'ld.est. doclU mentation of @ Dt'O tr.ansport 9 ra ~F1 and I [quid

IE to save space and work

f to be puhnsh ed bj{ th E! ifirnaca n i E rr'cydb~p,edia G to ~~am how popull.fl'f it has becerns

H to havestu rnbled on t~'E! !8arlie.st known e~ample

to ehnanoo ~he iPr@stige of the institutiollTtn:a;t Cilwn~<d it

PAPIEIR 4

,~ BeroreY'Ol!, listell",read (he trtlbrl'!; '~O fifl~ out whal type of tiilS~ you n.ee.d tl) do, R,e3JlI line !>en.te ilces. lihiill k aboult thelype (If infi:mlflilfiol'l w~kh is missi'ng.

,. The ~ uesficHls 'FoliOViI' the order QIF< the 1iii!l!it.

• fhe woMs 'Ii) QJ Ileet!

,'I an on lheta:pe. but 1I0t in th,!! same selilt~I1C.eS as in t:h~ qu:esU~ 111:$" It is ,1'I0~ a dictation.

• Write II maximlllll'l of th~e worns, Q r a nllllll1ll!:J.I~r in @acl'l spa.~e.

• Dll'I'I't try 'to pjHap~Ui.lSe UiIE! i lIl"form ali o'n. U5e thri! wo.rds lj',«1iI bear"

• (hetlt tl1a:l your answer 01" phrase 'ots ~ramllW:i'i;lhrnllly and! ma~s S'E1I'1Se,

,. I:.lleck:YQI!!I spel1linrg.

Qu:estil)o:1II :I: Nilta~il'! men~l:on:!l '~ve ool!ll11!ries. Which 'tw,I(i' d'{j es she work in most olte III?

fl.uesthi:nl c4:= :Natalie taLks lIblilWl both [,he appil.lcatlon, form and lthe jnte,i'view. Wh lch dlid slle fMml m,~ne d~lfi.l'ullH

IQlesiion 5: liiste1:l 'for the adjective tihat I'll atalle uses to cl,eSi~Jribe Ii1 ersell

QlJl!stlio'i'I.6= YIO'IJj ii~e listeningmu tim'!!

p eoriodl. lii~ j,s qIUe:!!i~h:1I1i is as~in,g fow 'the length of t~e looges-t toms whikh Natalii'e leads,

'(lue:sll:iolll 9,! You <Ire Ii~telllrlllg fur all adije>Uhi'i!! wI'! i ch ,Nata lie OSt!~ to dfSClrube tb e work. The sn $,wer is 1II0~

'dem<alllcl inlfI~ as that is ,.*e'(JIdiy m'enJtiolled, il'! tile. stl'llence

Listening (approx 45 1m ]nutes)

PAR T 1

You willi hear a woman whQ works es a tour gllide't:a,lking: about her work, For questions 1-9', complete the-sentences.

You will heer the recordinq twke ..

Tour Guides

The countries where N.atalie works most often are

2 1 is not essential for her job .

~ _L __ ~

In Australle, Na,tallie worked in al '- .... 1_3_-c __ I

Natallie found the L.__ ~ --'--...~4__,1 the rnostdifflcult

:Natali~ describes herself as gen~rally a

5 1 person.

~ -L __ ~

The tours which INatailie leads can last as long as

Natalie receives $150 per week as well as payment for

NataHe di:sagre~5 with the icea of liinking! pay to what is written on

Natalie explains that the

6

"the work means that schedules are dernandlnq ..

7

B

lEST 1,. PAPER 4

• BekJ r'a 'fiO~ lij:St<en, l"f'1l!ti the H!libriit ~o find out llifu! at ttype ,~f "las k~;n~ s 11$, Who Istal~rlilg? WMr'e'?Wi1yl

'II The 'q]tll!S,trOIl.$; flOflfilW Ute (I r~:!!r oftfre text

" Do 0'1 rep!l!;ll till e WI£) rd'S "and l<ie<l!5 .. tready 1!B:!I!Ei'd ~I'I, rille n;tJite:So'lii~h,e page.

ii!Eh ~ck: ¥~~ r s~eU,if1lg.

Ql!Ie\5itiiolil 12: This

Q UIl!:S(i'D 1iI,~sl<:s for the Utl~' cf il I:M:!Qk. Mal\!i! $'uwe YOIY wrri~-e down tinte whote une.

Que5tr:O,1il1~: 'fi'iIe tlt'xt

vn ~11~l'~Iil~ k! UrF dlif-er:el1t tilJ~~S-. 'm,t)ke 5Ulr~ vou wrr~fu down ~f,nE! time 'the Nrst eve:nlt lQ~ell'!s.

'o.ue.sttOlll :Hf: n"nlk~n iildV~lt'f6f the' p~l!l]biUties so tlhail YOilfrg prep;ue'd flo r the

a IiIswer \i'l!Jmenl it m1ilil~$'~ O!UIli!J'~lOlilrlL7; Tile {l,mlS,\I'IlIer is 'lilot an ~'ID'icullt!l,m:d t(lQI 3:5 this U:!1I men~rQirned :i'n ~he n,ote's,. li!;fi:ln fur Ute Qlhe:r o!,!~i~(J tilii~ a:r'i'ii~f has !l:Js'U!d.

'--=-I l~

-- --- -- -- - -- ----

,P ART 2

liou will hsa r a rad~oatn nou neement ehout two events happen irtg taler today. For questions 1 0- 17, complete the nG1J9S,

Listen camfru~~y :aSYO!!ll wiilill It! ealr the ret'O:rding 0 NICE 'Dl1Illy~

Events in l,angham Today

Fi rst Event:

- features: pain rings by Wendy Wl!.sn.fl' t€!C€!'fJt/y se@rl on

- also beinqlaunthed; a book calted

i 1:2.]

111

- Wendy's spedaJl~ty; she tloesn't u'se

when painting

- open ingt~ me:.

15

116

- feal~ures: Edward CrMn@,atvvork

Today's piece: made from

I ~71 and

T Ii: s T '1 ,P A IP E, 'R. 4.

., B'efnreo you, Us:te!l. read the rubrlc, I:s this ,if S'ent!<mce'>oompletio:l'l or rnu ~tip're.chl)i,e ta~lk? Who i{:;, t~lkiJlg? Wihew? Why?

,. Bef.~ul! yell list,e,n, read tl1e q'lIIesjJ,[llils., Thililk about tlile type (!f" d[g,~Llssn~.iIi y,CUi.! !ilro. 8"t1ill'lg to ~ear. L1li1derUlle the key word~ ln th~ q.u~.stloli st€!JiilS'. The '~IlLii!SJ~rons IDlllow the order of Ule te.xt.

'. Listen to i1'hrdfhe· alllswer '~Iil the qu&S,t1on. 'tileD tl,ecide ~hich 01' tine opH;o;liIcS A, lB. C® ~ III is dosest to what YO!.l¥e :liieir,~.

., Tile words In Ute opti.omi wi n rUl't be. ttle' words you l:Ie~u. bl!:lt wiU have. a similar mealliing.

., Most (!'!J'E!stiofl:5 w:m bE! al!u;)lut peopl.,e'sideas. op'inlions and Feelings.

Q;y~sth!)1i! :U3; B:ars:ara uses the word '''intuition' to de'Scri'be tine most imp.oniilol ~ i!.!aUityl'lf.ied~d fer h li!r jab. Which of Un'e! (I ptitGl'liS ,!ilescri bes 'intui~i~oJil"?

Q.l.tes~loll ;:i!i!1l~ Hi,i5 ql.lI~sth;m asks abou.t ~~'e seqlllli!IlCie o'f 'e'll(mls. iI'Ihe most umportta:nt WOtTd i III Ule qu~S'tion stem i!S 'Ii'l'ee'['. WIhTclh ol@tiQn ~I'lS'W~f!1 in is que!<tioMl?' QM:es~'iolil 23,; Bar:lfmra says that !II'! e was upset by tim e ilittitl!l d e (If (I'~1m elf pe:i) !pte' ~6'VIlar4s, h I!f WtliiSit she was rn,lIkun:g a film .Wi'n idn optioll incluides, this rrne'<ll?

Q;!JeSiti'llin. 2,5= iifla,rbam says: 'I ilnYe tMt fe·elil"llg'. 'Wilat hle,ting is sne tatking <Ii~(luJt?

- --

PART' 3

You wW hea r an i nterview with a V!IO rna n wh 0 wo rks as a casUn9 dii rector in the film ·industry .. For questions 18-,2.5;, choose the best answer .A, 'B, ,e ow D.

You will hear the recording. twice.

'118, Aceordirl91 to Barbara, a ca,stinQ! directcr needs above alii .A. to learn from experience,

fB, to have a releva nit qua I iiicatio n. C to be a g,eed com m un icaitor.

Ii) to have al nstu rail feel for the job,

'119 Barbara s~ys that she looks 'for. actors who A cen pl'ay ill va ri ety of roles.

B cornolem en! each other,

c accept her way of working. o think deeply about a part.

:20 At which stage in til e casti ng process does ISa rbar a m.eet the ,actolfS?

A before she goes to see them performing live B once the director hes spp roved them

( before a fi nal s hort-l ist is drawn u p

ID' as soon as a final sel,ection is made

21 What led Ba.rbara to become 81 casting diirector? .A She real ised she had the skills neeced

19 She was doing simillalr work lin the theatre'. C tt was recom me nded by a friend,

D lit had oBi Iways been her am bitio n.

22 Barba ra e·xplal~ns that what rnotivatss her now is, a need for A personal satisfaction.

8, finendal sec.ur:ity.

C p mfessiona I r~GOgnitloln. Il) a gila mmQUIS ~'ifestyle.

23 What rna d e Barba ra give up 'her jo b for a ti me?

A She'd become 'dred of tf;avelili nq,

B, She wanted to try something! new.

C She'd been put under too much pressure, o She fo LH"I d she was no IQnigler com m itbed,

2.4 Why did Barbara ,go back to her job?

A She was missing he r ca""eag ues,

B She W.:JIS made an interestinq offer.

C, She wals.n't happy working in theatre', 10, She r,ealised she',d made a mistake.

25, How does Barbara fee:1 when her work em a film ends?

A sony not to fa II ow fft th rouglh

II SlJ rp rised by the attitude of oth ers C upset not to be better appreciated III rea diy-for the next challenge'

TES,T 1, PAPER 4

~. B;efure ynll ~~Srelmi" ~~I(j the rul1,rrlC. WI:! til wiu yGl!I h~r? What wil~ th~y be tiililkiing '<lbnJjt?

.. Beron! y,oll:l liiS:~ell" mad t~ e ,(D ptiOlil5 A~~ II:) b{l~~ 'l:al$'~. U n,d!.!flim~ th,~ I<.<ey wonl illl eacn Qpj:ill,!i1 .•

.. nil! ijrrstH~ne 'fOillJl 1!l5<1:en. OIliIs'Wer Titlsk:

Oli1le •. ~h:e S~~OJ1 dili'rl'lif! ;lIi!ilSW~rli'iliS~. TWQ.

Q.U:e5JtloJlil 2t;i': The sP~llkeJ' say,s tfl.u he/'$ ill mllsi!;i:a:lII. byUhiis isn't what he Slutl~:es on t'ffil,e [QLlrs~.

Qg'e!iitiolill 28:Wh ~[h 511l'bje~t in~lZllh/~'S

raJilld s<caljmS,. pen,pectli;V(es, eas.els.i!nd .lbmshwotik? 1(h!~liu\n ~:I:~ The spe-al!ler 5~S: tihat t~,e <group . ~15y<:liolo:gy was IFai&,e~l!II.at~li'Igreo, Wi;lfl(::h as i1: 1J~.t(lJde(l'. Wh kh optitlll refle:t;!;s. Ihi5~omm:!'!nt?

Q~.:!s~iQn 3'3: Wh(Hl~he sp.ellkrer :SlIVS: "'nil 'tiliiiait sUlit~"d m~' Wlhall$, he: ta,!k;~llg,alb(lur?

~ ~

----

PAR T 4

"fqu wUil f;),eaw five short e:<t,r.3:dS· :i n wh f:ch va ri ous people are mlki FI g a bout hoHday,s.

whea~ th,ey studied as a gmup, .

You win he:alli" tlti:e Ir'eCOlriding twice,. Wh'ile you IiS1!elill. YOlil must cotmlpllE!1I:e both 'tasks,

TASK ONE

Fqr questions .26;-3:0" match the extracts as yoru hear them with what was' stud ted 0:11 leach CiCWfSEl, ilis'ted A-H.

A a fom!g n laflgu age

B cookery

C crea)tlve wrUHn 9

ID drama

F p,afnting

H photog raptly

For qurestions 31-35" malch the e~racts as you hear them with the comment each person makes about their course, listed A-H:"

A. II :app rsdatsd the flexib i I nty of til1€' starff.

C I enjoyed observing the other people.

Ii) II would halle I iked more guidaln~ from t h~ tutor.

E I was pleased to work em my own .

G I I'iked tine great va rl ~of people' I met H I' would have nked more time to practise.

'fEST 1. PAPER 4

P',AIPER 5

l1ip' S,tri, Part 1

.' ~k Y(lill r partner €IIuJL'!sli!)ns. dorn jiUiSl , alk about YQurs,eU!

., !l'1l n'l !!:i'!.l'!l ,a IHelp!CIreirl speech but re!ii~J)Ild iUlrh.lr~ny to wn,at 11'0 U v part"'!! r asks.

.' Shll'w interes,t iii! wlilat. your partner ~<Ii¥s •• isk que-Sli(l,fis 00, _g~i m€:l'r€' i:nfon'il'aiuon.

j Don't; tiillk~or loo l-QIl'Ig, ;IDVfl' yourI' ~artnler a eha nee to respond,

Pali1 Z

• listen 'to the examil'ler's instTl.lctljjf!S ta,~~fuUy, Ead'i task is different.

.' !Don't, inlenu IP'tyol.lr ijlillrl:Dilll!r"s IUlrn. tlsten so that l(OtI can cOlil1meli1t aherw,af(i 50.

I This ~ask a5~ ylQU to compa r~tw.o or tl1iJlH! p'hotographs, SiC! make compa risons belw(l'en 'I!him ~i'Om the.l:ii~gbHliJ1g.

Pan)

.' Lis~el'l to the Irl'l~trli.lttions can:fiuliV. MaRe Siiire U'I'i'll YO:1lI LiI nii:!ti:$,tand what Y6U Initl'l.1le' t~ dlo.

I' As,k your pa'rlJlle[ til'lIe"stlOI'lS, dOl'rf iust giw yOlJlf o,~i'i1i~I1$..

.' 1l!.IIi!Iliembel' 10u h,Elve tilll' k~ep talking fin ~IHee millll!l.lesJI, so VOu shoul~ll·t ~ille 'iO a 1tOri dtlsiofl too 5001'1.

Pai14

ell The eila~Urie,r may as,k 'lOll 'JlUestioJl'ls 'in 1Urw.,. or III'Ifay "!ilq~eJlf'r:al ques'tiOrli5 fur yo u iJroIth Wal'ltSWiU.

'. ¥Ol.l ,1lI,an' 'have to agree with you r p:artn:e;r. III lit try not to inbmupt.

• IDoI'I't ee Ilfli;l!:tiI to inUID:d ace new id~s as I,OWE: as they illi'e rela:tild to file lopilC,

Sp,eak;ng (1.5 minutes)

-

PAR T 1

(3 minutes)

Th e exa miner will ask you a few Q uestlons abOU1 you rself and then as k y.ou to. talk to your partner. for exam pl~e. the e~:a m ilne r may ask you to f n d out a bout each othe rs:

• area of work or stu dy

• experience of !Studying Engll i sh

• ai rns and amb ltlons for the future.

PAR T 2

(4 minutes)

T urn to picru res 1-5 on pe 9 e140 whrch show p~~;:de' rest i n g.,

C and! date A, cornpa re and contrast two or -thr,ee of these sltuation s, say! ng why yau think each person needed to r,est.

Candidate S, which person do yau think. was most in need of a rest?

IILo,okl ng up (Com psre, centrast a r1 d slJill£ulate)

Turn to pictures 1 ~s. on page 141 which show people' looking up at something, Candidate 6. cornpa re and contrast two or th ree' of t hese situati ons a nd say what you thin k the peopl~ might be I!ooki n 9 a,t_

e and idate A wh i ell pe rson do you th i nk look..s most i nterested ~ 11 ''rNhat they are looking an

PAR r 3

(4 minutes)

Tum to the pictures 0111 page 142 which show aspects of student M@. A univ~r:s,ity wa nts to use three of these pictu res in a leatlet wH ich wi n 9 iv€! i nformafion a bout university lif!? to students in seco ndary schools,

Wh at i mpr,ess,ion of universilty life does 'each picture Qlive? Wh kh thlree pictures shou ltd the univ,ersity include in th,e leaflet to create a positive image of student life?

PAR r 4

(4 minutes)

.Ans.wer these ouestlons:

How muc.h of tlheir time should students spend .studying?

Wh at leisure faci I it~es she u ld a un ive,rsity provide f-or its ~tudents? How lon9 do ypu th ink univ,ersity cou rses should last?

Do you think young peopleshoeld 'study academic or pwacticall subjects? Which is more useful for a yaung person; going to ullive,rsity or getting work experience?

TIEST 1. PAPER 5;

PAP.ER 11

R,eadiing ,,1 hour 1 S minutes)

Answer questions 1-18 by r"Merrii19 to the m,21ga.zin@ article on page 31 in which rnceern-day artists ti'lfk about t.heir work,

I nd kate your answe rs on the sepa rat'lii! a n:swer sheet.

--

PAR T 1

--- .--

FOIl questons 1-1:8, match the statements on the left bellow with" the llst of artists A-f. Some of the choices may be required more than once.

Note: When more than one answer lis required, these ma,y be put ;in ,BFlY order,

Whkh C;llrtis-t says

h,e tra ined in iha~ I,y in an unrelati8d iie~(:I.

he has been en infilu,ential figurelN:lth~n the world of art. an artist's life ts more demanding than he had €xped!ed.

he does not want his works displayed in the conventlonal way" he wishes to appeal to a wide variety of people.

he feels that different art forms have become much iess distinct from each oth elF.

he combines artistic: iimages whrch wow~d r)orma!ly 'seem ~noompatj ble.

he laarned his craft in a, veryfle,xible environment

that pr,alctical experi.encE! is more important than formal training. he has had problems in forging an identity for himself in the

art world.

he ta kes his inspi ration from s'eeing new pi aces.

new works of a rt are not a Iways as orLgi nal as evel)"One i magi n es.

that he is ve ryconcerned wi ttl the message his wo rks convey.

1
2:
3
4. .. ,," 5
6
7 8 ., ~ ~.
'51
110 ~ ... ~ ~
11
'12 13 ....
14 ~ ~ ~.
'il.S -==-
Uj, .... ~ ~ 17 1,8 ,A 8edwyn
iii fran~es
e O'Conn,o:r
Il Pillin
E Bader
F Mlatuka I ....

-

Conversations with Artists

At lot o:f artists limilt themselves to business as u sual, I'm not sure I !lay,a a r,egular style. I'm often toLd '~h,at my wonk i ncorporates a lot or decoration - if so, that's liIotoonsd ~HiS, as I alwa,!ls U~e to staJrt. from zere with my paintings, to oreate something c;;ompLetelY diliierenrt. But] do have to work with~nlcenaifl limits,

a ad the most i m perta II1t of those i~ that we Lirl,le in tM age of repro ducn,o'l'\. AU so its" O'f p,eople kn ow my art from l'i1ia9ilz:irms, cataLogues 'O'i TV. That"s all n'ght with me because I don't want them to 9:0' tna g~lLelY. But (line of 1tJhe torns;equejIfJces ijs that I want to Icnea~ worliG that hill"'!! IH'!iuly es .strol1lg an impact In ,fj p,f;j{j,mgraph or a: video as in real llife. You see, I w,ant my WOI!'k to nave street medilbmty, to spea'k directly to people.. s'o tn,art it d.oeslIl'li; neecl !the help o'f t~e w;him ibO,)i/@S - til ~ museums or g'aU~rie,li - to be appreciated.

----

B Alan FranCies

The greatest infusanee on my way of thinking as a

pai nier~me whe n I tOi'olk part i III a fumou.s exhiib~tj'ollm til lled "Fmeze' wh~n ] wa s a student at coUege. lim,1Ift c()H@\ge was ,a dream for neative !l~opl~: it was the onlly pbce in tihe apt world that didn't $tip~ltate' whi,dh med~lIm YOIIJ had to work ]n. All dU1! oilie'r sch(l,~~

diilli ded yo:u into ("at,egories, ,S!.l.cm as $wlp'bufe and, paillnng~ .. Art practice isn't confined. by these old barriers .lind techniques any more. I dm'{1t think 'FI'(!ii.!zii.!' was 9 mu.nd.~breBlk]ng in terms o,'r the ac~ua l work, but there was a ffiassllve energy cHQI.lIld it. W,e ~!Ie!re'l[l't trying to' attract the attentiolil of theg alleries - fit was liTiIore tI ,[,]se of 'we do:rn't nrE!~d ttiem. 'W'rl can do it a !iI)i'Way' •.

C Marcus O'Cl:mnor

I did 11f't, actually stlIdy art at ~(Illege~ 1 (juaLi'fiei:l i 11"1 eler;t~(mks· I QuaUfi~d, atan evening dass I never en6oy~d sc heel, ~oQ r wQrk, which I have alwa.Y5 tried to avoid,. without IiUI:C'e5S •. In faet, :I to und my path i n 11 rt a bit lare - olnly ei'ght years ago. frO!" me, art is just a job Woo any other tn"Q,t can be Learned: while you do it. Wh en I WaS$lifIiI ll, I llI[v~aY.!i tho I!lg M: I wOluhlrl"t WI lilt to do allY worik" a!ild that art shO'uld he li~ thet, Blut now I'm rnally working., I don't h aVie a l'Iill n ute, wn at w1'l:l1 gaJUertes, gall~1Y Gwner.s alliidintervi~ws hi! dffflerei1It places. J consider the 'geography of towns as a rand of kibITIry which you use for your own needs; yOUi go wi!ui'l'e yOIlJ. thi riI k you ca n f;eel g'ood fur i wMle. Igo ~IIrOU nd diffe rent towns so as to meet Inew peo:ple, breathe new air gild get flew ideas .•

D Jan PiUin

fmvellll' Ilexl;ble- I piSiint. ('rea~ log05, de'S'iQ.1'I furniture and products and write comics; but if pl.lshedl, 1 ilLv/flj(5 sa)! that I draw. Illustrators and cartoonists are the only o:ne.S who have accepted me, Graphi'c desiqners say te me: 'What are YQI.I d'011flIg? You're M'I; ~ graphic designer, ,are you 1'1 paill1t!'!'r?' The j:)ainter'S uy.: 'Why don't you d~s:ig:n furlilitu~e? YOur fumiture is, really nice: AI'1;d tlhe:fu rnitU:IT! des,igne'ls 5ay: 'You should I:m don Iil.g comic beeks, tha.t's your business;

I think my dirawingr!> are awful, but .I nave to say oUter a rt~ sts, have use-cd 'my' wmk~o d!ewlo p ttmir own. M]ml yo WI, tlhey h,lIVe:I"I't eopied any IiTiIOTe thi,alill have. fll :keiep ,01'1 copyil1g" allklW'in91 myself to be intluenred by tJl1Qusalnd!s of authors and images. It's very positive when yo~"n~ neating 'thih,g~S. You G1I11 never start from square one.

-

E Henrik B ade r

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fiII.y worlk is all about building artinllo daily lirl'e. I

wOliLd have a millen mere COf11lfortable L]fe if I was a 'nne art",uti~t; sltti n~i n a studio in ~he c,ouliltJrjlsi de. But I wantad to be invo Lved ill buildi rig 1 n the city; I wanted to contribute to daily life,. with aU its, idios,ynerasie-sam:1 difficult.ies. You see, I 'had a morn practica L educatio n tha If1 most h!!aming iHJi[dlng COl1iS:tfl!Ctl-OI'l at tEKhnkal,high school. arid went ento study a rt Bifid archit.ierture in Vi,ennal in an environ ment of arti sts s.tage desi:g ners, pal I1iters ~nd: sell lptow,s.F was constanUy m,aving between the fine artsend architecture - today YOIJi call. it:;cr,05sover',aJndactllal~y th~ d.e'IilJ<1I rcation is I'mV!' tess rigid.

I'w worked for the iHlvertisi I'Ig industry. '~or e,x;am:ple, slJlpenmposing advertising imagE!:s ont(l photographs of DuUd:i Ii1'Qs. Indeed, i 1::1 whateve:r I do I introduc:e <lI

fo r"f;l'Q ~ e:lem ant i nto oil glv,e n situation. a nd, by tnmsrorma'tiol'l !:If scal~ and meaningi, it I1Jlakes another, very dear state ment, 1 need to maike sure in at. it' s a sUlltemernt wnlidll is getting tlluo,l!!i)g.h to people.

F BiUy_ Ma.tuka

fl'lil always toLd! mvolJlr wriitiniQ in my art, ratner than imag:es. In allY Ilainting: there is sOlmethiiilg whkh says: 'Lool< at me .• ple'ase.' So I seid to' myse,lf: 'Instead a,r p!Qrlintijng the ptllilting, I'm g:g;in.g to w,rite uLoo:k at me, p'Lease,," lila paintfl'lg, is onLy a p:r:etpxt to say something, ,50 I might as well say it simply, wilth wo(ds on tM painti fig. Also, I wanted to establis,lii mll own 1le~rii~:ory, alte-r ~n i nitia L period Clf I:lo'l; really kllOwq n§' wlum'll Vias. going:. Writilig went well witih my desire to teU the truth. It's been said that art is a 1lig, but yOU! ha,ve' 'jjo fi mid the truth somewhere:

TeST 2. PAPER 11

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PAR T 2

lWlereverthere ar:e fish there ar:e Wcel'y to Oeoormof'(.tnts.

But how does .a bir.d tna tcan live in the tropics als,o sur-vim! in the l!rctz=c?'

For questions Hl'-,24, you must choose wfl~ch of the paragraphs A-G on pag;e ,3:3: fit into the numbered 981PS in the, following newspaper article. The~e is one extra peraqraph which does, not fit in any of the gaps,

Indicate jl'ouranswers 10 fii the, !H~'p\a ra1l:ean:swer sheet.

Cormorants

A new study by Wanless and Gre-mill@t has recently sbed[ SOl11e light '011. the eormerant's abiUty to survive during the AreUt, wini'e]:. But it took a]ot oJ failed experiments 'MIme they met ,Yith am' sucosss, TliJ:ecy looked first for signs thatthe bodies, and wings of NeUe cormorants bad adapted[ subtly to life in the cold.

Next, \f\fanle-ss and Gre'"mill~t tested the- h~rthes]s that Arctic cormorants would oihhl'i n extra me:l:![y byea'Ung more than thelr te:mperate oounterparts, They used electronic nest balances to ,nu:o.rd: the birds' bodywei:ght before flying outto [1sh. and then on their return, SUl'prlsmgly. their calculations showed oonn.o'rants· a te no more in Groe:L'il[md than "in France. And their feed Cb;n;suITI.ption turnetl out to be no more than that. or oUiet· better insulated seabirds.

These snowed that, dUlling the summer; they spenil about two hours diving pet day in Normandy and

C Qrlllo:r~n:ts are the m.os.t wid~pt~ada[[c1. v~rsa;jjle of the world. 's seabmla They can roo seen diving anywhe-rn from tim Arctic to the tropics. Anglers hate these btr-dsbecause of their voractous a:p~tite for fish, but scil'lnt:ists; notably oiologists Sarrab W3nloos and David Grnrnrillet, ere fu:scin:atedby thefr adapt;ability. How can aibfrd whose body di)es not seem specl,aUy adap~ed to (he cold spend the whQl,e Jr~ar in pillm regions such as GreenJand,wJl:ume the .allir is, typically minus 250m

'__J.___' --'I [22[

I~I . - .

The coactusion is that cormorants survive m the high Al'\ctitc not by .l.IDy pl'llysica~ adaptation but by f'mdling pIa,eElS where fish, are. extremely plentlful « amI fCL\ldilrlg SO e:ffh::ienUy tha t tlle~1 spend V:el'Y little time lex.posed to the ICY \\1ili.tei·, Fw·ther:mO(re, Gremillet discDv,eroo that tbelr Main pt,ey is a little spiny fish c:alled sculpin, which has no commercial value, Both tl1e.flJe fact.s Me relevant to the debate in many parts of tIle. wo:rld beh'!reen naturalists and

fisbGrm(ln .. ~lbout the damage 'that gr-Qwmg cormorant numbers are doing to fish stocks.

LI_2_' _ILl ____JI How the}' aIN,01~1 fteez.rug.with their phnna_ge affected ill Uris way,; -is indeed a mystery. More corm.orantwatchulg in extreln.ely inb,osp~table conmtionswill be req uir€>d to eome up with a convincirigru.lSwer.

only 410 minutes in Gr~en[a:nd. At]ast theresearch had hit lIII.pnlr something mVe'.festing. Next they needioo bJI g'e't f$lres for tb~ Al'ct;i,c wmtQ.t;, Wanless and GJ'emiUet found the world's most nQrtherly cormorant colony 150 km above the Amlin Cilide, where sb'OnghidaJ euerents pl"ffie.rve ~ome opm water all year. The'y v:ls:ited. ttlJe 'colony in Marcb, when. there was enough light to gludlY the birds, but temperatures were still fiiU" below zero.

The reseairch l10es lealfe·some biological questions unanswered, howleve:r, ArcUc corm.orants may limit their diviing to a few 1DinJ.lIte~, but how do they avoid fre~tng soUd. When (hey emerge fr.o.m. the icy sea into winter air tempe:ra~.s far below 7.ie'W?

lUTZ. PAP'ER 1

A 'They discovered. tha tthe eormerantsspent most of the t]me asleep on an ley clltf and flew out Once a day to dive oil th~ edge of Hm ice pack. The birds needed just nine minutes on average to catch enough fish for the day. This is an .astonishin:F: .feeding rate, 80 times higher than anyone bad pre.viomly re;cord.ed for a. seabird,

B Oremmet obse\l:'\''Lld that the Greenland birds always shake their WhigS Yel'Y vigorou:s1y as soon. as they sl1ffa~, to get rid of the water. But he also realised that lliJ~U: body ~eatbers must retain a ]o;t of lDois'i.lU"(! since !herr backs become partially Wab~r]ogged.

( They demolish. the popmsJr belief that oo.[',mol'rults .tre a greedy nuisance, ,eating fM" mor,e than other fu;h~ating birds of similar size~ 'The findings also show thl3ltcormo:;a!l!]ts have-a feediing strategy reminiscent of the large cami'vor-es su:~h as snakes and big C<li~s: theycatch aV,$ist amo1unt of prey in a very: short time and 'then rest for long periods.

D' Tms aspect of H.I..e:rr researeh proved frfdtless. They fOJlnd! that cormorants fro;in the fr~2e.n Aretlc allld [["om tbe mucIl warmel' enmss of France, birds which belong 'to the same subsIIec:l.es, are aetually very silnUal" lin size and weight. Nor was there 8:I1Y diffel!!en,ce~ri the plutllagiG': both regional groups have ve:ry km;r venunes of 1JnsUlaf111g air 1Lrarppoo betweel:l their fea tbers,

IE Wanl.esiS? a:liJld Goonll]]let therefore, coneludedtnat Eu.t""Opean cortnorants wouldbe pa;rticlllaJrly ,attract~d to :[ish farms and artificially stocltedllakes, whereas the Arctic bi:;ds.wuuld be less suited to such ,con.,r,enient eating places .

f: AU the more surprising is thatT whe1~ru; ether po]al' n:rumma~5 and. seabirds have evo]wCl extra insuJtt.tioll-la,yers of fart or waterproof plumageto protect themselves :(f;o.m the icy wa.tl1l<i". cormorants, birds with a bigh emtgy requirement When divil'!lg in Clclld seas, have very HtUe body insulatioll .. aind their plun:mge gets wet when tlwy dive for fish.

'GI The resaarehers ,co!t'iJCIUded t1h®lt cormorants" must have anotMr'~1a'Y of compensating for theirr increased ~merin'" 1"-eqlliI'ements whil.,e diving. To investigate theil' fishing bahaviour further. Wanless amd G~emmet att;ached minia ture r,~dio h"asmUt:ets to Ute oh:,ds.

r r sr .2. IPAPE'Ft 1

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, ART 3

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R~ad the! f,oUQWing niaga.z~!'Ie a rtiide' abul,J t staff tralinij n gl :i n compa n f['_S a no the n 'answer que5tions,25r3~ on pa,-ge 35. ~ndic~te the 'tener A, B. C. Qr [0 ~galin,st the number of each question. ,t3iv;e on l.y one answer to eaeh questM,:m,

Getting a return from t!raining

John WJ!1'.ltfey examin(?s the practicalities ,(1.'fld pitfalls tor companies who dedde. to inves:! inQrrg.(J~ng stoff ,training ..

TIW eJ1tllp~qrees {l;now fhCl]r jabs. The'l' h<lv,ei'; aU s}i.icoessw]ly comp1!:!~ed ~niti~~. t~a'i.nl;m:lg c01(lfSes <r.l!1d Ih.e·y~vehad p.l~J:1tr 'of dtmc~ dar¥~to-d.tly eX'pe.~h~IiIJ!:e. NcmeUle]ess, cQmpan.Hts ifJist:iJ:nell:iv~ly .fe!1!1 'th<li~ I:l:ieymuld get mo[e out of tbei.f shIff :OJ' giving taem r1!ll'1:il'herttailiflifiJJ~I io areas re]al~d to t1i1!~~r work. W'h~n tteemes to Investing m S\J!(;W1 sta!Ff @~Ding', hiO'weve:r, th·.e'fe ~$"<t ~\m(l;;lm,e[lt.lll pa:r'adJo!X. Training Iemmil's 'lin I.lJb~(l;lllltelyes®enti~l LliIIX'll:ry U~m. AU mana:ge~s ~gl'ee thBJ:r they 'wan~ :It and they all mOiVl' 111' is il, ,gpod tl:iiiing, 1d~l the male tljg:y need ~t,it s:ee:rn$, tl",~ ]e.~stll,~y 'are-. PifiPfi]'OO to find the

:rII.C1!cessa:l'y reseurees, fQr it At the

sli._gl:n.est excuS'_e1 tbetc<lihling budget -gets (;ut

H:a{pp.My~ :howev~r tbfn~ a:r,e CO[l]p<lIrneS who by it;. ,!-'\Iith the b~st imtaltiQOS in the world" Blliut evoo wh~1JJ. co;m:p.aml'i:S gi!1.a~<initte-ei1l budge'1: and "£OlU.ll1tH >a'le'JTI~!1!]v:eS to OII\gOilJig sJafft:mlnj~, i't d.o~ JJLot a1wa¥S w1J:rk This.> I;l:mC[~ will ;ft1fernpflo I,ook at w:l~:y th]~is 50.

A few yM'I'S <li@ll, <I ca~ company hired Ii t~_ 01 f:mxrrn<i!l cmr.:mLtanl's to ]n\;:e$Ugl3.~ wh¥ owners tIlf a plldiudar mQ.de] jn fl'lJ(,jrr<JJfl_&e s~LdomJ. came hillel;; .ro:r ano~h.er ene, ,[,h.e ~n'Vesli:gatjj"Qn p@.infed "lP H key f.m:tD~ tin. b.u]]!lJ~ng cusWl,me~~oya]ty- rite; q~laJi.t;y of 1:'ei:v:i.ceat Hlte oomp.a1:1l1~ gala.ges.. ]n p1lf~ic~ll'ar~ tf l:t':p.<l~~S WI@!~ earned ,®ut f:'.fifeEtiV'J.':Jy and to bul'llgi~iti rusooru.ers ~~e m.1()te'lik!eiY to bl!:l)! f[lOOl that dM~eT: ~gain. The lle>n.lbr I:ltana:gers t@ajpt on thiis ~l!'ith .000t:I.'l.l, s('1'e'iI]!£ it slmph~ s6b..l~o[l tofl1L.eIr ~~~w~ ~alies fi~':1ll!]"es. PI rlgbJioostr.:l!ir!il1g p.f:ogramm~ 'W;'!!£ designed w:rr ~"ery m~h'2trnk In eve'~ gllE<!l&e:. But a fmmytl1ing: ha:pfp~noo. Cll,S~OJIlll'f:~ s-atis.fa~iDJl wjth tl:!:~ q1lll;:!liq; oi !S~rVi(!e fe]] eli:!'! Inat~~]]y.

['I: turned PLtl!: tl:ia;t gar,ag,e& W£l:~.1k ~otig;ht profit :rII.~:9.rgi:n:s,wi!~h ill ]l],e8crlood il!1!l!mlb.el1 at l'Iree,harIJics~o Se'f\lilCe: ~ ~fi"m[JIumlbe'l; oi v~ll'id~$ tn a giwn peFhCild. Take a lo.lId o:llhe_ 01];( for trainjn;g !!TUiCi the r~st have mme work to (l:0 in tbe same am'(Jri;mt @it time. Heruce W$he~ 'Iob~ and mista:kes. S~m>p]eooai~Yr and f.i!l~d)f obwjo'Mfs.- wInm you go ;}.wilY On iii t:r-aining eoms.~!~he~iI,i''@Jr1d dQe5" no:t s~op. YOI;U ~~b ·iH'l11'l.ifS· Y@I!JI

on your retum, ~nd nf}l:ln~dly .thelm flO mCflje t9 do thiin WilLe.I] 'YDlJ l~fi. 'tou return ~o th~ samJ.e

•. • :a..

~mflany oJ}ew.a:tii!Iilg m b~e sa me

way. w.it.h:~he i(fmlle ~iIIIHe'<Il~e-~, <lnd tl":u~ sanm c:fie£ilib. ~o'u may he f.Hlielt'l1lt, )'(iUr too]k~,t of knowle(lge aad 'e;.:.per.~ence- m~y have ,b'1""OWIil, but u:n1C5S}:OU ean iI.PP]1 y{l~l' tnowleds~e thel'e and '~ft'lQ"[lj. or W~t]:lihl iii S:hO:r!: space of tiale, YcOuli¥iU mo~.t ]melyoo.r.l1' bn domg ~v~rythi~ el'I:actly the way yQ1;l d!d it b~m.re' on went OIl the t:orm::SIii!.

TIle mQ(l'II is tMat ~inj tr.i!li:F1i.ngc<lwb.~ of l;':a~lL1e, IlJu getting ar tha~ value li5 not as e<lli.y as Q).'!Je mjgh.t t.I1Jnk. Th,e~~ mU~'it be mamy <I. ~anag(l1i ·whsll.l3'S 1nvute.d a ]fit Gff effort in identifying the kind >of

tfa:wlr:ng required, has seat an employee on ~o ex,tte<rnlllr;m:l:rnhll;t G01llJ'.S,£, bu:~ then has fai I!~d (G oondnct ill tho~olig;hl:'evi.ew of the rn.1.toom~ o.f that t.l'"aJinii.ng ""~I~['d;S'.

It Irs ~$ullM1iid~har't., on [lerum to w~tl;:~ tile m<lgU.~l ICff8crn GiI'.H coulii.eWlU mlIturallysurfilKJe aDd emrpt~'eeswjjn oomehow be t.>'ettel attilreir ~obs,. This cal] harpp~]), ~pcn:-iOlJl~y l,I!;lhie:r.e SQln~ ~etl]nifa.l skill has been: If!~med. M].d "tbe lttIow]edgt l\'lb~ibg .~.ppli'fd tlJi~e~tjy. nut i:t is WJOl1g to a:;~'tIme thi.lit it w~]] alwitl~s happmll."V\i'Uhna.i1]j[~& ClI1J~ needs W buHid~I1I the Investment ImIde to ensure'the maxim;ulRvah:u:: is exti:acted ..

A.L'1!Qt.h:eTf1llw~d ;aPJiI~oach to t.r<lini.ng CD]"I.cems It he te]'~!h()'II'J.'e call] centl'l: l'Ul1 by a W1<i:lI-Oir~kT 6OimpalIT1'. l':l!.erel the prol~Jei!!l1l. wa:~ rorMttl y idellti'fiecl: as a l,aG.k o~ adL':'!q_l1l1te'p:rroduct knQwh~d:g~ by th~ staff who:

!llealil: dirtclt~yl;V;itb cu:sto:mers. A r traJini:n,g

p]\Qgr:.amfm~ bad failed to h<i!"'~ the dreStlit~ aod

it ru.d nat rake a g!lntus In lU'cmfify why. Sta:f~ Ju~hQ~ff w;asrunriing ~t 12Q%. No ~ooner we:re s,ta:flf Ua:i:rme.d t.han theyief:i:, to he .['le~~aced 15y 11I.QVij.c.e:s~ UHtilth~ 1mderbr]~:g pm'M~m IHI.d been Sel~VOO, ~l?e:ndi.tnreo.fl liu!mhier b:aining WaJ~ G;oomed to railll:17f1'. Cleady, where i:raJi:nlng is con.ceroed. m.mll~r s n.e<eo to appI¥ the S<tLIH: l~ve[s ofrigoul!' ~n pl~g ,mo:njt~ring ~l1Jd !l;Xfl:rllirJimll the outeome that tfu.e:r 6'rnp1o,¥ hI other h~shl.eoS'S rontem,

TEST 2., IPAPIEIR 1

25 In thewriters opinion. why do many companies' fail to invest in ongoing tr,ainingl for thei r staff?

A Th eir m anag ers an~ n at ~ 1'1 f aV10ur of it

5, They are unwilling to commit funds to it C Their employee.s, don't see the need for it. o They lack: experience in setl,ing' it up"

26 What prompted the car ,~ompany to send its mechanics on a trainin'g pmgramm@!

A compla i nts from custc mers

B a r1 investigatlion by tts managers C, independent p rotesslona I advice D' a slJggestionfrom its mechanks

27 Accord ~ng 1'9 the writE'r,. why may' the car com pa ny's nai n i ng pn::l'g ramme have f,ai~ed7

.A It disr1uptedl normal work patterns, B it fa i led to a d dress basic: preble rns.

C lit wars impossible for a~1 mechanics to attend. D lit overernpha ssed the need for sp eoed _

28, Accordingl to the writer, what should emplo¥ees, do when they return from a traini ng ooUifse?

A cenosmr ate on catch ing up with their work. D, attempt to. put new ideas into practice.

r: convlnce cnilleagues of "the value of training. [) try not to· ch ange everyth i 119 i mrne d i:ate'ly,

29 In the wrlt,er's opinion. what mistake do managers often make after employees have attended training courses?

A. Th ey expect too m LJ enteed back. from emp:loyees. 8 Th ey faiil to provide adequate follow-up .

·C They only see improvements in tschnkal skills.

o They assume that further training' w.ill he available.

3:0 Why d i cI the rna il-erder cornpa ny hav,@ ~; 'fla,wed ap proech' to tra ini ng 7 A The wrong type Oof peopl'e wen!!! being trained;

B Problems. arose as a result of th'l? training.

C The treininq proqrarnme was poorly recused D Prcblems v..rere addre(ll~@ij in the wrongl order;

31 In the text i:'IS' a whole, the writer :sugg,ests that companies underestimate A til e potentia II benefits of tra ining to i ndividua lis.

e th e resl cost of GlPpmpriate train i n 9 prog ra mmes. C the Ileed to manage u.aining effectlv.ely.

D the importanGe of identifying training priorities,

TEST 2., PAPER 1

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!P ART ,4

Ansvver questions 3:a~,48 by refeming to the newspaper arth:Je on pages '37-38, aloout people who have, s!et up thel f own businesses"

For q uestion s 32:-48, match the statements on th e l'eft below wi th the list of people A-DI. Ybu may choose any of the people mere than once,

WltJidll plersonl

a i msto iextp!~mcl i nto export m erkets ? 32

aid m its to 111 at being wh6lHy tmt;hfLJJi Cit one 33

sti3ge?

persua d eo 01 i ents to adeptcerta in 34

p roceclulres?

iicuepf.ed ttl at their ().fi1i 9 ina I pflan was 3; 5

i I l-founded '?

needed thesupport of experts in 1:1 relatEd 'field? 36, ,[ Mial fry made no chGlrgle 'for thes.eryice 3] p:mvidiiKf?

is somewh at alalrm~d at haw quiddy the' !:IS:

business has Ul,ken off{

flne-tuned the product ~nthe lliigiht of feedback? ,39 works with a b:ra~d@r Ira tli'ge of d i snts than W,r!l1 40 f rst tf1Jritidpal,edl

made im prcvernents to the product at an earrly 41

stage?

is rellieve-d that a servke they provide is not 42

misus@d?

provides a service which has soc,iat econ omie 4.3,

and envilronme,nta I ben efit.$ ?

researched a p[loduot that. w~s a~ready proving 44,' .. "

populsr?

tu me-tO a le i~s u re activity fI rrttl a business? 45,

responded to a request from a frustr eted '46

customer?

was m,otiv,ated to fa I<:e a risk by chang! ng 4,7'

pe rsona I drJcumsta nces?

was-advsed to.ljm~tthe~r horLzons? 48

A Pen ny Sutton 'B Toby ,!!!.:j~on

C Be;n :Rei lIy

,D' Nancy Brewerton

T~Sl,2, PAPIER 1

Before long, ~<hey had 24 .emn su bscnbers ,and thou:sands of people were posting revlewson the site. lhe team ed~tsWhe reviews for grammajr, content, etc., but happily very JelW people use it as a chance to sound off a.gra.i n st pertlc ullarlravel eompanlas.' el'lpl,ai!1S Penny, 'We might get int,Q legal diHic·LJltijes if ,anything Ilk,s that gp't on the site. For~lJna:teIYl most people who post reviews just want to pass on deiijils ot a. gmat meal, Eli hidden beach 0 r a wonderful club .. '

In IhEiirtirst year. the friends just eked alit a ,I ivi ngl,

'finding II dn'fficult to make enouqh money to -

develop their site, a problem they gol round by selll rig th e i r revl ews on to other, [ravel cornoarses. 'We/vfJ. become a service t!J the tr,avj;.;!li rid ustlry ~ a,lilowing tnel r customers to read revi,ews, look at

Going it Alone

Smelt bueinesees are the engine-room' ot the economy;

We spoke to four people' rwho found they had the entrepreneurial

spirit to set up their own buSiness. -

A

Fwstration led to in€) s~t!ing uD ot Pen ny Sutton's company, She· wanteci ,E!. ~Sl,s.t~m~n ute holida.y i n~h81 s un, so s he tapped into a 'lrav~1 webSae and ~ p carne am avalilable destination, The price was wight, but the resort wasn't one she'd come across before and the site gave no further lnforrnanon. After browsing~or a while" shja rea:lised that fn tact noboely was producing reviews of holiday deStinations ot any description on the web.

Seeing a gap inthe market, Penny decided ttoglo fOf it convl I'lcing th restrlends from u nlversulylO ~oinl her, 'I rang my Mnk; up anCi to~d Ihem 11

wanted a loan to buy a car - a bit of a fib actually.. because we used it to set up the website,,' said Penny: Her idea was to Jet IHl.v.ell's,rs tell their own la~oo. Subsc ribsrs were illiV[ted to write in with reviews and stories about ptaeas they'd visited. The goal was to build an Internet iravel centre wah Ihe world's biggest database of personal navel information.

maps and see which guidebooks to take.' savs Penny, 'al,thougn that wasn't tile miginal idea. at ail!.' The, Qnly' real problem fo:r the four parmers IS findingl the: lime to take Ule ,liolidaY$ that inspired setting up the site tn the first place.

Toby A~ton's daughter, Kyl'ie, asked him to buy her all American sw.eet snack made from dried 'fruit when he was traveilling' in Florida. Some classmates had b rouqht some back from a US holliday, ,and fhey'd become a "must have' item a,t sc hool, but no UK su pp I le r stocked them. So, Toby dutifu Illy popped into a US sups rrnarket and was amazed to see a hug-a display in half a dozen diff,€rentfiavours .. The holiday endeid there and wo.rr( be.gan.

He look pi ctures, bought sampte sand pUfllf) ed store managers 'for informahon. The minute he landed in Britain, he was on the phone to a friend, Dave Crouch. 'He was full of it, really excited: says Dave. "He'd idenlti'fi,ed a yawning gap ~n the British market f'or en innovative snack product that would gain the.approval of heakn-consoous parents, withQut saorftcl ng' its appeal to ch ild(8-n.'

'Oulr first though,! was, 'to ~mport the product flr,o,m

th e USA,' explains Toby;, 'but we soon real! lzed that the cost of import duties and problems of supply made' this, impractical. We would have to develop and make Our OWIl prod ucts.'

Although -~hey'd woriked in tile 'food industry. sales ano marketing was' their :speci,ality, not food technology, so they consulted contacts in the

i no u stry to dave lop the produ etathat are now thei r core busl ness, Before long .~hey were sej~ i ng nearly £250,000 worlh Of fruit snacks a. month to

TIES1 2, PAPER 1

chuck it, but if it'S unbroken, it gets repacka:Qled .. Moot of the headphones .8J1"·€ easy to Hl·m .. ' A friend tol'd h:i m O'f a. local d isabl ed groupllhal was laoki ri9 for. work, He ofrered'tru9'm the job of' repackag ing. 'I rs worked remarkab Iy well an d what b 9g1an as a one-of arrangement is now a company oommitmel1lt. When we· began. OIU r aim was to tum arou nd 3000 Items a week,' say~ 8en. To day his camp.any recondition s 350,000 a week- saving the aij.rline 40% of what '~hey once 8 pent on kits for passengers.

food re~aUers.'Our growth r.a.te to date has been scarily fast,' says Toby, 'but we be:li,eve that~here's a great deal more to come. Our ambition is to become the primary p~ayer in a new fruit snacks category across Europe, within the next four years.'

The key 10 thelr succese. says len, is probablly that they've, touched a central r:iE!IlJiS i n tha pu bile

psyc he. 'We alren't heal:thrres_'ks, but Wg worry about what our children eat - I tl,ink it's a concern a lot of people share.'

'In just three years, Ben. Reilly's business has

9 rown Irom one man in a Ford tran sjit van to, a compaJl1iy with a .£.4 milll ion turnover. It was tihe. combi nation of a new-born baby .and rh,e 'what

if ... ' factor ·that convinced Ben that he should leave his secure job with a major airline and go it alone, 'I couldn't beer the tnoyghlt of getting old and W'CrLder~f'lrg what eou I d've been,' says Ben. 'But as my tarn ily responsibilities grew. it waul d ·gel more dittrc.ult to leave a secure job. It was like now OJ never.'

He told his employers of his ambitions and they' suggested that he use his flair within Ihe sphsra of activity he knew best - m anagling aeroplanes. 'My fob was to hanc:llie the turnarounds: ruell'ing" cleaning and siocking of the planes. ~t had allrea.dy struc k me ~hBt there was an enormous amcuot of waste oecurrinq because of the meed for speed. Everything got thrown away - the he.adptlones; and all the unused bits and pieces from Ihe customer packs . .'

Mark suglgested that alii the unused goods could be repa.ekaged an d most ·oJ the headphones cleaned, straiglntened, given new ·roam earplsces and reused. He convinced the airlline to let him have a go, and made sure that cleaners were

d etailledto start :so.rting aeroplane rubbish intob.'01'0 bags - real rubt),lsh and .anything that was recyclable. 'If the seal is broken on anylh'il'1lg. we

D

Niancy Brewenolfl was weltl aware of the frustraUon of the teachers she saw avery da.y' as en ,i fi1fmma:tion ~echnol(jfliY adviser for a local education 8lJthorlty. A fo:rmer primary school tsacner, Nancy believed that use of the computer and the Inter net should and could be integrated' into the educational curriculum.

She' .S'~!r~ad tinkeri'n,gl al home wJth an ipea ror an Intemet resource' centre that 'would help children use the net for ·education both at home and at school .. lt scon became more than a hobby" and Nancy went 1 nto partnership with her friend. Sany A.yers, an expart in marketing and advertising, fo deve lop the idea.

With the hellp of seven private irrves.tQrs, they set up-a website. Version one was laune hed iTl

Jan uary; version 'two; w~th up graded .de~ i'gn and navi gal~Qn ,ral'lowed ~n 0 ctober, At first,. they allOwed schools to use the site in return for user reports from teachers, whi'oh gained~hem both credibility and ldeas tor refinements. But the ummate key to its success, sa.ys Nanoy, is that ir's inrt,eractive and user friendly: 'I! aillows eh i I dren to use ~he computer in a purposeful way, geared to learning at SChool.' The site does not take a.dverl.ising and reli,es on subscriptions. which Sany and N a nc:y startechsemng 1.'INo months ag 0:

al ready 7000 schoo Is hav€ slgn ad up _ .

~ ~

TIEST 2, PAPER 1

PAPER 2

fi'p Strip

• nT~Il1:l.JLl!sFiOIi1' feqWhires you to do MQ tasl;:s.

.' Ue llfilU:er O'~ "'lUll ~I[arn:l shp<lIld 'be i1il 're:rma'l styli!!.

• Til'e switch OnlClc;aUQ'!iI. tile failure to offer Ii r,efll.l'ld. the 'singleroom supplement,

Ute length eHhietoUT. I:Irre late lu;gg,<lg)E!,.

• nese IPoin[s, .sn~1li h:I he ~u~~d together' rn a rOlical way. YO'1ld iffl:Q oot iile.e:fII to illCllJd~ a'dld:re:sSlI!S.

• TIti~ n IiBtie weill,vil'! um Iile miOre infllrmaL in st,yle.

Writing (2 hours)

PAR T 1

1 You hall,@, j ust returned from a holidalY to Austral~a. orga nlsed by a tou r Ciampa ny.

Unfortunately thE! h:'lcaltton of the holida'y was: changed at :the lasJt m~F'lt:l'~e, and on the new t.m .. H' you encountered S!e'lJ'eral problems.

Read the extract from the tour company~, policy document, the advertisement for the original toUl~. and the not'e from ,a friend who js1rying to help YPU Ji"J )I,our de'eillings witih the tour company. Then, usingr the inforrnation ·provided. write the letter and note.

3.1 C;ance!lledlollllm

We reserve the rigJdro cancel tours th:a'~ do n.O'~ a.'lfract a sufficient ],ev,el of bookings. In this eve:r:thtrllity~ ,every attempt will be made to accnrumodate clients Ol1L aJt.emati'V€ ~ou:rs as similar to the cancelled tour as possible,

Al~e'rt:'la,tive]y, a fUJI refund will be offered, Well r wd\5l'1"t ofkred -,one!

Full refunds can not be given arter a cJj~nt has returned from a. 'lour.

----- fCi" enou£l.h

]:2 CUS;IOHilGlr D1issalisf'actio:n . '~-;;;

Customers should specUy the nature of their problems in wdtin"g.

Compensation. oompliis.ing: a partial refund; will be paid in ~he :e'vent of r:eaS!onable COG1plaJnt.

JESSOrN TRAVRl

TheawaI'd.~ t2,..d..ay tour of th'e Scd(lltlil.on lshm(J)s m in€! southweat Pacific.

• divl:ng to Sal shiprwtel'ks

.1 belii:mptru; h:xJlI tow;a,qte.rfaU Wo~[);1 .koJdrly - ,~,f

• v:i!lj:t~n activ,e 'rolcano" ----1+---. didrH get ilny of il,ese

• canoe.Lng +hires! .

• 2.2.000 ilIcIlJ!du'JJg flight

£50 stngl~roolll -supp,lelli811t ._, .. ---Iii r:~od fhi5~ ,bul' M.' . d to ~re .. '

lbe'lI1sitoh'l lifeUme. Donlmissit!' a room tIvrou~ holiday!

JESS04'l' TRAVEL Saw' ~oods of i~ places -

wW'W'Jes~on@ad:voo.ttW'e but I 5aY!,t' them ':I'Jllast yMr'l

If w~s Or1~y ten days! C:rdied l Went to mail11i1nd .l\A5ir~lia in5~ .. d ~ been there befOre!

50njlto n~a.r tlbourt all tb~ pr-oblellia with Je!115Dt1 T r.!'i\lt:1. A,nai you r luggage arril,lj 110 b:!'l'ck horne 'al week [;;;'lUi - th;art~$ the: I~$t ~11",!lW'] Ifth~i~' mili1i~U5 delilol,t'l'.rfngJ th~ lu~gag~ to th~ airport il1 AU$tra H.a aot a;ttlck il1l a jam. t-he;:{ mlij·5t a,cG6lp-t rre6pol16i "I I Ity, Iij.L1~ly?

I tilink you ehoulai85K them for yo,ur motley baGk or a fre~ holitJ&llY1

Gavin

N'owwll'ite:

a) a I,etter of (omplah'lrt to Jessen Travel (about 200 words) • .req uestl ng a partial refund, SWiting dealrly wha,t thin,g,s you intend to claim for.

b) a note in reply to Gavin, thanking him 'for his support, exp,leilinling- that you' cannot do everythingr he sugges,ts.

You do not need to indude addresses You should use your awn words as taras possible.

Tip Sttip

·QI!I€l.Srre(llD 2!

• 'YOUI do ,nat nJ€!eilto refer to the l:ompefiltiQ,n.

• T,he account is ba.s[i,C<lillly 03 rrative. ~O CiD,nU~ ~,~uSc prose is llet(Jied. iail1ld1 iii semi·forma,1 !ill/Ie"

Qltestlon ::&

'. ~~li.I'lew.$ us.uallv ['e,t;I,Wl ire a ch~. j'llIlJ1rndslill: sl:y.le, wHh plfnty of persdhal (otten strol1g) opinilOD'is. Thi;s is all the more "tme wtUl'n the ffiader'SltIi.p is !Stl!Jlmi,ii!ili1t'S.

., 111'1 re:lIlli'fe., films am unlikelv to b~ Wll.01ly pos;i~iv(! or wholly ilegatil.lle fm ll1~ \l'iew~lthls cOllld f~U~ct brienli: ill both

'1

mVI~ews.

question lj

• lhilnlk Clf lea lets ou ~'a'lle se!=1iI and ~ow tllev a~e laud ,o~t. Often they m,,.ke Ilo$e of 1l.eadln,gsand bullet PQlints.

• !Leaflets illlre> fo r

dl'D'rorm atro'n'all ptl Micity pU!rp,o,Sles, 00' it r s Ili11po,rtanrt to be 'fattuil~ a,nil tle\ar.

• n:g various ·~,tace 6, you ha.w chosen ~.

l'ecr,p.l11 m i;!liId couldo fo,rm the orgu'is,il\g ~eatl:lre of the' he,adililgs.

QiJi.IesttOJ'i !i

• n.e pur'WI O;S~ Q~ d l,eUllir of referell 00 is h~ he!p SiGliJ:leone 9btain 'employmre'ilt. So' it i:S; importa nt 10 'Il!mjilti:arsise Nina's iFI,QQd Il'G ir.rts im a faduil!i~trutlhfuL Wi-Yo

iI Inl reallUie It is !J1i1;lik~lV ~ilal someone willI be' .whoUy p'eri'ied [lO,r ill iob.. V,l:J.Wl ma,y WiSIi!''!)g !'ere r Mefty tp something 'wlm'ici1 is not her S~j,"o'lIlge5;t Iloint" i Pi) it tactfl!ll way.

-

PAR T 2

Choose one of th e foHowi n:g wrirting tasks, Your answer sho u I d fo.llowexacdy the instructions ,given. Writ!! a,ppmxima~e!y 2500 words.

Z Ybu dedd ~ to enter an ann !Ja,1 competirti qn for local writers ru n by a f1I E n.gllish ia n gluage 'd'ub in your area. lhis yea r~the me 'is:

My most unusual day at scnooVcoUeglefwork.

Wr:ite an account of an unusual day, ~ing how this- day differed from your normal routine, and how ;t'Ol! discovered something new about yourself and yourr own ca pebi I itie,s.

Write your ac,coUlnt.

3: Aln inti! rnatlona II student mag.a,zrl n e n~g lJ Ilariy featu res, a page Galled • Co rnrasts'.

W'rite21 review for this pd'g,e of the mEigazine, Contrasttng two films of thes.artle genre which y,ou. halve seen; one of which vou enjoyed and one of which you found disappointinq,

Write your rev",iew.

4 The tourist ,pffiice in your town is receivlngl a grow,ingl number of visits from grOl.!piS of young schoolchildren (12-14 yearfS old). As a result, they are rewriting some of thell r leafl ets, an d have asked for you r help in this task.

While a leaf!et addressed to teachers and group leaders, expl'airllinrg, whatf,aci~jties ar,e availablie for young chilldren on group visits. Describe some places which are espedallli)' we.lco.ming to the yourlIlger visitor.

Wrrite you r leafmet

5 A forme r colleaque of yo u rs, Nii mal 8arrrow. has been sel ectsd for ,1:1 job int.e Mew with an 'organisatiion called 'Chil:dlHelp', an irnternational charity which supports un.de,rp:rivileged children in sevler.al E:ng.iisn-speClklingl countries. She hes named you as he r referee. Here is part of the letter you recelvedfro m 'C hi IdHelp':

Wlrite a I'etter ,o,f refelrence for Nina to 'Chill dHelp, .

TESli .2, PAP'~R l

P',APER 3.

Far questions 11-:115, re~d' the arttlde be~ow and tlhen decude which word best fits each space. Put the 1!@U~r you dhoose for each q!,Jes:[ion in the coned: box 0111 yotlr answer sihe€.'t The '@xerdS'e! b~1l1 ns with ,pin eX,a:fhiple (0).

Exampll€!: I-I_O---,I!....,,_.t4_, ·' ----111_, __ ,:0_1 ------"'1

Getti.1llg to the root of Bonsai crime

Bon_5~i bees have ~lw~y5 beena (0) ",. pI' great fascination topeople, They are perfect miniatures, grown m P ots small enough '~O sit on a windowsill You have Ito keep lle.nlfu:rLd!ll,g yourself tha~ 'these trees are (Jl) .... rea] and identicaltc then" ,~aJ'ger ,oo!lsms ill. all (2) .... excepttheir slZie. ,Rathel' ]ike other small and perfe.c:tly~foI',m,ed Jl[Hfa(lts~ boosro trees (3).... qui rea, high price in the marketplla,Qe and so H doesn't come as a great surprise to find that tl'!!ey also (4) .. ' .. 'tlite atte:ntioli"il of'tmevesr. It seems that quite a fh:lIl,l['isl~g business has (5) .... ~ m wruch they wErs~oleI'1l.ffoim the homes of g~owers and colleetoes.then repQ:tted andtrimmed by unscrupulous dealees.tc be 50~d on, at good prices, to (6) .•.. buyers.

OI.J~ of BritaiI)'s. mp coUectors .of bonsiili trees, Paw Widdmgt.on, believes tha:t he hasfound a ,sO]!..l..-rnoil,1., however. A1tf',r 1o.sing Ius life's work, (7) .... at £2S(tOOO, wheJil!,b~J!'glars broke into ills home one rtightF,P'aUil decided to

(8) ... " the possibilities of eleetrordcally taggmg the trees he bo1tl!gh~ 11:8 a. rep]aoeroJ~t This t9~ ...• :injecting a micmcmp the ~iZl~ oi a (];O~ .... of .lice m,to the tt~k of eachtree. Bam .cltip is laser-etched with info.l"ITlatioI1t wl1.i:d:lI is (ll} .. -- in R oe:n.tta[ register held by the police .. Paw is qrntaawa.re ~hSlt this. kind of ·da~a..;tagg,ing; do-esn't "ll} .... thieves fr011l1 SOOlllling nile tooetsiu the firs~ (11;3) .". , although it may-increaS€: 'the (14) .... pi getting lhem back, So he'salso (lsi' ..... a. seCJt:trity alarm: &Y.sJem. complete With mfra~red detectm'St inhis home.

0 @ source B root C base D spring
11 A deeply IB, eV'el'!tUl(lIUy C ac,tuaily D glreatly
2: .A concerns B; respects C Ifeg,ards D matters
3; A ob'talin B exp.eCt C command D char-ge
,4 A awad B, inqulire C appeal 0 invite
5 A erupted EI, evolved C adapted D arrived
6 A LJ navoidab le EI; u nderna nding c uneonsdo us D u nsuspec.ting
7 A prized 8 treasured C valued D (Osred
B A look into 8, :set shout C try out D .go aifter
9 A requires 8, indcdes c invollYes D reflects
10 A. crumb B :speck C bean D 9rain
111 A stored B detained C rocked I[) p~ledl
12 A. preserve B, prevent e prohibit D prated
13: A. turn B time C point D place
14 A. ceums B chances c choices [) darns
1.5 A i nvesti tilg B inselltingl C ili'1lsta,mn9 Ii) 'Inpuuing
11 IE s t 2: • P A- I" E F!: s ED --

PAR' 2

For questions: 16-30, complete the "f,olilowing arl:ide ~ wlritingl earan missing word ~n the correct box on your a nswer sheet Use 'em Iy ene wend fer e'ach spaoe. The exercise be'g'fns with an exampl'e (II)I)_

Examp:le,: Ib_o_· ....I1_t'fl!_, -1.1_1 _1_.0_' ----I

ILOST lUGGAGiE

Approximatelly olle airline passenger min e-v,ery thousand arrives (0) ' ..•••. , .... therr dsstinatlen to Hind th at (:16) •... , .••.. ,., r[U aU o,f themlr b.agg'age has no~

arrived wIttIh them. for many passengers th~s means, (17) ", wait lo;f

hours ror days. witiil all the as:Sij'cia~ed ~nconvEH1Iieni:'e. (28,) , the

missing Item is being lecated and ~~"rwarded. mhers~ (lr9)1 ••. ,., , .•• ~Qrrh.ll'ilate

stUll. have t!o resiiglll (20) •. ,., .•.. , ... to the fact that the,ir bags are arCtuall,y lost and. as the ,days turn (21) .. , '....... we e ks, face til efact In at ~Jhrev are llInln'kely ever to see them (22)r .'" ..••••...

To prevent loss, (~3) ,. , .•••• t,.. at least a 5:si st IrElcon ry,. passe nge rs ,~m!! IU rg,ed to make' sure that ~dre:ntmca~ioll'l tags are secure and up-to-date, an itinerary w~th addresses IS enclosed and that bags are distinguishable (24) •..•......... oth III rs (I,f ~he sa m e ma~e,. Aidhil'es' racnmmend (25) , .. "...... . . .• use of eo leured tape Dr la rge .ela stlcate ell stra ps made S pre cmeallil yfor this p u rpose,

Lost ror_dellayed lLiggage.actl.!laU~ costs the worldrs alrllnes o\i"ler £6 bllllen per ye.a r. They get some of thi 5 (~6r) ..•••....... • howeve i, Ilry S,1i! Hi ng off those lost items whirch are n@ver dalmed by (:;11) .•..••••.••. rigi1tf!JllOwners. (28) .... , ..••••• months of lntenslve tracking, alrlines send hope~essly test Itugg,age to

com pia 11 les which sort the contents and then put them on sail.€! at bargain prlces, At (2'9]' ..... , ..••• such c'ompany ~n Alabam,a~ the leftovers ,onlymngare laid out ln a va st sto re, (30') .. ' .•. '.'.... .• has ltss If iii ow become a nattractl on fer tourists from all. (lVer the world. Who knows, they mlay E!\i"lE!'1"l come across s'om e of their own ,stuff.

fEST 2. PArER:3

li~p S'trip

'>Il' ij ~del1~rll;!~he w~n1 y>eU ~~unk 'ilrnay b~ WllIllne,.c!1l'S<£~r:yi t~el'l ~aid the wJijtlle:.s~Iil;faillte

~1m'E! Jlin,el to

iif it [iiTlil~~S senSitl wilholljlt it.

" ArIl!lnneCie:!iS~1'J wer'llI Wil:l.nl®t ,a1~,eOl~· tW'~c~ ini ttle~lm e Ullile,

• M(I~t e~tl'i w~'fd~ are grll!fliJllila,~i.(:~ ~ ilflnijliluOO. IbQtik .0 IlIt~or frJiua Ilron,oUln~, re:tati\l,e$~, I'!rE!'~~si~i.~n$), :c®nl1Je~tors. etc;

• Wiifen 'iIt~Hi'Ve fil'lii!ih~d, Tetlltu1lmlJgh ~h e w~m le, t!e~t a~ilh1i tQ dieck.

Cl.llil:l!stief:l3.',J:: lihere is ;lilT ~;(lra pmIH»sj,tion in. this Hlile"

6Jj[I\'lstiiQfl19~ Are b(JIth

>iii rlic les. n~c@ssii:rfillil this iHlIle?'

IItl!lesl~:O:11I ]5~ 'tli1!IWrc~' 'and 'which' Gll'lnllit botlh be r~ghrt in thlsse'liIt€!;n~~. Whkh s houMI YDlli omit:f C;J!Il!s~illlin 45: Is lf1e Ipl1r~as'al vllltb oarred !tel'e'?

------------------

PAR T 3

- - - - -- --

In most liinfts of the follpwingltext~there is one unnecessary word. It is €ither g(amm,gltiCj3rlly incerrectcr does.nJJt fit in with the :5ens.~ of the t.e-xt FOlr eaeh numbered Ii ne3~1~4€1. f nd the un necessarywosd and then \lYll'it~ it in the box on your alnS\!'ller sheet. Some liinesalli"e 'C;Q:rll"E:lct. ~rndi:cGite these with.. atkk (V",) in the' box The exercise tU=9 lns wiil:h1Wifo eXGlmp.l.es {O) and ~OO),

1::-1

01 00 3:11 32 33 3:4- 35 316 31

bal1ely be ableto breathe. The tu mirng pel n~ for me cam ~ Wh€11I1 a v'~ry persuasive friend ~allk€d me hilr~q '~Ih ~ ,ac:c.ompany~ngl ber on a 'four~killometr'ewii'l round the local pank I maml!ged Just fJiv€ m~nut~s b~ro~e wlh! lch my i,egs decla ed theJ/d had enoug h. !I t~il'llk it was that ~mrGlg~ OlW rm,y 'frieru:l ;aJs f~pudliy cli)appeli'l,~ngl !n~o the distance that it S~II.I,[k ~n my mi n! cI,ano :1 ed me to

39 my healltil,state of mind and fitness. My love of jo99in9' ;is now

~I a bout three years of otd and ls prone to thElI'II atural peaks and

411 tro:lijgl'ns that :affect 'by most lEmthtasiaslms. Recenrtly,. Fve be~1I1

42: g1oing.jogg:~n·9 ilUis't'once a we.ek. B'llit tve. reached the p()~nt whel1eJ

43 however many IOlng I ~eave between runs, II Can sti n go out for

44 .. '", , ,.... twe.n~y m'ltnutes" and '~<el ,fiIrny betier fu'lf it, I 9 ue~s:~ there is

415 a :risk of glfaJdi!,iEilrUy 19S~ ng out my 1ii.tne$~, but h~v~ngl overcome

"6 ,1, ", •• ,. the problem before.1 I know it willi never be SiO difi'icun agailt''1.

PAR T 4

For questions 4,7-61, read the two texts below, Use' the words in the boxes to the rigiht of the t~xt to form one word that flts in the sa me iii u rnbered !i,pac€! in the' text Write the new word in the correct box: on your answer sheet The exerdse begins wlth an e,xampile (O~.

E.xC!llI1'IIplle:: I Q I~;

,OPIEIRA IREVIIEW

For a work that i often regarded ,1lIS OU~ of the ,key operHS [If ~he (0), •.•.• ,. • .• [centnry, dlli,e:r~ ,3 roe sl1lI:'prj;singt-y few (47) . , ..... , ...... IJedunn!ali,H::eN~ ,orr '\'VozZicc.k. "fhis new vel'si on iii just a1i:J(!lut the hest around ,;u.lbe momeut .. Aithou,gh there ar > lUoment$whld1 are fal'

ft'om per.f0ct- the (48) , ef the

,c113l'a 'tel' of Wozze -I is only (49) , .

suecessful=-at ethers the charalcLeriJs atlon and singing aregi,.O) ,............. ~ {lS, ,eciaJlly the ,ahl1l(ll!:l t (5< I) •... ,."....p t:;r~'ol·mnllil.O,e of An geLs Deno ke as Ma.ri,e. Denoke has jll] st the right mix of passirm and. (52) •. ',. n, • •• • lI.el' m'uel treanaem ,at the lum,ds of fate produces. a

final scene which is genuil1ccliy (53) .

INTRQ,o,ucnON 10 A!N ARTICLE

Sce~nts of'lndependeilce

S.mellll, one of the most 'e'Voca'tiv.e and probe b.ly the most undel1i'a.'ted of human senses, i[s t-oday reduced to Ilittle more than an eX!!.'!rcise in clever (54) .. , .... , ... Alongside leather goods, spothwear and fumishfng, fabrics, fragrance is just another weapon ilnlhe 1lf5Elnall of the

lUXUry gOOd5: iindustry. MilHom are ~pent on, (55) " "

projects to. find out wh!l:t fragr,a nee th ~ broadest band of co,r'lsumers want Mlas.s (56) .... " ..... " then illl!IO'I.'I!.s the

dfll~very ofUhe ne'w bmnd! to. eve)"!, (5'7) airport

shop and department store 3C!f'0ISS the globe.

But however 0(58) ." ....... promoted, 5u!:'n nFd'gr.mO'!5 are no mal"C1iJ 'for ~he real 'thing. H 1IIPpi~y, there are still I. some

tlragral1(ll'5 (519) edeetlc to be wnFn by peopl!e who

value (60~ These <lure the cult fr.agr.ances, made in

the' old··fashioif1ed way, which rely on (61) ... " ......

indivi'd uals, rather than advertusingl images, to spread the wordl.

T,UT 2. PAPER: 3

(Q[) TWENTY

(47) STAND

(48) IIN'TIE R PRET 0(49) OCCASION (50) I M PRIESS (51) FAULT

(52) HNDER (53} lOUCH

(54) MARKET (55) SEARCH (56) PRODUCE (5,1) FASHION (5'8) CLEVER (5:9) SUFFICIE ~6{~) ~ N DIVII [) UAL (61) DrSCERN

For qUe'SJi0m15 62'-74, Iread the ~nffoJl'mal not:e.ll< about crime prevention and usethe inforrnaticrr from th€ n otes to (0 m pl!eteU'1 e FI umbered gaps. in t~<e more forma ~ leaflet, Then wrirte ·the new wordls in the corraet 1pi31~s. on yo'LJ r- an~ver sheet line Woros you rifled do not occur Ii IfI the info rma [ rfJote. Use nQ m6J:E!llffilll'folnl tw'o w.o<rds;f,o<reac:h glap. Thee~€rcis~ beg~ns. with an e:X:1:Imph~l 0)1)-

~!\.I()l:E:S fO R. lEAfl.ET'

Th an ks for aglreei rng to write LIp our new ~eaiHet. Hereafe the mltesfcu yell.!:

*' Don't kltep yo ur Will net i nthe !:lad. pocket oF~ur -bous:ers, where til ie'Q'es call $e€ it iK&ep 1'1: i fila j~Lket pecket - b ene r if lt'sa PQt:Ke<t YO'll ca n do up.

* ~f your credit card! is storerlr~en the card company .tiI'S 50(J.1'iI as p©ssib:le, (,ars weill as

GOJiltaclilng the pol ioe)1 so that th ey (an gi\!le JlQI,I: OJ new orne.

*. Don't w<lsm..<liny time ~Ili Iletting them krnQW it's bee-iii s1i01en.

*' T~.e th ~ef G)DU ldi buy tt:i~ I:1!gs, ovelr tille phQ~fMlHIt) the Ifnoo·rrnet usi neg YOW! r card rllIImbElf. '* Neller Qilrry youlr Pl1ili'SDllial ~de:r1tifica~orJ Number ~th YQlI)Ji, Try to remember the nUliTlber,

and dOI1'<t te II ,alty-one - this ill~1 Ulde.s~ri~nd:s<.

* cut!.lP youlr O:ld cards wh:6\J1they run out.

* Never keep yOU! r cheq ue boo~ and (Md together - .!.Ii th~ef Ilieltlds bonh to write- a val id cheq;ue.

CRIIM E PREV'ENfllI0Nl I!.IEAFII.ET

YOUR WAUUET

A walh::!t Kepil: ina, bHd~ pocket is ~OL- ... .,--" to thieves, ma~jf'llgly.oLJ an leasy target. WalletssJilould bel k:cept in a Jacket po~ket, (e:.2) __ ,., , .... Q nethat ca n be (63) ...... , .,. in some way.

·YOUR. PLASTI:C CARD

I nt.he(G4~ ", ... ,,". ath e'ft.~i65·~ .... "'..... the calfd company im med i ateiy; {S,S.} .....••• ,. to contactin.g the police"

You w'jJJ be «67 ~ with a f-eplaceme:.rrt ca ret l.r y<ou delay (68~~ .. ,""" ,' th e

Loss, it could resulfin a (58) ""< •• ,,., being made in yom Flame'.

Your Pe rsenal Idelliti1~cation Number snou I d be (70) .. ," fl rid s nould never be

(711) .......•..... anyone, (72~ ". fr~efi'ids. Old cards sM uld be CUlt u P when the

(13) .. " ... ,"_ ". hss passed,

YOUR. CHEQUe BOOK

Your cheque bO.Q·k sheu ~dalways be kep;t (74) ".......... your card. WitM ut the card, a cheque is I.Inl,ike~y to be accepted.

- -

p A_ ~ 11 G !

for .questions 75~80. read the following text and then choose from the, ijst A=l1 ,gllv,@n below the best ph r aseto fill each enf the SP,3GE!s" ~II1l([licMe you r ,alnswer on the Siepal[atE! anSi1NE'fSlhee,t" Each correct 'IPh rase: may orlily be used once. :!i,o,m e of the ~u,gig'!l!'s1Jed a'I'iISW'E!IrS do not fit at arnt

WASTE NOT

•••

~n B rital'li1J 28 m llllcn tonnes of househo Id rubb ish is generatede,i3ich yea~, and the' cO!.!lli'1l~ry is n.]nm1l~rnlg out Qf hO~,e;s mn to,e! gr-o IlJnd~@I put it: ,Oin in, Jlhe g(wernl:1lilienl says that fromno,w on. dump~li1g Wi:ls;te sh,Quld lI:H!! a i.as~ resort that :is1!feserved

7.

~Of thmlillgs bs) .... ,. And~:h,ere are other possmble solutlons, Passing on the

dl lng's. we no, lonlger 11U'l8£i. tos1om,ebody ~h 0 does, is e nvi ro n me'RtaUy ~ette r !than rec.ycli ng", (76) .•••.

Cllothe's! n~eW'sp'apers ,and so en are mlaHv@ly weH·!<lI1owll1 c:and~dates for

re1c.Y'c ll ng and ~e~!lnse~ but o lid l;! lectrmcal go,o dis pires-eDt mlbre oia P lioblem, Whii~e la rgiEi!'r i~temls~ such as fnidges an d free.Z!e'rs" tend,to, ha\lle! a \t'a~ue a Sr 'sera pc

metal, many smaU.et ~hJng:s do not {11) , .. Po 'CQ,mpany with computer.sit no,

Ilongler needs finds it much ef.ls~er than a h!o'u.se~hCl~der 'h), pass them on ~o another iUsle~, 1J;8) ...... Almosta~.i dealers who buy old c~mputersa~e keen bl'

cOIUe'ct alild de,a:! witlilla rg;e qua ntlties, '(19~ , Anot1t)iE~'r big: prolb I,em ;is the

.glfow~ng mOlUntain 0" unwanted mobUe' phenes estimated ,21![ UlIP to:25 million ~n IBllfita~tlI aLolfil:er• But blllnrlil~li1,g any mobile is 3. ba!~ ldea because the baUernie's count as 'haZi3illdouswaste" (80) , ... , , Some c;ornpali1~es ope'rate what's called a ·laik.e B.a,ck" scheme to, helpwith this preblsm,

A and then redistri buts 1I:~em ti::J1those in FileecL B but they' r~ n at the ofl~Y ones,

I( but don't w.alnt IG bath er with !Silng h~ i,tems" [D and alre simply buried.

E bscauss it uses Iless eriergy:. [F or 9'9t'them 1fi8cyc:l'ed,

G ·and wi Illmlll,ed it from private h ornes, 1M and sh,auld b--,e h~nd:I~"d with ~a re.

I Which 'ctln neiither be r~cyded nor b l.ilfn ed,

P,APIEIR ,4

Lis'teniing (approx, 45 minutes)

P A It r 1

You wi n h ea r th E! head m aster of a prj mary school tal king about the pro d u ctlon of 'elec:.tric:i.ty by \iVU nd pO\Ner at tliile' school. F.(lW q uesttons 1,-~B, compllete the sentences.

Yo LJ wi n h ea r the recording twice.

of th e turbi n e.

The wind turbine at the school measures II.... --"I_,___JI in he'igh:t.

The school's pupills fee II [ 2 1 that their school is wlind-powered.

The el eciricity rom pa ny wa nte d to experlrn ent wilt hi wind p QW't!r (It

c__ ----L_3-1llev€'.

The turbine allows the schookhildren to learn about bothsdence and

The turbine is de~igned to take advantage of winds com~l1g from the

Money which the' school makes out of the scheme is, used to pay for

'--- .......... _6-'1 at the school.

10 find out what people thought of the turbine, ,ar 11.....- -'-_1___J

was produced.

Some people liiving nearby have complainedabout the 1 L- ~ _ _.I_s___J1

ilEST 2, PAPER 4

5

PAR 1 2

You wi'!! hear part of a r ad i 0 P roqr am m e on the subje ct of the relations Fa i p between the shape ofa person's hand,s and their personaility. For questions 9"'1!6. complet@ the notes.

listell1 VEllry' eel r:efu lIy a.s you win hea r tlhe l!'eiCOnUng ON CE onlly~

Hands and Persona I ity

Square Hands~

• Characteristks: square palm

• Personality: naturally 1..1 ~ ~--,-_'91----,

eas~,ly

11011

11, II H,jiJ IiIIdls::

L- ~~

.. C heracterl sties: 10 ng t h iin pa lm a rid frn !Q'@rs

.' Persona,lity: generallyintuitiVie'I L ---'-1_,_2.----'· I is good

SpatuEabl Haads:

'. Characteristics: broad palm ami ... 1 ----'-1_,_3----'·1 fingers

• Personality: faithful types tend! to be 1-1 -l..1_1_4_., I

• Chsracteristks: p,alm and fing,ers thin,ner at the top

• Persona h ty: [ 15 1 type of people

usually ~ackrl19 in

~ ---

TEST 2, PA'PERII

l1ip Strip

., l!erJiml you listen, r,ea·d {!:Ie rubric.

.. lBe~o,m!! YOdJ IJlsnm., n;!il!,ij ([I'll! senlt@nces. Think

a DOUlUhe, type £If disJllUssion, YOLi IlJre il!illflg to he·at and til!! t'li'Pe. of ill1lbrmartiG II whili:h is, milssing.

• Wri1ie :1.-3 \I'II,cHdis Of a

n I!Jlmbe'r1n each SIPa:~, DOllllt f'lepeiit til i!! wo ~,ilI s ilnd ideas -allreatIv iJ'S'f,!i:I in tne senten,ee.

I MOiSt ans,wers writ be' ~bout p~opl~) oo,~li(fjgs. Opi'lIIlGlls and id,e-as. [ton'!:: 'try to p'J2I.raphreOi'se the in'fofma,ttoill. Use line words Yill (! h elllJr.

IQuesti01'1118: U$ten for 'the adje{tn'ffl which lynda uses to descri I) e her 1Irt stnllol. This, is the word VIlL.6 rtead t.o ..'li'Ifi"ite. QU8sllolil, i,51:! n.yn da uses 'il phras'e to desc:~ibe h~r sketl:n@s. Write down th~ mill phrase. Make S l!J1'\e

yOJJ r iln,swer follows en graltnma,tJi~an.y ,after the arill1.de i:1l tlra questinln stem ..

q_uesUCI!n ::12: I,ynlt!la I::l'Iew I'1lel' neigihtlqur was an artist. so what 'lillidnl[ SA a kllow?

QllIestJio;n 25,: lynda, mei1rtiOiil'$ ce~,ami:c.. papel' and i!::eU'I'I,lill5 surfat11!5. but wi'1i'c:h liI'oe!'S she fin,~ besf?'

--

PART 3

You will h ear a n interview with a young a rtlst Who is tall kiin gr a bout her Ilife a nd work. For qUi2~tiOIi$ 17-25 .• comrple,te the sentences,

Yo u wi III h ea r th e record ing twice"

lynda identifies,! L ~___L_1_7_· I as the two most

j rnporta lilt themes in her work"

Lynda says that the art school she arUended had a

'--- ------'1_,_8___.. 1 approach to drawing ..

Lynda describes her inirtlial rrilverside sketches as at

119

Lynda liked both the size and th~ 1"-- -I.1_2_0----'! 1

of her preVkHJS ~~udiICl.

Lynda describes the j ou rney from home to her prsvl ous studio as

- .

21

Lynda was surprised to discover that one of her neighbours was a

I 221

At frst, lynda worried that she mi9ht !get

__________ .L1_2;_3_J] work!ing so close to home ..

lynda explains thalt her work has become,

.__ ___._!_2_A-l1 in colour since she changed her studio,

Lynda rama in s convli need that ! II 25 I

is, the best s urfa ce for he r to work 0 n.

TEST L PAPER 4

Tip Strip

• Be'm!'eYQu liste~, re.a~ tine !1l.Iib'riQ. Is Ul~S a mu~tiple~l:hoiQe-0Qf' rIlII!lUipThe-i'ltatr:bil'fg I';'l~k? 'W~{J wiU '!{OI.I Ilea? Whi'l.t willi Uflil~\I"b!! tA1lk~f1g iill~!0i1.1t?

• 9:aijme VO,IJ ~i5relil, re<i)~ the que-S1tlons. Remeim,b~!'-tihek gCf~ I\!olQ qucS1iolils per spe1[1i<:er.

• l~e'que5tions. f'Ottow tll~ Qrder af ttl e spe;alllers.

• UirtderUflliIl tn Ii! Ij::,e;y~rd in eiiJCI1 ~'Uesno I'l s'iTe'fll.

'"' n il5 task !lests gist me-am iii!'. sO'the: words il) tl\! e qUElsliolil.s w](l not be tJhe Sii:~'Fe as ~1ile w.nds~1iI1 the ex~ral~ffi:" [~isten f'Of HI Ii:! ave raU meS!s,age.

'"' listen Loffii n<!!J the 1l1ll:sWer te< the' que'l>tioll, the'!'1 'rnedde wllrch olf the 0 p't~Qt'hS A. IS !If 'e is closest t~ what \fOU'VEl he!illrtl.

Q!les~iQ!1i~ ~6' :alf!d ~1; lfr~!'ie Iq,lIl(!!str~O'III:S re'r~r ~Ol the first speake[, iFih'" 1i!r:5,t thrng :s'he'tflb us !il1n@u'l: i~ tlhe lQpiil.:. ef thl!: I:l!rtide she h.ilIS ~e'l1ld. This i~ fhie klf!'I( 'to, 0;26,. $l!ie S"Ol,Y$ tha[ the a~~ktt 'reaUy got,lIlile tlhrn~il'lg' ~ 'W'~iane,ptiolll in OJ"; ~etl.>illcls Hlfs idea? ctu!!!s~iolil 29: The- :5iElt:olila spe<ake.r :(i aY!l~ ·1.agre,11! \1itili tbislOOW. !,)fst~1lI ~o f1lnd Wh~lhe tl~g[ees witfui"

Quil!s~ian 3:!I~ it'le hIs! speiilkiEllC· 's.avs 'YDU, can't Ire ~r;e,gltiye a'~ W~~' • Which oplion [1if:!/l):llc.15 ~hij,s idea?

P A It T 4

You wii III h ea r f~'Ve short extrElic.ts- in wh ich diff~r,~m peop~e a re t~11 king abo lit th~ngs ~hey ~·HJVI~ read or heard lfel1at@d to the modem w,or~rlla'ce- For quesnons 26-35:, tho.o:.E!' Vhe best .a n:sw@r A, B, C Dr I!).

You wtilll h es r the rscord ing tJNioe.

.26 T~\@ f rsi speake'r has r~algl an all1iclie whkh was esa m~ni I1g A the quail ilty of modem I i-re ..

.B the purpose of leisu r!3 pur~u iffs.

>( the need for techno loglical ella tilg e,

.27 She {'elsls that the aHflcl e was A exaggerarted.

B uno rJ'9 inal.

c thoU911t~provoking"

28 n e ra clio pro gramme' whi.ch th e second speaker heard W13IS about A de'vejlop~ng free-ti mteald~\litije.s,.

B en ang~ Fli'g attitudes. to I,eisur,e.

c dealling With 5'0'01(111 ,probl'ems"

.29 H~e ag rses that wt:: need 1:0

A siet ou rselves re:alis1tic t:alrgets i FIt Hf@.

B plrlSparr€! QUlrs;elves for perilods of unemp~oyment.

C a II ow Qur~elv€sthe luxu ry of ~ime off from, routli ne,

30 Thethird speakiel" has read a »n~~iPortabO!-Jt A maintaining standards in the workplace.

S def n ing what repre5€!,illts a reasonable workload" 'C: measuriing I:€\'lels of job satisfactlcn.

31 She rnentions wash~ n1g rnachl nesto show how mec:halnis-ati6l'! has A cnranged our expectatlons-_

B fI n.'1f'e~S"ed 'our :prod uctivity.

,e released us from mundane tasks,

3:1 Th e~ourth spea ~e,r mas read a b oak about h OVilLa rn puters A reduce the costs of existing .aldivitie'S_

B aillow peopl:e to use their ~'m:e better.

C ~ ncresss t~e platiential ra nge of act ivities,.

33 He disag ree.s with the. i,tieCl that tecJ~ IilCiI~ogical advancE' A puts additional pressurs Or'! peop~e.

EI reduces em ploym.E'flt p o.s.sn bi IiUes.

C leads to u nneces!i8iryta.SKS; be~ n gl undertaken.

3:4 Til e fifth spea ker hats seen ,(I televis~on progra mme· abo ut p,Eople A los! f;f'9thei r hol i d!ay emitlement.

B choosing not to ita ke tn ei r hohdays. c lack'i!1gJ the; money to take n:oIRiays.

3:5 She feels this. trend may result in

A a red'uic:tiorll i n~he qua I utyof work, B peer health amongst staff.

!e loss of Job :security,

TEST 2.PAI~E:R. 4

- - -- - - - - --

PAR T 1

(3 minute~)

The' e'xami n er win ask yo u a few qu@stion:s.about yourseifand th en ask you tota I k. to yow r pa riner, Fa r exa mple, the exam! net may' ask you to find out about each others:

,. a rea of wa rlk ow study

,. experience of situd'yU ng English

'" aims and ambitions for the future,

PART 2,

(4 minutes)

lurn to plictur,es: 1-2 0:11 pagef 43 vihidh shpw people on important days illl their Hiles. C3lrlidioa:be A,. compare and contrast your pictures, saying how you think the people's ~ives may changi€ as a H~51iJ it of what is happeni ng.

Iurn to plic1<ur1e'll 1-:2 on page 143 ViJihidh also show people on important days in their Ilives,.

Candidate B.r. compare and contrast. your pictI.H''e'S" say~ng hewthese people's Ilive;s mri3y cha n g!€ClS a n:!sul! of what is 'ha ppe r1I i:n.g ..

Candidates A and 8., now :Iook at alii 'tine p:ic~ures ag,ain and decide' wnh::h person'S I~fe ils go i n g to cn.arnge most asa result of what is hiapp·eniJl1g.

PAR T 1

(4 minutes)

Turn 'tQ. the p~ctures on pa.ge 144 whi;chshow semepnotcqraphs that havE' been .ent~re(ffor '03 oompe1Jiti·on entirtlled 'O~r Chahgllilg World'.

Wntch aspect of change does each phio1l:ogtfa:phshow and how pO\llJlerh.J~ is the image? D·ecide which ph o:togr.aph .should (Q me f rst; second and thirdi n the cQmpet,ibon,

- ---

PAR T 4

(4 minutes)

An:sw~r these q uestions:

Is change genelfallliya good or a bati tning? Why?

Why do sa me people find it cHrfikult to ad:alpt. to change,? How can we help pEmp~@" tD adapt to (hangle better? -.'

Ar€' th€re some thi~nrgls which definiTely shorulldn't be changed?' Wha1f chang@5 wou ld you Iii ke to make to the wo~ld we live in?

P'APER 1

R.eading (1 hour 15 minutes)

---

PAR T 1

Answer questions 1-1,6 by re,fening to the new.spaper artlde about body rhythms on psg,e 53.

~ nd kate YOUir answe rs on 1he !U~P~ rate answer sheet

~or question s 11-16, answer by choosing from pan:jg r a ph s A-F on page 53:, You may choose any of the paragraphs more than once.

Note: When more than one ,answer is reQuired, these may O@ given 'in any order.

lin wh'i!i:lillpa:ragraph:s ,airEl th~f,oUQwin.g statements made about bod:y rhyt:hms?

Thley used to be mora d05~ly Ilinked to n:,ature's 1,

e'xtema I rhythms,

Conventional. wisdom about them has been shown 2.

to be wrong,

lin tbe 10119 term, they can adapt to chan'9,e to some 3 4.,,,

extent.

They may have d evelopedl hl a (eFtalin way a 5, a s u rviv,al 5: 16 .. __

rnechansm,

Once an alternativesleep patte rn is esta blished, it is 7'

best not to va ry it.

Th@y do not match ex;alctly with time as we measure it. 8

R.,e~eaKh has confirmed the approprr.acN=ness of the 9

term 'bopy dock'.

They exist ina II I ile form s, 10

They ,~r-e th mwn into conf u:siion by a certain aspect of 11

rncdern llfe.

1,Z,,,,,, H ""

Natura I variations, in them put some peap I eo at a 14

disadva ntagE!.

Lack of sleep may lead to a IIOS5 of mental e,ffectj:lleness. 15, It is nat a'lw.3y.s possible to cornpensate for lost sleep, 1,6

TIEST s. PAPER

Wide-a.wake club

.For SiOmf? p'tol!ie). going to ti,e sUJU!l'1narkel al2 (l.m. the 1Jytl.~ at' 3 a,m.J• tUfd thel~ tile all··,,~gll't caje is ,,'ery camuN:lient., ,Bfi.t is rt good fo'1' ,tlrem? Dr Lr'trsaVilfner stays !lop tate ..

-

Look OOl of yO'1l1" bedroom window at 2a.Dl. mid you may 00 SlHi):i'isw by the ll'iumber: .0:1' lights on in your street, Nighttime is uo ,ionger reserved for s;leep. 'It bas become dle new daytime, offerin.g us the chance W cOltch up on everytihin,g we dido't mana:ge to cram in dUT,ing whatused to be- OIJ.f walding hours"

Such flexibility has a price" however, Our bodies rure ,m.n by dreadrq ffl),!l.m$. lJ,.kind t!:fiRl:emal eleck that makes our brains and bodies active d'Lrr]fbg me day and recuperate IDIDUgh the nigbt The eloek is based iill cells beblnd the eyes .. Sc~entist:s hal\'C managed 1:0 isolate these ce]]s, and rhreugh a microscope the cells can bft seen li'l(milly 'tic:king away'. So robust is '[hi s dock nhat ,e.vei'i Mef weeks 00. iii night shift without a break will not deSitro~ its intrinsic rhythm.

~ ~

Sleep expert Tom M:admy bel~!evle8 'llrwt oer norraal cd rcadian rhythmS areincre a ~gly being dislorled. "More and more of us are being pressured intn doing things <II odd 1:101.ll£s. There's more fiexi.ti.mf In C\lmpanies.; thia can mean l!Je0p]e, wmtb ranIi lies Q,iIlging business, horne and S[<I.y1:l1lg up doing it ~.QIl:g after !]te children il.ave gone to boo,' be says. 'TJ:'ijs is goiIl.g~o Ilflive an impact Oil ,qllali·ty and length of sleep, And you ii~OO sloop forrestand repair: in sleep you. lay down ~he memories of experiences you've bad daring the day. You need ~o.'proce~s them, It has long been known that if YOlt ·bo-.mbard you_]' mind with info:r:malion f.orloo ]011& lile.1'l1 e\lerytllil~g gets disorgani.&cd - YOII become. unable to' IlUtR!lge daytime 8.Nivities.. Many people repay their week's sleep debt atweekends, buuuch blocks of exira sleep miOlY aot be as good as tile natural way of s]eeping:

I~

The cIcadian rhythm that run the sl:ce:plwake cycte 'llfe as old as time itself, Scientist Phil Lo,wrey has studied the geneuc base of c],fc3diom .ril1;yti1ms, ill van O1lJ:g o.rga:lJI.i.sms. 'You see clrcadlsn .rbylhms in everything from single'.relled bacteri,arigliL up to humans, II is importallt for all Jj1ling things to Ilav'e a bio]ogica'l timiDig.system. Once nature has iii prntolypc that works, everyone ,gets it,' Indeed, much QJ Lowre.y's work bas k~n done on hamsters,larg£ll.y Ill1C!:W1UI[ creatures, whose ciicadiilll r-hylhtns get them up just before. dusk .and make them deepy before dawn, so ·they can avoid p..redllhlIS and bunt for food. Human circadian rhythm

were devf'l!O'poo ill the opposite direetion, Lowrey continues '011f' prel:Jsi storie ancestors would have needed Ehei:r clock l'O get them owl hunting duting me day .ai1d p.n.1b.abJy in bed around early evenilllg to avoid predalors. Our natural rhytbm was to sleep as, LIte sunwent down 'Ihel nr'r,rcntiol'l of the electric light ob ... 'iously changed tl:lart,'

Like-most biological systems, circadian rJitylhms do not correspoad to our own W;,iY (If rec-Qrding lime. Our 'imernal dock n1'bl$ ~ bH longer thalli 24 bours. Ea~h day the cd$ ill the brain re.adjuS:l d1ei.r u:mi:ng in response to ,ellvirl'Onmeuud cues sneh as lh~ amOUIlJI, of dayligbt. Tllti s dnesn't happel~i.mmedilltely. hence that t:e~ling of physical and mental disorieneation MO\VilI as 'jet lag' when we fiy acress time ~.;oll~S. Mt elm. ta.ke ene day (le.]' time zone to make a fun recONery. Jf me clock was ueable to se1f;..reg;l.Il<lte as the seaS0I1S cbanged. 'the poor bamster would suddenly find ltseU' w.;!Ik~llg up in br-oad da.yUgilil:u between the pawS' of 3J predator,

That hurmms lend to valY in their circadian rllylli.ms has been known fur oenturies, BenjiiUll]1II Franklin's maxim 'Early to bed and ear'ly to' rise makes a mall be,lItby. w'~lthy allia wi se', which has ]o·ng been publicly acc-epted, recognised thal some people are hom ·to be ']a:rks" {w gtl up and goO to bed e'M.ly while others are "owls (Iale riser'S and late to bed}. 'Larb'Me:prodl.lctlve and commnnicative from ~lle time their eyes open, while ow.ls me gro'1ll.chyand groggy und]m.idday. ~r;;JJnkJin'~ nnaxi m has. hewever, beea disproved by researchers .. A paper in the Britis'~ Medical }('Jumal foulJld Ibat:fa.r from being the poorer bird 'owls' tended to be richer <lJ[ld were mom l1k'e:ly to have their own cars, Other research nevertheless suggests that 'O'i.1,I'18' m~'y pay a price - health problems - bec~nJ~ they [end {o go to sleep :i''U less regularr ~imefj; whereas 'larks' go to bed III amore a.ppropriate ~ime for lhei'r bQdy dock.

-

Much of the d3lll<lge that (:11:11 be done by dismpling the bioiogic:BlII dock has been se-en in shift workers. The fudglJeajjd disorientation follow]lilg night shifts is similarto that of je~. lag. As with. j et lag, the body a(ljJl.]si..~ over ti me, but ~.e, w'3i_ke,",at1d~sl.eep cyde: never :~~ml) to he lotaUJI mversoo. As rome of liS pu::oh b;:tck om' circadi:a,n cllJcks going to bed later and I,<lter, the effects OD! our bodies wm be. similar to those of sll]fl: workl;.l[~. including indigestion, Illgher stress levels, andredllced efJcc~i'lienes:s 'of the. im:m,llIne system,

mroru.c,d~.y;. for regular night sh.m workers. the best fu:iElg to do IS 'to keep to d1cir parrem of beiln,g awake at ,Right and asleep d'Ur]ug the day. even 'On days off. OloorwJise their docks can Il~ve[ evenpartially fldjl.1lst.

lEST 3, P'AF'ER

PAR r 2

i

"'fe think it's to do with the western lifestyle,' says Pn)fessor Linberg. 'Things like :im:muni5ation ana, ironiealls; hY,gi,ene, have been implicated:

For questions 17--.2.2, you must choose wnich of the par(llgra,phs A-G on page 5S fits tnto the numbered gaps in tile following newspaper arl:icl!e. There is one extra

pal'r,21gr ap hi wh lch dees notfit ill a ny of the gaps"

I n.dicate 'Y'cHJranS"!JVers ,o;n the sep\a,ra,te answer' sheet.

What to do if' summer gets Uip yOlur nose

H BY, fe.ve'l".,1ik~ the c-OoJ1ImCIn 'colct is oue ofthose seasonat diseases people have to muddle through as best they can, hoping for a change in, the weather. Where, it differ-s from ool!is and flu is that only -part of the population Ia vulnerable to it, those w no have an allergybo p,oUe!!'}. That prop ortien is increasing e'very year. In the. past twe~,'ty years the .number ofmedue:al consultations invohri:ng hay fiav'ffi." has qlllaru>up].ed" Up to a fifth of people :in Britain may now have 'the aIle:rgy~ ~lthflu:ghtlhis may only be kiJ(;JWLI to their lung-suffering ooUea:guesand families and their ~O~] pharrnacist, As British summers hot up with global warming, and nasal tracts get mcreasjngly pollen-s,ensitive. htJiy fCV(w'ctluld soon Qv,et'take the weather as the nation's faNourite summertime, complain t.

So what is to blame? Experts th maelves eenfess to bemg unsure as to what prompts the anergy"

Sufferers, of all types of hay fEiver may not realise that senetio fad:otsmay be to blame. Befu'll COMex:n,ed mums and dads .start rolling their toddlers in grime and pushin,g them out of the door to catch a few colds and grow up h:,li:rdy; 'they should pause to consider their own backgreund.

1.........-117 ..J.__I _~ _ _I1 1;11 I

'With poUeo eounts over 5'l:1 grains per cubic metre, ~rtu.aJly every person with haf fever will be feeling the effects; says Pro£eSSior Dorothy Linbergj .direcmr of the national pollen research unit, which oompilosilie polleo enunb .fignres puali 8 hd in the media. 150, she says. is c.(l'ns.i dered high. lOuring a mids.umm~r h€la!'twave weekend. in 2000., St~vel"a] [O¢J(uocns in southern Britain, r.~ngiog from i('iQasta:1 and rural areaato

big industrial cities, had a pollen count close t~

700, the bighC'st; figure recorded since 1968.

119 l

'l'he ove:r-}H"Q,tectiulI:1 of clWdwBn's immune sy.srtcems produces ~oftiesroo enfeebled. to fight off 'P0]Jen allergies in their teens and t.wenties, the disease's peak: years.

'ThekeytocIYping with hay fever', says Linberg 'is und.el',staudinghow it works." Despite the name hay fev'sr; grass pollen is, not 'the (ln~y tri.gglelC - a nrinOli®y of suff'e;r~r,s are affected by pollen from quire ,!mother source ..

Nice thought! if hardly practical advice for .millions of sufferers, But there ara steps you can take to avoid the disease, Maternai smoking d urin"g pregnancy and passive smoking as a ehild are known to contribl1lOO: to the ,allergy';s deV'elopmen:t in later life.

The minions, for whom tbe annual batt]e~ with pollen is a wearying one can. at least console themselves that the mest sueeessfnl cure f01:' hay fever is time Hang on in. there: it should start to fade when you reach middle age.

A Tree pollen. aUe:rg:y~ typically birch treee, can be linked to asthma, and sruiferl€lr.s ,i)ft~n ~p6rienoe what jg caned a (:[;08$ reactionwhen they eat tree, fruits: apples and stene fruits lib peaehes, Because. tree JloUen peaks€ladi~~ these who s,del" symptoms in M.atch and .Ap'ri] aie tik~y to hav,e this type of a]1e-rgy.

B 'Thebes:t Uling you can do to avoid developing hay fever; sass Linberg, 'is eheose yo,U;r patents. The child of ,two parents, who are suffer,e;rs has ,<I 76-90% chance of ,devGloping the allergy. This falls to 50% with onepare:nt, and. less than. 20% if rl.eitb~ has it:

,e Fo,t tha t secret army of sHe:rJ/.t s:uffe:m:ers late June [s tb~prime ;rumbling season in JElriWI1. The famous hi. wn tennis tournBme:nt~Wimbledon, h~o:ni,cany; takes- place during the ve'l·Y WoOrst fortnight to be Mound grass. And this seesonal effect has been intensifying year by ye~;

D Li.nbergcoumels watching ~le pollen. f-o:r-ecasc carefuHy - he.I: urm1i:; can SUffiJp]y :i:nmFr.i:u~:tl.on oOf counts on certain. day,s. This W8y~ .sufIe;rersean p]an their days so as to m:Wimjse tbei" e:xpoonr-e 00, pollen .. 'If all else faHs,' she s,aYSj 'try to tak'e a hoHdayabroad or by tIie coast wlien PQUe1l is. at its peak!

E Wearing sunglasses, keeping car windows shut and fitting: a pollen filt~r to your ear can also belp, as can s.tayl!ng indoors in la.te a:fternooD, when the pollen count is; at its highest. However; nona 'of these suggestions is an_ything more tha.na preventative measure,

IF tlfyol'l are a runny-nosed ki.d ebasiegaround with ten sihlings whO' all catch coughs and tolds, you are pIloba.bly more like]y to be- prot~ct~d from hay fevel' in 1I:1.tel" l:if;e' she says.

G We te¥l!dl to assume that .env:ir,onrne:ntal extremes are neoess,a.ri]y out' fa ult, but whHe global wa~mi:Qg may have had a part to play innmddling U]:I :flowering seasons, polluUrnl does not cause, hay fev,e:o::. It may aggr,a,vaJ'te t:b~ symptoms andl jrrU.ar.w an -,already s't.:reamitng nose, bu t it's not the 1t.rigger.

TEST" 3, PAIFIER 11

-

PAR T :3

Re0'3dthe following maqazine article ebout trekkinq arid' answer questions ·23-27 on, page 57. On your answer sheet indicate the letter A. S, Cor D' aqainst the number of each quesUon ,23:-.27. ~il\i'e only one ans,wiii' to each question.

Ina kate your a n:'iWE!rs on the sepalrate answer sheet.

qui;thfied l-oci!ll g1D ides; that's fu~ oNy way some sort of stan d ard Gai'l ne ma:imaine'd, At U1 e same dme, an.ytlody who beliieves that !IE! can rnamtam a prist]n~ environment and keep thos~ Wonderful people in medj,eva1 com:iitions, should rake a damned gtlod look at themselves I Carry bel ie-VIes ["fiat w.e hav-e. to share fue b~Mflm (jfl' our saclety with local people, but withou [ reachtng the point where rem Ole v:iUagers become cl.lsiUrn;ioned with Ihei_r own lifes~y1e.

He ~hl.nks there ca n be a happy medium between eastern .and W'eSEertl' en ltures, ParUcu~arly in the regian of ] ndta where he operates, tt Is possil:>Je: to POlnt to certam benefits olf tourism. 'L9cal you;~hs are beClOm:iOog'far more consclou~ ('if lhe.i! ctl.ltu.re and histury thim 'they ever would have been 11 there ha:dn't boon any n:md'S!s around, [[ you ]oOlk <U tihe ooniJitionmat someof !heir ancienl buildingS' were in (turing 'the 1970'S, the d~te["loratrQn of the paintings it was a culture that was dYing OUI anyway. The I ntlux of'money that teurlsm has. brought true the ewnomy has allo'llltoo old bu.l1dlng,s [0 be renovated and people's artisnc skills to be reralnen,' Whafs more, he rnamtalns lhatwl1h or w,ithout t,oYosm, roads would have peers extentlet:l into t:h.e remoter regtons and tl'iere ~volll]d s(iU hav@ been malnl.i n~ com:llW,nicalidn coming In from other parts of India.

In addition to mnstantly updating the guidebooK zdmost single·handedly, Garry Is now director of an adVoen~ure travel OOl11pan1l' .. 'You would assume that I ha:'ll>e a ltck~tt to tm,k whl1!~~r [ wiSh. 'am. whenever I halve any Ume [0 mysel r - g'uess wher~ I go? The Indian HimilJayas. It r~lly appears nonsensical to poo:p:le..wbo don'f know me .. BUit the more Y'ou 9:€!t to know an area the more you realise how much you don' ~ know.' r wonder,; out loudlf there aFe places in U1~ Indian Him.alayas that are

so special to Garry thal he hasn't yet shared them With illS readers. 'There are,' he say's I'l&tly, with a luisc:hi,evl?us Ioo.k:. i~ hls eyes .

--

An Acci,d,enta'i Adventurer

- --

aarry Weare needs no infract cnon to backpac}tet'S who gOo treklk1ngin northern hil!d:la. He hasbeen orgd.nj~ing adiventure holidays there for J?:5 ye·ars artd has written one Qif the teacl:in.g guideh(io~s. j catchGBny in the mldst of a he'etic round pr UK lectures" Educated In Britain, 'fu;l,flr$~ rook. himseU oU to India 1ft 1970. [ a:s~.edh.ow It all. came about

<[ wasn't it'III outdoors person at l:.miveTSity; I didn't lo~n theowalking or climbing clubs. [was IFl.spilred to go out there by people from the sub-oonUnel1't I mer during m.y studies. TrekkinR was stlme'th:lf'lS[ [ got involved in w:lmoul elder rea 1])' 1ntendlng ta, but it had a very stgn1ficarnt effect en me. Onceout there, I started thinking thal introducing peop.le to that part ,of the world would be a wondertul way to earn a Living., J thQught i would do I:r fOf a few y,ears, then I>d. seWe dow D1 to it pro,per job - whatever one of those bi'!'

'Unlike neighbouring N~'pal. no-erie wa-s doing treks of more 'th.an a tew da.ys in the Indlan H'lmalayas. [ thought it would be ntce [Q prganis.e somed!ling a bit lon.ger! 'Garry Is efforts were a:~ded by an abHlty [0 get on wid'! same key lncal people, and jo 1'981 when, ,quire by chance, he met Tony Wheel.'er, 'the founder of the Lonely Planet series of 9 uidebooks1 he tI been run ning trekking IrJ'p8 1'1'1

N erthern IndE'a [or six ~ea:rs. To:n~ had a]re~

p.l1,bl ishetl a book on trekking in Nepal. Hefu6tight !:here migh't bea poss]bHity of dotog samethlng Similar on northern India. M Garry recells: 'W:e seemed '[0 g~t on qUite wen and sox month's tater we were lQilkt:ngabou[ the book. It mKlk S()m~lh1ny Ilke -s1x years Itl~fa[,e me first ed ition came ou r thouqh!'

] wonder how Garry reconciles the facr that his \vr:ihh_g and tl'ek-]eadl.ng. is inevitably going to hav,e some sert of negatlve ef~ect on ]ocal pe.olP~.,e and the envlronmentThst is romethlng which r censtder vel"y: .seirious]y. ] rhlnk me bottom line is tbat if I don't do lot, then someone else win, so l,el me get in first and efiCClurng'e. people to go in with

.....

.

rEST 3, PAPER 1

23 Why did 'Garry first 90 to, Indiia?

A He was enth 1I si!astrc about outdoo r pursu lts, B He was; k,eef1l to set up a business there.

Ie hie was Inokling for temporary employment. D He was influenced by coHege friends.

:24 How did Gany f rst come to wri:te a 9 u i debook 7' .A He h,ad .glDod local contacts in India.

B He approached a publisher with the jd~a> C: He made friends with an linfluentiall person.

ID' He knew someone who'd wrlrtten a simillar one ..

25 According to Garl)l; how can the negativE! effects of tourism best be avoided in

northern I ndia ? -

A by tra,fn~ ng lo~ail peapl@ to act as gluides

B by keeping tourists away from remote \lilllages ( by preventing the mccemisatlon of lifestyles [) by pr€'paring local peop] e fo r social change

26 How has tourism affe·c.fed local culture most noticeably .in the area where IGany works?

A lit has made people def·ensive about their celtu re, EI, It has provide.d i ncorne for cultura I projects.

C lit has mad€! psopls sha re the i r cu liture more read i I,y. D It has led to investment iln communications"

27 In the f nal ,Paragraph. Garry ils reported as i mply~ng that his guJd ebook A may not be completely uo-to-dete.

B may noJ lndude al'l there is to see.

Ie may not be C!ompletely r,eliable.

[) may not a ppeall to everybody.

TE5,T 3, IPAPER 1

PART 4

AtiI:5w,er q llI@sti0r1's28-43 by r~ferriing to the III ewspa p sr a rude on paqes 59-60., in which re pres,€ntatiiV~ from varf:c.H.IIS f(?CJU ltmsrrt aglend€s speak about s€cr@lBri1:111 jobs abroad.

For qu est~tln:s 2.B-43,. 2InSVl{ef by ch,QQsi ng from t&1 e lisitC'lF a g!encues JIr....!F. Some of the chokes may be rf~qU'ilfed mO)ffi then once.

No.:te~ Whe'n more tha FI fjrre answer is. r@qullred, th e~8 may b€l giv,en in any o,rdielr.

Willa '~)U.)U!'ss,es the foll!owhlQI vi,ew.s?

(ompalf1 i es welcome you ng people who n.Ciw obta ilneaext:r.a 'qualli1f1cartibns rn their chosen field.

Exp eriem~d se:cretartes ~n employment m:a.y also benefit from a Sip elll of tempor a I'Y work abroad.

The, -same job tlW~ may vary in status 'fro m CQU n!try to crH..J rrtrjt Se;cf1eU!!rjal WOWK is n'QW becoming unive1S'a! Iy st.9fi!d~nd ils>ett !Em p~oyees may need to p rove the ,a ul'thenticilty of the i r q'lJa~ifications and .~:xperlMce.

In :;;OrheCOlWtnU~es foreigners sre onlyallowl!dno dO. u:np~ild work: lt is Important for temporery workers to be we~l"i,nformedabout what is: perm itted.

T@mparalrY secretaries may ga~n work :skills which liltay improve their career prospects,

lempolr a rywork {a ntur 111 into full-time employment.

OLli r network of corrtects enables us ito offer q 5pe'ed~ se r'Vice. Tempo ra ry secl1stfl.ries should b€lw!ine of eha nging je bs to 0 often. Mon~ r!Ela~ed ru lss haw rna de rt easfer to 'find work in Cl3 ria!(n

COLll1itr~~s ,

T@mporail)l work abmad is partk:tJ~!3tr1y suitable for people whhout ~1

persona ~ com m ttment~, .

2S, ....

29

35 .... 16""

31

38

39

Secreta Miall \!\Iork is now seen as a quick,. easy way of rna kl I1g 42

money,

GovernmenT ag.E!.ndes ea n provide useful ~nfmmaiUpnabollJt h est couritries .

A Sarahf-emph1!' (J Db PO\J'1ler)

III Evellyn Wa rd ·(S.E.AR.C.H.)

C CatllliY [)oe (R£llelgh)

Il Mlilk.e' IDlo,~es, (Orawford ~s)

E Anna Bali'lile'S (SecAust ra~ia)

f EI,a.r:ila raWal1 k.er ~Crysta~)

I!v,elyn Ward, all international recruitment consoltant based art S.EARC.H; bellieves. there are additional reasons. 'As far as Brn:ai'rJ is

ICOII"I cern ed, co mpanies are e:xJpandi ng overseas at a highe r rate than ever: That means there is increasing opportu nit)' far British s'ecretaries to work away especially if they know another language. In turn, secretaries from other countries iha~e more opportunrtiies to come to countries Ilike Britain because of the 'opening up' of the job market app roximatel;y 40,000 secretaries arrived In Britain last y~.3jr on worki ng visas. What's more, cheap ajr fares to and from E.urope, esp edailly to destina:~ions such as Austr-alia, areercouragiog people fum many countries to pack their bags end go.'

Sa1r.ah Temp I.e at Job Power hats also noticed another element in this great exodus, People who

Secretaries Abroad

- -

The chances ore that any chat around the coffee machine in an ofJke will these days indude various foreign occenrs, Fo,~ as we i.nvestfgate~ the itinerant secretary travels the world in all' directions"

Worl chM.ide demand for multi-linguall and Engl ishspeaking secreta ties .has never been greate;r, and the al ready genel'Ou s incentives for those wi III ing to travel are increa5'i ng by the month, So anytme longing for a. change of scene, wanting to try their hand! at somethin.g new or feeling themselves zetting rusty in their present job" could be in luck, Now is den n italy the right time;

Not only is computer technOilogy making secretarial work simil.aJr the work:! ove~ but businesses themselves are becoming i ncreasi ngly global,' says Sarah'Templl,e. a business manager at global recruitrnerrt agency, JO'b Powel: They want staff to reflect that'

want to work abroad are th inking: 'Why should I go for'the usual n,omadic jobs; such iJ$ rlla,miying and bar work, wh en I can make a packet, as well as pick IUp some usefu I. office ski lis, by turn i r:ig my hand to administration?' she says.

C.athy D:oe, from rival organisation, R.aleigh, a few

, doors away from Sarah's, office in London's 'agency heart', Pennington Crescent, was herself a. 'temp',-aS temporary secretaries are !Know,n, for a ~r in Be Igium, IO'ng before: she joined th IS; company. We take the: view that tempi ng is a great way to discover a bit of the world ,whoie at the same time getting experience in areas like Information Technology and communicatfon, which prove invaluabile in practkally every long-term career'

Surely true, put Cathy:s words 'should, perhaps be tempered with a I ittle caution. acC'o(idiln.g to Eve~yln Ward at S.EARC.H. 'While prospective emp loyers like you ng people to demonstrate the independence and flexibil'ity which comes with havlill'ilg tried a number O'f different ternplng jobs abroad. travelling around aimlessly doesn't go down \!\!'ell. Temps must show employers that they have some ability to hold down a job for a certain length of time. Apart from anything else. temping in th is way gives you time to' mature per$onalll~

an d assess your val ues ~n, I ife, It's a real character-build ing exerci se,'

Crawford's is one of the leading ag,encies in the field. although aimed rather at the high fliers' end of the market. Mik~· Do,lkes of Cravvfoffl's says:

TEST 3, PAPER 1

HIli

,EveJYll continues 'But do make, sure you know the fads before you pack your bags Not. the least im portarrt question yo u should be asiking y10urself ls whether it ItS legal for you to work in yOlu r ch:os@<r"i country. If the answer is ~s. what doecrnentation wm you need, and what financisl artdingement5 must you make? Em bassies, or consulates are a good source of such essential infomlarrian: Ann a Barnes at SecAustralia says: 'As far as Au;stralia is concerned, if you have a work visa, it is legal to work there for three months at a stre'kn. In eth e r eountri es, howe'V'er. doi ng, anything oth er than \I',olunta.ry 'WOrk could be ove rstAy [ I"Ig y,our welco me.'

Mlilke Do,ires at Crawford's also points out the imporlaru::e of examin.ing YOUf qualliflcat:ions, and doing some research to find out whether they really are suitable for the country where: you are

i ntendin.g to work He po i nts out that I n the Ne1Jherlands, far exam pi e, Pe rson al Assistant roles are [ess se-cretarial an d more assistant-based th an tJhel' are in Britai n, '~t's not U r1usual for a PA to the head of ~rketi ng. for 9'xample, to have 1:1 degree in marketing and to be given their own projects: he sal's.,

So whatever yO'u do, give it a try, but do your research first You never know, yo u might intend to go for a CQUp!€! of months and end up be~ni pleasantlysurprised

Batibara. Wal ke r was a temp with the Crystal ~ency. She flew 0 lit to Sydn.ey wiithout any money, friends or accommodation. but with secretarial work organised through Crystal. 'My new empl~rs were so impressed with my adaptabilrty that they put me on the payroll, gave mea contract, and even got special permission from the aiJthorities so' that they cou Id keep me on after m~ visa had @"xpired.' IFive years on, and Barbara is sti II with them .,. 'for the tf me bei ng. Next month she's leaving them. to set up her

own agency for people who want to go and work in Australia,

'We offer graduates a year's work €xJlsrieliOI! arid study in New Yo rk as a Pe rson al Assistant At the end of th is, >-e;ilr, they get a certulikat€ in

i nternational b.Ulsjnes5 practice, In a wo rid wh ere em ptoyers are I aoking for can:didi1rtes V!lho 'C:arIJ

bri ng mol'\€! to a ~Qmp.aJnY them just. a good degree and two weeks' office experience. this certmcate ,is eXitreme[y worthwhil:e. A recent temp of ours

wal ked straight into a job as, a marketing administrator on her return from America, The company concerned recognised that a secretarial role in NewYbrk is demanding, fast-paced and ofte I'll qurlLe scary.'

!Meanwh ile, i ntemation a.l agency; SecA[Jstraiia, offers a less graduate-driven optic n, giyi ng all temps the chance to build up their'SecAus: passport', a kind of personal portfolio consisting of typing skills, IT experience and references. 'For people working abroad," says Anna Barliles of SecAusJ:r;alia, it cain be difficult to' have an easily verifiabl e track record, Our 'passport': making use of the respected 'SecAu's· name, aims: to change aJI that

Increasingly, temping agencies such as SecAlISlralia are teaming lip with other consultaocies around the world to set up exchange programmes. 'If

you tell us yOU'f"e off to' South Africa at tile weekend: says Anna, 'there's every chance we

cou Id have a placement ready for you the follow.ing week'.

But O\l'€'!rs,~<IS jobs: ~1r1 the secretarial market are not just for recent tern ps or fo r those fancying a spot of character building before getting a serious job. EveiYli11 Ward at S,E.A.R.C.H. poi'rlts out that administrative staff \Nith the travel bug can aim profit from an approach to one of the larger agencies, 'The job market has changed " she S'a)':S. 'The concept of a job for I~fe has 1I11 but disappeared, We live ina society where relo cation is cornmo n, and geograp hical mobility isa big advantage for the employe~, AU the more reason, then, to sample what the secretarial world has to offer !Jefol1=: responsibilities and family ties hold you dswn to a particular place.'

TEST ,3, PAPER 1

PAPEIR 2

W:r~t,iing (2 hours)

PAR T 1

1 Yiou halve just returned from a trip abroad to an E:nglish--speaking c:oUlntry, where you attended an Englli.s:h course at tne IKV Academy. You enJoyed your stay very much, The family with whom you stayed have sent you a cutting from the locsl newspaper. The cutting is part of an article which is highly critical of private Ilal'ilgu'lge5cIhQo~s in the town, and the KV Academy in palrticular,

R'ead the newspaper cutting and the customer questionnaire which you completed .at the €'nd of youreourss. Thefil, using the informati on provided, write the letter

describE!d below, . .

The KV 8c.mel'l'ljt m'tYPltal of Ewhcol:swhl'~l), ~en 0l'llY at p~ seasens (If tbe year. Their attit.n.de ~E:e~ to be ~yo:u corne: we'll,apen, now pay UI!? and 80 home. The r!*lJJity I}, stuMnts have hUle, chance ~o mak,e friem1s. bml'n amxtbiH~ ab.olUtfue Ql1tme of fui s country, Oil' even imRI'~'e their Engl~sh. In OOllnnon with lll,3llcy zyI the schools in: this town, tbe school is terl"w1y overpriced, an~, the baUding irs: not in keepwg; with the modem jnw.ce tb.e- sthOQ,1 wam& to,prtJjEct It ~ VQry small, poorly €!I}u1,pped,and there: is no restfl,W"all't, In addiHon, the stuqeots haV<t an even poorer relatlons.hip wilhth~ ]nOOl community thOOlother schnols do. Many local residents ba~ DPmwamedlilibout iIi.tim· omd. noise.

KV ACADIiMIY Student Ouestlcrmaire page 2

•••••••••••••••••

Please now add ,a~y comments yOIJ might hav.s en any of the following;

IFACIU,[I ES

Nb re.st~Yranl1 but gnlr-g int,o fcwn /hakes, you tJ·se· ~ EraI~hj

TNti'lK YO~50 I'l"JLcl. 1'!Ie really iearnt 50 rn:..tehl wordertllj. n.arks to N1erk {Adivitie5 CYgdl'"Ji,$erl for ptnlirg me ir'1~a\.C.h with .50 rn<lny native .s~ker:,5. .~nd lCJC.d1 d~bs ..

Very- good service ard V'illue fClr rrf:)~y.

YOUR COUR:5E

SOC:I!AL PRO GIRAM ME

OVERALL

Now write (11 hlUer to the Editor of the peper (about 250 words), explaining why you th ink: th e part of tin e ariti de which rete rs to. th e KV Aca d emyi:s unf a'i r, Yo U should! use your own words 03[5 tar as possible.

You do not need to include addresses in your letter.

TES,T 3, PAPER, :2

loB

'PART 2; I

C noose one ,of the f.ollowing writi ng tasks. ¥our answer shoulld {oillow exactly the instructions given. Write ap,proxjm~tely 250 words .

. 2 TschnologiY in Education Iinitiative

Callingl all students,[ Can you write an anicle :sup'port;in9 our Say Hi to Tee!

c:ampai9n? '

We want to know:

.. how new techno'iogy has helped yo~ with your studies, • how new technology has improved your work.

.' how your own attitu d es towards new tech n oLogy have cha ng eel.

:Entr~es should conslder a.iI thre~ of these polnts.

WritE you r oompe1l:itiion e I1Itry.

3 You have received a letter from the parents of a young friend, which lndudes the fo! I OWl! ng ,_Paragraph:

4 An airline is f;unning a series in its in-flight ma,Qlazine, giving advice to the first-time travener in your country. You have been asked to write an artideabout acrornrnodation, lDescrilbe· the diiffeiJ"e'nt types, of accommodation available, and theadv,i3ntages and disadv,antages of each type. Explain now to find iinformatioll

about accommodation, andwhat visltors can do if they are dissatisfied with their accom m odation.

Write your all1ide for th e m agazil11e.

Pe+erl'~ j~stfiniShed ~ ~h.ooJ ~ one ex.ceJjanf grad~ in Co~kr Srud.te.5 - ~ be1r'1gl Pefer, ~. 'fiery 'iHle ide':!l of wMf J.e. w.mf.s to do nexf. !-Ie

seemS in no 1"Wrf to find ~ caroer. As you kl"lO!oY,. he's ~IJy into CQrSJ'

.and he"S dl'waY5 beet') ~, ;spuriy: hut these +f,i~'5 don'+- seem +0 je"id to recrJpb.s" \lIIe'd .be ~al'Jy gra1'etUJ if YOO co.Ald flrd' The time ~o wnle to Peter-. He rooks up +0' you 50 ,i't1.,.Id,J. and I'm sure !,e'" fake r'lOf..ce of whaf ~

hil'o'e to .s.ay.

5 You r compa ny recently sent yo u on a course whichi nvolved people from different countries shari ng i deas, and you an; fu II of e nth usia sm for the n,e'w ttl ings yo LI learned, lin the Hght o,t your visit. yo'u have made some' suggestions to your manager. The rna Q1 ager has nOW' asked yo u 'for a wr'itten report" outll n ing what cihalnges to you r e nvironrnent you wou ld Iliketo see.

Wr~te your report.

TIEST 3, PAPER .2

P'AIPER3

Engli:sh iin Use (1 hour 30 minutes)

-

Ip A :R T 1 ;

For questions 1-15, read the text below a nd then decide wh kh word best fits each spare, Put the I~tter you choose for eech qlLJestrorl' In the correct box on YO,ur answer sheet. The exerl:i.se, he,gins with anexampl,e (O).

Example: I.__o_, _.1_A_-, .- .-II.I_I __ ~ _ _.jl

How to, Compla' ." '·n in 5' ,~,'~-' ,

- - .,~

People love' to comploi n, Moa n i ng 1-0: friends C{] n be 0'10:1 '_'. of relief from the

fll) _"'" Clnd strai rfs 'of work, s~udy or relLl~loFllsh ips. But when it comes 10 prolesti og to' a reJa i ler coout t2J ,.,. goods Q nd services, rno l1y of us fi(1d we don't have ihe nerve and choose 10 131 .... in silertce.

By Ihe lime we do-141 .,. ,. su rnmon upjhe cou rage to make our ~ 51 .... , We hove generOlllly a I ready onowedt~e problem to get tp us, 0 n d W~ or€! a ng.ny. I n ~h IS

~6~ ., .. r we con all 'too ~:n .". become oggressive, geming up for battle ond luming whot should be o ralforlOl discussion il110 0 conflict

10 eemplotn effec~ivety, you need ro be ~pocufic tlbout your problem and eomrrenlcole It' ,d:eolnly us.rng words which ore objective ondlcir, [S) ...... over Ine top with 'emotiano'l,ion.guoge and unreosonoble deirns will gel yOU' F1mNhere. Good negolicrtors lend 10 be culm and IbgkoL Ihey sImi by explaining the sitllotion and stating their f'€!quifB'ments dearly, wilhoullhreat. Most complaints prompt 0 defensive' (,,~ "" from ~~e olher person, but by being recsonoble yourself, you n 'Ol , .... more chane€! of cch r avi ng~he positive till ".. you w:artt.

1[; you feel angry or upset obout whol has hap~ned, by 011 means tell lhe compalny, but do so oalmllv, f121 .. ,. Iholl YOl) undeffifand the sillJoliot) from all polms of n 3) .... , bUf explaining whol 'lOll wi!1 do if your complainl is iglflored, Be sure 10 rem e:mberr however; 'hat iI is unwise 10' n 4) .,.. th reots unless. you ore in a pas itioo 'to [151' ,.,. Ihem out.

01 ® source B well 'C cause II) way
1 A P ressu res e, pains C stresses II) struglg~es,
2 A faulty B' inexpert IC improper 0 scruffy
,3 A stick B suppress c :stay 0 suffer
4[ A eS5ientiany B espe~ialll'y c exceptiona 1,ly D eventually
5 A turn IS point c mark D say
6, A manner is 'form I( stalb~' DI mode
7 A ,easilly IB n,appHy c srmp~y 01 casuailly
8 A Being B Goingl C Getli,ngl :0' Feeling
9 A, response B respect C revenge 10' regard
110 ,1\ spend IS sttrect C stand 10' establish
111 ,A, fanout B outcome C turnout 0 'Output
'112 ,fJ, revealing la, exhi bilting C displaying D d@morllstwatlin'g
'13: A mind B, opirucn C view D reason
14 A make la, bear C do Jl) carry
15 A fill B work C do D carry
T E S 1 :3 • !? A P E fit ,3, ED PAiR J -2--'

Fer questions 16=30, mmpleibe thefol'lowing arl:ic~ by writing €!ac~h mlss]ng word in the mrr@'{j: box IOn 'youI' anSWElW sheet Use only <:lIme word for eli!c!h :spaCie. rhe e}l€"rdse :b egins with an exam pie (0).

Examplle: ,-I. _O_--,-_'~_' -_':_'_.'_. • --'-I_I- __ IQ _ ___JI

noes your birthday seem illio' ccme (0) faster each year? The

eemmon per-eeptian tha ttime ·f]_i~sa8 you get older was m--st noted by the 'ps.yeho,IQglstWrniam James m the ninei;ee:IlUil oentiuty. MQl'\e recent1y~ $ciietitistJS "in Lp:rn.doiilll set (16) .,., .• ".. to inv'es.tjga.te the exte:~ t

to (1.7) , . .8,ge. has an ·effect (18) the way that time is

perceived,

Researcnet-.S as.ked. peo-p~s" divided (19) .. ,', th£eeage,g)Mu{l:s,oo 5~Y

how JOJ;l.g .ago they: thougl'rut oertain ma.jor pubUc eveIIDu; had bappeJ'l:e.tL Ther'el!lult (20) ........•... tl);a;.t ~~o:pllie in th~ 19'-21 age grQUP thou.g~t tbat the events had OCCllll'l'edt more reoently (21) ...•...... tJley actually had, wIllie th@O'v,er ,60s ldi.a~ed.even~s too far batik .. Th.e ml(]iUe:~agedgroup we::l:'te tllLe most aeeurate;

These resultss.t!.ow'that eur pe.«JeptiQn of time really (22) .

depend on age, although no one quite knows (28) this shO'uld

be. One po~sfbl~ '~xplarnatioD ]S (24) ~ asw@: getolder;,w€l

,a.,OcUl:n:ril~ memories for €!v€llilis (25,) n, " as birtbday.s and

holidays, TbesereguJ ar 'events, OCC1llITi1f.l.g at the 5M1e t;iul!e eaeh year,

act as mental markers, inereasing the im pres s~Qn (26) time

p,iilssin:g: mare q:uick1y~ Another possIble explanati.on is tha.t we

p ercffi.wh'me in rela tion (27') .....•.... ,. OU1' O'W1ll age. 'When yO'!ll are. four,

a yeau' IS a q~a:rieur of yom- ]ll'e~ (28) ." nls :!Jruya fOJr.ti.eth fora

{o.dY" year o]'d.

(2:9~ the rem exp~.a}]Jatron mayb!il. '(me thillg is eertain .. We

sn(f1l1l1d 'take time Qutto enjoy ourselves while we':reyoun_g, becaa.'JI]Jse it spl.!€lds (30'),..... ...... as we ga:t older:

TEST 3. PAPER ::I

PART 3 I

In most lines of th e followi ng text, there is ,eithe r a spelU n g mists ke or a punctu atlon error. For eath numbered line ,31-46" write the correctl:y~spelled word or show the correct puncfuation, Some lines, iue ~Orllect, Indicate these with a tkk (ill The ,exercise begins w.itltil-three'6?xaJmples (0), '~OO) and ~OOO),

Examplles:

o DO DOD 31 3,2 3'3: 34 3S, 3,6,

37 38, 39' ,40

41 42 ,43 44- 45 46

o

000

000

If you llsren to the people around you in a cafe, you will find, chat arouudrwo-rlurds of [here conversation is taken up wirh 'gossip', They talk <loom who-is dQing what \1i'~th whom, ~n.d why certain people have' pleased them and others Dot. You may come ii.COOSS <,L:D intense exchange a.lbQut\v,ork cr a book, rhar semeone bas jus,t read. But sueh a oOio'liersation will soon d.r:if~ away returning

[0 the ineense interesr in each others doings which characrerises [he secial life of hurnsns. Crose aD-aJljsi:s of conversation groups tevealsa funher parern, Gossip seems co require-a small

number of participants, usually L'WO or three. If orhes individuals try to joi [I the' group, rh i.ngs s,r1lt;t to go wrong. The speaker

and listener's [11' eoinvolve the newcomers, but it becomes impossible to r<;(".1-(O ehe atrenrion of everyone, 'The group bec-ome§ l.lostab1e and brakes 1.1p in to smaller, rivalconversarion groups. Gnss~p allows us, to ineerace mort' effi.dencly wirh

other people. By means of gossip, we can keep track of whar is happening amoDg rhe members of our cornunity, to bond with 'Others througbe smiting and b.u.ghing. Far feom being 8 i:riv'al activity, gossip is an essencis] part of being human.

TEST 3. PAPER 3

IIDI

PAR 1 4

Fo!' Iq:u:esttons 47-6,1, re',a dI the hNo texts below. Use the words in the box ito the r~ght of ttle t,@(xt to form ,one ward that ~its iln the' same nurn ber:ed spa~e in til e text. Write the I':I~W word in, the correct box. on the answer sheet. The e,xeWL~:se, beg ins with an ex~mp~e (0)-

Gl'\e,at Apes and the WonleJ]] 'Vnto Stl!r!!dy l1_],em

A new science was born In the: 1960.1l. We (0) ,. of

the great apes ~ chimps, gorillas and orangoutan -i 111 the wild .. It created beadlmes a]i1Qund the wp:rld and pmrid,cd: (47) ." ... 11 ... f],hu footage and. fllin ... for coumless natural hi swry pmgranlm~s, and articles. 'The peoplewho studied these "rim<ltes, nmv

(:48) . ", ... n •• r.ecogu]sGm l:lisendangemd species ,were

nlostlli'y ~omen. Carol ]ahme's (419) , .. researched

'bnok is tile fascinating story of how anc¥ why a,

n umaen of these young :'I,\I'omen" most of (hem larg~1r untramed In the (50) ..... , ..... llle1ihods of :SCh~)ldfit

l-cse>l!rch,~amc to gilve up (5J) , careers as

&eer"'t1r:ic~ and oceupauonal (.m~) < ••••• ,'n for life on tJ~.(l wruM. side, fm~ t~<ithonly a EC'w lhm1S"and greall. apes Left in th(: w~](l, th,e~~ ,OOin'l(}r1r wh9 ha'i.~t done $Q'n.':I'Q,~h tG·r;ili.se (5<3) ., •.. e •• " of their dcspel~~.;l pUght ;life I~C1li heroines.

H,oUdays im SwiUerlaruil

Faw fifty y,ears, [l'r;!Iu ,m lin piE/IllY hi [IS ofFrereldt Gilly the very best of ho'l:jl[ilaysl n the (54} ... '0...... tOIJ ntry of Swlftzeriand.

(55) ~'etl!rml ag.alinr.a!nr;i agra~tn 'to re\,le1 iml the

(5·6) ••.•...... , :~Lell1lery both in WI1 nJterror ull'Il'laraUeJ!I ~kHng opp(lrblr:1~Ue~1lioi!JJ In SIJJMtI1er Jqr t~.~ sparrHil'l9 lakes amid {'5,7) •• , ....... w,QI,lks.

A~ a s.l'l()dalist ('ompa.ny.- W~ ol1fer the klnrd of' frh3:lldly, l)erstma~~5e;d servke, that C.~l1IllpJem e§lts ~h~' hQ.$iIliita,Qle nahlre 01' tbe 'SWiis:li j:le9p~e to r( 5a:) ... ",'c •• ," '. 'We ensure, ;tJha:t :each holiday is taiILored i(5,9) •• "w .. , 'b:ryour needs. aimirng to iIl,Qvide {111l u.nrobtMi~ Lev'el of "dvi'lJ'e: arndslIpjporl: at every s.ta.g<e UrOlli11 lrliltia L (60) .,,,."..... 100 your ret1JJrn home.

Brollil'SEl!< thimuy,h a SW~$$lra~l Siervi,e brotl'illr€! and ;youll. d~$cove:r .3! wideTr range (If I'!io[id;;ly~, deeper ~1n'Qwledg~ i:1iI1id gre:ater (Ill 1 )< •••• •..•.••• .to~etElil than ym!l.'ll fInd i f1 llIon~s,pec~4list publications,

TIEST]I, PAPER ::I

(0) ()BS ER,VE {4n EMOTION (4S,) UNIIVERSE (,49) EXlEND (50) R I GOIJ R (:51) PROMISIE (52) TH E'RAPV (5,3) AWAIRiE

(54) GLORY (55} TRAVH

~56<} BREATH

(5:7) SPKTAC LE (58:) PE REE(T (5!9~ PB.E.t ISlE ~6iO) ENQU ~RIE ~6,1) DEDIC AlE

I PAR T _~ _

For que:stions 6:2-74, read the following formal extract from an employer's contract

~ nd use the info rmatien to complete the' numbered qa ps in the i rrtorrnel letter 'Ihs n wri;te the new words in the correct spaoss on your answer sheet. Use 1"10 mOIi'E! than two w.o,rdis fer 'eadil 'gaip. 'The words. you nee.d do not occur ~ ri the' forma I notice. The eKen::ise begin!)" with an example (0".

Exampl!e~

II.Ji'bra my Assistant post -,~enll$ Q,f contract

The p-o_st!ho'tder is, ex,eclei~ to attEnd wa~'l1t'f'l_g; wee:k.E!nds prior KI lil:IkiWilg d.i!p!1Te ,Il.~poi"bme'Ii1~. lnre:re ~'s alil ad~itional paym~nit for fJhflS.

ThE! silbl'l'y-is sulE!ject~o alll, a rtni:J iil!ill reWiew with effect from Janu:anltil.

In most instances, the Ievli!l of fnt~ie is Ii[ 11 k.ed tQ' the pnw.aiiling rat'e: 'of i*iliatkJIiI.

The. hol:itilay ,ellil'titlement lis twO di,y,s per m on/th. cD'mmelllf:i,liIgafter ~1i1 e tillliRj mon~h Qlf ~mpl(lyme11lf.

Theemp~!DIy, ·:r rese:raes" ttie·lfigtlt 1p il~t:er ~he lo~tio~of the workp~il.rCe. for abJl~,m[e$ of Sleven dqyS (If 1~s;i. it is Sl:JrffiOlll!bt fo~ the'e:mlplol1'OO'

W JsreJtf-"certijy Ul~ taJu~tI\ff abS"eo:ce (llm tlte. a:ppmpirr'ia:me' fOl1lll. s'hCJiW!lld thie!~:r<ifOd of absen.(;ll! e~leed Se\!'·e\lii, (;alendi!llf da,Y'S, ho~r, a mediad Iel1ilii:cate, sIgliled by the em:proye:e's d~llrtO'r must !:Ie sent W his/her immediate- S'lli pe-Tior.

You are reql:Jlbed togliV.e one. mOlllUl'5 Helke of termInation lor employment. Notice shalillot be given ,to. ~ille betYiee'l"I, <[ .January and 31]a:nrUlmy.

miN FO R.MlAl 'LEITER

Dear Jiln.e

My corrtract§ arrived &nd ~at 8' lot of riJl~~f Tn" worot MI~ l~ m have to

(0) , , training Wi~(:II:(:t7d8 1M London (@2) , I ~tart, but at fca!>t f do ,get

(68) " for that. Apparently tn~ r&v;~w t"~ ~Iary (64) " .....• but not

until January. .emd any ritJe r.g~t ~011 cesS) ... , ....... on tfw' INftatIon rntB. r get. ~m

days (16e) " ,' ". a month, but not durJng f67) , ,' three m.ont:h~,

I (,Ga) .... ' ~Q-J1'."" a~ked t.o work (68) "" ...... " .. by which tht&' metjl'1~nother

UI?(t1l~ I aue.fj~. IfYOfJ (70~" ," work ~!..I~ of s-ioknes6. you (71), '.".", ,. to

g~t ~ doator'f; certifica~, IJnl"e;~ you rtl: f/l for- (12) " " ,. ~ week:

I have tote-U t1ie'l'l1 0l1e: mont'" In (~) , ..... ".. If I ~nt to r~ig-n. tout I'm fiat

('74) , to do t:hjt7 in Jal'1!1<11ry for ;5ome} rCiiltJonJ

Let'~ [lOpe I $iurvive.

Love

Jeremy

,

'IiiEST 3, PAPER :3

PAR T 6

ror )qu~ions,7'5:-80i read ~he followin:gi text and' then choose from the ~ist A=il gliv,en bElilow dlle best phra:il,El tofill ead1Ql1 the spaces. ~iI1Idk!}1;ie YOilllir ansWE!J en the separate alli1SWer sheet. EiOiC;h correct phrase may only be used once: 5: ome, of the slJlIggeste d answeilrS do no·t fit at alll~.

HOWTOQUEUB

.Atsom.eOO1e or ano:l:1l'l!er, all of us have had the experience 0'£ wailirlg 'in. a que]];e. A[]I.ct lef s f~u:e it~ queueRl,g is· a serious cccupetion, gov1emed by a set of un\1VTir'ttellirules that seem.~o cress CWIOO'€S w'JIth. ~m~lk.ab[e ease.

To join a queue, you need to judge distance very accurately. AHow the same amount of spaoe ,t! 5) .,., is, a good piaeeof advieetoremembec LeaVi~ too much. space, (:76) . .,. tlliough whlehfteople pass. If YO'll/l,e in 3. long queue,. YOM mustall [001 witte same direction, [t slnltply [sn~t done to facebackwards, (77) ..... fpr "!:he person behind you. Long queues nudge Iorwarn gradually, o\l[l1d 11 is vital ~hat you ~ake everycentimetre (78) ...... " You ca~"~ wait until ~ cou.ple ()IJmet~res of space have opened up in front of you (79') .•. ~ro, revett 'h:l' yUW" orlgjnaJl positio!l"l/bec-aI!USie the person beh.hiJ,d y()u wm wo·nder what on ~tlu you are doing. Some q!Jlll!:lIescan lose their Iineal shapej'al1d may ~oo.lk. a little messY' to the casual dlbse:rrver. Bu.t rest as'su;red iliatevery smgle person in theqli,~ue has ma.de~ a mental note of exactly who is where, That's why queue-jllLTIperS are 50 frowned upon, (80) .. ., .

.A and yOlU j n ne VIer get you r place back

IB 'Wlhen prese rlited' wlrtn the epportu n ~ty, to do so C, as t~e.Y' offend peoplf'5 deep sens€f of failf pl.aly 10 as you w.aUllld, to sha ~e hands with a straJnger

IE !Jnie55 you'vs g:ot a wI)' attrad~ve back or the neck iF: and then rna Ice c. big ~eap follVltard

G when some poor laser Join~ the g ueus beh~ n d you IH as ~hii'5, ammmts to an invasion of pr~vaqr

~ and you'll become th at horrible <gi2lp in tbe q tJ eue

PAPER 4

Listen ing, (approx 45, minutes)

---

PAR T 1

You W'i II hear a chef who cooks Iced for te!,levis;ol'1 program m es fa I king about his work. Fo,r questions 1-9, cornp let,e the sentences,

You will healr the r,e'cording tvvice.

G ra ha m ~ first jo b as a freel a nee che'f i nvo'lvedcoQki ngl in I

~ ~ __ -d

In his first job for television, Graham made the food

for a LI ~_-L-_2__,1 scene,

Graham found information about 18th century eatinq habits in a

The historical setting for Graham's latest project is the I L .... 1 __ 4__,11

Graham says that people didn't lise bl ~ __ __..__5....__j1 for cooking at that time.

Th e food that G ra ha m p repa res m list be a b lie to sta n d up to

6 il over time .. ,

~----------------~--~

Graham has to be careful about .... 1 ~__.L__7___.] regulations when preparlnq

certa1in food.

It can be a orobiern for Graham when actors are 11- ....lI~~,8:__,I'

Graham gives the example of a

L......- --L_,g,-dl to show the problems

(atlsled by retakes.

TeST 3. PAPER 4

~ ~I

po A R , ""2 ;

YOu wi~ 1 hear part ,off G radio pmglra rn m e about a 'Well~kn QwnbO:y c:aln~"d a 'yo"'ljc'. For q uestlons UI- 17 f mmplete the notes,

Usten vl@'fyc:aref.llIlly as y'o:u wU11 hear the ~{H:omirng OINCE ofllily.

H~"s,tory of the Yo ... yo

11110 I

The nerne y,a-yo. seems to have 0 f"rgd nated j n

~eJhQ rl!or-es' design aHowed the yo-yo to be used for doing various

A II yO~yOI$ were made by' on e company u rrti ~ 1 he yea r

[

The raw materialwhkh is stm used lnall y,0-y.os, is

I "nil

1111

TESTL PAPIER 4

TIEST 3. PAPER 4

------

PAR T 3

You vvi~ I hear a radio r nibervilew wirth MIa peap Ie involved in th e nJnning of ,21 d reus. For questions 18-24, choose the best ,answer A" B. ,e 'Or ID.

YOl:! willi hearthe record i n gll.Wice.

118 Why did Tony ,gQ to work in a eil',e us?

A It was afamilly trad iti 00.

EI, It was his child hood almrbitriOon.

C He felt it W0'3,s time toleave horne.

D He Vila ntsd to avoid fu rt her ed ucation,

'19 When he first joined a drcus, Tony was A ke en to de,veJop' his, own ad.

B disapp ointed not to work wiiti1 a I'll ~ma Is. C determ ined toe) deve'l:op his caree r.

'D' frustrated by his lack of expenence.

20 Tony recoqnises that he only managed to start his 0\1\10 circus, because .A he was ,able to negotiate a loan,

IB he joined forces with a co:ilea,gue.

C he rece ived a genellOU's, glift

D' hie empiloye.d a ··s.kiUed se<:ret(!ry.

21 In-iii,any. Anita rlegarded joining the cirC)U5 as a way of A. improvi n 9 her career prospects,

B i ndul'9 i I1g her love of travs I.

each i evi ng a d rna m come trua,

Ii) putting her p rob lerns bell inc! her.

22 Anita says that she became Ionys personal assistant ,A" as soon as; the posit ie II v.aca nt

B once she' d gla~ ned fu rther Qua I!ificatio:ns.

'C because her ralFnge o·f duties had increased.

ILl when he' decided to grlfe' up doing office work.

23 Whi'en deaHng with IloQl11 officialls." .An ita h as to be A careful not to giv,e offe rite <

B, ready to argue hell' ca,se forcefully.

,e flexi bl e ~n the face of thei r dem ands, [) wi lI:i1n 9 10 meet unlr,easona ble requests.

,24 What does Anita appreciate most about working with Tony?

A The high standards he sets.

B H is ,sensitivity to her needs, CHis attitude towards the work,

ID The Ileve,1 bf res,ponsibility he gives her ..

-- -- -- ---- -

III A Ii{ 1 4

------ ---

You "Nil I nealr five s,n ort extracts .i n wn ~ch var~ous ptfople an2 tall~ in,g ,aibout. ve h r coles they own.

You wi II hear i't~e"eOord~iillg twh:e.Whi I.e you I j'steR. y,QIU must CONIP!.le,t:e bc!t!h tasks.

TASK ONE

For q u estions 2: 5~2:9" match 'the extra cis as y~'U hea r the m with the spea ker's occupation, listed MH.

/II. b LJS~ nessperso n

B doctor

[) rnusklan

E pom~idari!

F pmfes3~Qni31 drivelr

HI sada~ vs: rker

TASK. TWO

For questions 30-34, match the. extrads as y\O\J he:a r the m with the' comment' €!.aJ:h person make;;, about th eir v:eNde. listed A ... H_

A It allows me to live by mry principles.

H, Ifs a way of irm,pre'ssing my clients.

c: It began as aneQonomica~ altern a1tive,

D It): mad IE! to my persona II des i 9 n,

E lit's pa rt of a Tam i Iy tra ditio 11i.

Flit re:fl:eds my love of ~P.'eed.

'G lt was a response to a frus.tfaiting sltuatl on,

H it suits my feEd ings of nostalg~a"

TEST ~3" rAPIER 4

PAPER 5

Spea kiing (1 5 minute'S)

PAR T 1

(3 minutes)

The fil'xaminer willi ask you a ~ew questions about yourself and then ask you to talk to your partner, For example" the examiner may ask you to find out about each ethers:

• area of work or study

• experience of studying Eng Iflsh

• aims .and ambitions for the futore,

PAR T 2

(4 minutes)

I Painters (E)escriib€!!. spelrulate and elimirnate)

Turn to pictures 1 -3 on pa,g@ 141$ which show people painting,

Candidate A, compare ,and contrast two of the pictures, s,ayfngl why you fhink the people are p,linting these pictures.

Candidate B, listen carefully and whe'n Candidate A has finished, telll us which picture has, not 'been dsscrtbed.

I Rooms {Descnibe, speculat~ and eliminate~

Turn to 'p ktures 1-4 on page 146 wh ~cl1 sh ow dif:Fer,~;nt rooms.

Candiidat,€ S, compare and contrast two of the pictures, s.ayin9l what you think ~t would be 'like to live in each of the rooms.

Candidate A. listen carefully and when Candidate B has finished; 'bell us which pictures have not been described.

PAR T 3

(4 minutes)

Tum to the pictures on, lpalge l47 whichl show vario',Us sportiFl_g activitie~,.

A sports dub is organising a publidty campaign with the theme ''PI,ay Sport, Keep Healthy' aimed at peap'le o,f all ages. VIlhD do not usually tak,e pert lin sport, Which three sports should it feature in its campaign tel get its message across to the widest v.:uiety of people ..

PAR 1 4

(4 rnlnutesl

Answer these questions:

Why a resome people kee ner on sp orts than others t

Are there some scorts which a re not good 'for yopr health? How much time should pe.opl€ devote to sporting ~cti\iities? Shou ld sport be part of th e sen 001 currlcul u m?

How impo rta nit is it to hiSl'rle the co rrect dothi ng and eq u rpme nt wh en yo u take pa rt in a -sport?

TreST 3, PAPER OJ

PA:PER 1

Readl~ng (1 hour 15 :m inutes)

'PART 1

Answer questions. '1~lS by r,ef,erring to the rhag,!3!zine artldesbeut careers 0.1'11 page 75. II n dtci31t~ youranS\!\i'ers 0:1"1 the sep\a,l"at~aIflISW€!r :sheet

For ques.tij0l1's,11-1I S. ,an:swer by c!l,Qosjng from sections .A-D. Some of the 'cho~ces may be' requ~ red more than once.

Whi:l:!I1l person

I iajses w~th hi ii~!her staff in person? 1

feel s glFl~at empi!il:hy with his/her empbys:r5? 2.

enCOLHltered diffi~uhies with th€ jab initial~y? 3

oGc:aslionally feels the need for mQwe contact Wirth people 7 4

I laises with an a cad ernie bo dy? !i

.eqj'oy.s working lnqependentfy? ,6

nJutineiy wo rks beyon d the sUpula,D@d hours? 7

~ iaisss b€!Thveen h islher ~I!ie nts .l:1iI1d other profess~ona Is 7. 8,

can no loil.g~ r offer com plete f~exibi liity ·of working hou rs? '51'

informs people haw nis:/I'H!~lr olfganisatio;n works? 10

sorneti mss [loses track of what ls haJ;Jp~n~ r1l.g EHsewihe:re in 11

his/her clr"ga rJ usatiotrl ?

g lv'€ls I sctu res to groups of business cliernts} 1:2

has to hold hi.51ner emotions lin th~d<:? t3

is m-operiiltfloo wiith orga:nisatio i'IIS sim ilar to h is/hef own?' 14·

r,@garos i:he main part of hiS/)1elr job as r'c!'utine? 15

TESl 4, PAPllHt ~

PeOlple at Wo~k

Ell N.a.,e,= ,A,dlriaillill BO:.hane Otciupaltio.n:SClles, director o~a (iO.,PC:IIn\y .5ielliing .5Qte~ ~ik: ijimagery

I llSI,IQ!o/ work. in 1he mornings ond nfre.moohs but lbetou~~he CQrf1pOlny n'eodquarters O(El based in Cqnacia, I oHen h~to lurn on my ~rsonol

com puief os soon O'~, I get !home from Ihe G~fke 10 check for €l'"mai Is. Th is moons about Ih re~ hou rs more work after I snQu Id have ~I ntished for the doy. My mOlin job i s to look ofter ~hiffy dill:tri bll)lto[S ~n' my ~ req so I sp11lod m uch of my doy i'IfIOlki rl9 contod with 1hem, I oftell crlfend conferen:~eti on saTellite dora pnd o lso do pres8ntolions to e:xpbn to cl i;e:nls a brn,d the.

i nduSlry, lV\os't d~entscome from 0 n ocodemic

'~ckg rauna as §.altellite delta is O~i1I ~~ for

;Sci F;;ln1m~ reasqns.

The h~gh pofnl of the ;ob has 10 bs Ihe ~c~llerit opporlun i~ i have to Imvel and it hi 9ma t to mix wnh people From so mOrly ncf enol i Ires. Conversely, Iravening coo some~ime'S be 0 low cs 101m never '01 horne and iti nvolves V>IOrki ng on my own a great deol of the n me .

.sometvmes if is dlUi'Cu It 10 riSlmo [n conlnected 0 nd kn.O'N e),)o:c:ftly IAinol is going an at heQd office, However, o~ Ihe end of the. day I O'FIl'my own boss+ wh lch r s 11 ice - so I oi'Jly 'Elolly hOV€lt,o worryOlbout me,

I n my fr'Se 1 i mill I lik~to 1rCllJel 0 nd go d iv! n9. hul as. I am so busy wi~~ workth~re IS '\!,®1Y lil1~e- 'Ii rti@ fSr ony o,f this. What little time I do have off is spent "eloxin91 \!Yilh ~riefl:ds" eolHng O'Ui or workijF1g ill the

;garcl®,ri. .

Oi Name: V~ttoiria WUliiidmsoin _

IOccupCfllli!O'n~ PA 'tOI ,aln aill-giilri po,' band

I WOS ClC{l,joUy pori or Ihe .aids mormgemenl feam for me;. mOr1lt~s, ~fore fhey asked me 10 be IIwfr PA. Il w~'fe in Ame~ka, I g~1 up or 6 O,.fiI1. to slay in touch wi1h lQndQn- ge~~ing up so eqlr~y c:a n be roo Ily drffrcul1~ - bUlt in lEonope,1 get .up orcood 9.30 o.rn. I go to the hot,el grYffi, make sUIre everyone's up, chock lFi with ~clJr~ty orrd conffrm '!he -day's oppqintmeJl~s .. and ir!j'ervi'€ws.. I'm I'he Ii ok b~1ween Ihe 9 irlis and Ihe rscord company, slylrlSots, aCCbUI'!1C!JiI~S £lnd print

media. Now IhCl~ Ihey malllC'lge themsel.ves,ther~'s

also 0 fat .of legal poperwcrk jo be s,fgn Elld and returned quickly.

nn worbng ail the ~irne that I'm b"\lo.loke .. I'don'! have bf'€(1lks. 'Os s~ch, and, I" m ·oft~1"! up u nti II 2 o. ill,

Bul becaiJcse ihe girls hove $1.Ich o 9 neal sense d humour and fun, ils a l'NCly5 a r~(]1 Ita ug h .. And cd

ti m,es we tan gel reg Ily enloticmal tog,elnel.Working for wnmen i.$ FOrlto}tkbeco use ~hei r'€l mUGh more on my w(]vel~nglh 1hor'i cmy ofrhe male bOSSB,S I've had.

lEI Name: IDr Heoither Han

'O!C(i!jl!lpattOn ~ ,Assismn'l eu li'~tlC!r flit a maliol!' :z,oe,

I 'Oinriv-e Olt the' zoo 01 oboul 7.45 c.rn. and calch up b;n whoit's. ha ppen i.ng in Ihe aquafium and repti Ie . house. Ilf I hoY\?' t1 me before my depdrlmeillt m€e'tf ngs, I wolk ~ou([d eoch s.e'Ction ond talk 1D ~h® koopers.

a ooJ:iI any pJOb!em~ that, may have come u p_

loverseeebeul 2, 000 ani mcls I' 0 nd we Of€' cOI1s<ton'lly r€l\llewingr ~hich cnimols we wani to keep_ If, \¥el re I~rl wilh jl1li1 on~ 1 nd iVldrua! onimo I from a

po r~icu lor species, we I~y fo send it to jp in o

breed. ng progro~'I1 me 01 L)r"&other zoo, Ar~er lunch ~. usually &annelh i ngto set 01 my de£k - I open my

post, which iflctudes lenersondque$~iormollre$ rrom -S~OO~flIS ondo~her l"00-5, whic~ II rei5:pbnd 10. My a~e:(noon WO;rf, is like,ly to be more: diverse_ I \¥Ork closely w~lh (1 group- of sciei1~isls 01 Ihe il'1stltulte air Zc-:;)Iogy, workhlHl on populalion and species mdnagemenl, I shOlN visilms from other zoos and institutes oround, tdkiog them through Ihe'S€lt'up.

~ else give lec~unL!l$ 10 students, angltlir'5, fish

hobbyisfls, and members of the pu bl lc, I f~nish work 0 t 6 p.rn., whew 50mebodyelse to~es over, and if I sorM~tilmes $pand evenilng.s ot home, cakhing up on, feading or r,esearch, ~hal!sroolly 'For my O'Nn 1nterest,

III Name: HannCllhLalhalmJ _

OClf:Ulpaltiom M,ator'Cyd.e, ,(au riel'

I do obooi fifl€€,11 to I'YvBn"rfive pi ck-ups (1 day. II

mai nly pk:k up end del iver small pa.c:ke~s - ihClt's a II klirly s1undmd, 'bu~ somelimes J loke pos'sporl~I'O embJssJe.s, wait for visas to be lssusd, or pay

cheq!J eSI into banks., Some of the requesl5 CGn be guile< strc nge:. I once had ~o del iver 2Qcreom chee-$~ bogeb to 0 co re~ A ~C!I of my work isin inner

london, so I have to be real.ly cmefUJI,espE!Cid,ly il1l wei '\.!Ve(liher. The; job tokes a lot of concenfroficn,

and lcccesi on.olly gel angry witl1 drivers, but ~ have 10 eonfml my rood rage. m 'i;1 impairs my riding:. I

used 10 get losl qtJi~e e bH oj first, but ii' didn', iok~ long to devdop my me p"roociing skllls,

I do '~eel rool~y sC!~bned when I've had a g:ooo day, and I don'l seem 10 hove emy prob!ems s.wjl'Ching off in 1he e~nii!9. I wood 10 WOIt. SCdurdC!iI{50, 100, but OCi'\iV my ~ekends me cmnp;letely taken up wilh molo~~IF.;l roclng, Which is my flew possfol'!,

PAR T 2

]

!For questions 16-22. you must cheese w,hich of the p.aragr,aphs A-HI on page 77 fits I nto the numlb~redl ga ps in the fcllowi PI 9 newspaper a rtide, There is one extra paragraph which does notfit lin any of the ,g:aps.

Indicate your ai'ls·wer~ OIl1i the separate answer shset

No Longer Blowing in the 'Wind

Plastic bags ,disfigured South Africa ~s landscap.e until a smaU town decided to act.

'T' ,hey have. been caned the national flOWe'f of South

. Afrtea. Outside. every C:ity, town and v:iJ)age, hwubr,eds of them flutter and m-stl~ tn the thorn busbes 'with the evenlng breeze. 'rh~~' come m red, green, blueaud black. and even m IDl1l1ti,colol!llJi'\ed stripes, PlasUc bags. Lots of them, For S-outh Africa consumes eignt b]]]jOl!ll p~r year. or nearly two hlll:i&'tld! for every man, _""oman and chHd! in the oount]"~f., .But the oounb:y' is 'llO't un~qju€']y cursed. From the deserts of Yemen eo the m.angrove sW:3imps of Tha.il.a.no, the di.scaraedplas'l;1c sUll'ermarket bag disfigures tbe ·lamllsca~ of much of the (\Iiweloping world.

It's def1n:iJ.~ly brought the m:nmnunH,y of Douglas. together,'

A£ a -rep~$e.nt.1.tive eoxp]ained: 'We' all want DQ1J,g]as el'®"arn, but I win give aplastic:: hag i'!tSt.lillatd of t8!~kjllg aoout it for ten minutes if a customer moans.' JIlnt if the, g,Qlvemme)'li has itt!> w;ayj, the sttlire and. otl\ers It!!:€! it 3iCl'OSSc the comlt~y ms;y $OO!I1 be banned from handing out the bagS,

'Ot11" town. was O1thy: says Sheila Josepb whose fumily has run tbJe' locaJ ~elfleJ;'al ,srtor-e fot, ninety years. '0'0..1 park looked as though 'there haJd b-een a snowstorm every weekend. It was uttel"edlwith plastic ba.~ and rubb~sh.We had lots o.f clean-up c<iJJll'lmg:rn;. but they didtl''t work. Aftcrtwo or three weeks, the "town was. filthYa,gain:

Plastic mauufacturers and retailers have reacted to the plans WU]l prodletable' outrage, Tiley warn that Um'lL1.sands of poopi:l'l would lose t:li~ir jobs and. tha,tthe new rules are Hkely to be uneJJ(orreB!b1e as impo,rLern would! almJ);!\Ot ce:rtaillly ignore them. They poiinte'!:!: out that old-fa$iontld he\';!/"'Y.dut:y 'bags .use mor~ plastic, not less. Consumers, the:Y'ins~sted. ,vowEl. be greaf!,y iru:::oillv,El,nienced.

'The biggiest businesses haveb~\IIr:i.th us from. tbe start, and haven't given aplastic bag out slnce,' says the polite but ste.ely JOSeph, whose advice is now eaged,y sought by other litter·strewn towns across ,solll.th Afi:i,ca. 'Wahin two weeks our pal'k was clean.

There are so ma~y plastic baga b]OMngarotrnJai ·tlte N'o:rthc:rn tC.ape that a job·creat]on project in the provincia] ca:p1tal employs 38 people to wash discB!l!"ded bags, ,cut them into strips rule! knit them tQge:ttu~.r illtro bdg'hUy·c:oloured hats, eatl"ets. doormats, bags and eve')] picture ftameswr sale.

II...--",J 1-...........-1 __ ~,,_.II 1221

Indeed, 'on th~ dean streets 1Jf Douglas it is difficult to belie·'I!'e tha,t South AMcID1S really ever needed. thos~ eight lnlllon p]Blatic bags. 'It's not that much of a bru:dship to remember to bring ~sbopping bag,' says, o:ne elde'I'ly oo."lident getting into her call' outside Joseph's store, 'is it, dea.r1·

TESl4, I?A,:PER 1

The' proposals may eventually need to be softened to allow marmfacturers mere tlm~ to adapt The detel'miiruttion to ~dieate the plastic scourge 01 the counh'ys1d1,{l bas' IiIlreadY garv<utisedi. seme of the culip,ril;s inl.'Q aedon, however.

A.Eagru' te [(!odi off even more draeanian legis1ation. howewr, many re.taHers are nowpmmismg to he.~])<. with a nationwide recycling prngramme lor the bags, they gl¥e awa,y.

B Sbe blamed the mess on the UmlJ bag:; banded! out nee to shoppers. Douglas's 15.I~Mm residel:lt~, dj,d not like' the Utter, Nor did the tourists w,hQ came ,ttl see ~heconfluence of the VaaI.and Orange, two o.f southern AfriCa's gr,eates:~ rivers. Farmers \Il.rere 'Unhappy tQ:oLivestock wme-tImes ate the bags and died.

C snmeone, of ,COUl'Se, had to spoil the party, Mttt.ill sma]] Or,ange Vaal sto:r~ down the road trem Joseph's. they'nl' s:km giving aut [teep];!I'srie bl8g'S ~o cust.o,m,fil'rS< wbo wanr them, ;!iHoough de.mood has b.alvad s:illOa tlW ,campaign beg"3ln.

It) Fh'St ~nsptredlby the peop,le of Douglas, they are eIlUaUypas.siona{e in theil' hatred! of the, bags. The,y nonetneless rematn somewbat sc.:eptica~ abou.t the practtcalitiea of such a solution,

E South .Mxkans, how,ever, have dt>cide>1i tOo do somethtng. An~ It '1\":<1$ th'ehithertoUDrflma:rkabl'e towu of Douglas in the aJr1d Northern Cape region that tnok the [ead.

IF "rh~ ar~,mtt put Iorwm"d by the authorities is that. tJll~etbags w'Oul~, not on]y be used again and again; hut \vol!,dd!. aJ.so be easie)' to collect and recycle .. SUlPP)Y oifl)ags with a thickness of less Ulan SO rmerens 01, IIIlCjio;D is a milllunth of a metre) Is therefere Uke.~y to be QuUaiWed.

G -So it was that the people of Douglas, :rejoicing in the slogan 'Fantastic - no pJ:astk" came tnceremontally m!:J9tliIJi.te'aIl effigy made up from old. I;da,stj"c b,a,g_s by the p:rojlecl staff, Since filen., sboppe,n; bring their 0\'1:11, reusabm haskets and bags,induding those made [rolll locally recy.cle.d il,lasti,e.

H "It 'won't werk,' said a s.pok,esperson. ''The problem is not the p]ru;tic bags the pmblem is lutef. U's a 'QjIlt!stiOll of attitude. What worries me ~s that ingooad ,or haviag cheap plastic bags c:l1!l.tte'ring u,p Ul1.': s~ri!~ts. we']] have expe'llsiiv,e ones:

TEST4l, PAPER '11

PART 3: I

eesual' cluthes specificallly to wear to wo;rk; a rif:Ul!u~o1i:ls ~xpe!Ilse.

Even MUre irritating :is ·the met 'that rm stili obliged 00 have a. suit hanging up, in my officin ca.$ I'm. suddenly called ~ ~ meeitling on oW" e:onrerenoe floor, wHere m-ess-doWD is banned lest R dien.t should witnesa it. Qn,€ of my cqJleagues atcmwd to nceum.w.at8., mare n!:Jidmore vet)!' SMart 8WW in her o:f'Iic~, explaining th . t she was haying her fial: re!l(l,v,;;Iiwd andthat t:h.e· iD~b:ffice wpl'd.Nlm w.as 2. neceslS.ty tll:S she was s'ta,:yjn,g at a different friend's p[aoe e'am .t. We W&ton't convinced.

For the otHer great IDcoonv.enle~ of dress-d!;l;.wn fu;r the ~ff ~s tlriat it makes it eaQt~r .~ ev,e,r to spot wnencoUeagtles al"€! goin,g teo Job in,terviewa. Fo!' the w'est: of the year i:t is easy enough to an,RQge the!ge during the working week, but in the summer when d~S5·tlIown rll!J]~. it'.s a dooa ~ 'i'eawa,yto arri ve iQ! O/V, rd.y smart clothes and then Poop ,out for a '~d'enta.l aJp!p'tilintmen.t:. I would fiQl:"ntfilly applaud thts state ~f aff~i'n, aa a fimbSitantial pan, of my time Is spen.'t ill")ri:f!gto preveDt valued emp~(l~'ees from moving e . ere, ruJ:,d 001 clnes abo1lJ.t theirmoontl.QllS are

] ,and. ruJo,w m~ to nip things in. 'the bud.

HllWfil'VI2!l", the clothea. hangirm: in my offi,~ aw,e now fi'nding a secooo use. I have suddenly hecqplethe tar~t fot sev,era] 'headhunters', people ~D1pl!p'yed by 'Oit~r oom.pani~ wtry a'ri'd ~mpt empJ<nyees ,i'J/way wIth <:I,ffers of better pay and <bonditions. The. hel;ldlbunte:rs t.ha;t I l"etalli on h(!half of 'he bank are, of ~rge, not rulowed to approacn me. But 9the!l"s are, and have, Until r~n.tly, I ignored t:bes.e ealls, I'va barely bad time togo. tol;h.e hah,.desser.s be'tween !Jve~StJipl5:,. let alone attend a job interview. Flowever, M the finanCial rewards p:rof[e:red have te,ached. breathtaking amonnts, rv.e been fo~c:ed to take <!in m1ieri!st.

The only pr'QbJEiln witb 1;lrls is, that I have jU.stth0 one !luit a't ,tM ,of'ftce. As a lSerie.s of imp:r.o:rnptu interviews wit.h one prospective 'e:D:lll]QYew pl'ogr,e~s.es, 1m, ba ving 'be) brin.g: ill ffdditj,on.al c:loth~. I can hardly preaent lDyself as a higb'ly-paid investment ba.nker.:r,eq1lJiring a vutsalaJI}'. jJ they QIl]y '~m .see me in OR.e suit ... At this rate, I sbaH have to tell my staff that 1., tee, l'l!a~'e d~cid(ldto h~ve my; f1at dune up, Ijust hQ~e,th:!!rl:; non~ of them offers Me. the use of th¢ir spare 1",oom.

Read the 'folllmMng newspaper ertide about clothes and answer questions 23-27 on page 79'. On your answer sheet. indrcate the letter A, .• lB. i( or 0 agla~nst the number 'Of each quest jon. :23:,...27. G~ve only one answer to each question.

Indicate your answers on the slepa,lrate anrS,we,r :sheet.

IDress Down

Wmdti.ng as ~ m~ge'1' in tnl! niilall o:ffiee of a bank, as J d.of doilies can be a rec:urrwg night.mwe. II.') New York, where 1 worked fot' ~'(' time last summer; 1'01[1 hav,e· to bral.ve the Bticky heairef!;'HY I:.i'ttl,e you venture ouUlid,e, yet freezi';\ once you fin:ive in a, meeting with the a.IDCOr.ilil!itiOO~( turned up full blass, I struggled tCIl know wba.t to w,ear. The p1'ob]em was compounded by the pffice dress eede [Ol['ehe mO\i1Iths of ,July and August, whloh was tdress,(]O\Vl'l.' .

The, dress-down phenomenon S'eemsw ha V'e orig'htafr.ed in places where stdwork tb:rougl'l. the oppressive beat of summer whilst> thw,r fammes: trul!:e refuge ra:t. the eoa:1S't orin the hill s, Dr,eili'l.·,do'l'i'ill. restricted tcfl Fridays. allowed staff to head stral,gbt for theiir ollt-Qf-ta:w'il l'etl"eaits on Friday e~nmgs. wiillh'G>ut go,ing-home '~ change. Buit !in Me"'" York ~t has now become a weelv-round. state of'Bffairs. This ill'Wve may have been born out. of cODsiile'l"at.io'1l; mo allaw people on WaH StJ:eet to' commute til w(lrk in the hoo.t in. somethin~ more cnmfertahle than a s:u1t, but the eff:ec.t ~Il tMS 'benign ..

For me, ru"es!l"-down 1:$, 11 nuisance for two reasons, The mst iBthat it ac&'!!l.a]ly~e,quires 8 wll:ud~ ~w wardrobe. For my male eelleagues iin the US, it seemed to mean B. switch from on~ uniform. (sing~ehr,eas;lied g'wts, silk ties) toa.u,other (designer B.hi:t1;s, e:hil\l)S and hlasers), I 'basicaUy OIllLy own two types of clothes, suits for woil.rul~ in and tnJI]y CRSUS] gear f.o1' r.elax:i:l:l(g week:.ends i:n the oo,utU:tryside.

Returlling to, London, I was therafnre rather disco.ncerted to m.sco\rer that my elfHployers had instituted summer dress-down. H~-e too, thougb U:.s relevance'lx) the dim.ate is fa:!:' ~,tri imme!:Ua;w1y apparent. Initial1y, I hied to sides,tep, it by simply 1mrrung up in my suit as usual, b~t my staff co.mp,lained tbat th:ey then fe]t press1U'ed into doing the' same. SOt I f<)lmd myself havin,g to oqy 'smart;

TEST 4, PAPER:

23 Accord tng to the wlriter, 'dre'ss"!Ci1O"wn' in Nlew yo.r1k beg an as a way of A discol,J ra:glingstaff from taik~ mg summer ho'l i days.

IBshowing concern for staff wh 0 II lived 0 ut of tewn,

( rewan:Urrgthose emj:{ktyees wi II ing to workin the heat, I[) ma~ililg I~te eesler fW ~t(Jlff in the summer months,

24 What was the writer'sfilrst [reaction to the id€!"fl[ of 'dr'8s5,..aown" in her London oUite?

A She attem;pt'E~ to i,gno:r.E: ~B She 'argu~d against it..

c She recbg n i sed the need for it D She ur.ged her staff to adopt it

25 The, aspect of • dr,ess~down' that most il n nays tne wri~er irs 'the. fad: til at A her dients f~nd irt iilm barra~sin g.

B not eV€1ryone has fa conform to lit_ e it does net .a pply on alii GCCaSkH"Is.

D the dGth~s themselves do not. s\J~[ he r_

26 ~n which aspect 'Of her ''IIIlOrk: does the writer find 'dress-down' an advantage?

A. recru i.ting m~w members of st~rff

B monitoring 'the honesty of her staff C p:roviding her staff with f,eeo beck

D ensuri n9 that herstaff remai n loyall

27 Why ,d id the writer not resp and immeid irat~ly to the 'h@adhunters'?

A. She knew they would lncrease their offe r,. B She hM a heailc sehedule to' (Qnrt\;:m~ with. e Sh e feltit was wirong to d~al with them,

D Sh e was concerned a bout h~'F appearance.

TIESl 4, PAPER 1

------

PAR T 4

-~ - ~ - -- -

Arf::.wer questiens 28,-44 by reienring'to the magraziine adicJe on pages :8:1~S2" ~n wh ich va rl QUS da n (erg til Ilkabc:trut, il:h,eiTr Cal(@@IfS,

Indicate your a nswers on the :selpanllte a nswer sheet.

For q usstlons 128~44J' choose from the II fist of aancer5 A-E below S:ome of thee choices may b~ required more than ones,

Nom; When rnoretha n one" a n:swer is requirrect tn~se mJliy be given in anyoKiJelr.

Which dancer

was g ivef) a r'I opportu nity to ,exes:1 in a rellat@d Treld 7' initially laciked :s@~f .. c:cmfi:dence aboutsomethihgshe was' fnviit'€'di to do?

m.Elde acare{@r moveet an unfortunate timel has ,3 lelsu r@ p ursuit related to heir work f

was physically tired by a hectic dalOcif1;g schedulle? had to be \IIE!ry adaptab~e on one OCCElS;iOfl?

has C!ua~itie5 ira hislher da nd ng wh f,ch su it a pa fiticula r 'form of ball~et?

was held back by mili':im he.3lth probh!ms at one poin.t? attended a (I ass where the, stude nts were ex!pecteiQ to take control?

admitS hTslher career has, profited indirectly lroFlllllle mjlsfortllrJes of othe.rs?

sensed! that 'Some people resented hiSihe;r r.i3Jpid rlse to pro mine n£e'?

was used to havlngtQ prove h imseilf/ner5€!~f to n is. peers? bensflted from a WEIII~estGlbll i shed trad irtkm?

rreeded some t;i me ifJi\Nay fram ba II~euo th in k ,ShOUit h~slher futu fie: '7

seemed physk:alily well-sUlited to a rutme bsllst catr:~er7 had difficulty rn fiitting his/her dancing into a' busy lif.e?

28
2,9
3:0
32:
33
3:4
3:5
36
3:7
3:8
39
40
411
42 31 ., ..

.1\ Yosvan~ IRamo5 18 Jai mle la pper

( Dieinjl1E! Cha pma!'li tD V€mnika Part

E Mar~a Kbwmslki

43 p.

.44< .on

:n.

TEST .:1i,PAPER ~

et

'I can't ever imagine not dancing,' says Cuban-born Yosvani R,amolS·. ~But 1 don't have much memory of dancing when I was small. Aprpar:ntly my motJ::l.er reckoned 1 was su pple and agdef SO' she book IRe to audition for fu~ Cuban. state ballet school.' There, after tests IOl' musicality, flexibility and potential, he' was awarded a. place. 'Being in ClUJ; school waslike be.~g .in .81 ba Het company and We got 'used to ~emg on ~tage from an early age. Pedormm.g in -?,,~n t of an audience was part of out ~ammg, Ther:e~o1(\e it never seemed scary togo in for ,uompehtiOJTh)., Eve,ry day after class, all the ,boy ~tu;de:nts would sta y on and compete ?S:;UlDLst each other performing turns .and jumps. h, wasal w.ays fun, so I never got nervous m front of others.'

Yosvru1l is currently a. soloist wUh a Londonbased baJllet co.mpany. • U' is beenhard work dancing on the London stageS' for the first ~e. You have to _ooncentrate· so. much halder, smce you we so dose to the audiences .. It takes a Io,t611~ of you. Mi:nd youf it do€sn"t sbop, me from.: g.omg out on SahW1;1JY nigln.lts; I like tlothiing more than Cit spot of dubbing'!'

III

Can_adiLl._lll )ainrle· 'Iapper danced with the Na~~n,~J B?Uet of C;::anad_" before accepting a p ositlonwith London's Royal Ballet ki a young: g]rl, she look classes in.baUet, tap .and jazz before getting a place with the National

B.~nel: School. J11,js meant leaving 11& horne at the age of twelve. After two years away; she became homesiek and decided to. take a year 'Off, 'I wasn't I'~a11y serious about ballet then,' she says; land lguess I wanted . orne freedom and space so that I oou1d reflect on my life. I welll.iI: back to high school, led a. normal teenage life, and took casual. dance classes ... By the e:nd of the y~all, I realised that I really did want to be a dancer. So 1I1Y return to !he Ballet S('h~ol was ~i.t_hout a:ny pressure and entirely my OVII'l1 dIOC1SUlIDI,:

Now in London, Tapper has. toughened. up' and shows no signs ,of missing her home. 'VVlIen I joined the Royal Ballet, the cas'i:in.g had already been done far th.e season, so

the begirming was painfuJil y slow, and there was nothing for me 1,111 ttl the Nu.tctacker ballet. ~ the waiting around was really quite '~l"e.so:me, But since then" I have been lucky - If you can say dlat - ill '~har I ha vehad the ?F.p~rtunityto d ancemany roles £olllowing InJUl'l~ ,to other dancers. In ~act~ nothing I've done this yeM was on the origmal published casting.'

American De.~ltdre' Cha pmm was born into a

d . f ''1

3!",r:mg '~muYf her mother being a teacher in

a dance school. So much of her early lifew as spent in dancing shoes. 'I particularly re;member the workshops we had OIl Saturdays w hell I was nine. We: would be divided into small groups, Md. the custom

TESi 4, PAPER 1

an the same; I was reallynervousand excited,' she Iielate$; 'i[ was a. great honour,'

was, w hoever was inspired in the class that d ily wouldset some steps for the others to foHow. The classescertainly made JOoU think about how you wru1b~a eo IIUYV'@':

At schnol, howeve.~. Deirdre was less enthusiastic about sports, and ilio11J!&~ chosen for the volleyball team.a sport atwhlch she might have shone, decided that she'd rather be in a production of the NukTaeker. So. she quit. 'But the school was very accommodating about lll!t)' dancing: she points out.

Deird re gQthe:r big break with the Rambert Dance Company. 'I had. been pretty much do~ng str,aJigl1t classical work since Lwas thirteen, but, as J was the right height and learned fast, I got thrown into do~g contemporary ballet instead. It's a good job I'm .flexible! Mind you, when l started it, the conremporary dance moves I learned in my childhood did start coming back to me fairly easily, I suppose I have that eype of movement and flOWthitt contemporary choroogupbers w,ant to see!

m

Vero'nika Part is one of the stars of the Russian Kirov Ballet, although had she pursued her chtldhood speciality; she would probably have ended up .in the Olympics as ill. rhythmic gyU]na5t. She had mmy successes in this field, but lr'iLe:re~u:e:n~s . insi sted 011 e~ol1il1g her at the local ballet studio. ~I found doing two physical activities at the same time wasn't ideal and pR'furmd gynmastics .. Abo 1 was prone to colds and missed classes, so I WOLUdn' [have been too sad ]f r ell been chucked oU:I:'!' she admits. 'But] eventually caught up.'

Vamruka':g fttst tou r with the Kirov ballet was Ito Turm. On the operdng night she was cast in the Ieading role 'in Swan .Lake. n has tong been a Kirov custom to give an U p'"Iafld-comin,g dancer an opportunl ty to star in the first night's performance. 11 knew I c01.1[d ,rope, but

AnO'ther honour was bestowed 011. her when she was seleded~orthe role ofthe Lilac Fairy in Sleept'ng ReNtdl] •. 'I don't know why 1 was' chosen,' .she says modestlj; 'but it was really wonderful fro he entrusted with the role. It was a big experience for me, ,ev'en though I'd done a few lead roles before, and a chance fur me to show myself as an actress.'

Last year In New )'or k, she distinguished herself When she ncr onl y performed art aftemeonmatinee of Sle(;rpii~g BM~!d"y~ but then danced Apollo' for the ·ev,ening pro.gmntru.e the very same day. 'U felt so strange te me to be jU_lllping the centuries and styles,' she says.

Maria KOWIOSld is Principal D~OIIiicel" in the N~w Yo]t:,k City Ballet, and she's Qnly 22. She became an appI'l'!n Dee at NYCB af~r a talent spotter sa w .her dancing in a school concert, II had to do everything a first-year at-the Banet did - all [he rehearsals and performance-s ev,ery night - as well as trying, ~o finish my final yeai: of high school, so th~ liming was far from id.eaL In. fad, I very nearly missed gettillg my diploma as. I had a rehearsal at the same time as Iftte awards ceremony. Then, while I was still an apprentice, three of our dancers went on maternity leave within a short m,ne of each other... and I found m yself doing the work c,f older members. I Iel f some hostility) especiall y when I was asked to learn the Siren's role in Prodigal SOil .. There were 160ur of us learning it so' I tucked myself .away in the' back, at the auditions, wondenngwhat I WEllS doing there'. The next day] was shocked to Jearn [h~t I' dgot the part; and I was in dreamland!'

More t~ce111~y she was given the lead role in StMU La~e. 'The only thing was that the shows Wet"e bio\rice daily, so my body was a

little weary by the end!' she says.

TIEST 4, PAPER 1

Wr.it'ing, (2 hours)

'p A IR T 1:

-------- -----

1 You are bjkingffor a jq:);, abrp'ad, as a iheip€!f on activity ho'lidaysfof chilldren. A frie nd has wiI'itte III a ~e'ner to ypu, enc'lo~!l ri 9 a rJ advsrtlssrn ent for a com pany C8IUed Children's Atttvity Hoiidays. YOIU hav.€ annotated this advertisement with some comments.

Whi I e rea ding a b Dok Cibout work!! n 9 a brpad, you n aV\~ fou n d .03 ril e'ntry lo;r another aompany ~n tlfie same ffie:j(:i, R'Budigff'S.

Re-ad the letter, the advertisement and the book eXlra (1. Then, USi.rlg the 1 nformation prcvided, wri~e::

a) a letter to 9!Qur friend, i1skiing for herad\(~ce about which job to applyfcr, and tel ling her about the i nformetiorr YO'1.l have fouml on Reuo ig el's .. (150 woirds)

b)I!i'lleUer to Chitdr{jfJ~ Ai(;tjvity Holidays, asking for more inforrnelion about the poi nts yo u have annotat.ed. (1 0'0 words)

50rcty !'lot. to have written Tor al~6$. Gooo new~! I'm eel1dTn.g a copy of tm adll~Ft I '~Z1W r-,flceil1tly for Chrldr'er1~ Aotlvrt;y HO'Ifday~' (CAIH), the GDmp:illny I w,ork~J fOF l;l'i~t ye~'F ~n Niw ZM~'j(n:d. Yoald ab$o.llJte:J,Y lave'it. In Ni('lW ZMI61 nt!, a nll CA H ar~ ~ rota:!!; 'W' woft(Pj. Th C:Y\'tl g:ot al much 17et~r reputation tha n G:£)mpooror'6 Hkt'l ChildV~c~ ncl Reudi€ld~ - e~re.uially Relrdtger'~. rl~ h~tm~ a ft:W ~iid' swrl~~ aboutthgm ~'FO~ frietTd~ Arww~y, mu~t ;aa~h. Let me ~nQW if I CZln htl'lp at .alii.

F:e;g~rd~-"

Tri~~

CBU_.,DREN"S ACTIVITY HOLmAYS

Va'i11Il;Ctle:s for SPQrlilS ,sllpenisors. 'cook~. ~:usk ~lne!fS. ,eNiCUrSiOIl leade~ in se""er;t] M:g]i!ill.·

sl?~al;j~g OOJU~nllt!ri;~s, __ -------~ - - Yes, hut J,ow fl1(,Ch? ~

.1 oomp:e~jtiJ>,-e sa]llries

• fla,'ghl paid

• &or(l.~ bQard ~ lodgid~ pr9'V~ded ----_+_ ~ dol$S . .':iQ@ ~rl?

You ml]~'l h~ [,lr,ep!l[,~$I. to; .1 be i'leltibl,t:Slfld Wdrk ]01"115 h01l11'S ,.1 s.lllbstHu.le fO'.I" cSuck :coQeagnmes. in other ~ _

An pos.tS are {emp:0I1'lll, OIIlIDnreel-lll0nm cQIlu:ra-CI:l'l. Dead]i;[Ie for ~pti'ca~ons;

3 wooh .from. date of ad~rli:(;emt:li:u

IREUDI,GER'S Chihken ~s camps in .No.rth .America and Aus,traiasia

E.x.cellllent'!lVOriking cQnd't~lons inc~uding giu<m~ln~ed .1')ccommodaltion, .ll~ci~1 dubs for 3ta.ff,fre~ $Wn e10lCU rsiio:n:s, ill travel Olillowa r:Jce 'IOn 'top lOf U'IEl salary. iF ixed ho~rs., with voh.JflIla!ry overume .• Vacapdes UlI'qugh O'Lllt the y-eillf (temrpo:rary staff), Perman ~ nt pests as adv~rti$oo.

Now write your tWQ h~,ttelr.s. yo~ should use yo u r own words asfa ras possib lie .. · You do not need to. include add resses,

TEST 4. PAPER :2

;P ART 2 :

C hoose ,cIne: Q~ the fonowu n9 wrutj n 9 til'Slk:S. You r ,anSW,En sheu I d foJ h)w exacily th eo i nstructions g:iverL Write a bout 250 words ,.

2: The' sana o~ 'tJ,r coHege ~twlhich yo UI a I1l stlUdyitnlQ runs a .sc:h@~rle known (ItS 'me.iito~ili1g', by which newstudents from abroad can get advice and ssslstence from expeti,enoed older students, You haw Just been a 'mentor' f-or ol'le year,

Wriite a report to' yo'ur Pirincipa~, saying how successful you thlri~ the me,l"IIta:ring· scheme is. Give details Otf how well the sJudents adapted to their new Ili~e.i;lny problems .ttl at IQCCIIJ rred and a ny recommendations for the future.

Write your ireport,

3 'You have recelved this letter fro m iii n a~ rl i ne ·after a recent 'fIughtabwad:

Thank yQU very much._f'oc:~akin.g the b.uub]ej:o rompie,te om ooslomer feedbac.k questioMati:i"e .. \IVe a_re,sOiuy bJ see that YiOU were IiLot'siiltisfie:d lI'Villi cerlt<Wl aspects of the flight. '\iVe'wotl[dbe most grateftill if yoo. rouill.d sopp~y \lli\with derniled C{lmme41itS on: t11l€ foUo\\!irffig po1nts youjud.ged 'u:nsalisfadmy';

• qulility of food

-lriendHness of staff

.. in~ru~h't mfcm.T.latioa

Win ell free,cGur,se (It a '!anguGg.e school o.f yOJUIt"clhoicJe anywhere in the wedell

.. Whol pmb18ms of motivutiClrl might yclJ.lr'lg people lea m i 09 Erigi i sh hCive~

*' How co n these' be overcome? How rca n you ng people be ~ncolJro~ed l'O Q pprooc h Eng I ish with d pdsi tive aHitude?

.5 You have been ii sked to mmrfrbute to a series call.eo j Em p~oymlent Prospects r ina magi1:lzi rle aim€'d at school .a n dI mllege· h!!(lv,@rs who (lIre loO~i r"lg for jlQbs, Yo U snoulld include:

.. yourco m p:any's recru ltm em prcced LJ re .. tra ~nirf1g possl !:Iii iti es in you r country

.. opportunities to work abroad with 'You r com pany !il, )rou r corn parry's. ~u~tude towards promotion

Write .31 magazine ar:tide,

~ ~

TE"51 A, PAPIER .2

PAPER,3

EngUsh in Use (1 hour 30 minutes)

ip ART 1 _

For qLIestions 1-115, read the text be'lqw and then decide' whi.ch word best fits each space. put the letter y011J ciho9se for each question ~I"I the correct box on your answer sheet Til e exercise begi I1IS with an e:Xilmple (0).

No Ordinary N,oveHst

Lunden roonUe5 so ~O) .... in the work of the' fngUsh novelist Charles: Dickens (1812--1870) 't:tw't people! often f1} ... ,. that he 'Was born end bred~here. ]n fact, the w-l'iteYs father worked for the nary and the famUy moved oround a (2) .... deal, Dickens was nevertheless famfher w.ith London ond many of the things he sow there wer-e Jeter (3) , .. ' .. into his books. For example, he

observed the rich (4) beggars on th.'€!' stte-et5, and saw cr-amped SHeets

ex.lsdng in stark (5) to vost open Spu,(€s.When Ms father wes (6) .... in a

debtor's, pri,son. otter a U~eUffi'e of Living beyond hls (7) .... I the young Chnrles had no (8,) .... but to' leove school and workin n shoe fcctory, There he' enmed.jus1 0. :few pennies ii, week. wUh wbtch to (9) .". his fo.mUy~ now

'WUhout a breodwinner, This was om expertence wh kh made a «101) •••••

impression on the young pickens, perhaps exp]ain"hllg his Later pre-occupntlon with lost or orphaned children ill his novels. After a (11.) .... in the legal profession, Dlckens became a reporter and populo r 'writer. Hi s first .pu.blfshed (1.2') .... was a book oo]Jed Sketches ,by' B.oz, which (13) .... in 1836. This,coUectlon of london scenes was soon followed by CI. novel entitled Pickwick .Papers .. like m(}st of his novels, this fitSt came out in the (1.4) .... of ,a serial ill OJ monthly magazine. The r,eadingl public would $ol1ow the ltves ,of the characters in Each (15) , .•• in much Ute same wa.y mar peoplewntch t,eaevis1on Scoop epems today.

0 A pri n ci pally ® prominently C profusely D profoundly
11 .A, consider B cdi scever C assume D realise
.2 A gre'st B big C huge D large
3; A incorporated B absorbed c. merged D integrated
4 A go over B, '9'et by C' run over D pass by
5 A o p position B, contrast c:: comparison [) relation
6 A detained B, retained c maintajned Ii) sustained
7 A accounts B loans C means D savings
,8 A choice D, chance C ideal D time
9 A carry D, manage c: bear D support
10 A longling D durable C neavy D lasting
11 A spell D turn C shift D try
12 A effort B work C craft D attempt
13 A. appeared B opened C entered D arrived
14 A manner B mode C form D order
15, A lnstsllrnent B series C version Il QOrllsilJnment
..
TIE S 4, fA I? E R l , - -

]I) A R i 2

IFor questions il6~30, comr:lJete the foHowin'9 article by writinl9 each missin'g word in the correct box on your answer sheet Use emily ,one word fo r eaeh 5 pace,

The exercise begins with ,an example, (0),.

BEARS ON CAMPUS

Svalbard Uniiv1ersity, (0') , the Nomegian island of 5pitsber,gen. has more

than one clalm (16) """''', fame. firs.ttlY; it lstne world's most nClf!lhef~Y' campus, located in ,an area dotted (117) .... , ...... international establishments at the frontiers of scientific researth, The university itself is recognised

(UI,) "'!'''''' a centre of e:-:,e:e'Uence, spsclalisinq in things (19) .. 0;0.; .... climate c:hang'9 ,and marine bi1oll,ogy. What's more, there are no rawer than fourteen professors 0 iii Cat mpus, (20) .... ; .... ".. gives pro boa bly the b est ratio of professors to stu dents s i'iywhere iln the world"

Even (.21:) .. ~, .... surpriis~ng} howeV'er~ is; the fact that SvaII bard is the aniy

campus in Europe (2,2) the students are routinely armed by the

un irve.rs:ity auth orities. Sa~ety isa big Issue here and on a rriva I" students m u s t master (23) "",., .... s~ill~s as'the best way to pack a sl,edg,e or signal to a

passinq helicopter, as, well as lear"liling how to protect (24) aqainst

attark from polar bears, (,2S:} " gre.at i;s the risk'of attack from these

creatures, that students are told never to venture out (2'6) " .. " ..... their rifles.

In {,2,1} ., ... , ... " of the bears, Sva[bard is a great place to be a student.

·especially for those into winter sports, (28) , to the warm currents of the

Gu Ilf Strea m, it is 0 n e of the wa rmest places In the Ar'c1b1 ~ with

temperatures only twenty degrees b,eklw zero in winter compared to minus

forty in pam of Ca 1"1 ad a, which are much (.2:9) SO LIth. ln summer, it can

be W,t:! rm [30')1 , ... " .. " to SiU n bathe,

TE~T 4, IPA.PIE.R 3

PAR T .3

---

1 n most liines. of the fo! IOWl ng textthere is, one un neeessa ry word. It ls e ith er

9 rca mmaticCi Iry incorrect or does not fit in with the se ruse of the text. For each numbered line 31-4(i"find the unnecessary word and then write it in tbe box on your answer sheetS'om,e' lines are conrec.1i, 'ndkate these with a tick (iI). The exercise begins with two examples (O) and (00).

IExa m P,I'f!;S: I " 1 II [::-1
(11(11 ~ Starting Dvm' Agt:Lin

o Ever since I ean l',etnemhel', I have al w,ays loved to draw.When I

00 was V\e;ry youl'i.g~ I scr:ibbledaU them over roy bedroom walls until I

3:11 mastered papel" and. pencil. Later, ti'(I'Iti an enlightened ,cl'l:o<oUeacher

3,2 made sure of that I went on to art 8~hoQI. ami it w,as tJlere th,,~t 1

3,3 drew myflt'st life lllodei! wlrireh was 8 such wonderful experience ..

35 ignored again thiID' adyice .. 1 wanted t-o do sm,'lJ'~thing more ex<ciUl'Ig

36 as a, C;aree'l' and r ehosa graphle design, After atcollege, I worked

37 for a number of' ye.t'll"S as Art Dtreetor ilt ,<I. smaU publisbi"g company.

3:8 ] loved tha 80cisMUty of office ]ife, but gtadul:l.lly became much mora

3:9 and mm:'e frustrated, I found m,.v8!1l1f longing foJ' to draw IU'(jpedy

40 ag1iin, hut tJlat mei;\~thavihg myself time to draw those Ua.iug!!, '!i\r hi.,ch

41 interested me. Then, out of the blue, it was announced that tile

426rnl wa~ being l'(il.()l'gfmised and Lwas :ofrered. voluntary Ile-dund.aIlcy

43 "v:ith quite a kU'ge amount cash payment, I L apt at the ehanee, With

.44 enO'ugh m.oney in the bmnk to give support me EO:r' two ::veal'S, I went

4.5 back to art conege, detennined to get my drawing skiJl· as baek

,46 up to scratch 80 that I could embark on a Clll'\~e:r as an mustl"abn~

TEST 4. PAPfR, 3

~, ---

--

PAR 1 4.

f:or qU€lsti'QFlis 4,7-lfj,t, read the lWQ texts below. use the words in the box 'to the r~ght ofths text to form-a word that fits in t~e s·ame nurrtbered :space ~nthe~eX1t_ WI',ile the new WQ~d in the ooirrect box on UIE3 anS\Mer sheet. The e)i8f(lis8 be,g~ns: with, an

~);;am pliia (O) ..

INFORMlAlllQ;NI l.E'AFI!.ET

ZEBRAS

T'he' zebra spen~, mest of its life eating. [tg, met consists 'm.lli:nllY Q!fgra:s:s'es and leaves. becausJeother larg'er gHliZe!S such as buffalo and 'wilde1b Ei,est. lit;a)ve nlltp:i,ckof tme (0) .,.,.,,, .. gwzing arel1Ui.

{47J .. , .•. ~ .... t the zebra"s mla!OOlIl.-Y is spredaUy ,adapted to g:et the 19J1reatest benefit from the least

(48~ ' .. n ••• li'ie9letation. The aRim,at's lelong;at!l!G

(49) , .. , .•.• sy:st:em !pm,vide,s a large surfaclE! area,

whic-h is further aidedl:J,ba:cteria in the ost@maJ::h. [ikE! many Ig'UlzmQl ~m:bttals in. dry,sp'ar~ely wo'oded areas, the zebm mJust ha~ i'~gular sccess to water .

. During f~ij) ., ,.~,.,#~, water is ,(51) , and

the zebra do es nnt have IDO wander 'far. However, as too rains recede, ~Ibra:s· form. 'hulge hil!:ras as

(.52:) •. ,....... ~HtJUPS jlO!n u.p lnthe se.arGn for fre--\Slrt

grazing. Su.ch (53) am l!]SlLl!.aUy v,ery noisy, as

the~bl'as keep .('!ontaJl::twith their faJld~~jl' members,

MAGAZINIE A,IRnCILE

Thl&:rce may be hu ndr,@as 0' other appl i.cr;;mffi in

[54'] . _ . _ . _ , ... o~ your dream [rob I so' how do you I~e~ a cornpa . .ny kn ow th(]~ you're Ihe- best pe rsoa for tn€ lob? Fi(SIIYI be P~Q~s.siOriol iny~ur t,S"S~ .-+ __ ." '-n .. WIO'f,~

e~ pIOyef~, Wj1:hlhe:excephon of mecl~Q Q n;d

,1,.56] ... _. _. _._ ind~stries, prefer white AA paper, and it is essential 10 pr6duce your CV en tJ word processor. Socondly, be brier and ooncise w11en you I[:st on-y previous jobs; just say whot you d;d. where 0 nd when. If you .mu~lelabo.rat&. m:!1lion. your ,greatest [57] ,_ ."~ ""' .. ' bu1 don I wonie! I nlervn;)Vi/€:(S don 1 \I\I"CI ntto hem OJ lot of ~S8l .... > ••••• informaHofll_ If you don't know on: OIo-s,wer, say .se I I nterviewer.5 a re more I~kely t,o be impressed by

you r [,S9~ 11-1clFI by a n ql1~mpt to cover up yo Dr

160~ _. _. _._ _ Frrm~ly, moke $ure YOLI hoV€! don€)' your

research befor·ehond in order to give ~~e ~6.' ,."'" ... "' of berng Itlformo;;:dobou~ lhecompony cd Ihe interview .

....... ....

TEST 4. PAPER :3

~O) RICH

(47) :FOR.TUNE ~4B) NUTRll10N (49) DlrGESl (50) SEASON (51) PLIENfY (5.2) -COUNT {S:3i) GATH ER

(.54) PUiRS U E

H'iS:) PHES:E Nf

(ISIS,) c REAT~ (.57) AC Hil EVE (5:8;) RELEVANT (.5:91) HONEST (1601) IGNQ R E (61) IIMPRESS

PART :5

for 'Clu~5tions 62-74, read the fnrmall,eUer of complaint from a customer; Use the inf,ormation to complete the numbered gaps in the informal mote. The words you need do not occur in the fermel Iettee Use no more than two, words foil' eaeh gap. The exerdse b'eg~ ns with anex:ample (O).

Exampl,e: I 0 I ~

FORMAL 11.IEITER

ThE:) Manager Thorp 'Video Club

Gee r S~r or MSid 61iTI,

'I am writing to express my dilssatis'faclion about the way I was lJI'eated on a recent visill.o the ol'ub to rel1urn the vfdltlo 'Dssart Mammals', which ~ had borrowed !he previous week. T,he assistant tried to charg e me sxna for a Ilate return, although I had tlotifted )'IOU we II In advanc@ or my intenliOAto e'Xtel"ldlhe Iloan. ActtJally.~ my husband had telephoned 0fI1 my IbelflalI. two days previous~'y, andllh~ extsnslon was accepted. Despite explaining (he circumstances to th€l assistant, II was still obliged to pay a fine.

I then asked if ~ mighluse.one·of the computer tsrrrmals to consult the chjb~ Int~rW!Elt sita, I was told tn,at the computers are for staffus.aonliy. I ,81m a long. st,anding member of the c'lub and have never been denied access in the past be(ore. What's more, on this occasion. all 'thlre9 terminals were unoccupied.

II look forward to hearing hom you.

Yours faithfully

Jaffl Ra+figan (Nrs)

Jane Rattigan

INFORMAIL LETTER

'CJ - Regaming Mrfi Rattigltil11'f.j (O} .. " ...... , > Ba!iiioaUy. ~he'5 c.larmlng tn.~t W.e mad~

her pa,y for (62) "". a 'li'fko &:>ack two da,y~ l<'ju. Sh~ BiGlje ti~~ (00) .•...... ". 1J6

ple'tlrty of (64) ., ....•... that '5he wanted (65) , ,. on to t.he vidoo for anot;h$r

couple of day5. In flil(;t" her hU6b'and. (6e) ..... n.,. up and we'd told him it would t;.e

{67) 511$ eil'l,Y$ she toltj our Zl56r5t.'>!nt wn.a,t (08) , .....• burt ~ill had

t.O pay up. (It w.a~ ~riah, the rJe'IV OIit~J)

A nywa,:/, th ed"1l £jh~ wa.nt~~ to uss ;il co ttlputer to (,69) "I,J,F w,ebeoitti.

Apparently she W:aI~ t~1d that onry staff me.ml;le.re. 8re (10) use the.

romputflr$ (trli5 15 tht: ne~ .. rule). 611$'9 I:r~cm <iii clull;> member fnt' quite .e

(71) " " tln~ haa oPvioue;!y u$fld the complf1:;ero (7:2) The point s.he

mak6\~ if> tthalt. (73) .... ; ... ,. of thtl compu~ro (74) .... , I.!~e.d at the trme.

I g.1J!~g"'~t we E:ienJ Mr'~ ~;;l'tt.ig"'iHm a:pology and e:>:platn to hsr tlfJout t<1ie flew rulee,

R~att1e>

Jo

TIESi 4, PAPEIR 3

For I1u~stlim1's. 75-801, f:eiil"d th e fQllowrng teXt and tn,eh ChOQ1Se frern the list A'91 g'iven bel:aw the beset phrsse to ml eacn of the spaces. lr:u:Uc-al1e Y(luranSWe!f 0 r:I the slepalr.a.te" anS"!J!I!",eli" (sihleet, Each correct phrsSie may only be used once. SOIlil1.e of the· sugge;stedl a f'I$wer~ de not fi:ti't alii.

Sleepi n g less than s~'x and a half hall rs a night ls not good for you, warned ~f1eAmencan National Slleep Fo,undarion r~oondy. Wjith su prem e irony. the warn~i ng cam e just as people i IiII the US, in the Inte rests of da.yHgn1tsa.vi n g. were about to put tne'j'f docks forward on e hou r, wh ich always depfiives

fh e m ()f some sle~,p. The foundation"s. latest resea!Jc:h snows fhat eight. hpUi's'slee pis .optima! 'foJ giood health. The problem i~s tin at tbesle dijys; some people seem to regard shSiiep as slothful and Ulnproduttiv,e, 'a view encouraged by Ii 11':lnovatiloli':H;: Ii ke the Internet, <'fii).""" • long afterother sources of ~nformrati()111 ~Maslleep. Actudy"o'rlIe could go further back in

lu me and blame theilJ'1Jltention (Dr tlhfe l~gJllt hu lb._ (76); .... . Pe,ople s lepto nl a'verage r'lI!'Ie hours a In i~ht before fuh e arrival af electricity;, ('77) ".. , For sleep is- not €'qu ivad~e:rllt~D5witcin ing off YOlli r computer. 11,1'il s.~eep ~m portant things smill happen, things (';8) ... a • Si,eep redttllcesthe body's metabolic rate by up to 20 per Qe'l'il\t~ r~ preS!E!rJJ'tin g. a great saving ~n energy. an d the amou nt of "o~ygen (:791) .... a~sp m,lIIs d ram!atfrcailly. as does, our body tern peratu re to a iessere'xfent. And· a'wflng slie,elP the' body releases growth hormone; (80) ',"'

A wh kh is de-a fly not enough for the a~erage perso n

B wh kh pwoodbJy mea rilsth~y w-ere a gooo dea I ha ppier C. wh kh is why ~h'i Ildr,en r1e'ed plentYQT sls-ep

Oi whh:h can eve~ lead to major cbast.ers

l: wn lc h aHo\iVS users un Urn i'tied .access

F w~ kh we use ~n the f rst part of the n igjhit 1(;1 wh i:c.h we f'leEld i If1 oJrder 'to fa I i a sl'eep

H wh kh eff'ecti:ve'ly 'elj m~nate,d cia ~kn ess

wh kh an;'! 'th'ourgh'E. to be l1e.s·oofa;ti,VE' and cOf1oorvi n'9

PAPER 4

Liistening (approx, 45 min utss)

--

PAR T 1

You will hear part of (I lecture' ·abClut a nneteernh-centurv scientist ~o, made an important discov@ry. For questions 'iI-8,. cOlffipje~e trH:~ sentences.

You ~II hesr the recording twice.

In his introduction, the speaker describes Perkilll'S discoveryas both

1 I and' pionee ringl.,

~------------------~~

WiII'iam's father wasn't happy with his son's choice of I

su ~ject of study.

Wililiam made his disC/overy in the year I b ~ ____._,~3: .....

At thattime, the substance called quinine was mads fromthe

'- --'--_4....,j1 of a rare tree ..

Wi I Ham 's proressor hope,.d to make q u ini ne from a process wh irch used

L- ~ ~~_5__.dJ as its raw material,

fa his surprise,WrWam's nrstexpelliment produCBd a

[

6 rather than quinine.

Wililiam's dye was superiorto existing dye's bE!lcause it was

!- ~~_----'I'____:B----', -I as, w~111 as being cheap and easy to make,

TEST 4, PAPER 4

--- ---- - ----

PAR T 2

You wi']! hear part of a radio p~ogram me en thll.! ;slubjlect of kites, For questions '9'-16, .rom plete the sentences,

Usten .calreflLllll~y. ,as yOU! wiilill hear the ,~ectlflding ON:CIf 'fmJy:.

The ear:liest wriuen ,evidence of kites was: found in

kltes wer~ most often used 10 r 1

! 1'0 1 in

~ady times.

A kite ph:lyed a key ro~e i tl the dev,e loprne nt of

c__ ----J.I_'_1.....i1l communications across the Atlantic

The first sUQcess.ful i....- ~J~1_;3___J. 1 was :sJm~i,ar to a

kitle ~n desiign.

c__ ---il._l~4~· 1 paying spectators

Atthe fes,tiva t there willi be a

i nvqlvi rig speci ally~ rna d e Jlapa nese kites.

I n the future, kites m,ay be adopterl for use

1161:

TEST 4, iPAIF'ER. 4

VOILI will hear an intenliiew 'iMth a woman who rUIl'S a record label. For questions 17-:23:" choose the best anWJler ,A, B. c or D!.

You wilill hear the, remrdin9 twke,

'111 Why did Tessa stop working at he'f father's recording studio?

A 'It was only meant tc be a temporary job. B Sh,e had decided to trainto 'lYe a teecher, !e It involved too much secreteriel work.

D She wanted to have an independent career.

1,8 How dod Tessa benefit from doing a variety of temporary s'ecretarral jobs?

A She ga i II eo insight into the m us k btl si ness. IB She' saw how 'to I:ead people ,effective! ly_

e She learnt how to handle paperwork effic,iently. D' She, real ised the role, played by offtc:e pc I "tics.

19 What approach does Tessa liIsu~lIiy adopt when selecunq new bands for her label?

A Sh,e fOUOW5, he r 'O\M!1 instincts.

B, She I istens to the view5 of customers. 'C She foiliom the advic.e of producers. o Sh e consults a wi die range of p eop lie.

20 What is the main thing that Tessa looks for when signing a new ban,d7 A u nder,lyhlig m uslea I talent

B potent! a~ fr-ar commerci all su ccess C long-term commitment

Dthe eb i lily to rna ke decisions

21 How does Tessa feel now about the first hit song that she discovered?

A She r,es.ents the ways'he w.ar:iitr,eated.

B She accepts tin at the band ,got a better dea L C She ap predstes why the ba Hi d ,let her down., D She r!E!gr'i?ts not g'etting any n~.cog!nition for it,

22 How does TesS;;t feel abo LIt til 9 Busine-55woman of the Year Awa rd 7' A angry wltn the' friend who nominated her for it

S, sorry that she didn't try harder to win. it

C dissppointed not to have been successtui in it IJ) proud to have been considered fe r it at aH

23 When neglotiatlngr a deal, Tessa alms to

A avoid g!2tti ng too persnn.a!111y inVlolved, B keep her own emotions under oContr'bl.

( understa nd wh at motivates. the othe r parfles, DI talk the ather parties ~nto acr,epting her ideas.

r s s r 4, PAPER4

- -

PART 4

You wiln hea r fivle short extracts in whiCh different peopl'e ,are fa Ilkii n'g a bout games that ,are plaYEd in their family. For questions 2·i\H~3. choose the best answer A, 8: or le_

Yo u wi II hear th e record ing t\l\!ice ..

24 How does the t,i lISt speeker 'ree,1 abo Lit the way she lsamt to play til e '9 aille callied bridge?

A She's gratefull for her father's. persistence. B She real lses how slow she was to' Ilea rn, C She regfets not pa,)ili f'I gl more atte rrtion,

25 When playing bridge, she feets it is important not to, .A lose sight of why you're playin'9 it.

EI, become over-confident ebout your abilities, C be ~ ntl miaated by the level: olf th e opposnicn.

26 III the second :speakef's familiy.

A participation in group activities is optional. B time spent together is rega reed as va luab I@,

C en tid ran may choose haW' to spe rrd thei r free ti me ..

27 When asked to give 03, performance, some familY 'glUlests feel extremely A amused at the idea.

S reluctant to Joi n in.

I( henou r€!,d to be a.sK;led.

2,8 What does the third speaker feel about board games?

A They help you to relax. witlh people.

B They are a .good way of meeting peop le,

( lhEl'Y ta ~e ,"f!fINalif the r!leed fm conversation.

2'91 Accord ing to her 'f,arthe~, wh at do people fail to rea I iSle about boa rd .g'ames i .A the .rang:e of games that is availlable.

B which games ha,ve educational value

C that pJ,aYli ttl 9 such ga m es can be good for you

30 Wnat does the fourth speakers fi3imi~y expect playlers to dO?

A give' their full attention to the game B, let the rhildren win sometimes

C ta ~e tu rns at kee piing score

311 What motivates the fourth speaker to continue playing the g!am~s?

A his reompetitive spirit Bthe fi nandal fiewalras (: it's; a fa m ily til" adltlon

3,Z How does the fifth speaker feel when people interrupt hertamily's outdoor games?

A annoyed by people'S: ignorance'

B pleased to share her enthusiasm ( surp rised by the,i r je\r''E,I, of ~n~ej\est

33 What is her atnt~tude towa rds new 'game-.s?

A She's \Milling to play them occasionailly. EI, She'd rather stick to her old favourites, C Sh e's keeF! to try wh atevers popu 1;3 r,

TEST 4, F'A,PER4

[PAPER 5

~ - - -- -

Spea kinlg (15 minutes)

PART 1 I

{3 minutes}

The examiner willi ask you a few questions about yourself and then ask you to tallk to your partner. For example, the' e;.:;amirler may asJ::"you to find out about each other's:

• ;3 real of work or study

• e:xper1i,ence of studying IEngliish

• aims and ambitions for til e tutu re.

~4 minutes}

r W,ork (Compare. contrast and speculate)

Tum to prctures 1-5. on pag:e148 which show people at work,

Candidate A. compare and contrast two or three ofthes@ situations. saying how much satisfact ion you t h i nkeach person gets from th ei r work.

Carndidate S, which person do you think has the most intEHesting job?

I Thingls l:,eq[!!JI~F'i "'g COIIJII";a'9! (C ome,s,re, con1:rast a nd $Pec~l~teJ

Turn to pictures, 1-5 on page 149 which show people doing tnings which reql:Jilre wuwag'E!,

Candidate lB. tompar,e and contrast two or three of these situations and sary why you think: the p.eople are, doing these things,

Candidate A, which person do you think. is being bravest?

-----

PAR 1 :3

-----

(4 min utes)

TUrri to the pictures on pag@i 150.

A new internetfonal organis,13ltion is be'ing set up to make people more aware of threats to the env,imnm.ent. The ,organisation is lacking for a symbOiI to use on its fJublidty material. What issues. are raised by each of the S)lmlba'ts and haw efiec:ttiv,e we IJ I d 'each be in getting_ the or,glan~sation's m@s's.Bgl@ac:ross7

PAR T 4

(4 m in utes)

Answer these, qeesnons.

What can ol'lg,anisatians Ii ke th is do to rna ke us more ewa re?

Do you think that giQVernments should do more to protect the enV1ironment7 Which is more important, a (lean environment or fU111 employment?

Is it fair t,o expect poorer coun1frles to pay for protec1~ng lhe erlvimnment!' Why is it important to save ra~e plants and anilma,ls?

li:EST 4, P'APER 5,

1

Readiing (,1 hour 15 m inutes)

T E :S:~ "'f.- 5

- I'~.- -

IPAPE,R 1

- - --

PART 1

Answer questions 1-15 by ref,erring to the magazine ertide about travel brochures on page '9i1.

Indicate your answers en 1I:!liIe,se'p.arate;i11'l5w:er' sheet

For qUe5tions '1-1,5"answer by ctJoosingfrom the reviews of traivel brochures A-:E on page 97,

Some of the ChOi<:ElS may be requilred more than once.

Note: 'When more than one answer is required, these malY be given in any order,

Wh,klh biroclhure 011' broclh u res iis saiid to

co nta ~n Gil s:urp~ising omission? '1

make good IIJse 'of langua.ge to attract potential 2

h olidaly!.,ma kers?

'fai~ to refer to the naturall features of the.country it deals with? 3

feature a set 'aT guidelines outlininq it company'S practices? 4

'co nta in 0n'1 e sectio F1 wih kh is unsatisfactory? 5

use a laye ut designed to draw ansmion to d i ffere-nt 6

informational detaHs;?

feature visits to a neighboming country? 1

hav~ a slightly misleading name? 8

feature holidays which cost more at certain times of year'? be of interest to holiday-m(;llkers without @" I'ot of money to' spe'nd?

conte i n rather repetitive vis'ua ~ materla I? 12

feature a location wh,ere ~t is pOI,Ssib!e to stay I anger ttl an 13

intended?'

9

10, ....

11

present information in an invEmthle way?

115 ....

TRAVELAFR,ICA:

BrocilllrQs under Review

Ell WllLDLIfE SAFAJIU3

ThI'Si t:qmpany otmrs ·a!}olJt 70 wm:mf@ and adV'enturlil .safaris, The.l'~ ilIr£l th fee different s1lyle-s oj tri p ~ t.be 'Tt:'lvef1er "'u/S. wh ion is- ~alsecl i ntili ree- and fOiJ.J'i-Sta r

Q EGommodlltroll, the Trave"er, w~~ch i<s jl'l to unst class hotels, lodges 09Jncil camps. and Bldd§}€!t. wh'6'n~ {,llU!)lst houses a nO D'IY cam!)lirl{1 ere part of 'tl'ieactien. Trm safra)'l11inl1l'f@ries oytline Efa~~y loca:tiomii, a:mlVlrf ss .:llhid op'tia I'IS, and 'a re aocompMied by f1'.lci1i: bOOiBS tover~ng t h.~ type af trip, tra:rlspbn.,. ~t~ffi ng, Oigegroup ~Ind o:t:he r darn, booationS'a no routa m.ap& <lIre i nol uded, The bf(Y.d'iUt:e iil$o,_proVitl'9S: an axlr&mTef),,(c lAs~1 ~m: of 9U ide lin es about the dOGang do;n':f$ (If bEltlaviour tM earn of the ~()wntrUeg cQ,m;].emea.lhese vmy Trom dres's cad~ through p"E!rso~,a I greet1 i'!~rS - fnt;ILJd~ng a few h:mguiQg:e tips lq tmpress rJi"e hosts - tp the taking of pnotQgrl1llphs,

For the. adve rrtu mus, parhaps .butdlgel-conscuolcls" tra~lle.r:, there ar:€: $Om~temptlng'''sataris on offer,

II AFlEUCAN .ADVE.NTUIE

Th:is ~V!laJrd-'-\/ifiln fling, io:ng·hat.d, wQrldwi:de toulr '~peratm offers a. \larie~y of S.i;l"ITarh5·tCH;! !1!J:rnber of East African (;ountries. They QOVBf rne 5efengeti, Z9Itlzibar and La~e ManYl'lr.a,~'~hougn the 01[luWJl Giimg E! lste rnporaei I,y 0111 the I lst i\OF this yeal'It'ineraries ilM!lJ!gensr;aJly of ®"'14 days' durnHcm, but 1?Xl€!"!~lonsof upt.o a VV€ek on Zan:ZioalF Islandar~ ~vailable'.

B i rc~. IOV9n, andthcose W1l!Ati ng 10 dim b MI. Ki I i manjaro ffre vve II calte red lm by W~aJt 'll'UJIS1! surely be OTl:e :of tiFre most dylilemk:: hali!Lia¥ compBtlieSafOlJlJ"ld_ The aameraworkis head Bnd shtn.J~d:ers aibDve that Ol fits tom p~l!tors, wifh fhis ye\j}~I.s:· brodhum feafuf"1l!'Jig

iii n or1gil"!al tJ&riI"tl)'-.:I-pS!-ge de'sig 11 il"l gloriOYS: m IJlti- '

6t11 o~ L ifIh e ~am~ ;[J',]fIj't al'tlilli31¥S IDe sa iitl for tih e \l!lI'ltin9; tih ill desctl p:tiOI'l :pf plao@s I ~aN~ if I ttlile '00. be desited

tlli rQ"'I"i gl1 out but nob.ociy's p~deGt! '

Prioos are quotedfGr E!a,ch itineJ'<3Ilry and costs for S~gsiQe $lQ:comm,oIJatiol'l listed ,111 tatJlllftS showing sea:El~nal v'elrl'atLc)r!$, This, ,atl'ra.ctive. e~sY"fO'iJ.se

brQcplu re G_Qn.ci)J',d£t'S with fairly e",~hsit\j~ info:rmatiOTil for v'is~tPfS, the eQrT'1 pa nys ~oos df (;0 Mud and ,1'l

bOOR ing form.

a tEXPLORE GiAMllA

This is' a oola.U'rfiul. Ilnfo~matillEl a nod elfe ~l~ve s~les tool; G I€,v.er LISle ola qU1eS!tio n~n~n SW€,F 1e-chnflqulil CO\ll8i(fS esse ntials SU(;!n a 5 money, we2lt~er;fu()<d a1n.d corvce:rrIi& like 'fhE! type of ~ I@ctl"ical plu@s !Jlseti, A'1Els'itillu-

rant gurGJ!e pinpointing Ihl;!' Gha.ra;C'l:~ri~tlCSOf.21 e.stab:Ilshrne!'l't.s pxe.e:e'a.'9$. an outl i!l.e Qf 14 hQt:eI,!;, of exee1- l'Elfil sti;H'Idar!;l sI'Id \;,Ieu'iet,v, Each of thes~ ~$,aflbrGed a

d01u'b.lscpagE!;,sprnad, over h,;3:lf .of whiCl1 dis:plays

phot~ra!phs ~h~lNing o:ff tbe facilities" ps rtikluiarly

the swimmif'llg pool, ~kh com i nates most layou1K Tills,. and the ..absenoe of a: mention of th!ll bEiach f.or ~

I"IlJlmbaf'tYo MteJs, is pertillPS a re~leG:dof1 of 1'I01i-

da¥fiI';;! k!er pfe'Jerer-roe"S- I,rrtrig UI~r"Ig, cpn~ideri I1Ig 1M countrY's eon siQierno,le Goa-stal attractiveness,

fA F'lumber of p®g~.s,aJr!&.dlflvot!3d to birdw.atonil'lg

sate rls and exou rs~on:li. The l:alter ii'lc~ude, TWe.rtrf ps, Sti,dh as crulsas across the border into S~n egal or up local cmakos, fishing @X{pea;ittol'l!; and horse 'tIri psNptes en hotel 9 rad~ng, climate, hiistOry ~llIdthe eoonemiy witl I prove very usefuL

I!I AIFRICAiN ICLASSIC

Africalr1 ClasislD is 'a 25-Vear"'CIld h"ltElJr"!TlOOO 1'1 a I Trnl\,ll1!! C'onneG'ii:eng Gompany, and class'i(l t eir '9"ll~age ~rochuf\e is - en ~rnw of ~S~iU nning p hotpg,raphs a fld seductive deS"cf~ption$" df£lpla-ye-d V\li~h rmil"lJl3;d tas~e, It 0xud~s class and quality" a Ad thlat's exa.ct~ whet ~h tl es,ta blis hmel'llts H port~ays represent. There are suglge'sted itinera~i as an d notes on h,;lXI,M¥ tr8 i 1'1

fou~n 8'1/$ witl1 i n Sourtih A~frica, Th e separa~e prior;! gll fda

gI~ves infQrma:tiol'!ori var&ous ,(s,e,a,sMally \!,a ri1! bIg)

c;h:~U99S for ;;i:i r fJ iglots, car him, trdiun sa'f,atri:s, acco:m· li!1~t~CI('I olInd activitil$s,.

A mo uth"wa't~ring ~OQ~ at So uth Afrl:aa, whlh::11 wi II make )lOll wi sh you could 'Stay f.l;:1r :ever!

II .AlLAlFRICA

Th:ol"lghHie co¥erage is lJ:ary:..briOad,n~fji D.ulk of nhEs 1f:241pag;e brod! ure FS devoted t~the 5.0 udiem Africall QotJ,ntrr.E!s. The- i nd'e:>: is pU2zUngand it takes a bit Of tim~ to wolt o.1..n whati~ ~h€B~· ariel, in some nalses, exa:dly where 10 find wnalt you ~Ifit.

:fh:.e firsl seGtlioll i.s ~i\!'elr'l~p ~ua~i(y pitWf€S and shart descti p't.lom;. of Uipm8 rk.e<t hdbil·I:s, lodges '8 rid G"aJm ps. rn tile cQulnnties ~is'm$d. ()f tfiri!, 810 pages in thi;S $6_6tkm, gettingl on fm half $eli~ SO.lIlhem AfI'iCSlf'! hOlters. (3tral"la aitl~Hlg~l"rda are b:riafly COVi3rM as desUmlititms;, withollt 1iN'Juqmrnodiation d~stTiptIQns.

Th,e seoondtsedifOfiI pr;ese,rrt:s sug,gesmd tt.!yr

itii"l eranes, Ag;ajn the OU Ik.are devoted to' $OlJth-e:n11 A .. f1l"iG1iI1 h IJ~ Q.'vernU 'tiM:€< SiJSgJElSltBd "'ou~a.s< eneo mpaSJ;i the rnsln ~rac1ion:S. in IQ£li"Ca~ and ;:ooi"lomiCI1I

Si~ U:€:l1iCfi,

The f;)rQl!lMl! f~ ooe-s w'a rrr, hO\!Ve<\!'sr, of aOil'Siiderable fh;l'Q~iJ\a{['On~ iF! th~ I'1ri-ce· of- a,ior trav~l, SlQ tJ'l r:J ffleslag:e is- dOfi'l't tr~veJ at ltashH ana Ctrri.slmas time.

r a s r S, i?AIPER 1

I];) A R·i .2_ _

For questipns 116,,,,,,22, you must cn(K:fs¢ wnrr;:h of 'iCrha.,par~gwaph:5 A.-H on page 99 fit inTo the, numbered '9!aps lin 'tllefoUowing rnagarzirFe ilrtic:le., There is one extra p.flIragra ph wh ich does nat fit in any of the gap::;,.

Indicat~ you r answer-s 'on tlil El' sEl'parrat'e answer 5he~t.

The Thatchers

Thmclficd mal.';, .madecif dried straw or reeds, an~ ('J f€.fJ~lNw!Q,awJ·e a/houses luFf1.glis.h viUage.s tllJa J'Or mW~)J !)GOI)l€. typify an i:def1.l fJf 1ft¢. cmmfry.sidlS.We meet two cr.ClJt.m~efl wfll:? are k,(#piIi8 their: u:adiliar!ai ~Jills in tlw family, wrues James l:-lrlghes,OI'lJl].low

Thatcher, Jp:rl<llfu,o:~, Howen, is sortleth]n,g of lUI ,expen: ~t jlJ~g ne.w I:6chl1o!(fgy w~th old. S1!I'cfu, is the riilipl¢ly cMMg[ng.·~ off hl ~ t;rafl:(hall. I:f~ 11®rn: .rro- be in tIro.chi wi.1Jj) aU new dev.etopme::t1]s, bi some ways, hiS" pmfessiQiiJ. has c.h~ngedbeyo:nd au rooogrution siaee ~e, learn~ his: ~&r:i.1~s from his fam~~,b1;a:t i.n ol:he:rsit remei [JJS exa.ctiliy tile same.

JOIl.<J:rntm is,~lellI:[h ge~~ttQ:n thralche.· whO' sri!~ wprk. ... w]lhi l'iJs- futh~1:, Bob, Arriving :a1 ChisbU:ry i'll 'Wih,~hi.re:, on iJ brisk, ,c]eru w]nter"S d!lIY. thevu.sfufO'd3inds the twomelJi perebecllugb up (no Ille mot( (If t~! 311 C~J~!iUry chapel" with a oommartding view ofnb.e mHing W.i~ffih1re ]n:i~.s. This, scene mUSJt haveJ)ee~,l re-enacted miUlY times QV~ lh.ece:n:~!!J.lies. b'ut here .~ sigOR, off 1WOgre.~s are dear.

117' I

But new~echnole.gy lh:m;n't "hanged everythn~. fm im:iltnYCe., nO'one has y~l m.am~~d ~l.) j:gprn\rt! Q~l the am:a.diti.onru ~~] spar (1:'!i'l.ig.'1 from tl]e hazel.tree used mr ·ClOlls.trl¥oting and ~iim:ng~alclled rootfu) JlJJ[la:~ obse·t\1Ies with -s:a~srn.crioOC'l, If ~ou twist!:I'g_~m wh~n i}el'ld~l1g [hem, !IS ~.e. demonS!lrnles. JtlJey don't snap as most other ty[:lf'J> of wood de>

The Howelis tis-eli (0 make ilIeir own hazel sp<m> btu [lOW tl'a.eY'R too busy. SQ they bu.y TIe,adX-m<i)de ones, Such is Ill£: p~s·ure ·~f tla:'I,Iing a sldU dl3,t is ii~~ingly in demand, A.acoming[o Rowen se:l1!ittr. 111BZ is mare wQJJ.- fo:r@;:ja~he.r.s - diere 3re1lfQu.IIld [,GOt) In Engl.<:md lOday,c WiTh II luntO'ver of t5Qm - ~h:a_[! tlle.~ u~ed ti;)' [l!;l,

[ 1'9 II

Times ITIll)1 be ~ood nuwfar thm:ci:afHs, but much needs m be done ar.a pnlitlcal leve:~ to safcgllW'rd the N~ure fOE ruhe p1\ofe.ss:io]],. S~hiig at the E.t~H$h Th8ilchcr~s COIlFerence IJruis yea(; Sir Jocelyn Steve [IS, Chairman of &g]l.sh " .. ' ,caUed. fQ:l"~ocalanlh'l)rili{ls ID reseaeeh

and .p:re$erve rdi1riions ]Illlte~:r areas. He also de;!]'J.al1ided

rnnre resem:l!t lOW metiIDds lu:ld m<ll,terilli.s uSed, <l11ll:li mto grnwi.ng .~ of straw tl1E!l. ~~~ fl3!i len O'ilJ't ·(if use.

The Howells flJ[ lli.eirpaJ:lt use combed whetrl reed for I]ieir (halch; ~~T~S has .[0 go [hmu.g:~ a thresher -and bi:ncl~r rnl:fuer than ill mode-III eombiae Jmrvesler, \!'4~kih eun s [he S'!JJjl;W .!W !ijnOlt, For tratli!:ioJ1al roof use, lfue stray.' <iiloo has ~CI be '£iopkOO' (.~~o~ illplight('illd )ern: 19 m;liii(Ure a!:ad drynutside}aJ.Td later ·.rickaF (the U'a:cii[lo]lal method ·of slackin,g) 1l[J~ .cpmitled.,

TradH:ionlistfl <I!re ~i.cHI;ady upset by:the. use .of water reeds from otber EU.rope<m couatries because nc-oae bows for ~.rt \Vl~d~er f~f~ prOOll!CtB:. OO-we-l{l;..-']" exrelleet in qMaility ~ey mfly be, wm be s(lirredro .&rgli"Sh oon:di!1oJ]s. Water meds have been _grow]i( and 1JI~"~s:I fat ce!lruriesil:!~~glish eoondes lilili Norf61k;bUl tle worry ]s thilt, if fCl.lcign water reeds beeome ffi9.00 widbspread. me sULs of 11U1ltl::mllg with long shaw ;;md oOlnhbd Wheat rtedm~r 'oo.uf1ldernli~r~!+

So. far from remg 'a scene of rum] bliss. peace and llm"lq1il.i]i~Yi We thatchi,n!il illdl!il:f1:lry ~11. some COl.1,ntrysid:e areas irs fiaugblr wfulll COll!fllli.clS anddisagreements, CQm,'tr'lo"'o1tiOrn.'Sffi and. liI.dlCbg:l"s.are freq(]fu1I.dy i.IJI opp®sa[!g,c~m:f;1[$., with et:;pett @vice hard lQ.OOtl'le~y rutd, no Il1lDn:Ued standards of ;g:ood practiee in pljaca, Il:~u~ m. IO]])lllban H.dweill SlI;,ys:' "The only reaUy .lmllpC1r:1:a!llt i:hlng ~s n.) lwep 1"11;.\ skin:;, of m~l<Ch]ng c<1i!li ve:

! ...

TES,T 5,PAPE.R "

A Jonathan remains philosophical On this issue. )[01..1 can understand if scme house owners ru:ld some rhatebers go ~or W"J.ter reed if itis the qukkest, cheapest l'I1l'lci most reliable mlllenal they'crurD find., But some tmdi.nonaUsll; get very up "I:~if a cottage or bam in l!heir area has been re-roo:fedi nimported water reed. They don't 1 ike it when a lilew roof is MI: in the traditional sl:)'.le of me region,'

B One of the big decisions they have to maka wlwn starting eepaies is, how much of the old thatch to remove, In the days of horses snd carts, hair=raising eecnemies were made to avoid haldl1g lO 'It'atipOn the old S:IruW, 01' the new. any fu:n:her 1h~1'I was strictly avoidable.

C Some oru:e:rvefll fear th!1!lll~ new tec!tm,que.s will spell due end fur trad±l:ioMI Ellg:lisl'llha~cbin~ but JOn<J:than remaincS an ,optimist Thai. too. is a prerequisite IDl'llle job.

D ,I[ncleecl, in da~ UK, mat'ching has suffered ]atdyfilOlH a ~hilli"dge of heme-grown materials, fmdng property owners to blJi)! cheaper wa:!e;r reeds "from. abroad, 10' replace tbe more tradinonal home-grown long straw, [ronicOlUy, lbese problems are c:omJIPlDnded by ~:u:: 1lS;C of artificial fertilisers by E'llg1ish furmers, which discourages the proc]ucllon of the longer SI~ITI~ of suaw that EIligHsh Ihal.rs normally desire.

E Thls is partly due to well-off'towa people buyil1ig up c.(Jtnlliry 'Cottages 3S second homes and then ofl:en extMdin£,IDem, bt~t also because farmers hiNe become more censcientious about the re~wralion of ~1!.'1iclllturill ibuildings.

F Howe\l\ef'. this is the .kind of paiil6takill£ work that dle avemge finn wor.ke:r of me 2lsl c,e-ntllJ!l)" has ndther the time, the skill, nor lhefinancial incentive, to cope with. So the increasing use of imponed water reed s l:eally is not surprising, even. if some experts S'tl,Y it is, I:J:Jirea:l:el1!ing the mclIitei::ttDm~ sl)'le of roofs in EngJ.wHl

G Some ll'laacl1.ers use willow for this purpose, but it doesn't last as 10000g in damp' eeadirions and can't be used on exposed ridges. Othern hav,e tried p]as.ric but ]t 'lends to perish in lhe sun and il[Jvariably a l1\iIoI YeS the w e ,of glue, which ,e-vel111l1ll11y melts or cracks under me elements.

H Ne:U te Jona:fu<m is his ~1flob:ile phons, fi~lly secured to a l';>{isl.oo strand of straw. TillillllkfuUy, auy cilkrs lend to keep it short - just an case he: loses his baJiance or drops <I bundJe O'E 1:h.atcb,,,

lEST 5, PA,PER 1

-- --

PAR'T 3

Rleao thiefqilowing ext:r(l,u fro:m a book ebcutadutation and answer questiOJ1'5l ;.t~:-28 on page 1:01. On yo!.! r answer sheet, i nd lea!e the letter AI B 1 C OF D agtil ~nst the'

n ~lffiber of each. q uestion 23~28, G~v€" only one answer to eiiiL h question,

I ndiicate you r answers Oil'll the SEllpanlte an:swenr sin eet,

W]llifi pbpul1if nUIS]c as wi:th cila~sital. nl)JIS]C, the nn ~y wa~ to corne 1tQ IJ,B Ii1rje'r!stand lit thom lJ.ghiLy. it ~"S saidl. b j)y~erll:infling it, lh~ prob~ W]tIl malny Iliep bands is tll1Jt: their members iHe sleLt-tt'llJgn,t and. cOlrilseql!le:rnUy. ~f ever' tJ11ey reaeh the level of p;1)J btio performance, they often o'I'l!ly S LlCJOllieO i 1'1 pe~I~H!tl.lati Ii1 g. th el' muskalL ~olliVenUOl'ls to wh~~tr they have~eell expos1ed,. ThE! d!il:\!s Wn e.m a grQIU ~ of raw, tale ~1;Ied musicians, eo u ltd

get ta9~E!th er tllIl1d work thei r way thl(() l!lg htea dis6nctive SI(:IlJIlld, co[[JlSta.nil:l;y lmjJTo>vi:ng theirter:iJlnique in 'the process, seem to be ;gone.

nu~rre majlsti LL be tale nts aro,~ml of the Qrder o,f a JI]mi Flendrit:<. or Erl,c Clllpton. able taacquire prodigious

'itec.rn 1lI1r(lue mai'F~ lyb~ the'iiTllse[VE!'Ji, but the mo1tivatiollll - tha sense '~ha·t there is sti~L somethin.g lur@"ent 00 say witnrinl1he madi am - has l.fI'r,g;ely eva porsted, SOl IiIiI uch so that mos;t asvi ri'!1.g Y0l,lng musfdanSi are in ,':r'E;!\8i$~ rlgly cont!nt to p!.aJy bhei r C\l'{~ ve'rsio ns ?f ether ·p~opte'.$ tunes."

So W mat rote, ]f tiny, does muSIc taaehi ~lg i n schoo ~ hav{( to p,t:a:y? The eurre nl fashiorll hi nil l1IskaLedUicatf:on 11'1 Bri1!:a~n dictates that younlg chHdnei1l iifilll'st be c~ativ,e and a,ctivE1',. whilst tine pli'lyrngl of mwrded musicm chi Ldre:rJI has been ma:de tQ seem Likeal1! easy oj)tiOri for lazy teache1:,$. W]tlh l'IiIolny yea rs 'of

e'xpene Ii1 Og b~hi!1d me 113 til mllsic.hm 1[1l1d mill c:h~r; howev:er, I feel stro ng:ly that L~ste'm!i rig! 110 nlLJsk 1 s i3,ctliJ:flllly a omc1lOJl co.mpoWierilt: ill a 011 musical. @dw:a.tlol"l •.

~rnea rgurnents: 'P LIt ~o·rward by ml!lsl~c .eduGtors aim IJ3UlalIYll rt!actiiDinl~o wnillt they see as 11 ITaMt 'of u~i1Ic:riit,(cail lis~nl.tlI9il1dIiJCfld by po p' musk. BJut iin res.p'ClnSll:! to this. I fealt. mthie:r slm'pl1sij,c view, a COIJ P L~ of poi IiiIh need maldnl~. The nrslt is thtlt ,das:s]ca L musk fs all:sa Listetl€'t'I to Lmcriticalty. ] weill OOflllll'miher a Ih~ad 4:.eath;(lil' (who lodd:utaUy WfI:i always clJ.mplai]ni'rlg jj;hat her iSbdentrs" hOll1le~!O it $I!,JHered ill~ ~resl!,J.lt 'of 1tJ~e]r b~ng distrnct'l'ld by popular IirIl!~ic) :si1raring witlh If'II'te

her detig!ht nver the new home hi-f system :Iii he had a:cq'Ulired:, Moza rt,. 'she said,. e,glS1ed the bUirderi of writi·tlIg

hundreds (If stll.ldellt reports EHlormOILtS'ly. Wi1thln a ~ew weeks of ou r conve rsat]o.!l, IJ,O'wever. 5 he ha.di ba nned h erselt from U s1 U1'g the system whHst womi IfIg, $0'

i ~'lI(i(tlUate had hce'f report: writi fl,g .D ecome.

The' s.eoondi is- that the aural a,WiUeli1eSS of title :;IIjr,elrc81ge Llsl!e'IfH~'F ro cli1!.ssikalIlT1Llsic - and [' am ah'arld thiat induxies a lnt of musk maden - liS also s'~ve,ely

u r1IdleHljeve;Lop~d. Re~ Lly dli sen I'D] n [It! n13 Llste f1>i~[:S call1not: tolei'a:te mlilsic as a backgmuru:il to any a.wvity that requires their- concenbatio'l'l. 'B~l:lIlJ$e:. thfly ~re liTle:ruml,[y pro(~(s~i!ng ~\l:e·ry 11(j~. 1l:n!all (till fl at shut the rnUisk out i n order to pe rfurm a fly Qther task.

'What's Ii[lore, ifrnusicaL performance, ~ecQrded er Ilive .. btl) have all ~mpcGict on the you r1:g. It is n:ol;go~ rig to be beca use it ha~ been .su~tahLy ~Jr,ejp!1Imdfor IcreaUve lex.jp Lo ration, More 'Likely. It wi If b e hera use a p-a'rticulltu pl'eteorf mU'sjc 1$ able to m.ove those puplils who iflffi, susceptl bt~ to stIch IiTil>Oil]villtil:OJI'1 by its ]n-atiol'lall. primeval pOIW,e'r.. That is why it; Is. S:O irnportafllt t:hflt chiilrlren s hio,ll.Illd encmlJlIte r the mal worM of musk ~ preferably li\!\e ;3$ we Lt. as recorded - in as JII'llu~h V,1lrnety ;;1$ pO~$]blE;!. liv.e mus.lc also pmvid!es an opporbu ntty foil" educatioli1 al vi 5i13 Which ,rather t[1:ke 1l(J lildtl)1s, provu'Q,iIl! not only ii uSJ!,full pSltcho~ogk"a l brea k fr"OJll1f ~d'llool rlo~l:ine, but also $eN~' W broaden yOlUlrlg peopltts hor],2)ons.

Ma~,~ovIU, if (;hih:lmn ne,e,d p~nt:lt of ~xpoSI!J,re to a: j(ar:iet:ym mllS1c;]l. Vi(ll1rJl5, it fdlLows that W\e shoUJ~d liiIot nlllll\::e, or g ~Low ithijtdr~ .: tQ mal ke,l:my va ~lle jiiJ:a.geJrnents ab.oUrt wl'iikh form .~S; ·sullJ(~ri,[J.r. The fact is, pOJu,dar and classieel rumif c 'r-epmesE;mt. different wa~s 10·T Li~e, in 'the sense of dH'fl:rent v'e\i'~s elf Ctlttuf'e" a~d t'he va.lIJHls a.ssodatedl w~th it - lind thisiIJ,espite tfil>El e,ffG rts "Of so m.any tril.l l1Jetllill'llsh:j:arl1S' t{l .~tidg:e tile 9 a,p. It is tlherefure hn.PQlltanl'l: th,at ed!.1c:~tioll should recogl1TIse fine leXlf>te lihile of this 'gap jl nrd SoIJ b~,ed it to $9'JIl.e scrutili1,Y. rather thi~n pre:~e.TlI,d 'Ohat it (:joes not ~$.t; O~ p:lU'f'll Pi solely mJofle' side (),r the o:ther. ~ive'n.- the ol1sJtom;;:uy c:Lassi Gal trnil'T~ ng of ITIUSllL 1teachei~, ~nd thf! generra~~ pOIHlrienwted m[J$"iicah prrere'!1E!llc.es, of €Mtclre~. tlhr~m is IlJJs'lJally an ;Intri n sic w~ ntness between class a.nd mllCh!lT:al'l IHlsw:l:edmJeed fur a killd ef ne~otJ ated settLE!me~t. As with cGillY l1legotia.tiorl, the sta.rt sn.olJlkl. bIG! witnl alreas of a;g me rnellt rdlttrt'r thall dlsag liEl;emenl;..

1Dil:

fEST S. PAPER 1

.24 I rI the writer's vi@w, m usk dasses in sen 001 A are too ,paSS'ive in nature.

D oll,er-emphasise the role of mlL!si'c-making_ Ie a're over-re:~ijl I1t on recorded music,

D f ai I to explloit thle experience of teachers.

23 Accord.ingl to the writer, what do contemporary pop bands lack?

A genui ne m:u.sjca I ta lent

H, inspirational roje mocels C an linnavlt,tiVe' spirit

o musical conventions. to follow

25, What point does the example of the headteacher illustrate?

A Popular musk doesn't require concentration. S Good music demands our full attention.

€: Any kind of m usk (a n l1e dlstrscti ng.

D CJ,assical music helps us to concemrate.

26 What point is made about musk teachers in the fifth paragraph? .A, They are inclined to misinterpret classical musk.

a, They sometimes misuse recorded music in their classes ..

c: Some of them focus too nanr,Qwlly on musk in fh@ir training. D Ma ny of them have not ~ea rrn to listen to m usiic eff'octively.

28 According to the wrlter, ill deal1ing with pop and classical music in the classroom, tea chsrs sh olJlld

A arnaliy:se how one has inTi uenosd the other.

B attempt to find common giroum:i between them. e present them as equally correct and valuable,

DI get th eir students to dedd e which is b@tte·r.

21 In tine wrirter's opinion, wnat aspect of a musica~ parlormance is most like,ly to a ppeal to young peep lif~?

A its emononal impact

B its creative energy

C its unpredictable nstu re o its educatjana II val ue

TEST 5, PAPUtll