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R Guide for the Amale,ur and Professlonol Gunamith in, Design, cmd Construction ol 'FIrearms" with Prcrcticnl Sugrgesii.

ons for A]l Who I,Jke, Guns



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JAM····" :-'."., I'E"-'·S·'''''- V"····,·, !I'R' ·····G' ,·,·"IL H'I O····"WE,'·'

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Fermerlv in 'Ch:ctrg'9' 0,£ the :S:mall=,J\rm!s Experimented Division lat' the United Stertes Fronkford ,Arsenal; also Formerly lof

G if'E' s 'H 'I f" 'N' 'y if .. C'

r," _: In ',' ,.' 'Q'we, , 'nc., 0:', ",e'w " orL . ,tty

IN' TW' 0"" V'O'LUM' EI'S

.. '.'., ",.""", ..•. ','- ,.' •• '" " ',' ~,':, "I' ,-'

Volume I

FUNK s WAGN'ALlS COIMPANY'NEW YORK and LONDON

t:. .. f1' - T.," ,.,. . itA~N~ "'_'L"I'" I!;;:: CO'iIl4"DAt.:'f"t.t'

l:" VI, ,~h, !l'!' 'W ' \.:]1 ,i1.i_:~ , '" P'~~,:.,~ ,I-

1.8

YOL,urUE: I

--~E l\lQDE[([\ GU'NSMITH TH '_

COPYRIGHT 1941, AND 1954

Co~,r-j,ht Und,et the A'rltk'~es of the Cc.pyrirbe ICafiV>ent'tofo of Hte ,1:l,au ... A'lo,erica'n Re,pubIW,cs ,and: 'the 'Uutt-ed S'tatee,

,PEDICATED TO

iCIO'LO'NEL TO\V~SEND \~"HELEN t t'IBELESS WOR'leER, HAS TEl{ RIFl.;EM'A.N, AND HUNT,ER.; ABOVE, A'~L, A MAN ANlJ A FRIEND

PREFACE

IT IS NOT 'without some misglvlng that I v enture on this, my first effo,rt. to 'write a book ~ In, the first, , . volume' have endeavored to keep in 'mind the enthusiastic but oftentimes struggUng amateur gunsmith, and the book is offered as an attempt to 'make him. independen t of outside help, 1'0, Its arrangement I have followed the method 'which. at 'this time appeal'S 'best suited to convey a clear Idea 'of constructive forms of gun work,

The second volume aims to be a wider and deeper development of the material introduced in the firs t. I t is, Illy hope tha tit will lead th e a rna teu r into the theore tical and practical science of gun .. making,' and be "a light to his path and a lamp to his feet" all the fascinating' way'.

The work as a whole is written in the hope" not that masters wHI arise from these teachings, but. that laten t. skin will be' aroused and sel f - tel ia,nee en couraged. It] s all most certadn that as time' advances some of' the drawings and. formulas win be revised; but until then, I feel confiden t tbat the)' 'will be of the utmost service to the: student, Undoubtedly, much w:ill be found in these pages that. is obvious to the more experienced mechanic, but if I have succeeded in 'lucidly' conveying the first principles of' gunmaking to the beginner, I shall feel satlsfied.

The gun in all its forms is only an implement, but in its making it bas become a, highly specialized 'work. of art, and few trades requite such an extensive know ledge of mechanics. The gunmaker must also be not only a tool maker but an artisan who can adapt. himself to almost any type of work. It is the ingeni ClUB 'man 'who will go f arthe st in this wo r k 1 for it has unlimited possi b ilities: and as he advances to the: problems of the second volume it will become more interesting,

It is 'with a. feeling' greatly resembling regret that I write the word "finis' to these volumes, Theircreation has been an, intriguing task" and 'has, caused me to wa'lk anew the beguiling path 'up'ward from my amateu It days, And much remai (lSI, unsaid." f or i 1. is impossi ble to corral an the: vita] . Information that 'bas been gained in a li£eti,m,e of' gunrnaking, or to stop writi ng' of a science 'which never has stood still and never will,

It "T-Qu1d be impo ssi bl e to explo re a. field sa wide and di versi fied, even as insufficiently as, I have done It, without the aid 0 f knowledge and. expe rlence other than my own, I there fore take pleasure in acknowledging the valuable assistance rendered 'me by such wen-known and authoritative sportsmen and technicians as Colonel TOW1l15en.d Whelen, Mr, T., G. Sa. mworth, Captain G ~ A, . Woody, Mr. R~ J. Kernbrath, and Mr ~ Austin G. Hale ~ And 'for theh contrib ution 0 f Ill ustra dons I am inde bted to D:r 1I Dayton C, I\IUler" l\leG:r-aw Hn1 Book COmp~.l1,Y", Westley Richards & Company, Ltd." the Lyman Gunsight Cor .. ,

. poration, Parker Brothers, Waterbury 'Fa. r re'] Foundry Company, Remington. Arms Comp any , [be Cleveland Twist Drill Company, Hendey Machine Company, Pratt &; 'Whitn.ey' Company, All these 'friends have been generous with their. hard-acquired information, and. "if shall always be their debtors. In other da YS such ;; 'secrets -0 f the craft J ~ would have been j ealousl Y' guarded by their discoverers, TOM y the greatest have not withheld their kindly hands.

Old Ornar Khayyam has these lines in the Rubaiyat:

:1 often wonder w ha t the vintners buy, One .. half so precious as the stuff they sell,

] feel the same 'way about g:unmak.ing.. \Vlflal business is, so Iascinating as that. which 'makes the: things one loves, what cli:e:nl.e'le' so appreciative and loya.l as sports,me:n. at: their happiest and best?'

'''M'''- ",f I .sk th read ,i'," iardc e.: .. , -- '-1 ;I.,n." , ~,. (''... .. ,--" ,.'~ "h"'- fo " sible ,,': '," nd ,",",,-, I

,.., ,a}! as .~~e r : _ er s par 'On 10 r mcomp .. eteness, or overslg rs, ior POSSI" e errors an" may,

ask 'Of' hi m tenacity perseverance and patient hard work, tha t this text ... book may not have bee-n 'written " .. ?

In vainr

J~"YES VmOIL HO,\YE

CHA'PTER

In, d ti' trO"DC 'on

PAGE 3

1- The W orks,hop, Tools end General Equip'ment ... 4 " .... ' 4' .. • 4 • 4 ... ' .' ••• ~' 4 ~ ... , .... '.' <I • <I • 4 " '. '. .. '9

The work bench-s-Necessary tool layout=-Alchohol lamp-e-Angle plate-A.nvilArbors-Arb or press---- Bench stops-> B ench grinders-s- B en.ch or surface plate-Bits

--' Bevel protractor -, Calipers - Ca talogs - Checkering tools - Chisels '_ Clamps -Countersinks=-Dies-c-Sp ring dividers=-Drill sets- Drill and vrire gauges-e- Drill press =-Sanding drum-s- Draw-knife= Electric soldering iron-Files-File card=-File handles-c-Furnace-c-Gauges-i- Hammers-c.Indlcators=Ladle-> Lathe-s- La the dogMallet ~lvIic rometers-e- J\.1 uzzle reamers-c-Magnif ying glasfl- ~ii ter box=-Oilstones-e-

Oil cans=-Pans-c-Parallels- h_ Plate s-s-Plau ee=-Polishing wheels-> Tap wrenches=- Pliers

~ Reamers-Sa ws-Scribers-Straigh t -edge-e- Scr a ten hr U sh-e-Screw -dri vers--..'5 pring winding tool ~Steel letters, and figures-----..~cal~,s_.____. \V eig hing-e-S tools-Squares --- 'Templets=-Electric motor-V -blocks-s- Vise jaws--'\V eld ing outf t ~\\~ renches,

D - Special Home:-made Tools and E'quipmenl .. ~ " 4 " 4 • <I 4 .. • '. " " • • '. • • '. • • '. • • • .. • • ~, ~ ~ • • • • • 4 " ~ 29

The gunsmith=-The trade of a gunsmith=-Shotgun or rifle maker-e-Checkering stand

and cradles in use-s-Checkering tools-a-Border tools-e-English type of tools-Motor

g rlnder=-Emery wheels-Fine circular wi re whee ls:=----,Felt w beels=-Woods for disc grinding-s-Chuck for motor grinder-s-Wooden laps--'~\lood chisels-Suggestions for making hot tomjn g c h isel s------,F 0 rgin g and hea t -t rea tmen t f 0 r chisels-Handles for wood chisels and i erru les-s-Importance Q i good screw ~ dri vers-- Auger screw -drivers used wi th brace'-- Suggestions fa r c onstructing screw-dtivers-c-Hardening-c- - Gun brace-e-M ethod

of clamping brace-s-Rifle holder: Methods of making--- Vise blocks-s-Hard wooden blocks-Cupper vise jaws--- Leather facing for vise jaws, lead jaws, etc .-Clamps~, butt clamps --- Importance of necessary too] s ..

DI- Maten,ala, Metals" cm.d Supplies.. . . ~ . . . " . . . . . . '~ ,~ .. " 4 • • • " .. " ," ~ .. • • ~ ~' t 4' + + • .. • • .. • 4 • + co ~ .. .' • 41

Materials used by gunmaker-i-Catalogs-c-Precision in gun work=-Tool steel, cold-

dra Wll steel, d rill rods, spring' steel, steel tubing, steel spring wi re=-Machi ne screws

and sizes-Brass; copper j' lead" solder, soldering salts, emery cloth, sandpaper, fiber,

glue, felt" buffalo horn, pumice powder" rottenstone powder, wood screws; acids; varnishes, rubbing oils, linseed oil, varnish. removers, beeswax, ivory ~ charcoal, lacquers "

f or metal, rouge 0 r ferri C oxid, P russian blue, b one- black ~ wa tel', woods, shellac ~ lacquer, gun oil; lard oil, spe-rm oil, etc.

IV ......... The Use 01 T 001& i .. iii ~ " " .. " • • • • " • .. " • • t • • • • • 4 • • .. • .. • • • • • • • • • ~ " ~ .. • ~ .' ~ 4 • ~ • • " r " • " • " • • ~ .. 49

,

Wood-working tools=-Cbisels: their use: and kinds in gun work: grinding 'Of such tools; stoning for keen edges=-B uffing wheel-s-Method of placing sharp run edges, for cu t ting-- The draw -knife an d its u ses=-Pl an es: sharpeni ng on the stone: adjus ling the blade- Rasps: woods they are used on-Sa \\TS,~ sh arpening 0 f sa \VS ~ in struction in their' use, blades for saws, frames-The spoke-shave-s-Wood bits, cutter bits, the Forstner bit-Selection of brace-Drills. and drilling: the twist drill, grinding of drills, drill gauges. u sed. in grin ding drills, drills for gl ass ~ drill troll bles ~ keep ing drills sh arp f lubricants u sed-Drilling beat -trea ted steel-Gr indi ng dri 115 for wood-s-The dri n press, set-ups on drill press, method of cutting nut inlays on drill press-s-Files: their importance in the trade of a gunsmith-s- Terms used fa r .file-=- First steps in the use of a flle-'Gri.nding: speed of grinders, their uses, fIX ture at tached to grinder for grinding tools=Grades and grains of grinding whee1s-Selectiun of wheels for grinding, mount-

11",,,

17

x

-DEB'- -

T,BE MOl. ,N' GUN,SMITH

CHAP'TER

PA,GE

"if'II . ~ill'iid-'·i.· ,1'11e,.;1l;11",,-'L·'-'~ - - d lappin - ~ nb -i c .-t_ t-IP-P"" ch - ,.~ -. (fl' -~ .... -. 'd'-

....... ,11 grm ing Wh",,',lo;.r--tly'::" au- ,I: lng4' u~ - rasrvcs tor ia pmg, . ) HTglllo, caps,Ty

lapping, laps Ior flat. surfaces, diamond laps, I,a,ppi:n.g chambers=Reamers and their' uses=-Screw-d ri vers and. bl ts=-Soldering fl t1xes- Taps and tapping-s-Lathe turning

, ~ .

tools and tool grinding ........... Use of the alcohol lamp and Bunsen burner=Forge and

'·'11 'l._1 iI' d .. ' O' ~ 1- t r- 4']-

anvh-,J[l1:,lcrome·'ter ana ltS 1iJ$e-·· .:,1' stones: care 0," 01. stones.

\Vhat a mechanical drawing i~ Views of d'ra:liv'i ngs-s-Importance of' having: larger size -Pfifit~T,cchnicaJ lines=-Ftn lshed lines-]: nstruments used in drs. ?ri.ng-Paper~ Thumb ta,ck.s.--D't!wing board-Pencils, erasers", triangles, ink, protractor, scales-« Irregular curves-« Title headings=-Lettering.

Advice ('0 r hig-h-velocUy' arms-"E'xp.,· ierimentlne 0 r cha 'l]ui ng ac_tions~ Fourteen sa ('et.v

;,I., •• _ .. ,._ [ _-, -_. ',_ I. -----1",.- _" l~' -.--.1.0'", ----, ._ - ... _" ,., ._]. _ ~

rule&==ObsuJet.e' a:r,ms-==Ma,lu~shi.ft faring phl:&--l~~itt,i,ng blocks to single-shot actions-«

l'U}t-··, -. tc '1'- ··d····,-- 1'- ~., 'f-''-' ·,···-,- __ · __ ect ····'d:-_-_- charees Review ·:'f exnloded .-,- :--

n"r,Llngo pO'w o,er co-mpa,tnes_or correct power, _ .a.rges-·" e·Vle1\, -0, exp,I' .. ,el: arms

C"- 'f·-,t· ' ". '. th -, :Uj!O<Q, - 'f: '~ml'· uzsle -loa -'d' i " -·ft'- ':e~------'O':--"~] "'1r1 . ti ··r· ,,,,co,g :":'-'1 th -: b .. : .... ' .. ··_·1 c· , -d-oa e. ,"!/ In ,e ~ 0.. ,._ .~. _ .' . '. ' _D,g rl, .. cr=r: .-.·1 ;1] _ '.. ,gun g_ e~~ In ne .,aIre ,an_

--h-"'-' .'; be ,0" Ib-:' st . - .....• '. -'1 '. ''',', 'h .... -, e~'~-!S,"h' .' -. ·t,~-, .. '- . t . :b·· ,t·, ., .. .tio ,~- -H'-:-,iI':i; -- d '- -'" - h 'T' ". ·h.- .' -'. d-

e samt ~r--_; os .rucnons In narn 1,~·· .. 00 lng OU (1 istruc l~n~~······~a··· space=--r reao-

~ b 1 . ·

ing narre s to ac t Ions ~

VII .......... S·· A~~,O~"D. 0"':1 ~.r:~,-~_, 8 ..... ·~ ..

_ . ·_L~I"' .. _ ', . . ~ .. TY ID1:.1Q.IIii'.1 'il .. .. ill iii' 'ill 'il !Iii' • iii iI '. !II iI ~ • .' !I !I .. • • '. Ii • '.. Ii • il Ii '. !II • !Iii !'Iii 'i iii II! iii !'II • iI iii II! !II' ,I! '.' 'i I. • • II'! II'! !II II'! .. II!I Ii !II! U

Species 0':( . walnut : E,ngjish 'wall nu t, .. <\ merica n black ,,·a] n ut-· The reason f~)][" high prices of' select wood=-Seasoning .. · the blanks=Selectlng the stock blank=-Selection 0"

• •• . , ". _ l _ ,.. . ,~ ~. _ _ ", . • • ., . , _"'_. , • _ _ _ I • - •. , -, - 1 ~ " ~. , ,." ••.

native wocds-e- Weights of woods=-Almond wood, Amboyan wood, apple, blackbea n, blackwood, beech, birch, cherry, wild cherry, cocobola, curly- ash, ebony; holly, mahogany, maple, myrtl e, Queensland honeysuckle and African stinkwood, Osage orange' ~ - d' ~\_,;.- ..~'~- .... -- .. ~ --. ,'., '.' sod ,-·f . , l:lJ.". 'I·· t: E"" ,-. -" . A-' 'f' "'. . A:-' ., '. - - '. pa iusa, persimmon, pium, rosewoo _',' saune--=·,,",l' amu _,~ suropean..» mean ~ .. merican

bl k 1 C-· Ii • I E I di 1 L~ 1· 1.. 1- I r 'II

.' ac .. wa n1!Jt-' I f:lrcaS~Han wa nut, ;'ast .nnian wS!. nut, ~ng i:s(~ wa nut" bL18n. walnut,

Spanish walnut, Tur kish \vaJnut.; yew' wood=-Securmg wood in. the log and freshly felled tr~N'.atur,a[ vs, artUichd seasoni ng=-Seasonlng board and quarter-sawed planks--> Planting wal nut trees=-Checkeri ng 0 f opened and closed grain woods-Use of' templets in cutting blanks-« Prices, 0 f blan ks,

101

Evol u tion o:f firearms-> Prob lem 'Of' fit=Drl"Op a nd ,r:ecuil~] nstrnct ive arm 'pi tc:h in. stock, desi,j!;n-B,alanoc or cente r of gravity' of an ar'm.-- Difference between me tal and wood worklng-e-Forearm design-e-Close grf ps=-Methods of estlmatlng length of stocks ............ Target stock-s-Stock nomenclature-s-Stock design for women=- ,Pitc.h-Cast .. off, cast ..

O'n··~B: utt-stock design =Cheek piece Comb ,d"~C"~g'I1'-'1:"o' rearm d~C~I- a:l'i;-- UI ··I~~·;'.g: of

-. . III,.i _ -.;jI W .'~;;,"[0;.1! :, • ---==-'l.,.rv~K, I, ,,~. ~ > ~U'u ii,' ' .. ~~ ~" ._ u ,£. L'~ 1 _",-,,.;;o ~ J. .....:u, , n _I 1

sides-s-Grip, hand and pl stol-e-Slug le -shot action stocks-Shotgun stock design-«

A- b ~'] f d It T- h , ..

,-, . - ._. -, ", ,. -.- -,' .. . - ,- . -, II"!II - - 1.- -. -

"norma.. yorme: stoc 'r:T- ' e trIgger.,

'I'V 'f __ -=_ Ou' t til St -I- ·1' .... :1 H·' th A 6"

,iI,A ' ,LrM,iI::r • .LI .. ; - .'1' :_l8 _Ot;:.l5;,""'_' .luelD9 ":8 ~', Cl'_ 'on ~ t .' I iIo t, I iIo Ii I, Iii, ," '. Ii 'I' ' ' ' i I' 4 .. 4 .. 4 4

),29

Select.ing,the blank-s-The popular r.iJ1,e~I:nlet:ting: an action-s-Placing the, magaziee-« Dimensions of a guard=-Allowance for clearance-s-Laying out for the receiver=-Use

f 'I -- b' ~ k p-., - iti u' • t- ~ P <Ii t- d - L ~ t h 1 1''''' f-

0" , :1 ~ •. ' "1' .j -.:1-..=,' -',' :',"':1',' "," - ", ~ ~.' __ -'. ':"I'-:"_'" 1'."' •.•• ,~~ ' ,-. -, ,"' ~ •.. ,-

o ,amp .' ,ale ". . os"I.1on 0 pro Jl!C Ion -- - . (un ·e, sc.rews---- .. aYlng QU_ . 0. eSI'""""""'J se (L

- .

c,e:'nt-el'i.ng device-Gua.rd bush ing~~l"" se' of maUet. ",or imptes.s.iou-Chise']~ used :in

litting-'U se o.f teml1pl,et'S=-Inl'etting of a K,r,a.g 'Ilooeiver and trigg'er guard~Inletl.ing a shotgun ,acti()n~·Retnoval of' the m,echa.nism,- Usc ,o,f the butt .clanlp=Cut ... uuts for the: trigger gnard.....,....1 n]etting: a F'o,x' action--In]et-tfng: a 5ide ... loc,k s]~otgU.fi- Fl tti ng the: f(J--rearm~,Seloc lion of wood-The fl rst cuts to 'ma.k-e-In'}etti"ng Lebel ,and RussIan ~ct-';,o' ;i"">~T,'h"- M"I:' 'ifJIoiF[li~'" ':'h·,c:.·, __ ~S·····'L." '1 'e - 'th' ,'. =M' ':', "'d-l 1- 9''-'1'''' 'LI.-. -R':"ii::,,-'ld' N·' .... ', -""+""" I ·R····· "'.' '--d'"

U .• c~LU ,e "". ,auiLiLlilC er.,CureD,au r,. I e, _Of, ., .ee A~I~e ... , '. ewIL;(]n., OSS an.

Sa;va_g~B olt .. act i on rUles:, SP'f'l ng:fiel d and :!\r[ause:r~Stoc ks he:] d to act ion by bo'l ts,: 'methods of' fi.ttin.g- ... ~:utomati.c -ri,fles and :slhotgun in'Jetting'-·Fi't:ti.ng' :stoc'k 'bolts-'Re-,

C- OI"1j"'I!I'EN" r:s· ~ I

.. . ~"I J!. I ,I, . _ '_ ,J

PAGE lief at recoil shouiders=-Use of glue in fitting-Forearm tips of buffalo horn, ivory,

. etc .. ; fitting of same-e-Defects in woods, what to avoid.

149

~Iodeli:ng and. final shapiag=-Sight gauges for dro'p-First lay-out 'lines Fitting the butt plate-s-Attaching the sigbts, sig':hHng in the rifle for zer(}=;=Rllbber recoil pad~ Buffalo-horn butt plate~Tt"ap butt plates, Plain shotgun stock=-Repairs when a bit

't.. id The i I' R hO 'P' iti f t k I th · U

comes out at tne S1 ~ . e In ay- oug ung OUt~.- osr ion o S.l.lC:·, m tne VIse~· se

of the gun br'ao~U:se of the plane, draw-knife and spoke-shave-s-The stock taking form-e-Undercuts for comb=Forming of cheek piece=-Fttting of' pistol ... grip, cap-' Remedy for small imperfections-c-Buffaki-horn tip-s-Shotgun stocks=-Mente Carlo effect-Side: panels=-Side-plate 'nt ting-Finishing- of stocks lvith sandpaper-s- Placing the stock in the Checkering frame for sandiag=-Ralslng the grain-Sandpaper holder -- Working curly maple with sanding drum~IvIaking round forearm'S for Winchester and Remington type of forearms ..

XI Bad·' ,-;;IJI-- ·B· " -..'I""'!.' d A'· ,,:., .

, '_'" ~."!I I .. m'r-m. 1(I:Il .' enons, ,! Ii! .. !I' ... ,; ... iii- 'II • • '11 • II • .. iii .. ... IF. .. ~ 'II' iI .. '. .., • _ l. .' . ., I. II!I • '" Ii! ~ !I! ,Ii!- ... ~ .' .. 'lli oil- III' iii !Iii' I@i 'Ii !i-

1S9

Colonel Whelen's standard stock design=-Beddlng in 'the 'metal portions of the rifle-=Ligh t riflES and accuracy-« Bedding as the' decD.d:i ng fa ct or' of aceu racy- --·M:@thods used at th·e Sprin~field Armory=-Wood surrounding tang of receiver and trigger guard-;

. Fla t under-s urfaces of roceivel"'~ Bearing in the wood-· Full stocked forearm.

lS,5

Experimental stages of the Ilnish=-Cbemicals used. in staining woods-s-Oil :fiinishes-

'['. '" .. t ' .. ". f', . ~+ d a·'II·" 'U" r· . ··tt' o~ " R-" bb .. ·' " , d 1"-" f' .' '.' " l'~

. mpor ance Oc uslng woo 1.1, ,er- . se 01 ru e,[ .slOUe---- .. ' U . I .• l.ng pa .. _ .. ~se .0 m.USUl

wheel=-Paate used for polish ins' buffalo horn-c-Luster un a s tock-e- Formula N o, 1 for finishing. Formula No .. 2, Formula No .. ~The mixing of Iormulas=-Formula No.5" Formula No, 6, Formula No, 7·~Ft'ench polish~ The rubbing pad~The spiriting-off

't:p 11'" • h fi · 'to. co· d th F i'\ id FIN' 8 d

proces~'\",loJiln varOiS ". :'. nlSb,~talns .an __ c_~elr uses--- .. ""1eL'S--= 'o,rmuas c.' lOS •. ,' an-

9: stain for maple-Formula N no 10: stal ns for cherry-s-Lacquer finish.--· Removal. of varnish-c-Buffing-wheel poUsh-·Tlm.e required to complete an oil :hn.isb-Fin.isbing a

gun S .. · tock

___ .1- ~~

XIII ._ Ch.ckering, Ca:rvinq and Inlays ~ , i ... ' •• lIi ., ill I ., til • • , , , , I!I ,. " " ., , • • t , .' t I Ii i 'Ii

.. .. • • • t ~ ill I ~ • ~

Patience and concentration necessary to learn checkering-c-Checkering old stocksDesigns for pistol grip-Pattern laid out with lead pencil=Laying-out scale-llllSi,c wire and. pins for forming master 1 ines->- Practise-« The cheekeri ng cradl - Use of checkering tools-> Instruction, for ,. ~cginning checkering->- Guiding the tcols=-Checkering' on forearms-Use 'OIi' the bent needle file Ior fin~shing' checkering at tbe pistol

~ B d desi I t ~ .I.' laci b d 1\.if t· ~ d- b d t I"

grl~' or __ er .... eSlgns-=- nstruction tor p acing oor .. e:rs--1Vl.atl.ng an. oea ~lngoo 5

for borders-e-Designs=Checkering butt plate and pistol-grip cap---~rvratted surface, in. place of checkering-Carving-Carver's tools 811d oilstones-Inlays, shields and ovals -Inlay.;s 0-' ·f· fa DC· y-.- w - '01 0' ds

. I!l' '.!' .' ., '. ',.' " "'.!Po

:DV' ......... Sid Sm.gery.. . '" .. . ... ~. .. .,. ;0. .. •• ,", • '" '" II> •. ,. ... ,iJ 'I! ;" • ,~ ., •. ;pi "" ~ ~ ~, '" 0;' .. ~ ",' ~ ••. '" ". ..' ... •. ." ~ .. ~ '" '" .. .~ '"' ". •. •. •. ... ~ ., + ... ... • !Ii :2D 1.

Shaping the Springfield sporting stoc'k~FiIst steps In I'emodeliing-The· two reinforcing bolls-Fitting new butt plates=-Raialng the comb on service stocks-Attaching combs and pistol grips-Gluing inlays and insertions-c-The use 0.1 dowels-Marking off the drop and other lay-out liD.~s=\\rorkin,.g over the forearm=-Mistakes of the

t Th 1- ed h 11... 'F The i ted h k ol n If:. ,i shi .. d

ama eur- .ne g) U:. -on C eex piece-« ue mser ...•. -, cr 00 '" p:lec~1'.,eu.nl· ng 1-:: eas on

patches and lnserts-e-Removel of pistol grip on a sho,tgun-Re;sbapin,g forearmsRepairing broken stocks-s-Removal of dents-'Usc of gunmaker's she~Jac~Use of plastic wood ..

m'l CHA'PT'ER

'1fI8.'£·' 'I.·O··ID'·£' B"N" Ji""I!UN"" ·S··-MIT- '8'

II":' _ . _ .a.,;. _~.' ',",. i :.' ~";' .i ( _ : " :,.

:281

:PAGE

XV' -'Lami.D.ated. Wooda for G11Il Stocks. oO 'r .. oO .., oO ,., ~"- ,. - ... ~ .. ~ + .. ~ ...... " ,~ I' Ii! .' ,. ,~ .. "" •• ' .... ~ ,!, ~ j ~ Ii! ~ " "" ~ ,,.. lIS

'Glui,ng pieces of 'woods together - Experimental sam,ples-Stren,gt,b in 'laminated. pieces of woods-« The warp of' all woods=-Structure of w-ood~Selec.t'ion, or stock blanks-« End cbeckerin,g=Coat:in,g the ends, of blanks,

U -f': -_," ,--".'-' -: fc . bolt- ctio -, ,- ,-,. -' ,'R·'· "-"- • .- -~ , - ,--". ber of '1""':' N""- t~ .,'. ·.-11 n~,aL> Ass ........ i ..... _ ,,c re e.rence "Of_ -yo, I;. ac. J.vD. arm~ _, ecom,lng a mem.· er (L, _,ue ce, _Slona,l, ~Jne, . ~I.Q

tio -'-',R: 'n," t-·, -'- ',--,'':'::'. od '-1! . , ilita C' , .. ---' ·-S-'~' 'h"t "'''rr.a~,g·em- .. ···ein''·i,~,-O·,.ff(ba'nd:'· shoo oti ·-=,Tr'· "-i"a-

1.0.0. "vW, 0 remoe.[, a mt 1 a.ry 3r,m "_I,g _- a",iI,~: .... "_" "'~ - ,';." S" ~.;Ing .. '~-

,ger pulls=-The number of military arms. to work on=-Leaf-slgbt areangement=-The

• L ~ - ..... ...1 'IIi It h R- .. R ad '['" th ''',if~. 'I 9''_ E 4: 'Id

aperture signt :~:~.tteU-\I''t'--or, on the .... ussian ---: kem e mg t te ,~~l.,o[UJel. 1,·' ,:ll or : (orie ,:'

rUle--Co,nverti'ng the lla user mlli tary model, the' Ross, the Japan,ese Arisake 'Model 19 ~lS" the l .. ee En field caliber ~3 OJ,,. the Model ~ 8 7 J Sp~in~,:n:eld caliber j 4. S' - 7 0 Mak~ n.g

a muzale- ,~II!'I.~,d· :.: ~.' -,. from the Model 118·1,"2 S-''-'"I-'-~- (;1'~I,'Id-

, _I.~',,,, ,h.ID lUg ,arm '_ fo., . e • ..:.~ !!J. '. it J1" , J' '.' :prj nn,~]el, I,

'V'1:1'h' ',-"&11- _ f C!:i_LK'l'ilift '11:-'111;. - - t

A, Y M ~ _: II.WiQ Q, ~Da..\&.~ ~· ..... pm.en. 1 IIi ~ .' i. ~ I!!I ~ iii • • • I. • • ill Ii! ~ ~ ~ iI. I~ I~ iii I~ rI ~ ~ II!I .!i- I!P i' ;j "I! ... 4! "I! '. It ill' ~ .' !@II' ~ I!I' .. I!t II!! .. III •

Th 1 '.'1- n ish _A - ieh F leh 'F "'I'

, ,:e telescope Sigllt=--=vpen Sl,g hts=-Aperture S'1,g .. ts- - ront slg', :ts-' ~,aetoty S!gJts--,

Firing the rifle to all ne :sigh ts,-.'The tang' apert ure s.,ight-Sigbt, arrangements on mil Itary arms-Selection of front sights-e-The aperture' 'sight applied-c-Aperture sight extensiO'Ds~~Fitting sight bases=- Table of tap slzes=Set-up for drilling bases=-Drfll .. ina and tapplng=-Drilllng hardened actions=-Alinernent of sights-s-Mountlng cocking piece..- Barre! sig,ht bases-- Front sight Fa nrIJps.-1'e,les'tope ba~e~Fltting telescope, side and top mounte-> The' hunting telescope-c-Ream ing aperture discs-,Fitting 'L.y'""

"8- ~ h'

man 4:" ,S:lg" .t.,

'¥"Inn 'D 'I f S _'n W-'· '1-:::,- p

A'Y,1oU 'lIIiiiiiiiiiO n,ep_'Clcem:.nt ,0,' ' .: m'w " .. _--, ,or'~,g 'arts '. ~ ,. ~ ,. '.' ~ ,,. ~ . ,,. . '0; ~ 0; '" • '., ~, • " ~ • ~ .. • ~ .. 'I' '" .... " ,"' .. ~ .. oj .. 'F • t

Th t' l'.. "n ~ ,. 1 F'" · " - .. -

, . '. e cause: O'~ m ction ., .. e'terml,ni,ng, to era nee'=- ~ lnu;h on \Vor k~,ng, parts Patience

,a:nd care 'in ii,tUng Lubricated surfaee-« The- lapping: operation in fitti:ng:~F'itting: the

-- . --

1 .' 'L_ 'iI-,

J'! ng:e L!)O~ t"

:m: ,_ Hwtd.-:forglnq QJJd :Heat:-ueutrn.en1. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ @o • '!!o "" t .. ' j, ,ijo ~, • t • ,ijo '"' ~ '.' '" ," '.' Ii, Ii .. '" '" '" .. " '.' • to 'I!I' ~ ~ "" .. ,j. ... Ii, "" •

B'I l.. ~.'L.'j .. - Th I A- 'F l' r" h f W- ,-" ldi

iaessmuns equipment-e-' ,-_C :_o:rge---: ,it p:ressU'r'e-': ue s ior t. ie ';org~ 'e .··lng

heat-~Fluxes for weldlng-s-Hardening and temperlng-s-Tempering knlfe bladesTempering ,firi ng pi:n;s, and, extractors=-Quenchlng baths=-Oll heating baths The potassium nitra-te bath-s-The lead bath-e- To restore b tlrnt steel-e-To anneal steel-s- To blue steel-e-To remove, the blue colnr-,Test. Ior good steels-e-Case-hardening-« ,l:lcthods used fn earlier thnes,

'Credit given, manufacturer's, of hand guns=-Pistol grips=-Materials used to make grips ~Sigh~Sigh t ad] ustmen ts-e-Changing and fitting barrels-e- Replacement of parts)Iis,nres-Checkering metal parts+Changin g hammers=Locse screws=-Alteriag re-

l' R· b 1" f' -'h f h R·]·" 1 b 1, S' 1 ,.-.,,'i... t

vo~verg_...,'ea,m'i,n_g earre S,:O)"' t e use {1' 8. -,ot-,:,e' In:Ln.g_ revoiver narrejs-s-omg e-snot

'pistols, - -General ,bintsl'

U·····'I

- .

.... · .. ·.1.

271

:xxJ:-,Problem.s of the T:riqqer :P11B .. ~ .. ;, .. ~, ••• '. ii' ~, II II " ." ... ." • '., ~ ,,. ~ iii ' ••• ,. oO oO oO oO ..... ~ ....... " ,~ " " .' 'Ii'" 'iI'!iII • !ill' ~ 293

'Tbe hard tl';igg,er pull~ Tbe plain. 'trigger,~ Tbe iiequir!ed trigger pull~ Tbe s t,onin;g ope'ration_...,.The target revolver--=Study of m,echanhrm by removing -side plates,A,utoma,tic p~,stoils~:B,o]t·,aetion trigg,er puU~ Ta,ke-up~ etc.,~et 'trig'g,ers Shotgun

... ,~ U f- - 'T' 'b11 r" ''I!... d" oO '1" S' ,,,,-..It

Ilfiggers-: .Ise' O,i: snap eaps-~e'air~" ·'rou_ ... ·~es, ~l, silotg:un a,n': s']ng_e tr1gg:e:'r&==-~- .. pew:lng'

up lock 'Ume--,Pr,o blem o'r l,ock 'f ime: and t rig'g'er' 'PUlUS~

'XXII - .• --;---- ~""!I''1. '..,. ... chlDiII - . ..1 £Ii __ __'; __

,~ .. .ft.IDUl1U1L&L ,~~_~ '~ ~&''U.Y'~ ~ ~ ~ • '.' ,., '. " • ,. '" ' ... ~ ~ .. '" 'II' ~ ,. ,! ~ .. ~ '" ", ;, "',.. ,.; '" '" '" ~ ,,; ... "" .... ';;' .' ...........

Copyin,g objects on tr.acing pap'e'r,~'T'ools ,for etchlng~Scrapers-Burnishers-=Acids or m'ordant~Labeling bot'nes-- Tr,ays-,A'mmo'nia-Sto:p.pin,g",ou,t v,arnishe~Matt[ng toolslBorder' to:ols-Dama,skee'n:in,g--" ,Engraved receivers,.

THE MODERN GUNSMITH

Gluing, pieces of woods togethcr-c-Expedmemal samples-c-Strength in laminated pieces of w'Ood~The warp of all woods-Structure 01 wood=-Selection or stock blanks-« End cheekering-c-Coating the ends 0,( blanks,

Pre terence f or bolt-actlon arm s=-Becorning a, mem bel" of the :N ational Ri fte Assodat'jon~How to remodel ,8 :m'ilitary arm-s-Sight arrangemente=Offhand shoot'in,s-Tri,g" ger pulls- ~ The number 0 f m ilitary arms to work on-e-Leaf -sight arrangement-> The aperture sight. fit ted-'\\' ork on the Russian=-Remcdel ing the Model 19 'J '7 or En.6eld. rUle-C'o.n vert] ng the Mauser mlli 13 ry model, the Ross, the Japanese . Arisake )"[0 de t, 1905,., the Lee Enfield caliber .303, the Model 18~l3 Srringfield caliber ~4$~:70-)J,lak'i:n.g a muzzle -loadin g arm from the !v.I 0 d-e 1 i 873 S p d IlS n eld,

XVD, --- Fittinq 01: Sigh.ting Equipment~, .. , .. ~ . .. . . . . ,. . ~ ~ ~ .' .' " ,. ~ .. ' ~ .. 'I' ~ • ~ '.' ~ ~ II, ~, • ,t ~ ,,. .., .. .. , ~ ~ '. .. " .. " ~.. 291 The telescope s.ight,-10pen sight5=--!\perturie ,si~hts-:FrQnt, sig'hts~ Factory s~ghtsFFiring the ri fle to a I ine sights-l~.he tang apertu re s'jgh.t,~Si,gh.t arrangemen ts 011 m iii".

tary arms=Selecrlon of' ,fr{Hl't sights-The. aperture sight. appUedL .. Aperture ~;ig'h,t I!x'tiensions-Fitti,ng sight bases-'T,abl,e of tap si,ze.s-Se't~'up for drilling bases-s-Drill-

ing and. tapping-c-Dnlling hardened actions-e-Alinement of s'i~hts-",,'Iounting cocking:

~, B I 'I' h' b" F' " · I!..,' 'T 11 b F""t~ t 11 .

plece---·arrea Slg~ ,t 'ase;s-..... _ rom t s ~gu ( r,am'p~_' erescope ,:ases-=: h.ll'n.ge reseope,

\,

s.ide and top mounts-The hunting telescope-c-Reaming aperture d:i~'Fittin.g Ly-

man 48 sight ..

xvm ~ Replacem.e:nt of S:mau 'Working: Parts" '. '. ' ~ ,~ .. ~ • ~ •• ,~ 4' ' • ~, ~ • !I' !I' • ~ " •• m .. ~ , .. ~. ~ 255

The cause of 'fric,tion..,...._Determining tclerance-s-Pinish on working parts=-Patlence

and care In fitting- Lubricated surrace=-Tbe lal)pin~ operatlon 'in fitting~Fitt'ing the

hinge bolt,

XIX u--d~- d -;nU;U . , .. !&v.,~.&Uq 'CID.·'·

Blacksmfth's equipment-e-The 'forge-Air pressure Fuels fOf' the forg~""e'ld'iDg' heat=-Fhixes tor weldlng=-Hardening and tiempering~ Tempering kni'fe bladesTe:mper·n,g firing' pins and e'x,lractors-=Q'uenc'hl'ng' baths~n heating ba'thr--,The potassium D'j tra te bath-The lead hath -- To restore burnt :steel-=- To anneal steel-To blue steel,._. To remove the blue color-e-Test 'for good steels=Case-hardenlng-s- 31 ethods used in earlier' t i mes ..

Credi t. gi "en manu facturers of band ,g:uns----- Pistol grip,s ~. a teria Is. u sen tn make grips -Sigbts~<;"ight adjus.t'menl:s-C,ha,uging and fitting barrels=Replacement of parts- 1\1 is.Jire5--=Checkeri:ng: meta I part s=-Changing bammers-s-Loose screw5=-Alter.lILg' re ... volvers=-Reamlng barrels fo'l~ the usc of sbot-R:eUning revolver barrels-Singl,e ... shot pistols=-Genera 1 hi n ts,

XXI - '~,bI·:-··8""""'a '0' 'I a:[t..- T~ -n'·:gI"lQP 'p- ... ,.1'1"''''.:,3'.''

_ IC'~, _ - ' ....... " -~ :.:', _' .,..!~ ... -llI: ... 1 1111 iii •• 'II !i! • II !F it! !! F IF. I! II' 'I! '. iii '11 ti iIJi .' " 'II rill • ~ " ,j; t. !II • ~ oj Ij; !I! •• III <Ii !Ii oil 6 it: ~ ill! ... I' II iii ~a

The hard trigger pun~ The' plain trlgger=-The required trigger puU~ The stoning operation-c-The target revolver-s-Study of mechanism by removing side p]ates~

. ..

A utomatic pistols-"Dol t .. action trigger puUs- Take-up, etc.,~Set· tngger s=-Shot gun,

triggers+Use of snap C8'pS.,- - Sear-Troubles of shotgun and si ngle t.ri,ggers-Speeding up lock time- - Problem of lock time and trigger pulls,

Copying objects, on t,ra,cing paper-> Tools for etc,'hi'ng~Scrape~Bumisbers-Ac:ids or mordants=La bel i,rllI bottles- Tr'aYS-i\mmon~a-Stapping'-out vam,islles-=--- )'1'at,ti:ng tools=- Border tool~ Damaskeen lrn.g-:E ngra ved recei vers,

CONTENTS, ;adU

CHAPTER PAG-E

XXIII' - Sbippin.;r ,ACti,ODS;f Oiling and Minor Repairs ~ . +. ~ • " ~ • ~ , .. ~ • .. ~ • ~ ~ .. ~ , ~ .. r • ~ ;0 • • ~ ,. • ~ • ~ 323

Bolt-action riflee= Polishing parte-s-Stoning parts-e-Tc dismount the bolt-e-Tc assemble the bolt=-The shotgun-c-Oiling arms-Handling parts=-Assembling and disassem bling single triggers-s- U se of the sp ring vise 4

XXIV _, M"mor Repairs and Adj ustmen ts; .. .. . .. .. . +. < ;; +. + +. + .' ~ • ;; +. + + + ; ~ • • ~ • ~ ~ • " ~ + + r r • • • • .' • r • .' ~ 33,3

The use of a gun.-SkilfuBy removing a worn muzzle=Lapping a muzzle-Poor

igni tion-- Al tera tion on single-shot acti ons,- Al te ra tion on Martini action ~Spri ngfield

bolt stop, screw positions-Attaching temporary sights for sighting in ..

xxv ........... Miscellaneous Fonnulas and Methods r • ~ • ~ ~ • ;; " • r • ;; ~ • r r. • r ; r r • • • '. r • r. r. • ~ • ~ • • • ~ '. ~ ". 341 Gunmaker's shellac-e-Gun oiI-- Means 'Of wa ter-proofing outdoor garments-e-Miscellaneous lubricants-Fixed oils and fats=-Brown or thickened oil-s-Rosin oil-Soap

and grease lub rican ts=-Ad ul fer ants->- Testi ng oil~ Powder salven t- M etal- f ou 1 ing solution-s- M ercury-s-Sul f UT easts- Patterns-c-Glue for patterns=-Shrinkage draft for patterus-e-Allowance for .G nish=-Gl ue~Gunnlaker'~ gl ue=-Shellac varnish-Steaming woods for bending-Louse wood screws=-Testlng iron and steel-s-Home-made drill press=Where colors come from=-Useful information,

XXVI- Soldering.. Brazinq ,and Weldinq '. . . . . . .. ; . . . . . . . ~ . . ~ . ., ~ ~ . .. ~ " ~ . ;0 ~ • + .' • '. .. .' '. • • • • ~ '. • • Soldering-e-The fluxes-s-Scldering liq uids--==Soft solders->- Hard soldering and b razing sweating-Fluxes for soldering-Alloys for brazing solders-s-Silver solde,r-Autogenous weldlng=-Directlons in the use of a welding outfit-Oxy-acetylene tcrch-> Adjusting the torch: size tips to use--Preheating welding steel-s-Welding brass-a-Cutting metals with oxldizing fiame=-Operatlng the cutting torch- High and low pressure torches ..

355

XXW .......... Field Repair Kits aad Devices. " . . .. . . . . .. . 4 .. • .. ~ • '. + " " .' .. .. • .. • .. .. .' ~ • • t • i 4 • 4 + 4 ~ • ~ ~ • ~ • Planning the repair kit-Repairs to brok en stocks-a-Action or top-lever breaks-> Dents in shotgun barrels-Repairs to bolt-action rifles=-Sigbts-c-Obstructions in barrels.

xxvm - Experimental Factors Governing ,Small"amlS, Ammuni.tion,. " . ' ... + • ' •••• ; •• , •• , • • • •• 37'5 The cartridge case-Primer pcckets-e-Automatic arms=-The rifle and accuracy-> Factors in rifle shooting-Standard telescope sight-- Factory layout-s-Bullet expertmental factors-Designs of the future.

XXIX '... h -" I D· _l!_!u- d Phr

_ - .J.Y""ec~1Ca' :au.&u· ons an . - . . - asee. . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . ., ~ ~ . + .. • + • ~ .. • + • • • • • • '" ., • ., ~ ~ • •

411

Glossary complied to assist in the understanding of shop terms. used. by gunmakers, past and present.

Directory- .;0';. ~ • ' ...... , .. ;0 •• ~ ~ •• ' ........ 'I ' .. ~ ..... to •• ,t • It oil ill I' ,.. ~ ii' ,.. 1 'II • '" oil • " ,.. Ii '!I ill <!I •• II! • iii 'i'l' ill ... ~ • ~ • e- .. .. .. 419'

:btdex --- See end of Volume II,

".JGURE, PAGE,

Th ~ "tt'i,' workshi' whr" n -', d '-'-" le,isT - 'b- , 'I " " -,~"'-

-, e a, ",t ,. ~ p, e ,e o"e spen s many ~'_ U. e , ours, , .. ,' . h , ••• " , " , •• " •• ' -e • ~ ., .' •• _ r,onIIS;;.ec'fJ.

1,. Tool, maker's angle pta te. . . , . . ,', . , . , . . .. . . . . . . '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u • e '. '" • • .' • • • • • • • • • , • • • .., • _ " _ • • _ _ , .to

2,. Wood bit for brace-in tended -f o-r wood only. . . .. .. " ,," . ., ., . . _ _ + _ " • _ • • • • , _ ~ • _ .. , ,. _ _ • + ~ • " • • ,. " " " • • , , " •

:3;; Checkering tool designs. '" . . . . ,. ,. . , " . , , " " .. .. .. . .. . . . . . , . '. " . +. • • • '" • '. ~ • ,. • • '. • • ,. • ,. m • '. • • • .. , , • , " • _ , • .. , , •

4.. l\filling cutters f Qr rna king checkering tools . , . . . , .' _ . . . . . ' " , '. i '. .' , '. • + • .' , • • • • '. .' • ; ,', , • " • • • , , , • • , u , '"

S.. Wood ,goug'e~a.s.ily made from flrtU rud .. , . , , , ' _ . , , . , .... __ , . ' , . " .... '. ~ . ' ... ' .... _ , e • _ .. ; ,; , , • ; ••

6;0; :Fl ut ed C ountersink: . " . . , _ . " , _ , , . , _ . ; " , e , , • " , • , • • • , , " • , • • " • • • • • , • • • • " • • , • • " • , _ • , • • • , , " • • , • • •

,ILL,USTRATIONS - Volu'me I

7 . Half co untersink r I' I I • I • I ,I Ii ;;; I Ii ;;; Ii .. ! ! • : :"I !- !- ! !- ! ": ::" I - I: • 'I ,. 'I ~ I • • • • • •• .. • I • III r. 'I ~ • • I • I, II • • .. • I • • r. i II i .. • I II III r.

8" 9.

10.

D "11 • b'

: -- fJ~, set In num ,er SlZ;€S .. , , , " . , , .. , , , , .. , . , .. , .. , . " ; , • ; • , ;, , " , .. , , . ' , _ " __ , _ " , ' , • _

D ril 1 51e t i ['lj f racti onal sizes. , . , _ . _ ; , , .. . , " . , . . . . , . . , " " . . . " . . . _ . . . . . . . " , a, • • , • • '. • , • ' • • ' , " • • • , • , ,

D'riU gauges, in Dumber and frac t io na 1 sizes. , .. .. .. .. . , . " . ., .' ., , .' . 'I' e , • • " • • • .' , " • • " • • " • • " " " " • _ " • " " " " • _

Av'-" + ,'~ '."'- drill nres

~~<"_ ~. 'ClJf' ~OOJI- room . fll,11 pr'e....:;,s:" r. II II ,I II I • • • 'I I IJ • .. I, .. .. .. ;" .. ., ,;. ,. • ., ., • • • • ;" " I, ; !I • ! ,. !' :" !! :" ." .,..". I • I ;, ,; • • ,; .. II I I' ~ ~

Barrel-muszle rea,mer ., __ . , ~ . + ••••••••• ' • ' •• ., "' ~ • ~ • , ~ a, ., ., _ • ~ ••••••• , , ~ " ., ., ••• , •• ,. ~ .' • '" ' e

M:asnifying glass and 'holder , __ " . , , .. , . , _ ~ ~ _ _, ~ ' .. ' ' . '. ' ' e • " ., _ ~ •••• '"' ,", • '", ••

Shapes of oils tones ,.. . ,. - . . . . .. . . . '" " " "'" ",' '" . ' '" " '" . . ., . . . . ~ _ . _ , .. _ + + .' • • • , • , ~ , • .., • , ,. , , , <, • '. '. • • • + • • .' _ •

Dowel-pin plate ,,_ _ .. . . .. .. .. . , . , ., , . '" .. . . '" ,. '. ,. , " . . , . " ., ; '. . . . . . . . . " . . . , . " " . . " , , " " " " . . . " " ,

16. Taper -pin rl~amer.s1 straight and spiral flu-bed, _ , . . . _ . . . . . , , " .. , , . , , " , . . . . . . . , . . . . .. _ . . _, . _ " . " " . , . .

1 7.. Ma.chine reame:t . . . , . , , _ , _ . , ' " , , , , . , , . , , . , . . " , . " , . , . . , _ . " . , ' , , , . , , . " . . , _ . .. . , .. , ' " " , , ' , , . , " ,

18~ 19~ 20 .. 2''1 22. 2'3. 24~

2- .... , ,",,,

,26~ 2,'7 .. 28, 29. 30. 31~ 32~ 33.. 34~ 3S~, 36- .. ,37. ,38.,

3'9 .. ,40..

41, 42. 43, 44. 4,$+ ,46.

47" 4.8_

49 .. 50. 5L 52. 53. 54,.

1.1.., 12,~ 13~ 14~ 15'.

,Expa.n,ding ream,er ,...,.,..", _ . . . " , , , . . . , , " , _ _ ' .. , . ' . , . , , , , , , , '" , , . , , . , . , , , , " . , ,', . . . _ _ " , " " , , . "'

Cau,Jll;t,e'rl')ore ••• " •••• ,,!. I 'I '! •• iii I I I • I !'! :" ! •• '! • :" • I I • I .... I I I, I ;!] • I I I I I I I • I I .... I .... I, .. I _ ;. I '! !o .. ~ I ;! ~ ~ I ~ !

St raig-nt "edge f ot' checking pi tch of r 1 fll~g. an d shotguns, . . .. . , . , ; , , ,; ; ; , ; , " , . . . . . , . . , . .. , . . ;, < ; , ; " , , ,

T..,.,.~ f ..:l • d ~ It

~ ,,~5 0 .s crew .. o n vera use'. :in gun wor ",..".. ~ _ . . . , . . .. . , , . _ , , , ' , . . . , . ., _ . , ., . . , . . . . ,_ , _ , , ., "

'B 'b ~ hi k' ~ d' he b

I' ',', "'J"" _(' I I'" '," ,-,' " 'I I " II:" - '; "I I, _.-. 'I '. ': I .'.

. en.c, vIse . Oit5~ c.ommo . .y us,c, _ m t .. gun 51, op., .. ' .' " , . " " . " .. , , " .. " ., "' ., . ~ _ ., ., " ., , ..

'1)",,_ 'b d' f 'b........' dl

,~,uC, or stan .. , : Of' (~eCK,e,J.lng era'" 'e'. . ,", ~ . ., ., . . . _ ., _ ~ . ';" .. . . ., . . _, . . . '. + " _ '. " , .. • • '. .. • .' • ~ • .' .' • .' , • ;, _ • • • , • •

Chetkeri ng' crd.dle for the a.maleur ~ s const.ruction. . " ,', ., . _ . . . . . ,. . , . , . . . . . . . . . .. , ~ . . . . . ~ . " . . . .. . . , . " '1mp'roved "'hecke'ring cradle for i h,e a:ma.teur. . . . . . ,. ., . . . . . . . _, _ _ . _ .' .' _ . . _ ~ .. ., .' .. . . . '", . . . . _ . . _ _ ,. . . . . . 'Cbecker.ing cradle most ,generally' used hI the ,gun :5 hop. .. . ... , ,. ,., ,..,"',..,",........,.,"'"'.. ,..,'" A po,rtab[,e bench grInder is. indispen,sablc ' . ' , , . . . .. . . . . " . . , , , . "' , . . , . " . . . , , " . " " . , . _ . ., .. ,. ,. , , . " , , , ,

B ottoml ng tools .....'..'..,..,."..,.,'.' , . . , . . , , _ , , . , " , , , _ . . . , . , " , . , + .' , • • , • • " " • • " , • ;, ; , • , • " • •

Bench gun brace and scoring to,ol, .. , .. ; , ' ; , . , . " , .. , , , . "' , .. , , '" .. , .. , .. , . " .. , _ . , . ' ..

-R··ifl hId'" 'f-- t--ti"- , .-~--

'"'. 1··- ·e "0 ! .' e r I or es,· ng pll~o~es I I .. I • • I • ! I I ; ,; ;; ; • • " • • • • • ; ; ,; ;!] .. I I I I I I • .. I, ,; .. 01 ,I I .. • I I " ! '! .. '! o!! P I ~ I! .. " ~ "

Hom e:-ma dc, tool holder for bench grinder .. " , . " , . , . " , . , .. , . , , . , ... , , " , , ... , " , , , ... , , , .. " .. , ..

Correctly ground 1i ps, . . . . . . " , . . . . , , , . , . ' " , , , , . , . ,', " .. . . . , . , , " ; . . ; , , " . ' . . . , . " . " . , . , . . ;, , " " . . , .

S · 1 · d" f ·h d 1 b

'Pe'cla gnn ~ Jng-or ,ar ' meta,: or :rB SS'. . . . '. , . " . . , . . .. . , . . , " " " . , . . , , " . , , . , . , . , . _ . . ,', . , ,," , . . . , . .

Gla S:..~, d:dll !". - !' ! • • I I • • " • " • • " ; ; ,I, .. 10 I iI I, ~ ~ ,!, .. • " • • " " " • • • • • ~, • • I' 'I I' I' I' I' !II !! • " !' " " " • • " :" • " " I! I' I I' !' 'i' • !' !I P. ~ " • "

A ... d" t'"' f 1

n In· lca'.'lOn 0' too, great spee( . _ " , , , .. , , " ",.. ..,., ., .. _ _ . h " ., _ " _ • _ •• _ _ • _ •• " • '" .

(a) T,bj nnimg the 'web o.f a dri1t (b) Showing 'where t 11£ ell) ery w:hee 1 'has rem,oved ",he 'm,eta,t . ., .

Co:rr,ect lip ,(leara nee. . . . . , . " ,', . _ . , . , . . , . " . " ,', . . . . . _ ,. _ . .., . . ,_ . " ,', _ . _ '" . . . . . ., . . ,. . . " . . . ,. . . .. . . _ . " " ' .

'r -l d I'

, _Dcorr.'cc't_y ~oun· .. ·. .l.,ps'!. Po P. 'I 'I 'I 'I ; I I I I • I 'I P. '! • :" '!' '! 'I 'I !I 'I P. P. 'I • 'I I • I, ,I .. .; .. I •• Ii I P. 11 iI • II' ... ,I ,I • ,; .; !! P. 'I [I 'I • !! • '! '! 'i 'I • '!

,Ana ther ease O'f incorrectly ground Ups, " . , . . .. .. . _ . , . . . . " . . . ., , ,; " ' _ . " < " " • • " • • • .. • " • • • • • , • , " , • , " , ,

The corr'C,ctly ground drill" . , , .. . , _ , , , , , ' , , " "',..,.".","," '" . "' , "' , . . , . , . , . , . . " , , ' _ _ _ ; . , , ' " A 'r'ough" inacc ura te hole-res ul to" a dull drill, , . . . , . . . . , . .. ,', _ " . . , . " , , " , , . , . " ",., _ . , . . " , . , , , , In t Ernal lap, arbors, and drivin g pin, ; , , , , , . . , , , . , , . , " . , . . , , . . . , "' " . , . . . , , . . , ' , " . . . . . , , . " , " ,; " ; ,

:Ext,c'rnal la'p 'holder. . . . . . '" , . . . , . . . . , " . . , . , . , " . , , , . _ . , . . , , " . . , . , , . , . . . , , , . . . . ',' ~ . . , . . . . . " '" , "

Cast-1m,n lappIng plate, ... , . ., . " ; , ' . , , , , ' . , . , . , , , , , . , ' . , , , , , . , .. , ..... , .. , . , ..... u, •• , • " , , , , , , •

Bench burners, an d equillm:e nt {'or l~mpering sma]} parts·. , , , .. , _ _ _ , , " " , " . . . , , , ,", . ., . . ., . . . ' . " ; , ' . , " , l11ust'ra Un,g' d HfeTent. ,zie:ws o-f an o'b] eel in mecbani{'aJ 1. enginee:rin8:" , " " " " , '" , " , . , " , " . . , ~ . . " _ . . . . .. , , " ,A Spri:ngtield rifle that blew up'. . . '. . ," , . . . . " ~ . . .. . ., . ., . .. ..".',...,'.',..'........'.'. ~ .. . . ,", . . " . . ," . . . . " . Shotgun stoc:k. b1a.nksj fum'ished by :Mi.tchell 'Bosley ,. . ,', ., . , . . ,. . _ . _ - _ . . . . _ _ . . . . _, - ~ ~ ., . ~ ~ ~ . " . . ., . , ,', . .

R, i'fle st,oc'k: blan.ks, f'utnis'h,ed by t\11tchcU Bosley" ,", ." ,. ,", . .. ", . .. " , " " " , , " . . '" " . '" . . .' . . . '. . . . ,. ~ ., " " . . '" . , ~u ," " C,a.iiber 6.,~ 'm m" SteYf a clion,) made by 'R'lgby"" _,' " , " " , , . " " " , , . , , . " . . . _ . _ . " . . + ,. • • + ~ • • ~,'. • " _ " " " , Ljght caliber 30 .. 06 Sp dngfi.'eld de$Jgn ed by Dr. Geo Tg,e Quay, " , _ ., " "",.,."",.".. _ , . " " , , , , " ,

Willia;m F'ord 20-gauge double, , .. " , , ' .. , , , " , , , " . , , , .. , _ . _ , . , , , , , . , .. " , " , .. , " " , , , . ; ,; . , " ,

Savag,e caliber' 2 5"'13000 bQ]t~actian rifle, restocked with bird~$ .. eye maple, ' .. , , , , . , .. , , _ , " . , , , ,

Res to,eked Krag 'rifle. . ; , " " . , .. . "!' , • 4 • , .' .. .. , .' .' • , • " • • , • • <, , • , • • • ' • , , • • • • '. + • • + • ~ • • • • .. , • • .. '. .. , • .' + • •

'11 12 12 13

14- 14 15 15 .5 16 18 18 10 19 21. 2~1

21 22 22 13,

2'6 29 30 31. 32 32 ,34

35 3-6 37'

52 53, 53, .53 54 54 ,S4 55' 55'

5S S,g

5,8

59 64 jO

'" ,84

8S ,8,6

8'7' 88 SQ, QO

RLi UIS,~~IT)D JIIIT!' ;0'· . N' a

I,' . 1..II..irl.. . I •

, . -," - . ~ - -

F;·il'li.rA~·m···, . ~b~~' . ""·k· e'tI'~ln,u d'A~"',,",;i!i'

, VI ~,"q,lI. _ C ---'- C,... .',:Ii]' ~[I!rbl ' l~~~h~d!.~. !! 'I! 't! II !l -!' ~ !, II!! .. oi' -! ., ~, 5 ... _ - •• _, • ~ • • • I ~ • I II • III • Il !II! !II Ii -!' I, .. , Ii' ~, I' ~ r .' !' _, ~ Ii !- i!! Ii ~ 't: !II! .1 • • IJ • • • •

'f...... . t h k' d ~

.~)1ng' 0 u. a c, . ec ;:.erlng· '. e~!lgn. . . . ~ . . . . . . 0 • • • • ._ •• • • • • • • • + • '0' .. • • '0' ., •• •• • ". • • • • ,. ., • • • •• ~ '0 • • , • • .. • •• , , , • •

Forearm ,check.ering de:~dgns r or s i nsle-s'bot rides o' ,. • .. o' o' • o· '0' , 0 o· o· ,.. • 0 '0 • co, " .. ., • • • • • •• • • • 0, .!, ° • • , 0 0, • • o. , • • .' •

D ~ 'f i h ''I!..,' 1,.~

eSlgn, ~ ug·gestlOns. " or ca'rVlng or c.:· eC,K:e.r1n.g 5 to c~ 0 0 • • • • • • , , • • , • 0 , ., , • , • • 0 • 0 0 0 • • roo • • , • 0 • • , r ., , • ,

n eaciin,g punch for b order de sl ~ns.~ etc.. , , ., ., .. . + , • ; , • .,. • ; • .. 0 0 o. • • 0 , o· " • 0 , • • , •• , • .,. • •• • • , • • • ,. • • • .0 • 0 • • °

Julia.'rbo:r.ne[y cb.eckerjng the pistol gr,i.p o.f a finished sl,o·ck r ° • • • " " • • ,. • • • • o. • ~ '" • ., • • • ;. • , •• , + • • .! • •• .• • •

D ~. . f 'h It.. L. ] d'" 1 .'

.C:Slgll s,ugg,estiOIDS ,'or' c.eC·.~:~erlnl' ![jut.t 1). (lIes an IH5to -grIP ca·ps .... , ..... T •• ~ , , ••• ~ • , , •• ' • " ••••••••

. .

D,@sign suggesHons, :fUl' Oil'r\~ii ng gun stock;s.. .. . . 0 , , ., , • • • •• •• '" •• , • • • ., • , ., • •• • • .. • • • •• '" • '" '" • • " • '" 0 , •• • • • • " • '0 •

Callb,i:r-~22 HH'omeC' :r.H1e m.ade 'bv' \Vcstl.cv R.icbards .. ,. '. " .. ~ ~ .. - .. ~ , , ~ - , .. +. ~ , - , • ~ • ~ ~ •• , ,

. - ~ iii'

Typical 'metbods of cut Ung OUt pglcile's for' msert ions m 'wood ° • 0 • , • • • • • • ~ , + , • • • •. , • • • • • • •. • •. • ;. • • , ,

D . IlL' f' • 1'~ II,,,· ....

'tSJgD SU.gges~lo,ns :: or In. ay.s liD .gull. :st:o!c~. . ... + _ ,. • • •. , • • + .. ; , , • • • '. • • ; , " , •• " • • ~ , co • • '0 •• .. • • • • ~ • , • • • • •

"I .... ~. ,. t~ f·'· .. · ""~·I'·· .• "iI:! . ·t'"' "'" ~ ·!!'l·~t· . '" . ~~ ~ . ·t· .·1 __

~)fOU.. .0.[ III ay ID .... er I,'ons .~n .mJ. .I .. al) ~erVI,ce s. Oc'K:i. co • '" "' ••••• "' • '" ••••• , ~ ~ • ~ •• ~ ~ • ~ ~ ~ .. +. ;. ••••• ~ •••• , ••

'!l,[ "',de- ~ 11 ·18~·nI6 '1)'" ~: ',' "1]:' Ii. . ...... 11 . "~~.', h.. .. D' . ~ lUi' D S'"'' ,: c.

..Ii.l' .0· .',1 ..)1'" Arag 11 .. C W()r~·er.JI O\\et ~). . =1 .. .li.U.,. 4' _,~.eppo .. o. ,. , .. + ••. ,. ,. ,. , , ; .•.• , .• ~ •. ~ , ... 0 •••••••• , •••• " •• "

Th· 10" 'I~ "d'l ·h.' ~.1'_ ..... .

e .jJi,pplle.:..:_ c ee&. pIece. . . . , . ,. . . . . . .. , '0' • • •• .. •• ., , • , •• •• ; 0 • • , , • •• ~ • '" • • • • • , , , ~ • • - •• - - ., • .. ~ • • •• •• •• • • • , • , ••

I .,. f h k ..

nsertl~on, O··~, c. ·ee -' p:lcce.. r II' !;I' • II .1 ,II ill II I II ., Ij " Il II, II, • oi, ., Ii II, Ii II • • I ~ '!' 'I • !II I!' ii '!' • .. .' III 11 • • • II • •• II. • .: •• • :to !o i!' !!II ~ • IIi " • I • Il • Il II II

Parker 12'-gu'uge sbo: gun ° o. • • , , • •• • • • , i • • o. • 0 d • 0 , • , .. • 0 • • ... , , • 0 • • • , !. • • • • , • + • + • • • • .• • • • • • , • • , • 0 0 ,

L- , .. ' ..... ti .... ,. f··· ...J f' ~ " ·t· -k"~

amlna lon 0 WOOu' or gun S"o(:,s, 0 • , 0 " • , •••• ; ••• , , ! •• ! ••• , •••• ,. + ii' ••.•• 'r , .• o· • ' " •• 0 • 0 0 °

'Co:rr,ect "ray to scn\r gun-stock, pla:nks 'irom log. ~ . '" .... '" .. ,. , ..... , ... " . ~ '" . ~ .... - , , T , 'r •. , '0 •• , ." • " 0 •• " ••

Incorrect Vit~y t.o sa',,; gun-"$tock plan,1ts {·ro·m. lng, " ;; ~ . . .. . , ~ , + • • '0' • • • 0 • • • .. • • ., • • .. , • , '" ~ •• + • ~ ~ , ., • ; • , • •

C'aliber 3,So..2 Rigby d,oubte .. ·bl11 rrelred lrlft,e" .. .. ~ ~ . . . .." . . . . . . 0 • • • • , • ; • • , • ~ ~ .... • • " • '" ... " •• '. • • .... 0 • •

A . ,. '1.. 'D E J ·1.U'~ 'I'" r' '11'" L .......

~,n a.mateur s goo. SilI.Op,., . - 'r~ ,.,.~ .. l"¥ l.tZ@ :I.n a. comer 0 ~:lS ~ement - .. '0 , ..... T ,. ,. ~ ~ • ~ , ••• + .. , ••. ; • , ••

.. 1\0. a.m,3teur"s first a t.t empt at re'model in fJ a. mUitary ri'De:.. .. . . . . , . . . 0 0 • • • 0 • • • • • • • .. • • ., • .. • • • • • • • .. • • •

·Muu.le.loading· s.holgun: 2'0 ,gl l.8e I 'n1Iild'f' f roml ·a ,eaJihcr4 S l\.fodel 18·'7 J Springffileld. .. .. . 0 0 , '0 • 0 • 0 • • .0 • 0 .0

Th r 'I .. ...J.. f . ~. h M~ .... ...:1. l~ ,w' !,Q

·.e :.a mou s ",yman 48 a,pertul',e Sll5'~lt '. O'r \\1 Inc.' ester, oo,'e ~ ~·4 rild~$. . . .. . . . 0 • • •• • •• • • • ~ • •• ,. • r .. • • • , , • •

L '11 'L ~ , f' •. h' '-b .. h OJ -. '\...-. 'b' 'J'" ,.

yman: g'IO'~: 'target ~·r.·o.nt Slg' t s 'o""1ngt! e lune~ 1.nte·rCn~lIlgea .' e .1Jnse'rtlOOS o •• - • 0 • o .

'T-;-;-iJ:.., . 'LI .~~. ~.' 4'0' ~'-bt' "d' ·t d t h M'" dl~1 tn··· d 23" S··~ ~ ... -0 ~.

,11.e 'yman '0 Slg.1,· a ·.a~p. ,e;~ 0 t..~, 0, ,e~ Jl,'~ an. ,.') ,avage flues,. ~ . .. . .. " ~ " . , . ·0 ••••••••• " •

Lyman 1.03 :m.icl,ometer tan:r: sl,bt., ClIck adjus·tmenls :for ''Winda,ge and eievat.i,OD, " ." " " .. o •••• 0 ••

1,8,2 tal l85 1-87 188 1.,89 19:1 193 194, lOS' '~9'6 202 20S 206 206

20 ....

'·· .. 1

2'1,4

2, " 216 ,21'9 223 224 2.26,

232 2'23 223,

23S

FE GtJ'RE P.AIGE

55. Model 1.898 Spr'ingnel.d remodeled, . o· 0 " • " " •• 0 , ; ., , " ~ •• " " ••••• ~ • ~ ,. ~ .. , •• , ••••• ~ " •• , •• , • ~ , •• , 90·

.56, Model 1903 Springfield rifie,. remodeled in to sporting type. , , ~ .. 0 •• , •• ; i + •••••. , , " •• , 01

S i. Caliber ~2 2 'made on a Martin[ action ° 0 • , 0 •••• , •• - • ° ! , ., 0 • ; 0 ; ! , •.•. ! ., •• , , , + •.••.•• " •• " •••• 0 • o. " • Q'2

.$8" Francotte l,l-gauge double shotgun.. '" ... ~ " . ,. ~ ~ " ~ ~ "' ~ ~ ... " ..... e ••••• , • , ~ • ~ ••••• _ • _ •• • •• , , ••• '" • ". ,. • • 9,2

.5'9,., ,A Charles Dalley three .. barreled .~Wl...,,.. . ~ . .• . ~ ~ "' . . . . . . ~ . . . . .. . . .. e 0 , • • • • • • • • • .... ., ••••• co ••• ~ ."i ., • , r , 93

60t Josepb .Lang I 2' ~gauge t.f3.'p gun, restocked with fine Ita tia,n wal nut. . . , + , 'r ~ , .• • co m ~ , ~ • ~ • • '" ,. • ~ • .• • '" co ~ • ., 94

,61 Stock patterns, or templet S, cut from 34: -inch wood. , r ., • , • • • • .. • • r • • • • ~ • • ~ • • * ~ ._ • ~ ~ • • + ~ , ~ ~ a. +. , ~ ~ s + 9,6

'62'~ F'rancott,e 12-g,auge trap gun SiLocked {'IDI the shooter's n,o~d~Dg eemfort .. , ... 0 • 'r , • '0 , •• , 0 ••• 0 • 0 • • • • • •• lOi2

63~ Restocked caliber ,30"()6 Newton :r~Oe. designed .(·O'.IL persons who have lost the use of certain finger'S. '. 103

64,~ Target, stock design used with aperture si.gbt.s. ~ . ~ r • ~ ... ~ ., • ~ ~ •• , •• " , ..... + , , , .• , " , - • , , •••• '0' ••••• , .' ,. 1.04

65t Caliber . .22' 'Duilch rHle; siDg'~e-,:sh,o,t \\!·in.c·hestel" action ,. '0 ••• , , • 0 •• " • " •••• , .0 • , , •••• 0 ••• 0 0 , •••• , ••• , • • ••• lOS

66~ Layout for sporting ri He· stocks. .. . . .. . ." " . . . . ~ .. .. L • ~ •• ~ ... • ~ -e- .• ~ , .e ~ ~ ~ • -e ~ • .• , • • • .• ~ •• r • r. , , .. • , • .• + • + ,. • • •• 10 i

fii', Layout details, for avera.ge shotgun stock measurements. . 0 0 o· 0 0 " 0 0 • 0 " 0 •• o. o. o. 0 •• , • 0 • 0 , , ., •• o ••• ,. ,. !... 108

68·. Butt plate ~'t:nd pistol-grip templets, . ,. , . , ... , ...... , , , , , , ,. ! , ; ; , •• ; , ; , •• 0 , 0 ••• , 0 0 ' , • ; ••• '0' • ;. 1.0'9

69. End, view' of a :\Ionte Cane stock, and special cheek. piece ° 0 0 0 •• 0 0 0 0 0 •• r r ; • , , , r ... r •• + , • '. , + , ., ~ , ••. 1.l0

70',. Under side of a weU Iormed a:n d graceful chef! k piece. 0 • • • • •• • • •• • ,. '0 u '0 • • • • •• • • ., • • • ., • ,. ~ •• • ~ ~ " ~ " " " • ,... :110

71. Forearm dc·signs. for riles and sn,ot.gun s. . . , . o· • • • • , • e r r o· •• • • • • • • • • • • • • .0. , • • • • • • , • ~ • ~ , • ." •• •• •• • •• • ., • _. 11 Z'

"2, Ki:t1.e· and sbotgun. stock designs. . co • • ., • • • • • • •• •• • •• • ~ ~ • • • , •• • ., •• • •• , • .. ... • • • •• • • ,. • ,. • co ~ • , • • • .. .. • • • • co • "" 11-4

-"3.·· '., Off· :. ~'s. : e·· ·t rib 'U' ,-~ ,,,,,{,]' fo r~ m; · ..... noeul ~ r v· .. ]~ ;(!:'I"O~ n' ~ - - . ... ~ 118 .. ,"

J' .. _'." . . ;"'''''' . . ·...v ' .. ...:.. Q. ..o;}\..., ,. • ,. • , • • • •. • - • • r " '" • • • • • ... • .. "' • • • • •• , 0 • _ • • - - •• • .. .. r. • ,. • • _ • r. •• .. •

j4~ ,spdn,@fi.e·~d r'eoei:v,er m.th lO[.lltiUr( screws: ;n posit-i,on. , 0 • • • , 0 • • 0 .." 0 • • •• • , • • .. .. ... ... • ._ • 0 0 " • • • • • ,. , • , 12.3

75'.. :Ho?; a Spr.ingfield rec,e·i\~·er is groun.d at tan.g 'for :mo:re gr:lc,e.f.ul,o·u.tlincs w·h.en restocking' ... , , , . .. . . .. . i .24

7 6~ Sp rlngti eld ,gua;rd. leulplCt lor ,I a.y i ng· .. ou L 11urposes. ., . . . . . , . .. , . . . " , . 0 • • • • , • • •• • •• • • .. • • • • • '0' " r .. • • , • ".. 125

ij',. Spo:rUng stolt'k Jaynuts, for Sp'rin,gfield 'M'odcJ 1903 rifle ° • " 0 • 0 •• " • o. 0 •••• 0 ~ , •• o •••• " • "". I2"/,

18,. 'Centering device med. 00 driU press to aUrae screw ho,les when fitti:ng at:li~ons .into stocks , .. 12·8i.

D· k F' :1.37

19... ,',ench war... ~ .iU:ing st oct to an .atH on" . ;, , . ;. ,. . . .. . . 0 0 "0 0 0 0 0 • " , ,. o. 0 • • '0 • • , • ,. ,. ,. • .. ,. • .. • • • ~ 0 • • " • " .. •

SO. Suggestions for the application iO·f I'orenI'm tips to sporting arms ° , , 0 •• " • 0 •• 0 o. 0 , • 0 0 0 ••••• , , •••• , '0 139

81.. 'S ta ee C o·u._n t,ersink , r , , • 0 , ; 0 • 0 0 • • • .. 0 • 0 _ • • 0 • • • • • • 0 0 • 0 .0 • 0 • , • • 0 • • 0 • • ,. • , • • • ° r '0' , r r • • • • • 0 0 0 • • • 0 •• ,. 14·6

82 ~ Types of' bu U. [)l~ tes used on :ri Oes and ,sh.otguns, , ~ T • , • , ., • 'r , , •• ." • • '" " • .. • • •• •• • • • •• • •• • • • •• •• • .. ; ; •• .' • ·r ,. .t48

83,~ Sanding' drum. :for use on bench gdnder ° .0 ••••••••••••• , •• , •••••• r •• r , r " ••••••• , • ~ • ,. ,. , , • • • • • • ••• 155

84,,, \Vh;el,e' design of ·c.beek .. pieec· and ,sto ck m,easuremen bi., . .. 0 0 , .0 • • • • , • , • •• •• ~ • ~ • •• T • • " •• , ~ •• ·i " ., •• • • •• • •• 1.5'9

8 S·. ,Rubbing pod f'or 'polis'b ': ng 3. fi n Lhed st ock . . . . _ . . ,. "' "....................,. ~ .. . ., , ~ , . " .. . . . .. . . , .. 167

86~ Bea u li ruI e!amp~e· of .( be gun .rnak.e.r. ~s a.rt-by· V'.. CbT.'~ Scbin~ng. . . . .. ,. . . . . . . .. . ., ~ . '0' , • 0 • •• • • o· • • ;. • , •• •• 17.)

8·7., Simple che'ckering designs. " .. '" o •• 0 •••• , • ,. ~ •••• " ••• , , •••••• ~ , 180

·88. Pistol-grip ·designs ... .. ~ .. . ~ ~ .. . " .. ~ " , . . ~ . '" ~ .. . . . . .. . " .. . , . . . . .. . . . . , .. . . . . '.' . ~ .. . ~ . ~ . 1M • • ~ • ~ .. , • • • ••• 1.81

8·'(}.'. 90. 9·1.

92" 93.

94 ..

n"" y.~~

'9o .. 97',.,

08 ..

9n

'-',!!II

100." 101.,

'1'02." 100 ..

I04~ lOS,.

10';6':

... ,' iI

107' .. 108 .. l09. 'lID .. 1ft

1.12" 1.13.

114 .. . ). '1' ~

. '. ')i'

tHE MODERN 'GUN'SMlTH: xdI

F1GU'R£, P'ACE

.116., Illustrating how leaf-sight bases are applied to sporting arms ... " , " , , . , , .. + , " • " " ••• ' .... ~ ~ •• ; • ", • '. ; ~ 238

111 ~ Spe.cial extensions for aperture sights. .. , , , , , , ,; .. , , " , . , .. ; ; . ~ .' .. , + + , ~ , .•••• " • " ~ , • • • •• 239

IlS,~ Lyman 103 sight mounted on the end of a Springfield .30 .. 03 bolt sleeve. , -e ' •• i " • ' •.••• ., •• , • ' •• m , •••• ~, .242

I 1:9,~ Drining [ig foe placlng telescope blocks on rifle barrels - ., " " ' .. ' .. - , . , .. , .. + ~ ~ ,. ,. -, - - - • , •• '. , 'F + ".' ••• " ,24·$

1.2 O~ RUle bore. 81 ghling instrum.ent '. ~ . .. . . . . ~ ~ ~ . .. , - - - ~ ~ , ~ . . ~ . ~ ~ ~ , m ; 'i • ,. ,i " • ~ " .. ~ • +. + " , .' , .' • .' , • n ,. •• ~ • ,. , ~ +. 249-

1.2.1. Spr,ing,(le1d Model 1.903 riBc designed for M'r .. , Charles 'G" King .. ! ~ +. ,. , ••• ' •• i ' •• - ,. ~ •••• ~ ... ~ •• ,. ; m • ~ ., •• 250

122'". Remodeled Sp,ringfiel.d rifl]c!, Model 1 'QO'.3 !, ,,~ith complete s·igbt equipme:n:t ' '. , " " , , , 251

t2'3,. Hand. ftt ling operartion un .s,maU parts :as performed m the .~a r:g,e a,rms 'pJl.aDts. . . , . . . " ,. '" .. " . . ., , " - . . . " '" 2' S 6 .1.2 4~ Preparation 0 f.' metal for welding' 'purposes. . ". . ,. . . . ..... ~ ... - ,. . T , • • • , , , • • • • • , ; - - - - • -, - ~ ~ • ~ e • • , , " • • • • +; 26..3 125'0 The' old peace-maker that brought. hlW IUd. order to 'Our early frentier, The Colt, single-action revolver. .. 2iZ '126. Plates. and 6:nge'r grip used on target revolvers for better holdi:ng ,. ~ . ~ ,. ,. . . '. ,. . ,. . .. " , - - ,. . ,. " . , . . ," . " " ... 2 ,. 4 127'. Tools fot remov.ing and ser'ewin.g' in, revolver barrels. .... _ . , , , ; " " . " . '. , .. " .. , .. ; . , ., . , .. " , ; , . , . , , ., 27'1' 12 8,~ Colt caliber .22 automatic" A v,ery efficient weapon for the woodsman: , . " .. ; .. , " , , . , .. '" . " ... , . ,. ,. 280

S· " ~ .... 1' d !1_ ..:. ' ,. ~ 8·0.

,12 9 ~ pr,]ng,~~.'ri,' str~er or &'i nn g pIn. . ; i ; , • • • • ., • , • _ . _ _ . .• - . - , , , , , , , ., ".....,' - - - - , - - ., " • ~ • , "' • • , • • " to

1.3 D,., CaHbe:r. 22 Horn et made on .a, Rem ington caliber ~ 5 0 re vo 1 ve r a, ction . . , a ~ • • , • • • • • • • • '. , , '. '1 '. " • • • ' .' 2.80·

13 l,t Firing mechanism. of Springfield ll,odel 1'003 rifle .. ~ " . " . " " , , , , , " ., . " . , ., . ' ... , . ~ .' '. ~ ..... '. ~ ~ ., .' ., ' .. ' ., .. , .,' 2'97 132. Set .triggc.r mechanism a.s 'used in the Germon Mauser sporting rifles. . . . , . . . _ . . . _ . ~ ~ . . .' . , .. ' ~ , .. ' . '" . .. 2'00

1 "iI. ~ B ., f' ul ] f h I ~ 308

,.),J<t' . eauun • ex.amp es 0, toe steel engra 'J'er' s art - , . ~ ~ ~ '. . " .' . - . . . . . . . . . .. .'. .".. ~ , . . . ,. , - - . . , , , . ; - . . . .

134. :R.,eUe'f' engr.aving show,ing' cloud e'iecl in background _ .. . _ . . . ,. ..,. , ,. _ . _ _ .. ,. _ _ _ .. , . . . . ,. .. . . . . . ,. 3JOO

13,5" Essetl Ua~. to ols and equipment fo r the amateur: s uggested scroll design s, . . " . . . . . n " , - , '. + , '. , , '. , ., , ., 311

1.3 6. Leaf effect, to be etched. in steel. . . . . . . " ," . . _ _ _ _ ,_ _ _ ., _ ,. ~ , ~ . . , . . . . . . . L _ _ e • _ _ _ ,_ _ _ _ _ _ " • '. '. • • • • • • • " •• 312

13·1'1 ,Bana,'I'd. action 'engr.a ved in high reUe:f _ . , , , , . . _ . " . . . . . . . . . . . . '. + • , • " " ... • • •• '" ~ • ~ • .• - • ". • " • • L - - • ". 3,14

138 0 'I h' d Jl5

.. ' ~ ..... .:. '. _ .. :rnamen.t.a· screw c .ea. s. ,. .. I' •. • ;, , ,. ". • , • ., • " • • •. • ., •.•. + • • _. •. • • • ,. , , " • " • " " • ,. • " ., - • _. -, - •. • • . - , , ,. • • • " • , , • ,

1391, M:atUng too~s, D'amas\keen lap for f'fosted effect on .st.{~e'l or other ll'~~t.als .. , , , , , , .. , . " " '" , ... , . , , ., 3:1 S 140, Fi.ne exal11ples 0" etching or engraving i 0 'Work from, .... , .. , , ... , . " " . , . , I _ • __ , , • , , • ! • I •• , , " ! •• , 317 ~.4I i Shotgun action engra:ved in high r,clief! , .. , . , .. , , , , , , , .. , . , , , , .. , ,. , , . ; . , ; , ... " .... , .. , ... , . ,; " . , .. " 3:1 9 14,2,. Firing"pin. imprle:ssioRS left 'On ,caliber .22 Icartridge iCaSof,5 _ " ••• " I' ; • , , , , " , ••• , , .•• " • " _ •••• , " " , , • , , ., ,33,4-

.1.4,3~ ,Primer t1a'shes showing how ,p,ropeUeot is ignited .. ,. " , '. '. ~ .. s .• '" " " " • _ .. ,. " , •• " ., " ••• " " •• , •• '. ' •• ' , ••• , ." J35

1.44,,. TYIJe.s of :6rm,g pins, ., .. _ , . _ ., L " , _ + _ •. ,' ••••••• _ ,_ ,_ • ~ .' , ' •• , ~ , .•••• ~ • ~ , •• ,', • ,. ,', • - 3·.36

...·E ii 1 - 3,36

J4·.j·..t·c,.ceJl:tric leVel' 'pIn-Pope de:s:ign, . +. • , •••••••••••••• ~ ., ••••••••••• "' ••••••• '" ••••• , ., ., • - ~ .' •• , •• , '. • , ••• ,

1 i6,~ Rom"e .. made steam box.. * .' • .• i • " • • ,. • , ." ! • ' .,. .; •. ,' . _ .• • . • • '" • .,' • • • , • , • L • • • • •• + • • .• • .• _ _ _, • • • • • • , • • • ; - • . _. 349

14 '7 ~ .Ho,m,e ... m:ad'e drin priess. . . . , . . ., . " . . , . , , , . . . . _ _ . . ,. . _ _ . " . " . . , _ , _ _ . , . .. . . . . ,. ,. . . ., . " . . ~ ,. . '" .. '. . . 1M .. •• .3 50

14&" Fixture :for braz.ing I.amps, ~igb:t bases~ swivel bases, elc- __ , . _ _ , . _ .. , .. , . , '" " .. ,' ,359

i.4-Sa.~ Field 'vise., A very ellef.l:.ive means, of holding 1~a.rLs in. an. emergency. " ,. ~ . _ , * •.• + .' ; .•• ,. 310

'l49~ View of a ca:liber ,,30. boal.w-laUed bullet in flight __ . __ " . , , . , , , , . , , , . , , . " .. , . , , .. " , .. , " 3,76,

15·'O~··,. Rl"ft.'!o -. t "d ca'ss:o _10 7· 7'

_ . Jj..;~·car ,'II ge : .. ! :.~ •• I • II "I .. ~' II!!' !II • I .' I -! • "i Ii II i Ii iI i II I • I II • I I ~ • I •• I II ! ;,I r ~ !!3 i Ii II ••• I I;; ..... I Ii ...... i !Ii Ii .. i I' .. i i • ::: I II ~

1.5. 1 * R·· ~ old .,_ 7. 1·'

III _ l:miess (.a.rt rl·- .. ge case .. ill .. ! IE I f iii • III I III I • I • • II • .. ill ;; .. • I .. • • ! to 'I 'I I ~ i i '. • • • I • III .. :I :. _, _ _ ,. _ _ _ r .' !II II! I • • l. • I -! -! !!!! .;

lS2~ Semj, .. rlmle'ss·----a, que:stionable design.- .. ". , .. , , " .... , , , , .... , ... _ . + • , ; •• , " , •••••• , .... , , .... ; .. ;. 377'

1 ,53" Bel ted tCartrldge case . _ ,_ ~ .. '. ~ " . " . '" , " " . . . ,. . , . " , '. '. .. , . _ " . 'r , • ., • " '" • '" • • '. • + + • '. ~ • ., .• '. +. " " '. • • ; • ., '. • " " ., " 3 7 'I

1,54. Chamber pr.essures o:f lubricated, and dry it mm unition, . . - . . _ . " , . _ ,. " " , , . ,', _ ,. . . ~ ... ,. ,. . . ~ " . " . . ; . . .. ,' 319 1 S S. 'C.a;rf.rid~,loadillg machine.. ; _ .. , . .. " .' . . . '" . , _ . . . ,. _ . _ _ _ ,_ ,.. _ _ " , . ; . '" .. ... _ _ , , " , _ ~ ., - - - . - - " . - - -. 387 t, ,5 6,. D\o·uble~cdon press" capa'hIe of p,rod"ucing 20,'000 ,cartridge' ('ups pf!:r 'hOll r. . .. _ . , . , . - . . ". '. . " . " .. . .. .. .. 388, 15 7,~ ,Fjrs:t and second operat ion drarw 'p,rc$$ J' frii c t mun dial f eedl r o.r rut~ carrbidge ,ca:ses· _ ,_ _ _ . " '. , .. '. . . " . . . ,. 3,88

15g~ H'Q,p:per- reed cartridge-case dra \v pr'es·s,. . . . . . . . .. . . , - . - - '. . . , . . " . . . . . - ,. - . . - '. ~ . " ~ . '. ., . '. . . '. ~ . ,L • • , -. 389

1.59.. C'artridge-case poclteti.ng and, beading mac'bi ne. _ ,_ _ _ , . _ _ . '. . - ,. . . - .. 'r • • • • • • • ~ • ,. •. ~ ~ • • • • + • + + • , • • • ". ." 31)0

160. Cartridge-ease 'vent-punching and pocket~res.izing ma,(hine. , , ... ' .. , .. " . , ..... - - - - ~ ~ ..... ' . ~ . " '" . ,. . . . , " 390 ~(it. Cartr.idge .. ca,s:e head~tuming' mac·bilne . ~ . " , ... , , , . _ . , , , .. , , , " . , , ; . , . , .. , . , .. * , * •.•••• ~ • ~ •• " ••• " ,., 3,~H

162 ~ Cartrids;e--case ann.eating' machi:ne'." .. , . ; , . i •• " , • , " • , , , , ... , • , , " ••• , • , •• , ••••• T •••• " •• 'I ••••• , ;; 39'1

163. Cartridge ca,se taper.ing machine , , , , " .. - . , - . , " , . ; . , .. , , . , , , , , , .. I, " • " •• , •• 3·92

164. M,achine for gauging and ,,'c.ighing the ass em bled cartridge. , . . . . , , . , . I I • ; • - •. , • • , - • • • , ,"' " • , • • '. " ,. 3,9.3

1165.. D,oubl.e''1lcUon. pr,es'S~ us·e.d to form. the cup, tOle st.!rtl of ,3 buUct Ja.c:ket" . , . , , , .. ," " .. " .. , " , " . , .. ,;195

166., Caliber .,,30 :6at-ba.se bullet in, flight _ . , , . . . . _ _ . " - - . - - ., - . . , " . - - - - . ., ., - , - - - .- . ~ _, , - . . " . . ,. .. . + • ' • " 396

1,,61;t 'Cali1lt!l' .3,7 S and ,.404 bullet.s, , _, . , ~ , ,. . - - - - - - . - - -. . -, .' , .' . .. !,......... 397

1,68", Bullet- jac,ket draw' press" for second, third, and f ol1lth n!drn 'IVS, , , , . . . . , . . - - - -, . .. _, - .. .. - .' .. .,'..,... 398 169'" A1:ltomatic' .. fee:d, buUet,- ja\c~ct t rimmi ng machi.n.e. . , - - .. . - " , ,.....,"'" - , , . " - - .. - . . , . . . , . .. - - .. ,4,J0 I 1 '70~ Slug .. i orm iag ma,e binle.; e:mplo:y,ed to form th.e lead c)o:res· i R j 3.ck,eted bu 11 ets - - .- - .- .- - . - ~ ~ . + ., ~ • , '.. '" • ~" ,403

1."1" :Bullet .. ,ass-e'mblillg pres.s '. '" " 4' .. , • ~ ,It I' .. ,', '.' III , " ~ ... ~ ,. '.' ' ... ' .... 4 ~ " .. " • ~ ... ' •• ' " ...... ' " , ;, , ;, .. i ...... " ,. " ..... ' '. !, • , " •• m 405

INTRODUCTION Purely I'or the, Am,ateur

The Modern Gunsmith

INTRODUCTION Purely for ,the Ama,teur

...... -- ----. -,-

M, ,,','- " . --' \" OBJECT in 'writi,cg this 'book is to bring

'"_ . - - !II . I· ill ." .. I J + .'

, ,'. ---- the enthralling business of gunsmithing into

- -

the' life and down to the abilities- of the every-day

gun lover who has a mechanical mind and an aptitude in the use 0 f tools. I hope to lead him step by step to attai nments worthy of a professional mechan ic, and eventually to a. place where he "Tin be able 'to do all the things necessary in the production of a complete- arm. With this, in view, I shan devote this introduction purely to the amateur wh.o knows little about gun making, but who has the desire and the ambition to learn. and to achieve. I believe that the best place to make a start is ill

t T" d Id ~

renova lUll. -, earmg ,own an 01 gun, removing

th e rust and dirt of yea r5,. and replacing each part, gi.ves. one a direct knowledge nf its components, their uses and fu nctions, that a st udy of' dra 'W ings can never impart.

Spending lei sure time 0 n an old m uazle .. loa ding

ifl f h 1 '.. d ulves a start ! ..

n eo, tl e ea I' _ Y peno ,,', gives a star t 1 n crea trve

we r k, and when carrie d out scien tificall y i 5, prof-

itabl · 1 ~ b -- h ~ d d b d-

Ita", e In many ways, keepmg both mmn ann no y

acti ve j, The ins ti net to create is resis tless; as children; with unskilled. fingers, we patiently try to build with toys the. conccp ts 0 f our fertile imaginations: still with determination we conti nue, even tho failure is, repeated many times. ,As 'men, most of us still have that instinct to b uil d, tho many lose it in .la.ter years thro ugh lack 0 f the. right en vironment, 'Ve ha vt: learned that direct teaching in childhood furnishes the best foundation for our 'hobbies in later life; exclusive of bridge and golf~ t\VU national pastimes frowned upon by those with ere a ti ve a bil it y....-.-s ncb instr u.c tion is too u f ten I ackin.g in thoroughness,

How strange to be born 'without the desire to direct one's hands by the mind to create an object or bring a worn article back to its original condition ~ Reno vati on, as a s tart: beginning with an old piece of furniture, i( no better object can be found. Do not harbor the: impression that a hob by

~' must be creati ve, or inventi ve ~ or must be a benefit .. to home, office, or mankind, Most 0 f us are just poor weak crea t ures, imp roving on the ideas of va ~

rio us other individuals, From a humble start 'SOInething materializes=-tho it may benefit only yourself -by giving peace of mind and body.

Living in large cities, in apartment houses, and having rapid, easy tr ansporta tio n, as well as stores that sen or procure lor the customer everything from toothpicks to ready-made cottages, the modern youth has entered a sta te of decadence that his fo refathers would have, looked upon with outspoken condemnation, The object of one's de-sires is h anded to. him without the, slightes t effort on his pa r t -----.c.oil:lpl ete, and even del ivered ~ Wants tha t sixty years ago would have meant labor and selfdenial, are 11 ow' snppl i ed wi th au t t urning one 's hand: and. the re sul t is a regret ta ble decl ine in knowledge of the. simplest tool s. Th is m,ay mean, more to the human race than one would care to. ~ckno"vledge, for the best definition of man is that he is .c', the tool-using animal," In the large cities today it is very rare to encounter a person who can use the, simple hand tools, Where this loss of skill fi d ~ dd ...... h " f

nc S 1t8 sa.· .. :,. est expression IS In tr e management 0

h bbi Th th + .. lif '. h 1

our- 0 res, Lhe '0 ne tm ng In _ 1 e 'VI t . an a ppea __

strong enough to lend encouragement in. the battle of existence is missing; unoccupied time becomes poisonous and injurious to home and happiness. Hobbies have saved many men by keeping them sane, If you do not aJ ready have one, find 0 ne to r your-self and ride it-whether it be firearms or something quite different. Many may not be capable of even thinking up an adventure and pursui n g it in th eir presen t environment; but the re is a \v i de range to choose from-s-collecti 11 g minerals, j ewe Iry , pip e.s j books 1 old money , antiques, stamps, china, glass, etchi ngs, art, etc. This, list could he lengthened and still one could find some other thing that would serve to keep him sane, If nothing else a ppeal s to yo ur taste, why no t become a collec tor o:f arms wi th hi s to rical interes t f or the den decorations'?

Lack 0 f mechanical knowledge, in most cases, is due to not being wining' to learn. "The familiar excuse, '" I 'm too old to take, up a hobby," can no longer be accepted. Be what you may; a trial

3

-

THE MODERN GUNSMITH

dl - d t· 1 1 hani 1 I ~ ·11 1

I rec te serious y a ong met amca met; W1 _. reveai

tha t you are not nearl ~l so helpless as- you supposed, Many a man-s-and woman, too-has an uns uspected a pti tude f or tools, An old muzzleloading rifle may look hopeless to the layman, but to the lover of tools it offers the possibility of

di b f" hi ~ - · + -

spen mg many __ ours 0 enjoya _ e labor in its

renovation.

In the eastern part of the U ni ted States 'One can often find these old arms in unexpected. places, They' lUI k in old attics. and can be purchased on very reasonable terms" considering thei r value from. the viewpoin t of the collet: tu r. M an y can. be secured in antique shops f while others can be purchased from indi viduals in whose families they have been for many years; handed down from. generation to generation. Often interesting history

'I': h S ~ .. ' ..

WI_.Ii accompany' the weapon. _.'. ecunng one IS In

itself enough to inspire you to lay p lan.s for its complete renovation, The older the arm the- more the barrel is rusted and worn. Parts have been made by the former owners or by local gunsmiths, The stock may be broken or rotten in, places; broken stocks often require the making of new ones, but. in any case the repairs to the old ones are likely to tax one's ingenui ty . ~ ew pieces of woo d tan often be set i.m, matching the old wood so 'well that it is hard to de teet where the. repai rs were 111 ade ~ AU the metal parts and brass furniture will need polishing.. (The term "f urni t lire'; is used lor the trigger guard, pa tch box, butt pla te, e tc. ) The wood screws will need to be- renewed; likewise the

k ,. d ·

eeper pms, an. 1 ron screws.

As all guns are merely mechanisms for exploding a charge and directing a bullet, you will be surprised how constant these functions are and how little change has taken place in centuries, The names, even of the Important parts of gun mechanisms; ha ve persisted from the days of the flint-lock to our own times. Soi f YOU:r M r, Beginne r, ha ve care fully noted the function and. uses of all. the parts you have

di d i G' ... d-ad- ~ ld .. 1 h

issectec m '.' ran __ .'. "5 0 .-. squirrei-gun, you . ave

gone a long way into the science of gunmaking and win recognize the similari ty ~ even in the differences,

hi' h "1 .f. h d b ~1...

w.en you exarrune t . e Vita. s at t re lTIO. ern ureecn-

loader ..

If Grandad's old gun is available) let us start on that ,. Almost. surely' it win not be' quite COIn plete; some parts will be missing Of wurn, Let us see what you can do, First, strip it down by removing the barrel f rom the stock. You. 'will find tha tit is DoO.i"1·U-' r-ed a" t two' places OJ a cro ss 00' It transve rselv

~ ... : _.: . '. . " " .. : _,- .-: _" 'li:;ii:t~ " ,"_ ,: ,::.-:i' .-' ..... '. ~ _ . ~,'. ..:Pu: J

through the fore-end and either a book engaging in the false breech, or as is more common, a screw running downw-ard through the tailor tang' of the breech-pl ug into the stock, Place the barrel in

a vise, using clamps of lead, copper, or f el t ... l lned jaws to prevent marring the barrel by' the hardened ja ws of the vise J and \lor l th a lar ge wrench, UnSCie\V

the breech plu rr You m a' y h a--'- e t - iC!..". - k th - b - -. 1

. .•. . ~_ _ .'. .f':i." --' ·_.i·· . 'v.. -0 dV',a· . . e .' atre

end in kerosene before you can 'move the plug, and in some cases heat will have to be applied by means' 0-£ a gasoline blow-torch. With the plug removed, you will have comple te access. to the bore, and will be able to see its condition and to go intelligently , bo t it -- ..::!: - 0 ri n g "u1' ,t' h the barrel work c i"'i..t'l"\ ple t ed

a.·' '. U - I!S _;jC·__: _" . '''ii _> _. .- :1;'" _ ~\ .. :..< .. r. __ ~_ .. 'VLL.l_ .. i~ ..•..• -;

'you will remove the lock and "furniture" by unscrewing the side plate, and this "'111 have: your next a tten tion, J f you decide to d ism nun t th e Iock, you will have to devise a little gadget to compress and hold the mainspring in tension in removing and replacing it. 0 lily the f urni tare will not be at ... tached to the stock. .

Per ha ps you have a 2.5 - 2 0 single-shot '\N"" inchester

"f) h .. '1' h ·

nne - avmg a worn muzz e·, poor sights, ,3. trigger

pull that needs stoning, an action. that needs polishing, and a stock and forearm that a. re not j ust right" 1f you have not discovered these defects be forehand, you. wi.ll in actual shoo ting on the range, where they will be revealed in the target you produce.

Let us suppose that the groups are all in a twelve-inch circle atone hundred yards, You know tha t you can hold a Ii t tle better than this, so the

fi - bl ill I k f · b dl

:r - .- . - - - - .. I - ._ - .

rst trouble you WI 00· 'or 1S aa' 'y worn

muzzle ~ Ii this should be the case~ cutoff from one- hal f to one in ch wi th a hack -saw and fil e th e muzzle ,square, using a. small try -square having a thin knife-edze blade. File so that vou cannot

b~ ~

see any' light under the blade, or as close as pos ... ·

sible to square, by checking 'from all four points on the end of barrel. With a 60 .. degree countersink, just break the edges 0 f the rifling. When

thi - · - fi - - OJ h· dv oroc ." . d t l- - - th . b -- -- '11- d

IS IS· ,.n~.s._:e ~ .p ocee.o "_ap . ea.rre!. as . e-

'b {I' ~ C"'O'I!-. t X' V'III 1T ] II

scrl _e' In ' .naper ~ '.' .' , v 0. · ume . ~

If the rifle is not equipped with a marine-type fron t sight, make one the same height. as the old sight, but about .09 inch 'Wide, Now' take it out. to the range agai n and fire for groups, You will be surprised to see how the groups have been reduced, for nine times ou 1. of ten this, opera tion will bri ng new life back into even some of the old muzzleloaders that look from the muzzle as tho they had a hexagon bore.

After you have b tea thed this new life into the rift e, so to speak ~ you will 'find tha t you have released a hidden spring in yourself" You win realize that if it onl.y took a hack-saw, a file, and a. lapping rod to Improve an old, neglected barrel, then raising the comb or making a new forearm will do

. . ' .

infini tel y more, Place the sling swivels in a. better

. - iti - - id - - - beei -- t find- ths t r . Its

po~n IOU an you egln . 0 u nu ; - a· ._ esu _'5 are'

INTB:ODUCTION

obtained of wJJi.ch you never dreamed yo u were capable,

It will be well to overcome the desire to create the work of an artist and be content to face the problems of appren ticeship, Start by praeti sing on the- mortlsi ng of a piece of metal into a piece of wood, It does not. matte-r what you pick, up in the form of a metal piece, but try to fit i.t In so that there' 'will be no openings around the metal, If you are successful, try anything that has an odd shape: or form and work that until you become so accustomed to, using the tools, that you ha ve complete confidence in yourself, Square' pieces of wood with a plane and use the checkering tools on sample pieces of walnut.

\~l ood work" I think, requires an almost innate skill, especially in the build ing o f a stock." Study the methods not only of men familiar with the particular problems of gun work, but also those of cabinet 'makers, pattern, 'makers" and musical-instrument mak ers, for you can learn some things f rom a'lI of these trades, Naturally, wflod work is easier fer most oJ us than metal work; for wood work requires artistic. ability, instinct; and forethought, while metal work requires a sound knowledge of its own particular science ..

A t first, file out your checkering tools from urn .. brella staves, Bend the staves and file fine teeth, In them" just a's in a checkering tool. (one of these, is only a double saw), and this will give you an idea of keeping lines stralght. Make up a matting tool also, to see the type of design it. will produce on. wood, Just take a piece of % 6 " ~ J' or 1)~ 2 square steel, and cut it, off three' or four inches in length .. File fine teeth or points on the end wi th a. small needle-slitting file. It 'Will not be necessary to harden this temporary- tool. Try it on a piece of wood by tapping it lightly with a small hammer too see the effects brough t out on. the wood,

As 'I look back upon my own start, I remember well the experiences I had ~ I bought no tools except a small vise 'for which I 'paid, two dollars. The bench was constructed of light boards" and had a rockmg-chair motion wh,m I tried to do any work, on, i t.~ My wood chisels 'were made from ,%ff :x * 6" drill rod" These 'were as bad as the bench and the vise; yet I fitted a Springfield action. into a walnut blank wi. th them, 'Vifh a rasp and a. bastard file, I shaped IIp the outside, sanded the stock; oiled it" and checkered it with a checkering tool made from the same drill rod,

After my first experience I realized, my' requireznents and began to spend some money for equipment-e-a substantia] bench, a good, swlvel vise, chisels, 'brace and bits, planes, good screw-drivers, fi les and rasps spoke-shaves-rand made 'up special

tools the. t I discovered were needed and unobtainab le. From then on things 'were better organized, but as I recall those days, I cannot help wishing that I had been able to turn to the pages of a book. such. as this,

We all make- a good many mistakes in the, be .. ginning. Even 'today' I make some that cost 'me a 'lot of time and, money to repair. Do not try to

sh k f '. aki hl - 'be

IU .. your worx, tor in gunmas 109 t: IS cannot ':.

done" Gunsmithing, w hile it is a trade in i tsel i ~ is really made Up' of a number of specialized branches" such as tool maklng, die maki ng, cabinet maki ng,

d . t I·· . ·Y t ~ 1· • lli

an mstrument mainng. . .. ou must specranze In an

of these, but in changing from, one to another, mlstakes will creep in now and then ..

Before taking a firearm apart, study its construction, and through. simple reasoni ng, figure out why the manufacturer made it in that particular 'way,. There is a: reason for every screw placed in 8· mechanical device, Many automatic pistols come to

. sh . . f· t'!, ... - th _ .. 'b .. be . t ker ,. .. t· .. dl .

my snop a, ~,er ... ey' .. ave .. en . a ten a,par., an.,· oc-

- .

casiona 11y when I receive. such arms they are be-

yond all hope of repair. When the beginner is indoubt, he should consult someone 'who knows, for it does not pay to blunder ahead without thinking what the various parts are for, But once you have gained a good understanding of the principles of the firearms 0 f dlff erent makes, you. soon develop an almost Instinctive knowledge of all the mechanical, arrangements of the actions and 'Will not hesi tate to d.i sman tie any firearm for the firs t time, Remember eacb and every part you remove" a:nd

.. . .

t lt . ..l~ ~ 4' 4,,,'" th k

Pill n uOWl1 In a, consecutive POSh10:n on .. e wor.~

bench, 00 that the, mechanism 'may be pu.t together as it came a part.

O f th t ~ rt t thi .. thi 11.- e1d ..

ne o~ ... c e mas Impo.·.an. ., Ings In .' _ :~']6 ' - .' ' IS

a clear understand! ng 0 f firearms, and the reloading of ammunitions, not only of the firearms you own, but of others as well. Read the books dealing with these pro blems from the pens of such authors as 'Whelen, Crossman, Mattern, Greener, etc.; and

I f- id ch th h .. h d

I' ._'. ',: ····-'1··· ..... , . : I' . _._ -. : -, .', ,". ' ... ' "-. J ," .•. ' -' '-1 ,"' '-_., - .,-""' I"" __

a so re erence gumes sue a') e mae nnery , an '.

books and texts 'by' Fred H~, Corbin and Frank ,A. Stan1ey'.. Such books as these deal with shop peattise and tile' general. principles of' mechanics .. , It will be well to S tar t a library not 0»1 y of books, but catalogs as wen, for these contain, a wonderful amount of' valuable information, Write for those on the list w bich the Directory contains, and you will find that th.ey offer a course of study which in

.:_... b .. dl bl Th t I tal ·

'Il-LI,!!, Ie· eeomes 1 n. ispensa . e. . ··1_ e ! 0(1 eats og 1:9

especially valuable, for there you will find 'tools that answer for other purposes than gun work, Nearly an the :Ia,rge hardware houses, circulate catalogs, but it is, doubtful if they wou1d lanyard one of these to an individual without any business COD,-

8

T,HE MODERN GUNSMITH

nection, So, for the average person, it is best to secure both Sears, Roebuck and. Montgomery Ward ca talogs, as. these 'Con tain ahnos t all the tools and supplies the beginner will, need ..

I have spent a. number of years ill gun and ammunition 'work and have gained experience, not only from the standpoint of a small gunsmith's. shop, but from a number of' years spent in one of the U + S'O Government's largest arsenals and other

fi .. tit to. here it lbl ·

ne Ins: 1, unons w .' ere l was POSSI - e to acqin re a

world of knowledge in mechanics. I am, passingthis, information to the reader wi tho u t 'concealing any trade secrets, Some subjects could be treated

in separate books, but as long as the reader is able to grasp the principles with a clear understanding of th e re ason 'i;l!' behind v ar io us instru ctions he will

, ., a-J'J 0:;, __ . ~~ . ,I . _ _ _ ~. _ ~ v ,;::I, .. _'-" If .a .

d I his i .. ti ti t .' t h h

eve op , IS lID. a' yeo a pom - wr ere .. e can ac-

complish great progr,ess in the construction and re ... pai r of fi rea rms, Fi nall y; be sure your ideas are practical and not theoretical, 'for you will spend long hours proving these ideas. Thls is sa tis factory provi ding it does not .run in to too much expense J for by doing it ~ ulti mately you will have gained experlence proving your theories; and w hen the resul ts do not prove sa tisf actory J just charge it up to experience ..

CD' .:11 ~ER=' ': 'I'

(~~;.- •. d

The W'orkshop, Tools, and Ge,neral

E'q,uipmeo't

CH'APTER I

. .: .i ': ", "' .

... . ' l _. _.:

The W,o:rksltop" Tools" and General Equipm,enl



I ~;e~Mf~~H t::uticiS ane::e:~!~~~~~t~: :~e~ ~~

prod uce one's best work'1 the wor kshop should be

J. ed In s - h' .. - ] '·"11 all .,'

. . '. I '.' .' '.' " . ,. ..' l' I' .,,,'.,.:- ' ' ...

ocate In sue. ',~ a, ,p"a(;e ,as WI, , '" ,ow concentrenon ..

A ~p";a'ce" should be ... , .. ~ aside ~f' ossible ~Lll,;I:.-'il'll ~." , ., s, 0 u, .', ,e set aSl.. e, 1, pOSSl ..... e:l' tue. Ii. Wh.ll

be in every res pee t best fitted fo r thi s particular type 0 f work. Th e difficulty 0 f U S1 ng the aver ag e basement as a workshop is the lack of proper, natural I.i.~~bt an. essential element in close " '~n'~k Th

n ~'---' " "" . , . . . .,',., .~, .'. W .. l ,... , ,e

shop would 'be Iar better were It 1)'1 aced. 'in a well-

" ,

ligh ted spare room, pe'Fba:ps in. the a it ic; or, better

s till ~ 'there may be a space in. the yard '1.0 erec 1. a simple _ shed or make an addi don. to the' gar.a.ge~ If one i-s lucky enough 'to have: a. suitable ou t ... bu i Idi::ng;;; this is easily converted into a conveni enr shop ~ The important qualities are that it be heated and ven tila ted that the.' no'); tur .... ~ li,·4g, h" t b e g. :', . · d, ..... d

, ' - . ~, .. ~ . ~, '.' .00 .. , an _

that it be roomy enough to contain all the' necessary tool s, fix t ures, and supplies,

As your Ideas and mistakes are best developed, on paper, it will be 'well to secure a dr,afUllg' board, and to place it in a corner of your 'wo'r'~,shop together with a Tssquare, 4$ and 60 degree triangles, ,(I" fi,nely graduated rule, and an Inexpcnstve set of

....[I... .. '.' -~. "'h .

ora W1tlg instruments. .I ere you can make a rec-

ord of: all your Ideas, and, in time you win be: able to. do any work you want to do with this equipment and the men tal picture, before you j

The Wo,rkbench,- This can he made in various ways. You tau obtain f.actory ... made, pressed-steel bench legs, and build 'up a top, 0 r a ny' size, addi ng elabora te detalls jJ yo u are so iuc.li ned ~ However, I should advise the beginner to {lest his skill by maklng his own bench in its entirety. 'You can ,get the necessary 4 x ,4 Yiello\v'-pIne studding, such a.'S en rpen ters use fo.r' 'house framing, for the' legs, maki:n,g each end frame 'wi t11 t \V() u,pr:igh ts a-n.d one crosspiece on top, :and a Ughter' one fasten.ed abou t 10 inches 'from the fl oor" A boar-d can be fastened lengthwi:s,e betw,e,en. the frames:, and. this mak,es ,a handy rack to store scrap 'wood or 111cta)1 parts~ The cr'o.ssp .. ·i,oces can be 'n tted i nflo t'h',o 'U·· p' "',r'~g: -'h- t.·· ,: .'

.- ,., - ,. , . '.' -' "t. . ~ .' ,1 . .-. ' . s so

that. they malt,e' a neat joint" and c'an be he,ld tOI" g,ether' lVith ,;l11,-mch ca rri,~ge. bolts,,,

For. the, tIOP'~ eitber g,et a tw·o .. i:nch. plan:k of ,yel- 10\'1 pi,n,e o:r ,som.e ,bar'dwood :s,uch, ,as beech or maple.,

] f you wish to go 'i nto the construction more elaborately you can make your top of I-inch Y'cUow pine,

d ., -, "'_ "I-~"" -, 11· l=I ,;" 'g" IQ~d crosswise

,an, cover ,I t. ?i'1 .. ~.l nlapJ.t~ .l. oor l n~ ~.. . ..~ ,: _ ~.:' " .. co

This makes a 'very good hardwood top and will last forever. Yellow pine) altho cheaper" soaks up oil and is never as satisfactory as harder woods .. The suitable slze for a bench is between 3 4 and :3 6 inches i n bei,~h t from the' floor to the top of the

b h xirdi to' - - ne's .c-'" at 1I'II'''''~ .olI. nd abou t 24

cnc~ " accor __ ' i ng I.'; 0 " ~'!i.+d'. !LI!I,1i "",~ a,J,~I- ',",.!" . . .

'-" .. ' h' . ,o!' ," , , -'-d' tb" R", 1: ... b '. 'l<'!li ,.'.o;;o' ... ...;J 'U' nd 0.1\''' each llag--

lDC ,CS .Ill WI".' ", "',, Uue.r p .~~','._,~, .. ~I' .• ,. ,h..i,

win. greatly soften noise. Drawers should be: built and partitioned and attached to. the under side of the top, I I'hese V\' iU hold the tools and files 'that" are not. generally in use" A, sui table rack at the back should a lso be built to hold other necessary t ools, such as chisel s ~ bi ts, etc ..

The length of the bench can be governed by the available space, but by all means make it long enough" {or you wi ll find that m uch more space is necessary for all your work than you realized. In. fact, if (he reader has In tentions 0:( larger development" it 'would be best to buad two benches, one' for his wood wQ,rk, and one for his metal work, as, these

.' ',. ,. - f" -, .. k .. -, . -.. di ff rent . t,t, - . h' . , t ~

two types 0: wor _,. require ureren at B'C nnenrs,

h ~

,. ... .. - "r'- ,'" .', c .'. " .. ' .

sue .as '\\ tses, etc,

,A ~ood bench is absolntel y necessary, and you

'. ··~1'11 ·ft:·, ·1 th···, t th·· f· . _' ,~~. i···· .. ' b stit te :1:""1l..e 1'~ ltche ~

W,] _,l; nCl "a. "ere lS no SlU .. SlJ.l llt. .• ' II. 1\~.... . Ij,~,

table Is useless, for it is, important that everything be solid and fastened securely. I do not recommend the purchase of 'wood working .. benches such as are ~ is ted ,i 11 hardware ea talogs, fer I wou ld i mpress upon the beginner's mind the importance 0,(

.. '. . h ., - .' bv t·· h~ .' b--' ~ d '

c' .',,', '. (JY , ",'. " .... ' .. ' ,. . '. .. ,.' . .' " " . I I '

ganung tne experience step by s rep, w. ncr 15·· one

by 'malt i n,g' everythl ng possi ble one/ s sel f ..

:N' ··e·.c. ·e·~o~ Too'·, ',I'. L.,f'l'Vout ~ Here ls a necessary

." ~~~ ~ ~~:. ... .

too') layou 'l ~ given in alphabetical order ~ ~~i tb, a. descriptiO'n 0.( each 'loo 1.. This is to give o'ne a, general idea of his tool reqlti rem,ents.. Separate· chapters will deal wi th their use:

Alc,Q,hoi J~a 1Jt,p-A lamp 0 r t1:1is kj n rI can be made

'r .... ] , A': --" -, .-,- ~l- .--'' 'b tt] 1I..""'vn L.__ I ... _.l

ea.sLy.. "gum nlUCI, a.ge 10. ,e J.utS 'e,e ueeR u~.

A '0···· ;r' ··I''''b '.', :.- ,t :"'d'" ", ' ..... ' I" 'bu c'" it' ··~'ff a'l'!I.d~· a, .

,.L _J .~. .....a ,I . er car _ fl, ge case can . ~ .. n 0, _ . U.' '.

section o,f' this :i nse-r.ted for the' IU be. ,An o'n can m,ay' a1so be used by cutting orf a parl of the taper,ed :spou t and i nse'r'ling ,3. wi,cl\,,, The bo,ttom. 0'( a ca.rt.ridge ,case 'will, serve: as ,3· COVf,r ~ T,bis 'w,ill

9

10

V-grooves vertically and. horisontally and to drill and tap for clamps, Then make suitable c]a.mps :for ,f:aste:nin.g' 'the work by means of these 'V ... grooves, One 'will find that a plate o:f this nature plays a large part in the layout of new' work and in '(be necessary set, .. upe to check measurements, 1 t is

THE MODERN GUNSWTH

make the' most serviceable of lamps, 0:( course the: appearance 'will not be the' best or to the taste of'

d chani h h lde I "boo; to' I 1-.. t

a goo mecnamc, W '.0 :" as pnc e In ms too 5,;, out

,",- "'1'1 th

" '[ - _. . -:1' ., .. ' - -" , .. .

rt W_[" answer ne purpose ..

'The uses 0 f the alcohol [amp are varied: with it you will be, able- to heat all small parts for harden ...

r

L ,_,_,== ~--

" "

I

, I

~ ,

'I 'J III

I

!

,

~ __ ~=~.;;....;.. __J,

-$-

,

~

, ,

I" ./11

I, !

---~ ··_-~-'~--l

I I

.t.d)'o; -~

.-,,, -1'- ,-

,- -

"." . . ~

r ,-

&

I

'.-~

,

m

- _. f---!

-

~ ~~;:~

. ,

.-¢*I" _'''', -

- ,

~" -''''

1 'I!

'!II

'r<),+-----.,~ ~

T

!

o

-

I I,

-liT ITIl =--1 "TTI',nTifiIII 1111'1·1' I' I, Illml " -t"I"1 \t'!-i ,..,;""IJ,.-4J~.\j, I i I I I I ! I: ill '...LU Li. i.l. LL LI,

Fi9~ 1

Tool make:i:s r(lD9'1e plate

ing and bluing, and it will also serve f:or drawing

the tern per 0,[ small tools, etc ~ .

A ngle P'l,a,te~This is a most useful fixtu re for clam ping parts in laying au t work. The most convenien t si ze is one S inches in height by 2,34 inches in width, Angle plates can be purchased from,

. ' .

hardware or machinery dealers, The best of' plates

can be 'made' by an advanced. student Figure 1. illustrates an, angle plate, It is best to mill the

also useful for clamping work that 'must, be perfee tl y square, An angle plate, of cast iron is the most satisfactory,

Anvu-~An anvil weighing between, 40 and 80 pounds is one of the most useful appliances in the heat-treating or blacksmithing department, It lViIl be. used, to forge springs, to make special hammers etc, }\ universal bench, anvil wiH also prove very

f' l~' th b

use, II III ' e s_ :~p.

l'j,rbors==\Vhen. one's equipment i ncl udes a lathe, these' can 'be made as required,

Arbor Prcss=. .. ~ No, 1,YS or No, 2 Greener arbor

b ..... , ... ,.-!] f b hi 'L: '. ~

press canne usee :~ or oroacr mg, puncmng, piercing,

straightening, pressing in. pins and bushings, resizing cartridge cases and bullets, etc,

Benc}t: Sto'p's~These are for the 'woodworking bench and come in handy :f or holding work in place while: planing. Several 0.£ these may be placed in line along the top of the' bench, and you. will find

rnany uses for them, .

Bench. Grinders-The best bench. grinder is the electrically dri ven Apex 34 -horse-power grinder, which has, Y.2 -inch sha fls and takes t'\VO grinding 'wheels. By removing one of the. gri nding wheels 1 vario us disks fo r cleaning ~ su rfaci n g, poll shing ~ and countless other operations may be substituted, Hardwood disks, prefer ably oi maple or beech, about 9 Inches in. diameter and I inch th ick ~ are adaptable to a variety of uses, These must mn absol u tely true: to preven t v ibra tion, By gl u tug sandpaper on the faces -0 f these wheels they can be used for tIU! ng the, faces of materials, such as bu ffalo horn" ivory, bakelite, and fiber work F. I t is well to have six or eight of these wheels with sandpaper of' different degrees of fineness gJ ued 'to

'he A th _ th '·'1 I d

" ," .. ~ ,- -~ "t . - c"' • -::~ • .' .:' • " -. ~ I - - . - -", , :. ":'__', '. ., J,:"";' .. - .-, . 1 '-".'!: '::-1 LIiI , . 1-

t .. m. ,~, s t ey wea.r out" e,Y are easuy repracen,

\~lith #2 sandpaper attached you (an rough down ru bber recoil pads" and for fi ni shing yo u can use a 'wheel covered with 10 or =00 sandpaper. With the latter you will ge t a very' fine finish free from scratches, On ivory, bakelite, fiber, and similar materials, it is, best. to experiment with different

I f determi hi ... L ~'lll d _ h

grac es 0'.' pa,:per to .: eternnne 'W 'lU,I, w,~ .Il, pro .. uce t., ,C

best resu lts ~ This grinder' ,yin talc' the' circe Iar wi re w heels ~ f elt wheels, 'muslin, can ton flannel; woolen, chamois, buckskin " leather, and sheenskin =s covered wheels which will be used :in the polishing of steel pa-rts.

Benck or ,Surlact Plate-i-s; plate 14 x J 4 x J 0 Inches is essential 'for laying out different things; or for forming lip ordinary parts of sheet metal J and when necessary, it is something you can pound on Instead 0 f using the bench top. Another plate, of heavy glass; 12 to 16 inches wide and 40 inches long, Is a great convenience, This. should be placed on a stand. that is perfectly level and can, be used 'fo.r' a laying-out plate: ln mountinz te]estop€t blocks

, . . .. '. ". ... _' _." -- . ," , . " " ':t'J; . -". •... ' " :!!

for !qua'I"'i:ng' between any' filed Of' machine sections of barrels or action work, for laying out stocks to secure the proper lines of drop and cast-off, and for laying' out sight bases and other parts, Such a large surface plate 0 f metal is expensi vc, bu t a true

_ - .

glass pl ate ,will answer the purposes very well and

. 1 '1

cost :m(IC l ess.

'. - . ... ;.... I ~, 'fl jo

,B;d's,;_ Three types, of boring bits are necessary ]n

II,

the general layout: auger,. Forstner, and center, 'The auger' bits are not expensive, and it will pay to in vest i 11 a high-grade set, gradua ted between }~ and 1 inch by sixteen t hs. Forstner bi ts are very useful in gu n work, Unl ike auger bits th~y have no spur :[ n 'the center" but are guidJ.ed by a sharp outer d m or cutting edge which makes a hole 'WI th a smooth level bottom, These are the most con ... veni en t hits to use for cu t ting out recesses for lock~ in sho tzun s and w herever a flatbo t tomed hole Is required, These hits are often incorrectly referred to as "Foster bits.' 'The center bit Is short and is used in gun work only lor starting the hole so that

'I!., F b~ b .~ I ..,jll

tuc' _" orstncr . ''It can. e exactjy Iocated,

If much work is to be done, it 1S best to get all three sets of bi ts. The principal use for boring bits is roughing out 'wood ill the magazine mortises" boring out recesses under ,a trap butt plate, and a number of 51,m.1] ar uses in d i fferent kinds of wood wor'k .. , One -0:1" two expansion bi ts, WH:i Ie not a1 together necessary in gun work t are good add:i tions . Fi gu re ,2 shows a. wood bit to be used in a brace .. "

Bra:ces~Pj.ck out the, most dependable for use in. connection with auger 'bits. It should always be a ratchet brace, A, Yankee hand drill. wi th a set of small bi ts is also incl uded u nd er this. head, a's; j t is one of the 'mast serviceable hand 0011 s for d rilling small holes. It is also an aid for drilling in aw'k-~, \v a rd places"

Be v el Prot r acto.r-This Is used for laying out angles 011 both wood and. metal and also for checking unknown. angles.

Bunsen. Durru:.r-This, as well as the alcohol lamp is very useful for' heating or tempering small parts, as a. very' high temperature can 'be obtained. I ~ is inexpensi ve, and jj ,f gas, con nect ion s are' a vai 1- able ,i s a great con venience,

C ali pers~.L~ set of both inside and outside calipers, 2, 4, a-nd 6 i nches, will be needed, These are handy for mak in,g quick l11 easu remen ts and to cal ~ cula te the diameters of work til roughout the opera, .. t ions, One 4-=:l:nm, hermaph rodite caliper Is s,n that is necessary. This is, for drawing JInes from the sides of a surface to a given measurement" and is a very useful caliper ~

C a,talogs~See Directory ~

Check. oring Tools-« - These too Is are very usc f ul ~ not only' to place designs on forearms and. pistol grips" but Ior other' designs, as welt I magine a. sa w, or' ra ther t lVO sma ll sa \V5, abou t ] inch long, ,at

THE: MODERN GUNSMl'TH

,'ODD FI LEi HANDLE

I

III PLAN

ELEVATION

,3 PR,ONG 'CHECKER~ING' TOOL

2 PRONG B,ORDER. TO'O'L

j PR.O'NO STAR.TING, TO 0 L

E.NGLIS,'H P,ATTE,RN TOOL

~j. .. 04.. 045 .. OS" REMOVABLE CUTTER PATTER.. N

ENGLISH 'PA TTE'RN TOOL

Fig. 3 Ch.c1l:erlllqi tool deaiqll.

the end of a straight piece of steel shank looking like a small tooth-brush, Figure 3 illustrates checkering tools, The double saw can be made by filing it as one thick saw; then cutting a groove, lengthwise to make two 1'0'W'5 of teeth, In using it, one side of the teeth first forms the groove j and afterwards forms the guide, while the other side makes thenext cut. As each first eu t is finished another mark is being made, This insures equal width 0 f cu t, .L.\_ set 0'( checkering tools consists 0 f the bordering tool, laying-out tool, and two checkering tools for each size of checkers, From point to point of the teeth there should be a distance of .04 and ~045<1 These tools are; made 'from 78·X % drill rod, cutting the rod in 6-inch lengths, heating the end to cherry red and forging the end about 1 inch long at an. angle of about "5, degrees ..

I t will be good, prac tise for the stu dent to under .. , take filing out his checkering tools, using a threesquare needle file and measuring from poi nt to point. For fine checkering ( 2 S lines to an inch) they should measure, point to point, .04 inch wide. The' best tools are made wi th three rows of teeth, \VhUe one is cutting J the other Is guiding into the

hich has b d · sl "'T"'1.. thr

groove W,' . __ een ma e preVIOU ,Y ~ 11 He '. ee-

row tool is the hardest one to make, for it is necessary to get accurate measurements. The tools shown in Figure 4 are for milling the cutting teeth

1 2

Fiq .. 4.

Mining cuUers for .makin'q ched:edng tools

accurately; placing them, .,040, .045" .,050, .055, and .. 060 apart The .. 045 tool gives the best results and makes the best checkering possl ble on a. stock '.

After the grooves are cut in the checkering tools lengthwise, it is easy to file out the cutting teeth. To do it more accurately, have them, milled out and spaced as finely as possible; then file the sides or cutting edges on an angle, sloping well back: the sharp cutting edge on the outside does all the work.

'THE' - W·· '10' "'DU'S"S"O"'P' l"'OO·······La AND-"-' .,' ·G--pu~,., EQ--'-I'I'iI"D&~

. . :, ... ",_ .~-" ",.: :~", ...• ,II~ .. ~ ....... -I.:J. [' . e- . ,.Ed'~ ('_·,.··.·.'UILr'·I.l ... .u:II.,J.

The teeth may be made almost vertical, er they may slope: back g'Ughtly' as outlined .. , You can stone these for the diffe'r'ent woods you are using', for degree' of

ha · ~ Af '0 - he . h

s r,pness IS Important. . . ter cutting the teet .... on

both sidea, heat the, cutter to a bright cherry red and quench in water, polish off wi th emery cloth, and draw the temper to a light straw color. This lie aves it hard, and impossible to touch with a file,

If you wish to cut yOlK'" own checkering tools with

- .

a three-square needle file, 'lay them out, using the

die-maker's square to get 'the first line and esti .. , mating over the di stance that you 'wish to space it.,

S"·j that - O'-'il "~-'h t ,'. .",,' it O',A,~~ thls .'-, e'-'-'-'~ -, ay -. a, Y'tl, w~s' ,0 'space I . ~, ~J, ,. 1,$ IS .asy J as

these scales are gradua ted in sixty .. fou rths, so it is

- _.

only necessary to set over on the second line to % 4: "

only .001 over the .04,5, 'which is near eno ugh. I t is very essential that you be' careful in filing these spaces, to, get them the proper width, far if you try' to doctor them 'up by filing the sides 0 f the cutter; you cbange the height-s-one wi:U be high and the other low, and you will have difficulty' in, checkering ..

If you do not get just w:hat you \visb at first, 'start over again and get the, width that you desire' .. Circassian, French, and Italian walnu 15 are the easiest woods to checker, and the checkering on them can be made much, finer than on. open-grained. American walnut or softer WOOdSf Eighteen to twenty spaces to the inch is customary i.n using the ,.050 or tO$.5 tool. 'I'he laying-out tool is seldom used", as you 'can lay ou t your work much better with the three-square bent needle 6]e~,

The '. aog ,1i.;tli; of: th e checkering too ·1~ , .. ,,:L.o· uld be .' 3,0·',

. __ " ',' 1,--, ,", .![j. LI.I~,. L , ". '. _-.: :.._l:J M);.". . ,1,.:-, .' - .

, ,

d h .'...l 0 d . h · ''II d d

egrees on t e side or 6.··.· . egrees 0'0 tel ncna e

angle. 'These angles are the same: as, the threesquare needle files. The' border tool, may vary acw,rding to the width that is pleasing to 'Ute eye. The 'finest checkering does not require a 'border, for a border is only carried. around the, checkering to cover mis takes, such as the sl ipping of the checkering too] and the, three-Square needle file,.. It is weU:, however to have the beginner use, the border tool 'Until he becomes so adept that never' a mark. will be made outside the outlines o:f the checkering, The end 'w:hicb, is driven into the file, handle' can be,

v

. .

. "'.. .'./

i

.. ~

t:iit~

v

.

-!

13

dra.,~; n to a, taper so that it. may be more tigh.tly secured, The length of the tool from 'ferrule, to point should be- between 3 and 4 inches, and ·froni the bend to- the checkering teeth, three .. quarters 0 f

~ h an 1DC..: "

The bent file is made from a die ... maker's escape-

men' . t fi; 19 ,0' 'r- 'a 5- IL ~ ~ h th ,£1;,= .r: - '-..a need 1£1;, .c.1~

. . '._'W,._ '_ ,/2 lnc .... ' re¥ .squaf~ u .~_. ~ llL:~

,10 or :J$OO cut, To bend, the files ,at the end, coa t with a mixture of bone-black made into a paste by

ddi ""[ H h _ dbd

a ,'·ng OJ, '. Heat to a cherry red and ben on a

h -. rd 'co, ... ' ··d·' b11 ik.-.- -:- "'" - ',- _....1~' - h t st -,'.' d ',." -"" -.' . -~ -:',

.' arc ,woO"_ . ,.!Joel .... usmg a sug I, I" S _ca;_) pressure,

Coat again with bone-black, reheat to a cherry red,

.lI d" ~ .. t b .. I ti d b d'd"

ann' ip lD_O a nrme sO' U aon mane _,.y ,8, I: lng' com-

man table, salt to, water. 'This requites very quick.

11_ f . h 'I'" II ha "'1 h t

wort\" tor t ie point is so sma . t at It _ oses_ea._

rapidly, so everything should, he handy-the fire, the wooden block. and the brine. solution=-for as soon as you. dip the file into the solution, the boneblack comes off and the .rue serrations are at once

":'1'- .'-'.' T" he b :-.~ hlai 1,.. "·f···:1 ,.' .~- ',"'11' :~.' d ~"

C ean, ,e '. one .. ·, " ac&., 0. course; IS, on y use - ~O

prevent the heat from, burning the points or the' teeth~

C,msels- These come, under the heading: of fitmer chi sels, socket chisels, bottoming tools, gouges, cold chisels, and carving tools,

(a) Fir,mer chisels: The ordinary carpenters' chisels acre too long and clumsy 'for gun-stocking" but those made for wood carvers are very sui table, especially the short ones made for work in, technical schools,

(b) s'" k - ..... t....: ~I Th sh t

u ~::oc set cmse 5,':: .nese arc' a very : :.ort pat-

tern of carpenters' chisels and are useful in the roug ·b,er- 0'~F-atiO'I1'5,- You can buy: an ,assortment of

, _:. _ _ _,~''¥ .... _ .• .! I! I . - __ .. __ " . -_-_ .. _ .. I. . ._

them, from any hardware company. You, 'wnl need a set from yg, up to 1}4 inc-h. You also require a set of offset pattern-maker's gouges from, * to 3A inch ~ varying in. wi d ths by 7S inch,

(c) Gouges: You may have to undertake the

1,.,: f ,.. b- 1 .. ld

mazing 0, . your own gouges, as swta_,'_e 1.115]. e-

ground. gouges are not available, _ These are made

'f'-'," .. : di "II ,." "d" It: ::\/ .. lA" ,51 ,1.£ 11 . l£ ,. ch '.'.,:~

rom . iriu ro ,S 7-t5, l16, 74 J 716 J ,7ti:~ 110,,~,72 ,I.DC .. eli.

The most convenient Iength 'is 4 inches from the file handle, File down the drill rod to. a taper - .. bal f its .:ij'tO'm" ieter on the" end used f·or euttin 0'·

one-' 1_ '__- _" ,{_ U:~d' " " (,. : :u, . ' .. ' ,II :'UI~; ' ... ,. "''UI, ,II. b ~,

v __5_

-m-

'V

'.

4

U ..3., J6

1'IcJ' 5'

. - '," iI ....

. . '"

14,

THE MO,DERN GUN'SlYDTH

then file out the radius 01 the cutti.ng edge to the proper size and harden and temper in the usual way. Of course it will be necessary to turn the other end down to a lesser diam eter in, order to drive into convenient-sized file handles. When these tools are made and held to a sharp cutting edge r you will find them very handy on inletting work w here small as well as large radii need to be cut very sharp, Figure 5 illustrates these.

(d) Carving tools: The very best carving chisels and gouges are those made by F. V., Addls and Sons of London. They are made from fine Sheffield steel, forged entirely by hand and Bold in this co un ~ try by Hemmacker & Schlemmer and Company in New York 'City", You. 'Will find a number of uses for carvi ng tools, and it is well to invest in a set of these; not only for the eli ff erent carving work you may' want to do, bu t also for odd form s that may arise ill th e con s tru cti on. 0 f speci al wood wor k.

(e) Bottoming tools: These must be hand -made, as the 0 rd i nary chisel s and carving too Is wi II nu t reach the deep cuts required, in the inletting 'Of shotgun actions. Bottoming tools can be made from A x 7'1 G inch drill 'rods and forged and filed to the shape requi red. in any par tic u tar job. I tis, necessary to head and forge out the ends, so be very parti cular to keep your heat even and do not at. .. tempt to forge the steel when it starts to lose its color; hold it at a cherry red as long' as you are working' it. After forging; file it to the desired shape, harden, and drew the temper to a purple. The edges may then be sharpened with an oilstone. Fi le down the shanks and fi t sui ta ble file handles. You win find as you progress that. you win never

h h b tt ; t I

,: ,":." .. - - 'I']"' '1 ~ .'j .' " •...• . . a . - .. '.

nave enougo .oming ,00 s ..

(f) Cold chisels: Buy' only' a few of the small sizes; these are very seldom used in gun work, but you. will find a use for very small ones. Save all your needle files, and by using the ends that are held in. the hand, you can mak.e fine chisels, They will hold their edges very well if the temper is dra wn to a ligh t blue ~

The wood chisel is one of the H10.st importan t tools a gunsmith owns" so without the finest of chisels he is absolutely helpless. The ordinary carpenters' chisels can be used by the beginner to get an idea uf what is required, but for the fine inletting of actions into stocks such chisels are really useless, and. good work can never be done 'with these tools, Always bear in mind that tb,ey mus t be be ld at a keen r azor edge so tha t they will cut the grain any way it may run~

Cla.mps-These are used. for the purpose of attaching horn" gl ued wooden insets, ebon y, ivory forearm tips: for holding down work on the drill press, for clamping discs, to circular wheels on the

grinder, and a considerable variety oi other uses.

( a) Cclamps: There are a. varie ty 0 f Ceclamps made" but the most useful is the malleable iron

'1-. d b "'l-d ... C cl hich ,., .

uO', y -, UI"" er' s _ ._, - _ uamp 'W 1-", comes In openings

f rom 3 to 10. i riches It is essential for the he .. ginner to secure a set of these clamps with. openings of 4, 6, and 1 0 inches. They are very reasonable in price, and while buying it is wen to get the set. You can also buy the small cast -iron clamps in the five and ten cent store. These COIn'e in handy for a number of things. Even tho they are made of cast iron they serve their purpose very well on small' work. There are a number oi odd forms of clamps you must construct yourself as you find uses, for them.

(b) Stearn's 1111 proved bar clam P ~ This is one of the handies t cl a m ps 0 f its kind, and comes in various lengths. A five-Ioot clamp is very' convenient for a number of jobs, and can be bought .so reasonably that it does not pay to make i t, You can get the shorter clamps of the Stearn's variety

for all the work in. the gunshop, ~

(, ')' B'··' tt "'I' . A", ,," ' "'" , ith kn .. ,. thi

C" 'UL, camp. .r : severy gunsmnr xnows t ,IS

Is a very handy clamp and 'worth making up, It is used largely in stocking shotguns and single-shot

n ' I, "h d ui IL I 6· ch I'd d

n es, ] e en pieces are /2 x: x o-mc co::·. rawn

s tee 1 - 'i~?'; r h ~i e holes dr illed 4- or S inches apar t, On these are' placed two long rB bolts, threaded on each. end, and long enough to reach from the action to the 'butt of the stock blank. Care must be taken in tightening the nut on the opposi te end so that eq ual pressure will be applied, I tis, i mportan t to eq ualize and tighten. the two nuts at the same time .. Figure 22 ill ustratcs one of these clamps ..

(0) Wooden hand-screws: These are very handy for holding sections that fire glued to stocks, also for holdi ng forearms in place; in fact they have: a number of uses on woodwork wh.ere metal clamps cannot be 11 sed.

( e) Too l-rnaker's par allel clamps: I t is 'lyeU to secure sets of these clamps, for they win be much used in metal work, such as holding in place telescope and, sight bases of all kinds and descriptions" and al so for clamping work to face plates, angle plates J an d la thee face pia tes,

Fiq~ G, Flukld C:OllDlel'Ilnk

Fi9~ 7

Half col,ll1ten.lnk

C ountersinks-« These are made in. various. angles -4,5, 6 O~ and 82 degrees, and are used: for countersinking metal and wood ~ Figures 6 and 7 illustrate f.wo standards used.

mE WORKSHOP1 TOOL,S. AND GENERAL EQU,IPf4ENT

Dies-»- The begi 1111er should secure ro und button dies of the following sizes, together with a suitable die stock, It is wi se to get sets 'made up in these small convenient sizes:

2-64- 2=56 J~,56

3-4.8 4-48 4~36 5;~40

6-48 6~J2 7-36 7-32 8-3-6 8-32

10-3,')

' .....

10-30 ]0-.24 12-28 12-24

'1J .... 2 j"j2~J- -

1;;14- --20

~ .

~4-24

YJ,-28

One set put out by the Pratt and Whitney Com-

pan'- '-", -r -,~ " " f -,' 1;. to 1/ ' .. .h · -, ," 't·, ,·-f'·- " - th

'. --) ranges rrom 1160 l:t Inc, lin SIX y - our s.

This set includes the corresponding taps. A f ull set, 'win be found expedient,

Spring D:ividers-/\ set of three tool-maker's

dl divi 1 · 2 4 d.t:. '. ell ~ I

rourx I, eg rn Vl ( ers 111- , -,an." u inc SIzes 'or

laying out wor k is necessary ~

Drill Sets' (T'LeJist}=D'IjllSt come in different sizes and are classified as, n urn ber drills J let ter drills, and fractional drills, It is well to buy a full set of them to begin with. Number drills come in sets 'from I to 80; letter drills come in sets from A to Z; and the f ractional ... size drills come from 1/;0 to 1<-. '14 n C'·' h 1~ n sixty -'10- u rth co - If V'- ou intend to

11 ~ i' 'V 72 ,- . - ,;:I - - . - - ~~- _. . ---

d h 1 th - ~ hi h d'...l ~ l~

__ 0 mucn wor tJ' r ae sets. or mgn-spee: en JLS are

best After finding what drills you use most, secure one: or two extra ones, of this number, letter, or fractional size, so that if one is broken your work 'win not 'be delayed. Figu r-es 8. and 9 ill ustra te fractional and number sets.

Fig',. 8 Fiq. 9

:Drill sel in nu'mber sizes Dtil1 let in lracUOIlal me.

Drill and lV'ire Gaugc-starre t t' B #185 gauge is a necessary tool, as you will refer to this more than any other outside 0 f your micrometer, Also ge t a 'fractional -size chart and the let ter-size chart ~ All

th '. h d f h k-' .h di t f

'" .: " .. -. --. I " ,--' .. ' I -. ".- -,' . - _. __ -'I i'r . __ _ I ,.' -- ".. " ,,' .', " '- - .. ' . . -', -,,',

esc come In. any ore ecsmg the __ lame ers 0

round stock, and also for measurement when turning wor k in the Ia the, Figure 10 shows f taction al

. - -

and num bet drill gauges,

Drill Pres s-- This is on e of the machines that an ama teu r rea] 1,Y 'requires" no toni y Ior dr iHing holes t but for rota ling' work' when filing screw beads ~

'1'· hi~ d ~ f' 'I d k ~

po 1S . ,ng rounr pieces 0.' steel, or . amas ceentng

st€'€l such .as is, seen in fine watches, Damaskeen-

15,



••••••••••••

...... , '

• ill

• • , • ... .. t Ii II' " ". "" .. .. -III

~ ,.Iii 1'5 29 '7 2!J' ],3 ,~.'~

JO 0'0 06 00 6,

il '1. ,\.,. '!I, I i!I S 2.'. u ::z.:s '1

til 04: OC~ O"~, 0.64 ..• ' '0 ... ~~ . O·.··~··.· O.··~4, D·c,,,,. 0 .. ·'&" O·

.;. ; .' . :". '. . r: '.: '. " .. - "," :. "," .:. : " "'..... _:.'

r-

,~ I", r La ~ 1! ':j G :I. 7' .a. '5 i

:II' ... -,~ ~.. i& 84 a " ,8 ~, ~ .... t.

0,00000'0000'00'0

'Fig,. 10

Drill qouqes ill D1,lmbe,r (lD,d. irac:ti'o);lal ,Bizes

ing is discussed in Chapter XXII.. i\ drill press can be converted. into a mortising machine by putting suitable stops in the proper :locations and can even. be used for facing wood by using endmills where it 'would otherwise he Impossi ble to get \ t\VD faces absolutely par allel to each other ~ A, drill press can also be used as a mi lling machine when you 'wish to file out small cutters or make slots i.11 si gh t bases, shotgun hammers, tumblers, etc. It is also use f ul in places where, it would be di fficul t to fin work in any other manner, such as milling out s toe k for odd inserts 0 f bone, ivory, ebony, and buffalo ho rnT

One uf the best drill presses for gunmakers on the market today Is the Canedy-Otto, a, motordriven sensi tive drill press, wi th two separ a te tabl es. 'The up 'p- er one can be swung out of the,

, ~

way' and the bottom ta ble used. for work of larger

· h ""1 ."' d Th

Size were a SImi. ar center IS require ~ '. r e centers

.t " h d ,. h hi hi ., ... h

are turntst e - with this macmne, 'The spindle _:_85

a f:2 Morrls taper' and is, also adapted to the use of a :11:3 Jacobs' Drill Chuck. .It will be best for the gunsmith to save up his funds and invest in s uch a machine if he intends to carry his work to a high degree of perfection. Figure 1 I illustrates. the A v€ ry Drill Press ..

Delt-a. Sanding Drums-« These are made hy the Delta Supply Company and can be, used on the spindles of the electric Apex grinders mentioned

- f Th b- d f HOi h t

be' ore. . - ey can e use- 'or po, "1 S nng convex

and concave surfaces and for the removal of old varnish, dirt, or rust, The' Srl'11 dpaper on these drums can, be changed very quickly as it is attached mecha ni.cally.

Drtnu K1tiJ.e~The draw' knife is not an essential

t 1 ~ th ·t'h-; 1I,~ t b t i f .. d t 4 it

_ 00 In t e gunsml. ' _ S .tIS", ",U 1 one IS ,a __ ,ep - In. r S

use it can be employed to good ad van tage in the rough-shaping of a stock +

El t + G'[ H" t Gl P t Th L"L"","_'"

. ec fiC ,'. ~ue--, ea ,er or '. :u,e-(),~ ,e' ,:h.Je:1 ;1,V'

- .. - .. - . , . - -_. '"

"'H- E 'M: "O"D' E' RN' J G' rr N"S"" "·nT'H

I.,:" ,",I," ,I", i , "" <' IU, '< "'," " .. u,_,"', ~, ,

frg';" III

A',Y'e'r:i tQ~l",'~<)m dl'l't']' PI'e:BS=' Jb~. ess;enii,cd machine :im. gun, S'DO'P"" m,Qchm'8' :lIlho,p,i' or' m.<:Ib<*'1a 11Ory'

Electrical Corn pany of Indianapolis puts nut one of 'the best glue-pots manutactured today, one which is operated on the same principle as the fireless, cooker ~ The pin t size is the most convenient for the small shop, If you do not have an electrical co nnec don" the regular cast ... iron glue-pot 'Will answer the purpose, ve ry well ~

Elec tria Sotdering I f01t-'Thi.5 is a grea t conve ... nience, bu t the' ord {nary sol dering i ron. 'win answer the purpose just as well ~ An iron of this type is not used 'Very 0 f ten ill the shop 1 a's 1110S t parts are swea ted, but if one i ntends to do much work, it is well to 113- ve on e on hand ~

P'il'es-- -A real mechan ic takes grea t pride In his ,fi.'les, gives them the 'best of care, and when they are W''Or.n. out, conver ts the m .i nto scrap-ers, chisels, or a.ny' number of: other useful ~ut,i,'c'lJetL I 'wou'ld not advise you, 'to make your own files, It is a difficul t. proposltion ca lling f~)r considerable experirenee, ,a:nd I do n.ot believe the, results wonld compensate fOir' the el'of t, inasmuch as, ready-,made files can fu~ bought :50 reasonably, However, if you do. need one othe:f than the standard Iine, all that Is necessary is to. grind a blank to the desired shape, The experienced file, maker holds a chisel

at the correct angle and strlkes a. billow with the proper hammer t raising a burr ~ The chi sel is 'then -"A~:I-'~d·' '! asainst the burr and the r"o,~',]]o~,,,,!Vii'nOi" !CU~, is

),ViJ~~. -D _,ru ,_~lL _ :_,~ _' __ ,,,, __ , ~_l ~l II.~, ,. . _~~~~(~ ._.~.'iW

made. :File makers work 'v'ery fast and a,c-cura:te'b~':, and Yl1)'U 'w'H,nild he slllr:I):riz-ed 'to see: just JIOW' qllrkJd.y .3" flat file can be: finished per f'ec,Uy t,

I f yo~] i(lOK closely at a 8M SS' file, you. win find the spacing' remarkably even. The best small files are made in Swi tzerl and ~ and they' are entirely cut by hand. 0 r co urse the' ] a r ge 'file makers 0 f th~ s country h ave special machines to do this work, but no machine: has ever eq ualed thel r hand work,

Files are divided in to d i fferen t ClaSSES: cross-cu t, mill, double-cut, bastard files, and rasps. They are num bered accor ding to their degree of 'fineness, o r coarseness=-from ioo to ~6, or from smooth second-cut to coarse and bastard ... cu t r Sin,gle-cu t files have :si.t1,glej, unbroken, coarse chisel ... cuts across the surface parallel to each other bu t 0 blique to the sides, They are' used on lathe work and by the machi nist ~ They are also u sed, by wood WOl' kers and stock makers, Double-cut files are made, coarse', second-cut, smooth, and, bastard, and are cut 'mth two chisel cuts crosslng each other" the second course l~1ith rare ,e:x:ceptions 'being :fi ner than the first, 'These are especially adapted for 'use :i.n the workshop. Rasps are cu t: course, second-cut, and smooth. They' have' teeth wh:ich are disconnected from one another iO, each tooth being made

- ~ ,

septalra1te]y by a punch" These are' used by black _,

smi ths, plum bers, wood work ers, etc, They are the file s wh ich ro ugh -cut th e s tocks and other irre gular farms w here an edge tool cannot be' used sue, .. cess fully,

LIST OF FILES FOR THE BEGIN:S-ER,

. -.. -

1-16 inch round file

1~.12 .,' ," H

l-- ~ ,(1 ,'~ ,~~

. 6'~ ~~ iIi~

1- ,,' ,

1- -1.2 ,~ fiat Cabiaet rasp

. 0 ~ ~ H ~.~ ',I

],- ()

1-12 of' half-round Cabinet rasp

] -,8. .j:~ ,~ ,~", H i!l~ .

2,-12 ,'~ fia t bastard W0S ( 1 [,or metal)

1-12 " "mUI fi]IO (m, :for metal) -

i'- S ,~t: ,',..: ~" ,',~, (l for wood)

,~~ bastard files (1 for ";!l(a,od) ,~" ha:~r":~(H.nld :iU;e! 'butard, cut

1- ,3;

''iJ' I i""ii ""-~,V'

t-- 6 ,U ,u U ,i'

.l.~' S' ,~I: (Ir'!lJ!i~in, fil~ ,:12 C[I.t

1~, ,~, I!!{, rA: - ,r,i ..;t.'ji, u

i..I .;;fo.t::

b assorted n2 rrow 'pruni:r fUes, In di:fiel',en.t (tlj~:$ ,2',-, 6 ,inch ,tbutC-~quare' :W.cs

1- 2: h '~!'z'ndini :fl~e ;12' eut

111 do.z:., asserted ~;~: Inc h need1~ 'n 1~$ 1-· 6 ,]neb Ba rrclt file'

3, three-sq uare die-sinker's escapement nl\cs

It is not necessary' to purchase all the fl'les, on this list at one time, but add. gradually to your collectton as you need. tbem Some you will be able to find in the five and ten cen t is tore ~

.File B'ruslz----.-This is a very necessary yet inexpensi ve addition to your lis t 0 f tools, With this convenient brush you can. clean the file of chips.

Pile H alldles-l~hese are used in. connection 'With the files, Do not attempt to use files wi thout th ern, as they cannot. be properly held and are dangerous as the tang may run into the palm of your hand, thereby inflicting a severe wound. with the possibility of blood poisoning',

.Fu:rnace:___",_T.his. may be a. gasoline torch, alcohol torch, blacksmith's .forge, electric or gas furnace,

A I, h "II .. factoril h d

gaso me tore .' wu satisfactorily answer t - e neeos

of the novice j but as you progress, a gas furnace J or if without gas, a 'blacksmith 's forge' must be added when heat is required to forge steel, and to harden and temper different classes of work,

Gauges:

(a) Surface gauge: This is the tool maker's type of gauge and is used for laying out work in connection with the surface plate ..

(b) Auger .. bit gauge: A device to cl amp on 'wood auger bits to regulate measuring depths of holes,

(c) Marking gauge; This gauge is a device: to scribe a straight line at a given distance parallel from a side, It is, very' useful in stock work.

(d) Depth gauge: A 6 ... inch Starrett or Brown &. Sharpe depth gauge 'is very handy for measuring distances from surfaces ..

(e) Screw-pitch gauge. You must have this essential tool on your list. Procure one that reads up to sixty threads per inch. \\ri til this gauge you do .not have to guess at the threads by counting them 'with a scale as, did the old-timers, That was all right, perhaps, for coarse threads, but practically impossible for fine threads ..

( f) Thickness or' feeler gauge: Thi 5 gauge reads from .0015 to ~o.2 5.. It is very useful in checking the opening between cylinder and barrel on revol vers, and a n urn ber of other places in ~~u n work.

H ammers~As you will need so many differen t hammers, you w.HI find that it pays to m ake these as the needs arise, A light hammer is the most useful, so of cou rse .you m us t have one; then. you must have the 'heavier machinist's hammer' for forging; and a hammer with a copper head. The last can be made- easily; and is necessary for re ... moving dents from shotgun barrels and other work that might otherwise be marred, Make a fiber hammer for use on polished surfaces. by securing a ~a inch thin brass tub e 1'¥2 inc hes long and inserting a piece of round. fiber, letting the fiber project from each end of the tube 114 inch, and fit to a handle.

Indicator ........... This is only necessary when you reach the advanced stages of metal work ~ It is

1 .. ,I

used to get work in balance and to run perfectly true in the- lathe or to check the true sur face on. the laying .. ou t plate.

Ladle-s-A small-size ladle is necessary for melting lead for many purposes, such as making bullets or vise jaws, and hardening springs,

Lat·he~This is. one tool that is absolutely necessary fur a great deal of important work, It is rather expensive for beginners, but a number of 'small motor-driven Ia thes are now available at reasona ble cost.

Lat he Do gs~ These ar-e most satls f actory when made by oneself, They are used only on lathe work and for driving work between cen ters ..

.11fatting Tools~These are used for matting ramps, sigh t bases, ribs, and for borders in fancy checkering on pistol grips and forearms, They can be bought from a jeweler's supply house (name gi yen in 1) irecto ry ), b II t for ordi na-ry matting' you can easily make your own, The operation may seem puzzling at first, but after you. have become accustomed to their use, it is very simple. Taper ... one end of a %2 square drill rod, file out the end

, .. h II fi '1"" .... ·1· t ld

WIt a sma: . n.e· suttmg n e JUS.' as. you wou ..

checker a stock, only ha ve the teeth COBle up sharply. Harden and draw the temper to a ver.y dark straw color.

Mallet-The novice must have at least two mallets made-c-one of ra \vhid·e, the other of wood, The rawhide mallet .is the most serviceable, as you can

... 1 k 11" d k

u se 1 t in metal worr as we as In woo .... work,

M icr ometer Sr=: This is, one of the most essential measuring instruments and a tool which can not be overlooked in the craftsman's collection of tools, Nor is there any economy in the purchase of a cheap one, for in. gun work measurements are req uired as small as one- ten - thousand ths of' an inch" It would be best to buy either a Brown .& Sharpe, or Starrett micrometer, graduated to read ten -thousandth s of an inch in 1 and 2 inch sizes. The 1 inch micrometer has a measuring range from o to I inch. by thousandths on the sleeve and thim ... hIe scales. With the vernier scale which is on the sleeve, readings in one-ten-thousandths can be secured, The thumb-piece on the end is, provided with a click for securing the correct measurements wi th uniform tension. }II any' mechanics have ·8 touch so sensitive that the end thimble is seldom used, but for the beginner it is wen to secure the necessa ry pr acti se ..

There are other measuring instruments made, such. as the ve rnier caliper ,. and height gauge with the vernier scales for se t ting to the correct measurements, but these are not necessary untik you have advanced to special experimental work. Sud),

I· instruments are arso expensive,

:18

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Baua[ .... uzz;l.e 119amaor

,Muzzle Reamers-« These are made for crowning or ~:ms'~ bing' ,,' th e 01,','" uzsle ,o,t a': rl fle b a, r rel , G' "reat ~~ re

_ ,u- _ _ _. __ - __ : .' _ _.' IJ!#J, I~ .• 11 _ ",D. __ '" I,,, .. ' _" _._ ~ ,"

'must be taken in. 'the ope ration , for accuracy depends 'Very ,largely on bow pcr.fcc:Uy the bullet leaves

th 1 'Th th d '.' b 1- ne muszie, rne proper mern ,0 J, 15 to use' a narre ,

I d ' f'h .,;eo id f" '1 ~ 1'" h

p ,ug' ano true t , e ou ~l ,6 per ect.~y ]0 re ation to t e

bore, and. 'then crown the end 'with. a specially ground Ia the tool to the correct radi us" K ot all amateurs are so fortunate as, to have a Ia the" so one mus t make a special tool; as, sho wn in Figure 12, w hie h may 'be used in the drl U press" In using thi S device have some one revolve the press by hand so that yo u can use bu th hands in order to apply the proper pressure, It, can also be' done by using it in a, hand brace, but one must make sure that the ell tter does not chatter while 'revolving ~ A good plan is to have a local machine shop turn up a

h- '1" "k" ",: ~t..I""'" "d" th " fi~"l-' it ," that there ~~ a

an " as ~JjlOwn an. e- ,en ' > e 1." so ' , a ,'" l a "

ti '6 - inch cutting edge, and have the, cutting edges :sIiIRhtly' beveled in opposite sides. Harden and draw 'the tem per to light straw color. Ha ve the cutting edges very sharp, The pllo ts of these tools must 'be stoned or, better still, ground to the exact bore of the rifte~ :rr they are not ground they must he lapped so 'that there are, no tool marks whatever, for a rough pilot: will ream, out the riffing. Great care, therefore, should be sh'OWD, in making these cu tters perfectly smooth and. true,

,M a:gniJyi'ng' GlilSI-:A very handy and inexpensive instrumen t :for the inspection of surf aces"

1 f' ~: ,+

muzz tes, e-tc, .. ;, as a means 0 detecting any scars on

surfaces and for Insp ectl ng .. ' the' cutting edge of a

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b' d "F'~' '1' ,']: ·'1'11 i: l: ' t -- at e - ,- e th at ca· n

" one, reamer, ' . 19ure ,oJ 1 1 . .i.isr.a '.' 5 on ,~.. :, "~ , .': ,

he 'made; but. first pure hase a standard jeweler's glass, and set it into the holder shown.

\,

M'itc,r Box=-h: trough-shaped form "or holding

rk ·· .. d di'~' ','" th th ~" rh uttir -'" -

wor , .an",,: rec I,ng ne saw W:_ en c U,' ' ng squares

and miters, ,A satisfactory mi ter box: ,15 casi ly

,.-...1 b if ha d h ,., I , ..

maae, but rr you nave to :. 0 'Vc,ry' rnuc __ In,,ethng~

it. would be weU, to procu re the, Perfection Iron. J\~H ter Box " since, wi th this you. can get any angle required,

O "1 I~' '11 h 1'1: 'iL d 'I

1.~st 0 ne's- t. IS we to _ '3, ve all Sw iapes an' sizes

of' oilstones, buying them as you need them, One tha. t is necessary is the 3 x .2 x 1 inch combina tion of India and Wachita for honing 'wood-working tools. The coarse India will he found exactly ri,gllt ..c' . r cuuins tJ}A hardest steel 'i:itr~'t'~... -- - - -, d t' "

Ji.U, L lL 6'';' na _ ,!.;;'.;i. '. ' .. , ;;d 'lA ease, an., ,.ne

,\V' achi ta insures a. keen las ling edge. This s tone finds its greatest use in sharpening wood-cutting tools.

You win also req uire a In y-whlte Wachita 6]1( 2 x 1 inches for the final sharpening. A, carborundum slip-stone with a round. edge for sharpening gouges, radius tools, and carving tools will

'iq~ 13- :Nra!Difyiftq 91MB and. h.older

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Fig,~ 14 :Shapes oJ ,oil81.0·UI

also be needed 4' Carborundum and aloxlte stick rna:)' 'be had in square, triangular, halt-round, round, and pointed. These come in three different gr ades=f ne, m . edi urn, a nd coar Be gri ts, The Pike India oilstones can be had in a great many odd forms and shapes, There is also the Ar kansas stone in two grits, hard and soft, For the finest wo:r.k the hard Arkansas stones are best to put the final finish on a hardened surf ace " such as; sear and trigger' WOI.'" k ~ reamers, and cutting tools ~ The vari _ OUtS fOTll1i1 are shown in Flgure 14 ..

Oil C ans------One or two -0 ~ these- are necessa ry .. Patts~Sma.ll ti.n pans, are handy for the reeep'000 of parts when ri fles or shotguns are taken apart, Suitable boxes nUILY be used.

Pa.,aUe!S;__ Inespensi ve :para Ilels Cal 11 'hB mad e from cold-drawn steel 6 tu 7' Inches in length in the followl n g sizes:

l;g x 'Y4 inch; .~::x '%. inch; %. x '1/2 inch; ~ x sh. inch; % x '~4 inch.; %.x J ~ inches, T'he;se are: very necessary to lay Qt.1 t wor k on the s ur face plate, such as sight bases, ramps, telescope blocks) and a number of other articles. When it comes to fine

...

. precision work, only hardened and ground paral-

Jels must be considered,

.Pl'ales-Tbese come under the headmg of bench and angle pla tes, s;urla,ce plates, dowel"p1h'1. plates, la pping plates, and cas t .. iron plates for truing oilstones,

( a) Dowel-pin plates: Figure' 15 shows, ho-w these are made, Thi s is one ,0 f' the most u sefu I tools '10;'the wood-worki D.g 'bench, and. is usually perma nently fastened to one end of the bench, ·\Vb.en you. have holes driUed. and reamed from ~ 6; to % by 7(.~. and }i 6 Inches you can make it dowelpin by sharpening the rough. dowel nearly to size

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Fig. ]5 Do,wEtl.piln. plate

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THE MO:DERN GUN:SMlT,H

and 'then f,olrcing it through the requi red-size hole,

(b) Lapping' plates: These are used to Iap a, true parallel surface .. , While' not necessary for the beginner, as he ad varices in to fine preclslon war k h "1-11 i· f h 1 f · d

e 'WL,.;, require two 0 t ese p ates, on-e 0 Iron an

one of' lead! The one' of cast iron should be 1 x 10 x 10 inches with the surfaces, perfectly true, one side checked about ~, inch apart, and charged 'with fine abrasive, 'The lead lapping plat-e is made on a east-iron base .1 x 10 x 10 inches with a number '0' ·f·· hok ' d ;oO"ed' - ," . the '. arf - .. - '. b· . ,-'t,:51" deer

. - ..... - -- , ,_lea ,rl ,_. 110" e ,sur ,ace, ,3 - OU, 71 '6 eep,

then boxed in on aU sides and a, 50~,50 mixture of lead and tin poured until a :tAl .. i:nch thickness is bunt up from the surface of' the cast .. iron plate; this is then planed off smooth ~ You then have a lapping plate that you can use for nne abrasives nn lv, '1..T sing the emery or dry rou ge on the lead pla te to secure a. very high fi nish on a sur face ~ On the cast ... iron plate, use the finest emery and olive

'·1 01 ,~,

( c) 01 Is tone plate: ,A cast-iron plate 1 x Ifl x '10 inches is planed off 'to a smooth surface and used to true oilstones as they become worn to an uneven

~ . ..

surface, It. is impussi hie to du your best 'work with uneven oilstones or stones which have become clogged from use~ so you must true up your stones. Use from 90 to 120 carborundum, and wa ter ~ This cuts the surface of an oilstone 'very fast, and in a short, tlme you have- a perfec t stone agal n I

Planes, W ood ... wor.king~ These, come under the beadings of block" jack, smoothing; and rabbet ,1 t . A")-l-,i th . . ,. -' ..... d "'. '.'-' k - " d '. bfn " p, anes... :'. 0 I, . __ ese are use i, .In S "QC' an.-, 'cu..' I net

k d f· .' '1 f

wo:r _ '" an 0-, course every one rs more or iess ra-

miliar with the Jack, plane, block and smoothing planes £ rom their general use in all 'wood work.

Ge--t these three to , beg 'Ii ""I W' '. I·' th I a' n d "'1' f y> 0- -- - c, -. . rick

." __ ;O;! •. ' , !i,.JiJL:' ,~. U! ,.: '_. , ."<U can P1C

up some of the old -time wooden planes our fore ... fathers used, add these to your collection. Some work Is still best accomplished with these, Their use in stock work will be discussed, in, Chapter IV.

(a) Rabbet planes: As a general rule there is very li ttle call for such a plane in stock work, but Ior special jobs. outside of stock. wor'k there is often a place for it, A router p Jan,e is a plane-like tool

I ,1 ll~'

under that name, 'This is used for su rfaeing a. flat

bottom 'when you wish to put in an inset as on the forearm, or to rout out a. channel where you wish to. place a special insert. This plane saves a lot of time,

(b) The spoke shave: You will find this tool one' of the most useful in stock work" There are a number of' different forms of spoke shaves, and yon

~']1 dll b e ·'1·' lth 'h · Th

WI ,. 'rea" '1 y _ 'ec:ome 'l,amI nar '~1.I· " t; el,r' use~ , .. , __ ,ey

are Inexpensive and a variety 'will add to your ease in working. If they are kept. at a keen cutting edge they wiH enable you to form up s, stock to, far

better outlines than with a 'wood rasp, There is a spoke shave of' orange wood cal led the C~Li ttle '\l'onder'" made- by- W Johnson of Newark N"~,Q'w"

_ . -.. ., , .' .• _ ", .. . -- . -"'J .. 'Ii:.i '. .

Jersey,; the stock is of wood. and is perfectly shaped to get around odd forms; the eu tter is of good steel, and you can maintain a good 'ell tting edge at all times, If the blade should become loose in the hand Ie, all ilia t is necessary to tighten it is to place two wood screws against the tangs of the cutter which g" 'o-"ellil! thro ugh the' h ... ndle Stanley s 1-' .. ,.,. t, - .

" '- . "-.;1 t. '. _ : U ", 4U,yI- ,~ U "," ... ,E, _ a so miaJ'Les

different forms of iron. spoke shaves, and these can be, add ed 'W' -n' en the' 'D' ~.~.,l 3," rises T- : h e cha p .. ter 0:' n

0.' • • ~ • ~,1Ib- . '." ' '1i~t:U ~~I!o .",'. J1. " " L, " I

st:orJt wor'k eX[) lain s the: use of these in d etail ~ Puncnes-'T1tese come under tile headings of pri ck punches, cen ter p unches, d.ri ft p unches, nail

punches or nail sets, and wood punches, -

(a) Center or prick punches: The best punches are those you make yourself from worn Swiss needle files, Yo u can use 'both ends, maki ng them, in. about three-l ncb. lengths, ground round, and the

t d '1 -- h b

I'. -I .. ' : _., .' 'i .. ", " I '", . '. :. ", I 'i - ._. - - .:. . • - '. '. .' ".,", _.- ' I. ~ : " '. . . ".

emper . rawn to a purp e. T e next iest center

punch ,is of ,8, smaller size and made from dental burrs. Altho these burrs are small, they are eonvenient fo["' laying out where fine center' marks are

"d-'A~I' d h

requued. '.. S It IS not necessary to .• I:ra w t:: 'e temper

on these, you can grind up at least si x and place them in ,e, block. Of course you can buy c-enter punches such as the Starretts' automatic adjustable-stroke center punch, but the ones you make yoursel f arc the best. 'V ou will also need a onequarter-inch center punch, and this can be made of drill rod, hardened and, the temper drawn, to a blue,

(b) Dri ft punches: These can also be made of " and % 6 inch drill rod" from '1A. 6 to ~4 inch ends, You can have your local machine shop make a set 0 f these ~ It i s also a \i\1",j se policy to have two of each size, as you break them 0 ften, For the smaller sizes, dental burrs are the best as they hold up very well. 'Yo u 'w-ill find that dental butt's play a large part, in gun work, so the next time you go to your dentist, ask ,h.i.m if he has a box of burrs that have become too dull lor him, to use any

Ionger, -

(, c ) N'aH sets" or mall. punches: j\, set of these can be 'bought very reasonably lI' Have' them annealed. an d the ends, turned down for a length of about 1 inch" Reharden and draw t'he temper to a blue, and polish out the cupped end. These pu nches arc required. to drive the round= headed pins out of fine shotguns, as a cupped punch of this nature does not mar- the ends,

( d) \Vood pun-ell es: These punches have cupped ends made from, % 6 and * inch driU rods=-the cutting edge made sharp by tapering from the rod size back about ¥2 inch to the desired size you 'Wi sb

TH--': 'E= W·~···C····· ···R-::''fP'~HO· . p-.. T' 0"· " 0·" L'- ·5' K~TD'·' G·· ··EN:,' E·B···'A~·,L EQ::--'U--:-I-P,·MENT

_ " '. -., I!.diil!l"·, ." - ~' " l"I.JL.,' :,",', ,_ _ :__.', .. ' __ !..:_ '

to make the point, The sizes are 'f rom 'li 6 to 114 inch in Y32~ Such punches are used to make a beaded border on, fancy checkering and run a number of places to i mprove the design of wood carving,

P<CJ\fislling lii"'lteets~.l r 3'OU have a buffing head or intend to. use one side of your Apex electric grinder, you 'win f nd It necessary to procure the :[ol~owin,g huffilng' ,,,,:hee'ls,, 8 x :1 x 1/2 :i nch hole: musl in; cotton; flannel, woolen, felt, chamois, buckskin, leather, and s"beepsk in, l\J so get an U t ii'~ it Y ]~~:l1 oc't ric ~I 01 t 0'[" and a small set of polishing wheels, ,as tile' list shows, to polish small 'parts ..

T'ap ll~'r,e1~c Jie's-,Add these' to your list along w lth the wrenches to take' the d i fferen t sized taps.

Pllers-s-Go to any bardware store and pick. out a n urn ber of dlfieren t ki nds, You will find them very necessary ~

,Reamers~U'nder this heading come hand reamers, ~aper-pin reamers, rose, ehucklng or machine reamers, English broaching reamers, chambering reamers, expanding reamers, en un ter bores, and burnishi ng reamers,

You will find. that a numb er of years are required to collect all the reamers needed, 10f course it is possi b 1.le to purch ase a great number or reamers, such as the 5 tandard sizes, 'Still these a re not satisfactory, as the rellef is ground, on these reamers ,foF' the every-day needs, while to obtain tbe most satis-far- tory resul [5 you must. stone: a reamer to the cull l,ng' edge t.o g~:t a perfectl y reamed hole, I make rnl€)~t of my reamers and h ave a. good many, ye:~ not a day passes tha 1. .I do not need a, 'new one. Here. I shan on 1y s klm over the reamers and thei r purposes ; In a later cha pter 1 5 hall go in to detail ~

(a) Hand reamers: These can he' had in sizes as needed. They come in Sf! ts J rom ~4 e to 1 inch and you will find very little use for the large sizes in gun WfH':" k. ,. They can only be used by ha n d ~ using a tap wrench to p-ass them through. th~, holes, Never use this form. of reamer in a machine such as a drill 'Pre SB· or lathe i

( b ) Taper-pin reamers: "Chis class 0 f reamer has a tap er 0 f ~ ~ nch per foot or ,0.208 i nch per inch ~ There are t\VO classes 0'[ these reamers, oue for 'hand u:~e ,and th,e Q ther f 0 ['" use in a d,lri n, 'pn:ss or lathe.. Th,\€ ba.nd. 'tieanl,ers ,a,r,e those '[[lequi:red, by the guns]l1.itb a.nd ,corne in sizes· 'Fronl lOon to :il:l3,. They a r;e so proport i,oned tbat eiach O'v,erjaps t~he

- - ~-<'_ ~. - •

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• .. __ •• .} • • I. I •• ' • • ••• ~.-:) .' _' .....

-. . _.-- .". - _. . .

F!q. Ie,

Ta,per--pin rewnellJlf $trgiqht am! !lpuul f1.uted.. The latter p,:rcdU;C8:B ,!!'~Jleri-~ I'~B\llls

21

• iii] b 111· I;;.·k -e.

SIze smai .. e r about r2 inch j' so. tl~e necessary set IS

from ,#000 to ,#8~ Figure 16 ill ustrates the '1\VO 'most

_. d

" ,,",'1'" I'· J;

generally use. '.

( ) R h ki J '. 0" I

.' '.. _' III'" _. ", ':..Ii ~ - _-,','. '. ' ,-' • • " .1 ' "

r Ie.. rsose c iucs ~n,g ,01 mae line reamers: '.,'.' III Y

buy these as you need them (or in ti me you "vill make a set. Pu rchase the siae near the particular size reqni red, t hen sri nd h. a nd s to'ne 'the cutting: edge so the hn'te comes to tbe desired size, Shown

'.. 'F'" li ,.

'1' e- 'I",· .'

U~ . llgure ' _"

Fiiil~ 1'7 Macnln.,e reamer

( d) Engliiii]h broaching reamers: This is the type of tapered reamer used by watch makers and jewe Iers ~ They com 'e i n ~1l1 aller sizes than the taper - pin retune rs, so get a f u 1 '1 set of the se, They

'} .. h d 1 it .' t £. ~"

no t on. y com.€: ~ 11. ran y wn ere '1. ~ is n ecessary o n i

a small tapered pin, but to ream out sight apertures to. any desi red size. ,,7 n] I iam D [xon of N ewark, New" J ersey, ca rri es a full 1 ine of sue h tools,

(e) Cherries: These are used for' making bullet moulds and must be made specially '~ih.en you have an idea Ior ,3., new foem of bullet or Ior ,3, specialsize; rOIJJ n.d bul let ~

(f) Barrel reamers-i-chambering reamers and burnishing reamers: A c hapte F on barrel making in the second volume dea s 'w'i th these.

(g:) Expandl ng reame [5 :: In this type of" reamer the' flutes are slotted and have either a taper' pin or '!Ii'!I,l'l't 0" n the ,e· nd *0' exnand tne ·Qu' tee . It is Vie: Iy';'

.Jl..il l ". !L '-" _ ·,~"I,:__ ~. -." ~.~l!~" U, JJIJ~ JJt .... ~!f ' ~.

seldom used in gun work" and besides is very expensive. One is U] us tr a ted in Figure 18 ~

." .,' .~- ---.-- ..... - ~~.:

~., .... .,;:....- -~,. ~:..... ::::::..

. I':' . ._ .. ".:: .... - .. 1--1 ... 'I,"· .: . .I;~~ .... ... '~ .. _. . ..,.. ~~.-."..: ... - .. :.

(h) Coun tar bores : Co un te r bores are used. to m ake a fta t- bot to med hole. They ha ve a p il ot to fi t (ill d r iiled hole, so that Ole counterbored section of tbe holle ,,'i.1.~ con~e pc'rfecdy 'true with th!e d:dUed hob~,. 'Thl~y a.re· used bl co n ~lle(:tjon. 'Frliith ,HUj.ster·~, lhr.-.ad, SCf\e'\i\75 and a nurnbtr' 0,[ lot.'ber purposes in, ,gu'~~ 'work ~ Ttl is too~, rn tmst .a~S10 be ,madlc" as, you, ,cannot buy' 'the sizes r.eq'Uir'ed~ A Oat-'bott.o:m,ed d,r-i 1"1' J g'lfou~d ~JP~, 'w'iU a n,S;\\fC'r in a· 'number of' QSCS ... \dl:H~'re t 'he 'lvnr Ii is not bnol pa'rtic'ula,r. Coun te:rbores are UJ.s:ed in a ,rnmllhe-r of place's on. stock '\¥or.k "\v he riC: a cnu n h~'F bored ho-~e' i:~ r€q u.i red. ,to n.t i:nsets of lbuf' ... falo h,orn~ ivory; ,~'~JOI~1y 1 \vll,~re a, driU ~o used ,\votdd break out s]]'vers~ an .accidc',E]t 'which rnust not happen on a finished Bto(;k~ You will :fin,rl that counter ..

22

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", ~()T';I'O'1l UTTING. 11\1 pe;WTS !'Oil:. DIlOi) or .srocK. II"]' I-!~!!I .. AND,. ~OM(I

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~_-:':m: <!eltB .... &...... -:-:.,TAA I GMT G RA l:NeD Day AS H .• MAD I.. e OIt.ll>EA R. woo .' t~

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bores are like reamers ~ .I t requi res a, long time (.0 collect a set, 'Figure' ,19' shows ,3 standard counterbore,

:niJ~ 1.9, CouDkI~,e

Rsdes 0' Scoies-« These: come under the' beadings of 'steel 'sea] es, flexible scales, boxwood rules, etc,

E ~ 'f "1!"' ~ -h h~ f" ;ii:' •

veryone IS . ',am.l~~)ar wit . tllsorm 0:.1. measuring

i nstrumen tt Pu rchase one 6 ... inch and one 12' -Inch flexible-seale rule, graduated in sixty-fourths and hundred ths, Also, one heavy yardstick and a five= foot folding rule to measure any desired length 1~ be ,12 - inch flexible rule' 'can 'be used for laying out checkering and other laying-out 'work" also to se,,cure ~'C·'DO";'~"Ii~· (l,~ d llstances to '~if'Ul,.t'i',~, te Ieseope blocks:

'!l.r, ,_, l ~,~!I.h;~ 'V.. . '~'!..G ',~'" .;J1t-- .... ~ I" ,·1 ",~,I!;,.O! ,." ,I.:",,"~:!!,

in fact" 'these, two scales are used more than an.y other measuring instrument,

.sm'1s~·Under ,this ,beading: are hand-saws, hacksaws, jewel ers' hack -sa lIYS, ()):ping :$8 \YS" etc. For the ',\Y00 d-werking depar unent you w Hl need. two

h· 3j'i,-'-' d-s ;.,".' ','. - " .. ' ~ ...... ' ,-:, '~-. ·d·'· '-." '-. ",.'," t-r "ff:'~ ... : ~'-~' '1

anu saws, one r,~,p saw, ann one C,D.· 0.· saw, ..n

metal work you 'w:ill need a, hack ... saw measuring

about 1- 2-':': inches :T- h ere ot".il\"'oO, TIiI'iIj'=i!'iI'';I;·Y" d "·l,t~.:li;Ij~'Iji,t·' kin d :~

. ,U ,".. . .1 I,IJ,-,- ~~'!I ,- ... .. III . ~~. 1~IIL~A::I;~~IIlII·· . I IIJj ~\IL ~,JLI ",K,:II. . ]~

of hack-saw frames and it is, best to suit your own taste: in this respect, However, be sure 'to obtain the best, as a hack-saw plays a" great part in the gu nsmlth's trade, Buy ,only the best blades, such as the Atkins silver-steel blades with teeth from 2'10 to 32 per i ncb, the fine teeth for thin metal and the coarse teeth for' wood and :8. teel, Also get a lewelers' hack-saw frame with a large selection of blades, These blades only cost 10¢ per dozen, so have a dozen. of each gr ad e on. hand, A, coping saw is. also very' useful in wood wor k, and these are very reasonably p. riced,

,v '.' .'

S,.rr;L.Il"iI:"~",_",:T-lb,··,e' Di'liISt-· 0" iI?'e"'~ 'a· 'r~ im··c··a·,d.-e £'---'0' j- d" , .... ,,....,iI

60-, ",U!Lr1l' .,) " ., C "",.. • iU!,;I I. '" ' .. ,' . ,r -m C ,enlL(1l

burrs by gri,nding' a very' 'sha:r.p 'point on. ,one o:f th.e small burrs:; t.h.en :s:lone' I,be' poi nt to a .sharp edge:J

" .. 11

- I

I I

. d ma k-'~ ." -- ,'l'~ . -d' :L. ' d' ']- .. , 'f:' -'. n eith - , . 'b' "--,, ..

an." n13,' - e a sma,~, rou.I1:.· iUa n ' e', rom e] , : f'r er ony"

fiJ ber, or' hufJalo horn .. , The ones you buy are much too heavy and yo-tIIr lines 'wnl V'3,'r.y \v hen taken f rom a. s traigh t edge: or scale, A 'Vfl"y' good knif e .. · ed,ge sc rlber can be made from a worn hack -saw blade ·by' gr:ind.i,n"g 0,& 'the 'teeth and gr:i ndlng the end. to an angle simllar to a fur-cutter's Ifni,fe~; and

h ~ ~ 'k d T- . hls l d l '1 ~

om ng It to a , een e·: ge, , us is usee ]:11. aymg

out. lmnes on wood wor k J' snch as you I.8:Y' out for the beginning of a. stock,

Serai'g ht Edge-« Figure .2 0 ill ustrates a st raigh ted U" 'T'h - ''- -.: . b ---- - d - '. '·f: tho '!', '. h ird .'. d 0···· .. ~e "Qe, .Lese cane ma_ e· o_~ I . lR .. ar woo-". . .. ne-

of their uses is to determine the amoun t of drop and. pi tch of a rlfle i 'I'his is easily measured 'by f asten in g a thin piece 10 inches long tran sversely at one end,

Scratc n' ,Brush-This, i,s used to prepare surfaces for the bluing operation and is, obtainable at gunparts stJppi,y· houses, See Directory,

Scree-drieers-« These are ,an~ong the most essential too] s, so by an means ha ve a good supply, ranging from the small jeweler's screw .. d F'i ver to a \ large ~ ang' one f'OI removing bu t: t screws, '5 nth as bold the' action 'to the stock in Remington Ballard, and Winchester rlfles,

The best screw-d rivers are those 'made from octagon chisel 5:tee~., short in length and wit'b a large file, ,:band'] eat tached, Very good ones are also made f rom d:r~~] 1 rod, bu.t when :it comes to

str 'e nzth the octaeon chisel s ~e·e·~ hold c~ u- I·p-·' b est '0" it'

iJ't,. .·'[lrjl~,,_I, .,...:...:.~' .... I~- ·ei."·li· :. ,~W!-.J · .. f~: '!l i,' . ~ .~ ._!'i.,;.;.~" ._.IL

all Spend a dav makina uo a good set - such as

'.' _:'i11 ", .. ''- ,'.' __ ._ "J ','_', I,Oi . I[t,'"_ .. ;.... ., .. _:_ .. :II !!Ji_~ - .': ... '.

Figu re 21 inust rates, You win fi nd that it pays, in the end; for screws that are put in at the factory are very" t[gh.t and their removal requires a, driver properly fi tted to, the, width of the slot If: it does not fit and the driver should slip, the result will be a. badly marred head, Y au will fi,n:d that on. all shotguns the screw 5'10 ts are very narrow and the screws very tight 'These screws have" been set up

ith dri 'b'i, ,...7 • b Y· .

wit . ,8; ,S\t,fle'w -u n,ver"i t useu . fil. a ,tlliCC';;. \,'ou must

-then 'make a set of tbese f"rom octagon ,ch iseI 'steel 'with the end :fllcd to :fit the scre'\v and with()~,t t:u,t,)'

t,·.JJ,-' e, , :h-- . "-,, t· - ,- c:--- -'.' d"---" ,- -, '~b"·'·iI!o- '·,t

a.y6r" jQI'" w"en you -ape'l" ,8, ,;)crcw ... :_fIver '_ It, }.

SH'e,L,LA, 'C P IN t.s,H.~

Fig'. ,2;0

Strai9bt ... &dp, for checking p~Jtcb '(l~ tilles 'COld. ;wl'9U'~a

", ",'

1

, il

-

T'OP5

1

, ,

,

, II

i

.' I

I '

'THE WO,KESBOP,., TOOLS. ,AND GENERAL E'QUlPMENT

~,"'"

TOP

~~=t=f::...-J.__J_:"B RA,d 5 ~ , , I P'ERRUl es_",,', ......-I

I'

[ . _. . Ii

,I Oi/I;

- - it;

",0(5

S T' A' N'- 'I" '0'" A" 'RD:

, I, ,,' ""~" :" ,I ! ,'.", " , ,',' , , ,,'.,

, " , "'. .

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EN ,',A RGED ":

T,H 'REA D-" ,"""

-'C;T" ' -A: "" NI" L D' A''''' n'D"",

u " '__ ", I) ," .1:"<-,

FO RM8 OF au N ,S'CREW8

oTAN,DARD GUN 8:TOCK

aC'R'Ewa

BRwAC:E

.;

I

iii:

1

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J-H---~t-' CT')

I I

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-F'~ 21 : Ig .. ",

Typel oj 1C!,.'w-dr.ivem 'used in CJUD 'wode

is

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.()4

I,

It' ,

DRIVER.0

- !W

T,HE MODERN GUNS:MITH

small knife-edge square to check work with. the: larger sq uare. 'These tools are especially necessary in metal work,

( e,) Carpen ter's square: One with a six-inch blade 'lor sq uaring' actions and layi ng out stocks. Tongs and Tweezers-,These are essential and. it is well to eq ui p the forgi ng section of the shop with:

2,4

causes considerable spri ng when pressure is put on the screw, ~ the best is a short untapered end, \\i""hen pressure is applied with the brace." the screw 'starts at .once ..

Screw-drivers o.r all kinds can be obtained from, hardware stores, but ir you buy these you 'will find, . that they are not suitable Ior gun work, so hy all

es ns make your own, When y' ou become' ac-

m a ~ . ,._ ... ,_ _ __. , '

cus tomed to the use of screw-driver bits you win use, them at a'll Urnes for the' s'larting: of .a11 guard screws, large-size shotgun screws, and other screws, Experience win teach you to respect screws that look dou b tful and that require more than the ordi-nary handled driver to remove.

Spring FVi'nding Tool-This is made from an old worn ten-inch flat mill file. Chapter X'XI, Volume II, is devoted to th e maki ng 0 f springs and explains and ill us tra tes the use 0 f' this tool.

Steel Letters and Figures-Sets of letters and figures in lh H, % :2, and 'rH inch. sizes are very handy and should be Incl u.ded in the list of tools for stamping names and numbers on parts,

Seales (Hl,c.i,ghi,ng )-A trigger-testing scale is re'Qui red to caleu late the put L of el ther ,a revolver"

Pistol shotgu " : 'n or ri fie .1\ G Parker 0 f Birming-

,_ ,,- _ . .. , . ., .... . ,

ham, England, makes the best. ,.I\Jso include an XLCR scale wbich 'weighs from 1 to 2'5 pounds" This w.il I tell you just what the weight of a fire-

.0;

arm 'IS~,

St:oo,ls.~e or two wooden. stools made tOI the' proper height are' necessary at times when you have bench 'work which is done more conveniently vlhHe sitting down-such. as laying-out work~

Squares~'These COttle under the headings of combination squares, die-makers; squares, tri ... squares ~ and sol Id steel sq ua res,

(a) Com bination square: Get this with t\VO blades, one a 12 .. inch blade and the other a 24- inch blade, The center head and. bevel protractor are also very useful in all classes of work.. When certain distances are, required, these heads can be clamped at any portion o,f the scale: the center head can then be used to fi nd the exact center of a round bar, and the bevel protractor used to lay out or check. angles,

(b) Die =s maker's sq ... uare: T· his IS,..· . small b ut .. he

. _ _. '""",, ,""' '" ....IiJI, . __ '. ,.. UJ

most useful of squares, It. has four blades 21h in 'h I" . 'ta" da . d bl 'd" _., .. d sated ,.. thirt

C_CS eng: a, su n rr .' a c, grac uatea 10 I" tr y-

seconds and sixty-fourths: a bevel blade wi.th an. angle: of thirty and. forty .. five degrees; one, narrow' blade, and one offset blade,

(c) Try-squares :: The' gunsmith 'requires one or two of' these, one' small ... slze for checking' work in small places, and the' other 4 x 6 inches"

( d ') Solid steel square: This Is also a square for which two blades are required, one 3 x 5, and a

1 pair 8 * indl f o,Jding 'longs

1 ~~ 1,2 or 14 Inch beat c,ru eible to.ngs

1 H 14 Qf 16 hull Lent cru('ible tongs

J!. H 14 or 16 inch bent steel crucible tongs ",ith

ring

1 ~~: 14 or 16 inch i O:tgLng tongs

I (~ disc t weezers

1 ,~ ha wk .. hill tweezers 1 " three-leg t weesers

1 " TO und-pointcd tweezers 1 ,( flat-pointed tweezers

1 ~I Ioeking tw~ezer!;-to hold small screws. while placing them in to position

1 ! ~ small bl u,n,t = po lnted tweez'frs=ro pick. up small screws etc

. .... ;j,]""'-"". ~I' ""', •

T.em,plets~ Templets are made: when you have a considerable amount of repetitlon work in. the pro- ~

duction line a, nd , W'"l":""L to" ,O'"'3l·,-·,e: tir ,C ~ , '1. .... ,,' r "' " , ' :t

...... _ . _. . ...::.w. ,~v . lme In Idylng ou

certain parts, especially when. more than one person works on. tha t operation, .. 4. templet is necessary in all classes of d' Ie work bef 0, re vou ca< .' ·t· th ul t i _'

_ _ ...... . ..... , 'J n ge . __ e . .

mate form, that the, die: is to produce. For instance, if :you. w'ere to make dies for a butt plate" the 'first die you, would make 'would be the forming die' to produce the proper length, width, and form, you wish the pla te to assume" You would then make the' necessary try-on ts on your forming die until you had the correct form, From each piece you file out you would scribe off the outlines on another piece o f metal until you have the perfect fo rm, This would be filed out and used as a templet to make the blanking die," In cer tain operati nus on gun work, small templets are made to serve as dep th ga uges, radi us ga uges, and odd f orms \\r here measurements cannot b e made, Temple is; are made f rom thin steel o r sp ring brass stock on, w hlch it Is easy to follow the lines, 'These wIll be shown and their use described In other chapters,

, :ft·~ J:t E'·,· t + ill ,,I" . ·T'h·· h d d

v m,'y . secinc );'f1S.,oto'Y- .. is IS a • an .'. y an

inexpenslve motor for small polishing work. It will also be useful In driving small 1\1UIers Falls polish:ing heads,

V'-,Bloeks-A set of these ,is very' necessary in gun work. and plays an important part in a hun .. dred and one' different wa.~, Both Starrett. and B,:ro'WJ), & Sharpe list, 'these in their catalogs.

Vi.~e~~A workshop is not. complete without a good v Ise, and you should have the' best, It must he of the swivel type and have .3'% or 4 inch jaws,",

The R' eed vise cos ts ab 0' U' t $1' '7 . d I . 11 t

0"· , • ttl ,'.. ..' ... .... ..• ... .... ,an IS exce: en.

The Penn, :;524~ 4 .. inch vise, swivel base, is also

THE WORKSHOP" TOO'LS" AND GENERAL EQUEPME:NT

goo d and a I lt tle less expen sl ve. ... Also secure a Yankee Drill Press vise #990~ This 'will hold only small parts, but it has a V,~ no tc h in th e back 0 I the jaw to hold round stock, and the' movable jaw has ,3, swivel plate to tak1e tapered work, You will also

,~, 'd:- .. , .. """"'1'~,\-,, ,-, 'J", Il rr et 'II ,. - ,t" ,c - .-:'it, , , '·,a'h·' t

n,n_, In wors l ng on sma _ Jj, me, aI, par s sued, as SID . .1

blade So sho :ltg' -,- II 't-' , 'j, .' I ' .', I' 11'~ , : I' ~ ", "'", te th '1* ,""it ~, " ~ --, _:" ,~, ~,un. r,~ggerS-l!' sma.u, s.prl n.g~., e ,.c.~,. _, a,!I.., 11.~

is possible to. clamp this vise in yo ur large vi se and then work on small metal parts much more conveniently .. , Also secure a Jacobs #1 drill chuck, having the shank turned straight, as this holds. all small ro und pins and screws f rom ~~~ ~.! up to 1/4: inch J and is handier than the ad verti sed pin vises which a roe required in various sizes to hold the. diiferent sizes of round stock that you will work 01i~ Th '~;Q ~Ir-I~ a 'I! ~ the ~~ se a 'V,('1Iou- W,· 1~'~1 ~ need 'J' n 'tl' h c begi n _,

, .. ~ g!lr" Ji~, ~~" 1(f~' ~~! l;.r~ ,,_,~.~ ~ ~ '," ll,~!··-._ .'. ~ .. ·,II, ,

ning, but: you win find that as, your \VOl k i I1C reases

Yeo,,' D' "Wl,·'II'( "'In$'- ~ ':-':-, ' "'I' " ad -d" rth ", ," .- '

, . ,.' . ' '.,L ,I:rIl",,,,,essa.n, y a", "I 0, ers"",

'V ise J aW$~ The jaws. of' a, vise are roughly checkered and tempered, and if you were to hold a piece 0 f finished wo rk in them" the: impression of the j a W5 'would disfigure it; so it is nece ssary to make up f alse j a. ws, such as, vi se bl ocks, lead j a'V8-, copp er ja ws j an d lea ther-f aced, ja ws <i Figure 22 shows the d ifferent j aws necessary for both wood and metal ~

,o,nu~r vise clamps may' be made to r pieces u.i old leatber belt, upon which .a ,HtUe beeswa x has been

.1' ~]"'~ h I d b - be ] . .']'

spreau, . nese, l¥ ,: en Pl' aced .. etween t e JIa:\~S a,D.'lim

'f orced together, )v iU adhere to the 'V,iS(; .. ,· A very handy fixture can be made 'from a barrel stave or thin pi ece of gum wood by cutting out the cen te r :f or the beam 0'£ the vise to straddle; le t ting it extend from five to six Inches. 1.1 ake two tape red pieces for the ends and either nail together or place a 'V4 = inch machi ne screw thro ugh. to bold together and tlghten; glue thin. pieces of leather to the face, 'T'~iii: .... false jaw th 'e,n ha S' en,Q' ueh '~fp·· ., a 'it',F!. 'I, 'P- '~" " ,

- n~,;:,. , ""', ~!t... ,_. Q. 'tIM' I., e-: l!ll, l~! .-_ ... . .... 1 b ' i-=>;. n no, I!;V fie ,ea.se ,as

h .. ~

t e v:tSe is opened~

,Also m,ake 1.'\'01 'se:ts, o:f vise-,blocks. .a nd g:'] u,e f:["CNin 14 t.o JY2,-,~,nch wlu te 'felt to f,ace 0 f the- wood, 'fhese are 'for ba:rrel ,and stor]\. work; .as the soft felt .absolutely protects the fin ished parts and p reven ts a fun,ished b,arrcl o-r :; tock f ro-m be in g marred, and. ye t the vi se ca n be tightened s ufficien tly to hoI d '\vh:i Ie 'wor king~ Al so have a pair of f a1.se J alva n1ad e from cas t b r,ass a nd, drill indenta tlons 'to variQus d ep til s to hold. :sclie\v;s O'f rods \vi.thou t m,arr'i ng the',m U' W'oodlen ja'ws should ,also. be m,ade- to hohi -odd~, shaped pa,rts, :SttCJl ,as .are :( ollnd on shotg:u n 5,., As time adv'a,ll,c,es, you ~dn ,find ,a, ~a,~·ge' [oHecti om om' the wood,en jarws on ,band, a:nd w·'in have gained

2,5

considerable experience in holding' work. properly in a vise,

fA'T ldi~ ·0" :', t !'!t' 'T·h~ -- , ,,- ,- 'd- --, .. ~d-i·' ',-- ,- - d

... ~ e : 'lg. u, 1l - :~.s comes un .. er w'eIL· .Jng an •.

brazing, which are: discussed in Chapter XX\TI.,

It' "'le'fch£s~,Old percussion- lock gu ns which have . a nipple requi re a. n i.pple \-~Tre[]ch} so j r you are ,3. lover of these it \~'i]~ be, 'w'ell tu have: this type of wrench on hand" ,Alsol have a. lS-:inch Crescelrrnt V,I re nch to remove barrel So and t ~gh ten them into



r ec'elV- - e' r-;;:>

.. " .1 ". ". ';::"i!!!!

This list of tools has not been. compiled from conjecture or from a hardware catalog, but from an actual Us t 0 i: tools used during the course -0 f many years' wo rk on ft rea rms and general shotgun p'ract ise, including gauge making, tool making, dle mak-

~ ~ ii~," T th b ~ 11..'.

mg, mstrument mamng, etc, i.o : ne begmner this

list may seem ex traordlnarily long', and a discouraged attitud le on h "co, p. art ma It result. f'~:r' he' may

_ '" _ _ _ __ 'I\. Y !I;". 0, ,I.:I! a~ - -Ji _ _ _ _, _Y' _ _ ,

no t realize what a great part even some of the sim pl e tools will play ~ Th e advanced stude n t r on the other 11 and ~ may think there are several important tools lacking, but as he progresses into \T 01 ume II the -- c.~.: h ~ nic a 1 art of tools 'win be, ex-

__ _ _ ~. mee a. . _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _

pl ained mo're exten sively e-

I do 'not expect the beginner to buy' all the tools on. this [ist at one time; on the contrary, I would suggest that, he secure only' the work bench and vi se, Declde upon just w ha t :you, "van t to do- and the tools requi red for that particular pro ject ~ Then m a k e an e,ff 0 rt to acquain t yourself with the' tools .. Read over this cha pter until you ate tho roughly Iamil far with itt and obtain a. number of the catalogs ] is-led [ 11 t ~h e D i rec tory; this will give you a gener al .I (lea or th e expense to be encountered in. the layout, By all means do not attempt your first work. upon some finished arm, bu t i nvest in some of the old firearms in Francis Bannerman's cata ..

]n,[J at- 'p'ir--'·l-'.f'o;QC' r-r-i'ii.]n-, iii:: I 5;'01 ~.n, ~ I~: 00' .iIl'\lr ~v.e~ [-1, u- rpo" ',"_'11

,'IU'o· ." "II;.r .... ~ w, v ,'"i' .. ' .. 'l,.v "P.J .' .". "V '-'_ ,I .

SOfl1e sinlple 'pIece o.f 'wood+.

The novice :has, a tendency t,o jump into a new hobby ,,~ith such enthusiasm that he is ready to bu.y anything and everything pertainin.g to it." This is,. ho",~cvcr, lllost un wise" ina.sm uch as one' is, apt to purchase ma:ny toots that 'l\?iII prove of little or no va] u.e la fer on,. 1 n considerin.g the use of ,,"oodwork.ing tools "~le must form. idea's ,and. study their' D urpose 'with. r,easona.bl.le j udgm,en t, 50 nat utaUy it ms 'hes.t 'to. :pu rchase these as- ne.eded ,and .advance wItb SOlne de:l1nite: pla,n in ,mind. to grca,ter needs and additiona.l tools as necessar,y~ so 'foal OU1'" fi:na:n~ cia] re~nu rees 'W n 1 not s,u:ff'e'r..

2&

THE MOD'ERN GUNSMITH

LEAT}~ER~

L _

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FELT,

t/="'='~- ============='=~,- ~====-~---/'

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Woo'DEN

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MOULD FOR LEAD ,JAWS

Fi9~ 2,2

hllcl\ .. ,'Vise blo~'kg, commonly' used i'n the gUll shop, Tha butt clamp is ,employ,eo when fiUia; a'li,QI,., 'g'LIa.s or singl..ab.o-t ,gclions. i;nto the stock blank

'BUTT CLAMP

CHAPTER II Special Home-meds "Tools and Equip:m'e,nt

~S·····p····:e--Cl-~~a1:·-1 '8' ome-m ·a·-·d' -:- ''''0'0·-·''(':5'' la-· nd E' :,q'-.' w,:!I'p"'m'-''';e' "D-- ,.

1_-1, .. _,_.- .... ~.,. ' .... -_ .. ' .. - ..... · __ ".e cl., __ ..... , .-_ ...... -, _. ,. -.-.: .. ;:.-1

. - - . __

rl'HE gunsmith, to be able to carry out all work

, . successfully, must construct various special tools or ,fixtures, and purchase others if he is to make this 'work a pleasurable and pro fiJ't a ble means 0:£ spending what 'might otherwise be idle hours.

Man is knowi a- th 'It ~l ~. - . 1- n b t h

~ - -~, __ on '_--. n: _s·e .00 -U.,1l1,g a111ma ,_,u ~ Q\V

many of us can use our hands to ,ad vantage to create articles for our own. needs '? Your schooling has tau,g'h t, you. to do things, 'in certain. ways and 'by certain rules, b It t at times th ese teachings must be thrown aside and you must turn to originaHty and create' the part suited for the occasion. This chap ...

t . ~- ,~- d ,'" - ed to ~ 'b'l th b '. t t·

,'_'. I'· , .,. 0 -"~'I '---" '--,I' .'. '. -.-' -, -I' -:.1'1"- '_' - '-'. ,-,.. ... ' ".:,',~ -' '--,

_er IS . ,@'slgn _ .. 1_ . ena ,e .' e I_~eglnne:r 0 ca,rry ou

h - . ial d t,. r-' h ...

, . " . ''"Ii' -, ". ,"'_ -, .... - ,," , ... "' - - ,,' ,.,' .". - ,

tne most, essentu l un ,e! ta .•. ngs; a' .ter raving set

a place aside for a. workshop and g'e'tHng' together some of the most necessary tools, other equipment will be explained as each need arises,

The trade of a. gunsmith; shotgun or rifle maker calls for many' tools which cannot be purchased, ,~~':I~ -~::h·-e. n man U., f-'a,~t-:,u: red bv EQ;~i outside coneem the ~'..o;~

goDu W,., . a .. . .. 11/"" . . ,ill, ~ _ . J ~,~ v _ _ ;:;l . ~~ ..... _ _ .~

usually cost 'f ar more than if 'made by vourself, D0' nat construct a number of 'makeshift contrivances,

'i il h . f ~ th d

using a nau . ere; ,a piece 0', wire ' nere, an - SO' on,

even tho an enforced makeshift is required in many ins tances, These are 0 iten oal y S tC'.IJS toward new labor-savi ng devices: but discard the makeshift, as soon as possible and construct, one w hich win be a credit to your ingenuity= and do so before anyone can accuse you of being shiftless. .. A... gunm.aker i's constantly making devices for his different needs as they present themselves, and if the information conta ined in these chapters is caref nlly studied many of you.r problems will be reduced to a minimum,

Chapter I contains a thorough description -of various. tools, 'Th is chapter 'will deal, with our tool problems a little differenU.y~ and 'wUl consider a few Ulat are non-e~se'lfltial but can, not be dispensed with con venien tly,

C,beck'8ring Slcmd ond Cra:dle _, Figure 2,3 ilJustrates a checkering stand 'Jihich 1 Ior the, present; we shall class among the non -essent ia'i s, A. check .. ering cradle can be fastened to the end 0 f a bench ~ used, and then removed and put away until it is needed again, But if a weU organized workshop is

END Vf'EW

FRONT E L E'V AT I ON

:n.",23

Be!adl 01' s1atld, 1:01 checlc:O'1'lngi' CKI:dJe:

29

30

can be made from 2, x 2 inch timber, and the ends constructed from heavier material with common 'machine bolts filed, d nwn on the' ends Ior centers, i"dju~t;ments~ ,can be made by' nuts on each 'end of the bolt, Holes can be bored certain distances apart for the required length of stock to be used, With such adjustments it is possible to

l- ". - -I'd- 'ii' '-h · .. .. d 'T-n dl

camp it so ·1.· In t_ e po'S! tton requ[,re;; - -,e era . e

can be, used in. a vise, altho a bench has been illustrate-d; but unless you ha v« a number 0 f stocks to

h 1'1 _. -- - 'n" .. h dl- l' it

- ,- 'I'''~' , I I I . I' " l'- ,. .-. -" -- ." _'. "-'. . . - ' . - .: -- . - ..'- I

C. ec . er, t, 15 15, ' ar -.. ,}' necessary. . n an.y case, 1_-

ls wise to- make one of' sound constr I!lC tion, Thedrawings are sufficiently detailed to follow' without

d~,i:h [

lUICU,~y~

Figure .26· ;':5 more complicated and a much better cradle to use for stock work. The frame holder is mad e Irom common angle iron wi th a steel plate

. cl ""' .... 1 ... ''L.. .•. ._ b . ...J hi .. - f f d

a. tta -- ned to tne •... ottom, ann t us In. turn is Iastene

THE MODERN G'UNSMlTH

" . ER.Tm:D IN 'NOR." r s t':"-....,.I!_

6rO:"" P()]N'T'.;5 ........... - ...

. -12, X<!':" M A.cHJN'~ _a,OL T

'. ~ ~tB:AD:l!D ru LJ.~ ,L,'riN'GTH ~"""""" ,'ASH,,-.'OA:K~Ort OTHI!:R.

H A RO'Vvo 00 .

,fz~,X,3,f"MACHn: .. n~, 'BOLTS

("Hell •.

I----'ii...,---I--....I...--I'--~- -~--+~-___,.__,.---I I--"'~ ....................... .......p..._",b",_-+-----I.____,; ......... _-+_-....,.!:-.-. _1 __ ~'-~~ =+~~__+_---->oL.-_t+---....-

being striven for, a, stand sbo-ul d 'be made, and fas t e-.'ned--·- - to, the floor in :' ple sant ,11,~'a' .tien DA'!)1I'" :'!ll,

a .. ,. . _ _ ,a II. (loJ![_!Ii U JJ"'..... __ .. __ ~ ~

window t 'W here not only good light is available at ,;:J'n 'tt· ;'''m'' es, bu - t·:· whe ,A it is posslb ~ --I.e. to- ". ga ze in fhe

u -- -J'. ..- !lllCr", - ::) I ~- - ""'. ..~-

distance to- res t the eyes when they become ti red

(-, .. .... heck --oi:!.i--"'·-: A· :f,·t -. th " st. - d-e: it ba '-\,"Ji., -",'.~ ~ -~-

. rom U b ... \, ...... rlug,. ' . , er1e s -un, !;..Cvme5 :ae

customed to the use 0 f a checkering cradle and stand, he will place them, in the most essential class,

f h t 1 d· f ~h- k- -Ii b t· -

:", ," I'; r' '_-. ," . _ ' ," . _ .' ." . ., . i . , ~. :' ..",:. ". / _," .. -' l .. :.; . II .'

or t ey are no on y use . ror C aec ering jiu to

sandpaper stocks and. to apply the different. rubbing

--" d-I ~I I 4'11 b- - -- t 'I, t

..... , : .. ; '", ',', II I:' "l: >_' . I .' ," .', - j I 'j _", : .. ]' I I - > I-I'"' ," . I' -"' '1' .a : ,'_;,

preparanons anc I. 01 .' t Wli e s,urpr'lz,mg ,0 see

how' many operations such an Inexpensive fi'xture~ wi11 be called upon to perform in the course 0:( all the stock work. ,A stand and, cradle, even tho not in use; give 'the shop an atmosphere or a. gunmaker's establishment and are' the em blem of his art.

F+ d ... "'~l - h k t

igures 24 an- 2 J III ustr a te two C'~ ec - en,n,g

cradles, 'The simplici ty of Figure 2' 4 "Till enable

I

\"

.,

EN·- -D V' -IBN'- -- -

.: ..... r. :. ." .'.-" -'-- -',: - .

,03""

E'L,EVAT'ION'

t: ~x i~GOlJllT.eR~UNK ,OCRJ!.V"'I'"

. IWTt:D ~'~;. HA,Nn:LB,

i!"r"'IJ A :FO '~'CF Q U" -[ R. 'C' 0" l'!l',"" P;.. ~' ! I,.,"':": II .

.sf E£ L AN'Q WOOD

,- -. .,. '. OJ' I "'. t ,: • -"1"" .;"

I. I. ,_-., ,.I_ .. ,_. .'. I ..... 1._

119'. 2,4

Cb.cIcerlZl'f! cradle· ,fol" t'be amateur'. cOD.luuetlo~

the' student to construct it 'from almost ,s,ny material at hand, Tbe adJusting screws can be plain Y2 -ineh bolts vdthout. handles; the, heads of the bolts - be-' d····l1d' - -d-'" ~' .. srted hlch . _.

,," .' : '. -I -':-... ." _ , . -, -'. . . •.. _'. ":",

0: ' can .. m e ,an, pms mser -if! IN, 1(:;. serve

quite as weU, as. the wooden handles, The frame

t th ta d If I· ~ - - !] hI - l..

.0 ' 'I: 'e SL:~.-n ... r an ange lIon IS not aveu .. a,= e, tne

frame holder can be made of hardwood in two pieces" with the center cut out to receive the cradle", The cradle, width is reduced to two Inches, allowing * Inch 00, each side of the frame holder where 'flu!,

SPECIAL' 8'0' 'LC"E" ··'·D£ TO' 0- 'LS A·1"fI\, EQ' 'U' 'IP"~

. , ' " . ',:'''''U'l'iiLn :" . .'_' .,',' ._ ~,l,ju .'::" ,.' I • p~., &

81,

! ,

"I ~ . !

~ I._.,

.~ !

!"'!I!I i ......

~



• 41 HOLE IN tSTOCK,

_ ......... Jr .. • X .'''WA& ~f!ER-

~

, X 11.;,' MACH .. ROLT

~~A&H,.OAK.OR..OTH1!.R.. HARtMtOOD '" 'HOL~~

EN'D VIEW

ELEVAT'ION

,CltANK TO PIT HEAD Of' IOLT._ JI, ... N'O J, ~P.ND~ TAP!R. pfi\f ".,-' ""="i

I

I '

~ bl _ sh the Insid t _ ~ d"' II

POSS,1 _ e to st arpen e 1ftS.· e C:1l tmg e' ge as we,' .

as the ou tsi de,

The'y can also be adjusted to any desired widt.h or spac'ing,. Ou.r present checkering tools only cut

hh th t . th Tb k d

- 'i' ", . " '- .. . .. , ,', . . "', . ',' . '... .. _ .. -- ~'. .- _,- - .

WIt" ne ou er tee .. ' sese are easy t-o- rna, e, an, ,

produce a n exceptionally nne cheekeri ng pattern, but when two separate blades are made and screwed together we have one of the best checkering tools that can be constructed,

Border tools can be' made in a V form, radli, ,,.' and radt i, or on an angle, Generally these tools are only for experimental, purposes, for the best check ... eri ng bas no border at all; and after you have hecome expert, you ?rill find that you. can reach the lay ... out 1 i nes without any run-overs, and the border tools wi I.l be la id aside.

'The English type of checkering tools shown 'in the same lllustratlon are excellent, They are usually made wi t h t.he single, cut, and after one be-

. .'

comes accustomed to them, very good WOT'k can be

produced, Examine the checkering on a fine 'British ~un and you wUI see that the diamonds are perfect and sharp. Such checkering was produced by one

n.q: .. 25

Impro'ted ch.echriDlJ· cradl. for 'III,. QIDCd.ur

cradle is clamped by the cross bolt, Even when the holder' is made of' angle Iron, a two .. Inch width of cradle may still 'be used instead (li the heavy member shown in the ilJ-ust.rado.n~, TIle' angle brackets .II can be bent Irum %, x %: Inch colddrawn steel J and as there is, a, tapped and a plain drilled hole on each end of the, bracket, 'these may be reversed when a longer stock is, encountered, thus providing, a greater len,p;th between centers,

Fi,gu-re 2S sbows a simple form of cradle on the same principle as the first one. In the following chapters many uses for the checkering cradle win be indicated, and you win discover others for yoursci f • These fo rms are offe red here to suggest to the beginner what may be done" not only in designing .a cradle; but i.n de v isi ng other aids to accuracy and the simpli flcation of d i fficul t wor k' ~

Cbeckerinq Tools - After studying ,Figure 3 you will see that there are a humber of ways fn which checkering tools can be 'made. One oJ the best tools to construct is the one shown wIth separate cut ters which screw together; wi th tb is j t js,

f),f'I ~4i

~ ';H-' 'E' M", '0" .'D,,~"_T 'G" "UN·:"s,a.I'T'TH"

.1·,·· .1 . : ," ... ~, :'. I"" ".:.1VU ,_I_:~.,

--_ ~,.--

.:&; HOL,E

4-==':!", 4 x, ~ ~ COl. D no LLiE,Q Sf I~ E L ''''ll---~'', -,STeEL SfiOC'K8 -,~---_--=--*" ~mx ,J~'~~' '~eO:L:T,AH',DWA.'3H 'E::~,

NU'],"

ill '

AS,H OA,K'OR. 'orH,ER.. 'H' A RD '~~D'.'

_ ' "_ . rw'lE'~,

~ -= - ~ ~' ~"~.~' .. '- - - ...... =. ,

~~;:t:L~~- --1;'1--- -- -

:, $PE'aAL'VlASHfP.... I"'"-"""'~~, .' , , UME 'HOl.DER.

, ..

C:RA'DLE

',!:\,',i,o"fll'" 1tIii!!',

.I:',~~. ~Ig

Chee!kvr.iut, clladle m,old: g'e'::Qet(d'~,y '.sed in 'Ine 9u.n shQ',

o.f these tools, In 'the e'nd" after summing un the-

. , ~

meri ts of differen t check e.r i.Dg tools, yo u will fi nd

these the best,

M'olar' G'rind,ers - These are among the most essential parts, of arty shop where mechanical work is performed, for they are called upon more times throughout the day than any other machine. The beginner should. manage, if possih le, to have some

kind of a grinder, even if nothing better is avail ... . able than an electric Ian motor, Small cloth, leather, I el ~) and wood en rJ i ~C:~ wi th sandpaper at ... tached are almost indispensable at times, Ally investment you make in this equipment ,,·iU pay Ior itself m"U1Y' times, There are rna. ny electric motor grinders on 'the market cos ti.ng' from :$.30 up, It. .ms· impossible 'to- Ust them an, but a good selection may be: obtained from machinery-supply or mail ... , order-house ca talogs, Figu re 2' 1 illustrates a Black & Decker bench gri nticr ~

AU these sma n rcasonable-prlced grinders carry ~ "~o emery wheels and are usually 0 f the baU - bear ~ ing type; one emery wheel can be removed and this, side used for pelishing and buffing. These grinders are small and corn pact and may be conveniently:

I d t·, 1 d f' th b h A.' " ddi L ' 'J

'. ":. I -e- .',' , I' '. .".. .-__: '-11 - 'I "11' ill 1'-:-1 I' 'I - '~I- = ":"1 I, I ".' '!'l, " : . .'.r. -

pace on If en. o . ie oencn. _t.an a '_' 1 rona

cost, they are' furnished 'livi tho C31st -iron flo on' pedestals; these are' usually preferred, as they leave the end of the bench free and clear for other pur~ poses. On all the small g rinde rs, the shafts are 0 ~ nch ' _~ ~ d iam e'" te' 'r ~ th ,e' r.r.l'fOljfjj,-:, l]~ t, , les 1~ ,. the polish ..

1" '_ _ _ In '~" "_ '_' :' 'I,;; IV,. a .Ill 0 .:Jo n J.~ '_ " _. "'... ,~,

'_'_', -: I,

o

• :' ~., J .i .. :~. ':

; s: ~ ;- • ~ •

. ': -. .. ', :

' ..... ' ••••• I, • " .

-.. ',',.:.~ ~ ", .. I .( ,"

•••• I. • 1,. ••

. 'I:~ : ,: .. : ~. ~. ~ ~"~" ':' ....

. : . ~... .' _.

'1 .:~ ~ ~ ~', •• :: • ';. •

;~·o:·.;:'_ ~: :.'~~ ~ :;~ ,;}_._ :~~',_~~~ .... 'o~ ...... • ... •• .. '"J,· ~ .•

ng~ 27

A portcible .be~ch g'.rh'J.de,r 18; indl:s,pensuble in the amall qUn :shop

SPECIAL'· '. H' ·O·'II.M'r'" :N·D" 'E' TO'-O' ·-'t·· ·S·· : •• '"', 1:'J"'\UIP·· . .'.~

_ ,.':-,.,.1. ,'" 1:I'~I.an- ,,:_ _". " .. - _":", ~~...., ~ ,.I'1"~'ll.l

ing wheelsi or' discs must be of this size and a free' but pe-rfect fit, or too much vibra tion will 'result. The grinde rs are equipped with movable guards and a tool rest, which can be convenien tly ad j listed to heights; on some it is possi bl e to ge t va rio us shor t. angles. Wlth the emery wheels removed, it is possible to use wire or cloth buffers and sandpaper discs for dressing rubber reL'OH, pads, Various uses. for the grinder' will continually OCCU1\ By 'Using' different-shaped emery 'wheels with thin, rounded, 0'1' bevel edges" it is possible to grind ou t places on hardened pa rts wh ich wo u.ld ordinarily require anneal ing and the use of a file.

Fine, clrc ular stee 1. wire wheels are the secret 'Of all fine bluing on fire-arms; they not only card off rust during the bluing process, but a.150 burnish the barrel, A fine wire buffing wheel should be used. only for the blu ing opera tion :; w hen first pur-chased it, should be boiled in strong lye water

,. . 'Ii d' h- ~ sed .. '

to remove all traces or grease, ann t en nn ... · l11.

clean boU.ing water, Should, the fille wire show evidence of rust, it indica tes tha t there ,is, no grease or oil on it to spoil the bluing" Other nne wire wheels should be used to remove rus t from gun parts and to burnish nickel-plated revolvers, It is surprising how one of these wheels will clean up a spotted barrel when small rust spots have formed, particu lar 1,Y all fi n e shotgun barrels,

M usl in bu fung 'wheels are also required on the grinder ", The 81'1; diameter ,is used Ior polishing, The sewn wheels are classed 3>5 "hard' and the un-

'1i::'IP'I1i~n a- ··S-: ,:( so It ", K ee p' " a' number O'f these wheels.

:.:J\J '11 ,I . I", l ~!I' • ' , .. :_," ' . '.~ '_ . ~ ~ ~. . . .' ••.

.. 11 - h d "'ff· '1114' ''1;;..'

on hand, as ",·cII as t lie' '.' 1'1 eren t P~),llS\llln.g com ~

pounds" such as "Tripoli, rouge, 'l ienna lime', emery paste; etc, Others may be surfaced with fine emery for the breaking-down process before the other compou n ds are used 'for a. final polished surface ~

\V· ooden wheels should be, made from hardwoods such as maple, cherry, 0 r beech ~ Scribe: a circle o f the, desired size and with the 54 -lnch wood hi t, bore out the center for the shaft, and saw the: outside of the circle, Clamp, :it on file shalt and true 'the outside with ,8, regular turning chisel A rest

" b ld d'· tb t tL hi - - I - b 'L - ",,]li d

m ust ne prOV1·~ en SO .• I· a. JJe c nsei can _.' e nancre __

more convenien tly and will not catch in the wood, thereby causing' a painful injury ~

Coat the sides of these' discs with glue or shellac and apply different grades of. sandpaper or emery cloth, clamping them in place with other board s o r discs and allow to remain until completely dry '.

'._ t " .. lO' . __ ,Y _.:_.,.'. , ' '. __ .. _' , '. J:" " .. '['," ". III

T· h e ·0'"U Ii,S' ~I' de edaes :" c th e n tri m med off to the out-

, "_ - .' .. II., I~ ~.- ges a,r '.' '.' .. '" '" " ,,~, ,I ~ . - u' . u

side diameter of the wood .. , These are used when a. flat sur f.ace is, to be polished; ,vi th the coarser sandpaper eli sc , the ru bber recoil pads are dressed to the outside contour of the stock ..

S3

Special wheels, of f'elt make the finest wheels f Of polishing purposes, They may be 'Used with fine abrasive glued to the outside, sur-face or used with emery paste, rouge, or Tripoli, V €'ry fine polishing wheels are also made 'f rom rubber l leather j' etc, 'The leather wheels are used for various shapes and forms after being turned in. a lathe ..

Another useful accessory is ,3, chuck made $0 that it can be screwed or slipped o:n the end 0'" 'the; grinder spindle and then fas tened by' a headless. screw, This arrangement is used to polish small pins and to 'iile a number of pins and screws, A small firing pin or a bead for a sight can be made, in this 'manner ~ A successful lapping ope ration can also be accomplished by holding the' lap in the chuck and holding the work in your hands"

There are various wood laps which can be 'made: square-faced, pointed, round" oval" etc, 'They are also made small in small sizes to polish the inside of metal parts, such as trigger guards, where it is rather dlffic:u:tt to reach with any other Iorm of polishing wheels, These are made in a cone shape and sc rew en the end of th e spi ndl es ; they shou 1 d proj ect between two to four inches 'from the end. Wooden laps made from hard or soft wood are used for polishing steel or any other form of metal and general 1 apwork ~ The, substances used on these laps are oil and flour emery, Vlenna lime, rouge, rottenstone, tripol l, etc.

W· ... r.; d C- b" . ·.IL- '0'" ·f'i·-·j· the . . .... - be - ._. d - fr .

. " 00" _~1Se,diJ - " .. ' I, etllL . . ,esc ca.n '·e ma.- ,e rom,

wo'm, files which have been discarded from, machine shops, ; spec tal wood. chisels can be' forged from high-carbon, tool steel, and even made' from worn power hack .. saw blades. At times the 'beginner' will do In uch bel ter to forge all the special chisels required for the stock-making' operations and in the end wHI find it much cheaper than purchasing them. Of course, :yIOU must buy some ch isels, but the ones you make ,viU be more prized. ,A study of your needs- should determ foe 'y: our purchases · 'for m-

. , . . -' • , -.. _. ,'.' '. • ... :.' _ .. ' , .. __ '_.' .' - , . " "0'

'h d f 'h~ 'l 1..

stance, t ~. e most-use -. ' '"a.t c -I i se s are the narrow

ones: th erefore 'p- u rch ase IL I~' ~.L _ l~ _ 'l~ in ch

'-_." . I_~- ,,~ .; - -,~, 7~, 74" 7th 7,2, 74, . y .

tool steel in 12 -i nch lengths,

Tangs a re forged on these, and one piece will make two chisels. tho shorter ones are sometimes

. ~ -_". _ .. ) - . - . . . . - . . .. -

required; but when forging a chisel for wood working, always, make t wo. I am. a. great believer in pairs of' tools, for when one' becomes dull or au. acciden t OC'CUfS, there is always the second one to fall back on .. , i\ Iter the: tangs are forged, dress the ends by' heating' and I orging the cutting' port ion so tha t there 'will be less grinding to. be done; t lh,is a 1 so gives the steel. a, more harmonious structure and a

fi .'

ner grain.

34

'THE MO'DERN GUNSMITH

Gouges - The half-round or radius gouges are made from drill rod; the diameters used are 7H~ 716, 14, % 6, r&, ''YiEb and ?1 inch, If there: should be a, shaper or a mining' machine in the locality-> or a friend who is. a· :machini5t~they Can be mined or shaped and the ends turned, as illustrated by Figure 5 ~ Of co urse ~ the cut ti ng en d is a] S'O forged. to nearly half its, diameter and then filed; but since the tangs must be turned, a machine operation is. the most accurate means of holding the true radius of the: rod used. Ai ter the end is shaped to half .i ts diamete r on an angl e, the cu ttin g edge is file d to a. true sharp point, only leaving enough metal

. '

to s to ne after the hardening operation is performed,

A set of such gouges is indispensable in wood working, particularly "Then making a new stock,

Bottoming ,Chisels· -- These tools can not be purchased, so they must be made by 'the student. The . ordinary carving Or small straight chisels are not adapted to many operations, especially the inletting of shotgun actions into stocks. Bottoming tools are made from % 6 X ~l6 -inch tool steel, forged and filed to shape, Figure 28 illustrates the forms most used to meet requirements, These are

f orgi ng opera t ion is· complete d and the tang is drawn out, the cutting edges are filed to shape.

All wood -"iNO rking tools named helle should be given very careful heat-treatment so that they will maintain their keen cutting edges, After the hard-

+ ti th 1 Ii h d d th

' a": ',' I,'· ,,',' '",.." ,-, ','I';;:: - ','

emng opera on,- e toots are PO.l.,.: e._ an .- e

temper drawn to a purple; then the edges are s to ned to a. keen ell t ting ed ge wi th fine oilstone, finished with two fine Arkansas oilstones, and then stropped.

Handles, must also be p rovid ed ,. and can be made from straight-grained maple, 'They are either turned or formed in the shape uf a square, similar to the old-fashioned handles made by old-time cab ~ inet makers, These 'handles are very simple tc

mak d + h bez: tise with d

e an. give t, e ieginner prac ise wit -: WOOrl=

working tools that have been supplied for the shop+ Ferrules must be purchased 'for the ends; the heavy steel ferrules are best. and arc sold by almost all large supply houses. Avoid. the thin brass ferrules seen. 011 cheaper tools. To remove the plain appearance of the bri gh t s teel ~ polish and give a case-

.....

hardening treatment with color. (See Chapter

XVI, Volume II.) This treatment not only gives the ferrules a pleasing color but protects them 'from

'.

Fiqr '28 Bottominq.· teels

d ~ h + I iob b k

ma e to SUIt tt e particu ar ].0 . you may ie wor r_

ing on, This is the best way to make all such tools, as you can then better appreciate their value, In forging these tools, cons tant heat is required

throughout the operation" or checks will develop in the hardening, Shapi ng of the end is an up= setting operation, and this is best done in a vise with the flame 0 f a gasolin e torch, holding the steel rod while the upsetting takes place, After the

the rust caused hy perspiring 'bands or salt air.

Screw-drivers - These tools, are 0 f the greatest importance to. the gunmaker, for you can never have a set. of drivers too well made; and even if you should make every known size, you win sun find a screw slot that the ends will not fit, Figure 21 illustrates these, and a set of three handles of the best design for the gunmaker's usc. The steel

SPECIAL HOME-MADE T"OOLS AND EQUIP:MENT

3S

used is the finest oc tagon or hexagon chi sel s tee] , forged, ground, hardened, and tempered, In the same illustration are given the sizes o( the brass ferrules used on the end .0" the' handles, , .. ;\ft,er the drivers are' driven into the handles" a, ~ fj ... inch hole is drilled through the ferr ule and driver, and, a piece of Iii 6 .. inch drill rod is driven in, riveted over, and

111 d f -h Thi ~ IJ' t ' · 1 h t h

- I " Q I' . ,', t -,' . -.' 1'1"' . . ':", : .. '.: I' '" .. ,.. -'I" ~

l~e c .. u ... ,'_" ,,:ms, I ustration a 50 S,_OWS ,_ e, auger

brace drivers which are used to remove screws that cannot be started. by the hand screw -driver, Since the points are made close t.o the body of the steel, there is no spring to them, and when placed in the brace a, trernendo us amount of turning force can be

,- d Tl · '1 j '11 th

place, on a screw. .' us c nver VII, remove e

tig hte st screw

--~ . , ~. "\ ...

Most manufactured screw ... drivers on the market have a 'wedge effect on the point. \\then 'Such. a dri ver is, placed in, SCte\'V' slot and, any pressu r~ Is applied, the wedge' part of the- point has (I, tendency to back out of the 5]0 t. and mar the Ilea d 0 f the screw' very badly. You will notice that the ends of the drivers illustrated are perfectly straight for some distance. Fat this t'lCaSOD" 'when such a point is. inserted ina screw slot s the, straight sides ha ve perfect bearing surfaces along the two straight sides of the' slut; therefore, the point of the driver ,,,~ill 'break before slil.pp~ ng ou t nf the slot, B eca use of

'II'

2



'I!l'

\,~

I.i'"\

VY

.-"___~===O:;"';'+- ~~ __ ~ __ , ..... __ --...L.._

BENCH

TOP

the s traigh t sides it is, only necessary to regrind the end straight across, These should be oil-hardened and the temper drawn, to a blue very gradually .. 'The; employment of' a. lead bath for the: hardening, and an on Of' niter bath for 'the: tempering', produces the hies t results: and when completed, the end

hi h Is l ...l • t th h dl ~ d

\V ucr IS inserted In.:O tne nan __ " e IS .- rawn over a

B unsen burner so th at a hole may be drilled 'for the keeper pin. The hole bored in the end of the handle is of the same diameter as the 'flat side o'f the

'1 h h drl '" d-~' .' .a tl ,-.,-._...l.

stee , so W, : en, tne ,. nver IS nnven mte 'If 1'1'00\1 It

cuts, it s form ,in to the' hole; theref ore, no radius or rounded surface should be given to the end 0,1 the driver; only grind off square, so it can cut. Its way through the WOOd4

Gun B:ra.ces .......... A, gun, brace: or bench horse is

a bracke t, made f 1"0111 a heavy piece of wood, w hieh

]S "astened to the bench and extends over a distance to rest a gun stock on while shaping it. Figure 29 illustrates one which can be made from any scrap hardwood, The height should be made the same \, as the bottom of the vise jaws, so that. when a stock is fastened between the jaws it will 'be' Ievel, 'The top of: the brace should be padded. with some sof t. rna veri al such as leather or- fe'll, so that when

a ft riel y finished gun stock, is res ted on its surf ace

__ '_IO~

._ - __ .... J..,_~_...."....a..>I __ ""'--~~. ._ -. .. _.~_~-----.I

r !II!!

B'RA,CE, 3 THiCK,

HE.! G'HT 1',0

-~U· T'T -V-" I e 'E'- '0' -'N' '

u· "',~ ..... ! \.:.)1'1 ..... : ... , .. ,

BE-·"'N"" C--,-,

" ' -;-. .... '::",

E LEV'AT iON OF BE"NCH G,U'N BRA, C'E,

5 ~'-- .--------..t!-.III!i==--~~- .. 4:......,...·_ -~-~~_1

~'II', '

, ,

,

,~J,

TOOL $fEEL .-

Fig .. 21

,Bend! '''It, br,aee~ frequentlY" c:-aUedl, bench, horae. 'ScorinO!Co1: Used, lOt ,p;JU9h.1ihI9 :Gw:Ee:c. o'i weed. 13.01,018 glu!q

the form above it goes over the leather to make a

f ,. · 4 I d ~ II .. -

per. ect union as It. rs C· ampe: In the vise, 1 f the

s t udent does not. care to go to all this trou ble l: oue can be made from Q, piece of 1. x 2 x 4-11lcb told drawn, steel with. the 'form cut out on a shaper or milling machine, and a piece' O'f leather glued, and screwed into place i A, 4: % ~I -inch bole is d rUled. 1/8 inch I'ro'm the end and a % or ~1i-inch set screw ]5 used 'for the clamp' iop" m em ber A 3;1 - inc' h hole

I -_- ,._ ,_- . _ .--' ,--. " .. ,. 'e ' "' __ - . ,_, '!I' " 71. a ,I., _-- _ ,1._" '. '.

:is drilled in tbe 'head of the screw' and a piece of ~_ 6, -'i ncb drill rod t\VO inches long Inserted; other-

as there will be no danger ,of marring its finish ~ The brace is clamped to the bench with one machine screw and a wing nut so that itt is possible t-o swing the brace in any di:rect,io,n at w,i]l~ It. is often wise to construct 'two a,f these braces, one on each. side: 'Of the vise, If ,you should 'make one for tile r,ig'bt side of the vise you 'will soon discover' that one is needed on the lei t side also,

,Rifle Holder - Fis:ure 30 illustrates a rille l~o]dpr for testing purposes on the range. A device

,.L E A TH 'ER. ; GLUED .AND SCR.'i!,WED :rN Pl.ACE.

W",'H' t:2" E L :M' K A

:_.1.. ,~, _ -~'.- __ ", L. " ,

'ON':c' llEQU,IR'c:D CA~T ['RON

,v..~' - _ .

I,m TIiIC,K

r _ ~=""""I7r-"'-~~~--~ ________

'MAKE, THE,S5 ,B,~'OCKS AS SHOWN

ron. C:'LA, MP lNG l N L'E A THE R__,

Fiq,,~ aD

R- t,iJie, h, -'o','leI",:- :mr' • .;o;..,.Ii';""i'i' '!i'H'~_AI HI . . .Ig'.~ - I~"q..:.~ r~[F·~\.

such as this ] s an essemlal part Ij)f' any ri:A,enulln 's equ ipmen t to test and target a" r.ifle in the' prone,

- -

poslt ion. The %,-inc'h rod is made from cold drawn

steel about three feet long and, 'Poi nted ,at the end .. , The bolder- is made :f rom a plece of hardwood wi th

a- clam p.' .. ing wheel on the side, 'Th'·-II e we oden block

_4 . ", . '_,I .• . _. • .Il~. . ~ . II _'_'.' .. _ I • I. ~ 1

is Sj)]it so that it. is 'possible to secure a very tight. clamping effect on the rod, The rHl,e Iorm is cut

d ,~ f'l t'b 11 d t '[ Th

. I"" ',~:_ '" I :,~I-····__:. .," I ~:.!" I~' ':. '~i'i .. '~:". -'. ',--:- ..... : 'I :-,",

out an a. piece 0. _ iea ,er g. ue· 1 n p, ace. e

form illustrated on the left-hand side of the dr awing is placed on the, underside of the' block, and

'wise a small wrench would have to be carried along. The position of the locking screw on the end of' the, holder makes, it very' convenien l to reach and make any ad] ustment 'with.

Too,1 Holder ......... A tool holder to grind fiat. chisels, plane hi 1:5, etc, ~ is fllust rated. in ,Fip;JllT'e 31.~, The simple const ruction of 'ibis holder and the explanation given. on the fllustratlon should presen t no diff~ c ul ties 'for the student. I t is one of the most essential tool s for the ama teur, as he cannot

S,PECIAL HOM~MADE TOOLS A'ND EQUIPMENT'

37

.. .

3i!Ii--ra" X:3 CARR.IA,G~, BOL T.s'

.......-----.T:HUMB NUT.s

;:;-~. '., * X l:X 4- STEEL ClAM P

,---.,~.....,.,,~. PIN.s YO It W'UARE

d.lJIOe. 0 N TOO

~

HO~ Dun t------"='""'""=I- - - -- -._ --

", L".···~

r:" M,: 0".' TO···· ". n .

0·· .... ~

DR.tVEN

'_ ABRAS,]VE WHEE

BLOCK UP GRl'N'D,ER TO

8'UIT TOOL 'HOLDER

FOR LA T'E R.A L MOTION SLID e, H' OL.D:e}t ON GUIDE

',~,

It T 'N [) 1 N a·VVH f!B...

, . .'. ,1--

.... :0 "a,

PLA'NE :[R.,ON

. .....-.-----.

!III iii ~,

'Xl~'X * L.

~ 1/ - f"'oIt. t

~ 'fl L. U.L~ .

J :x:tXfL 3t L.ONG

~"X,51r ,C,A,R. ...

~----

R[AGe BO,Li

\

BE'NCH TOP

'MADE OF ROCK MAPLE OR AN"'(" HARDWOOD4, BY C,HAN'GlNG THE.

HI'NGE BO'LT TO ANY OF THRU HOLE,S~ VARIOU'S ANGL,ES MA'y Be, Q,B,TAIN'ED TO SUIT MOST GRrNDING JOB8,.

S'C'REW OR- CLAMP BAS,E TO BENCH

fig .. 31

'Home-made tool bolder for be,DCb. qrblde-r to grind Ral dll5elsl etc.

control the grinding of a chisel on an emery wheel wi tho u t the .a:i d of some fixture such as this.

Vis,e Blocks -- In a rswe -- tr the needs of these

~ n~n r _0 _. ~ _

in the- gun shop, a. few are made in the, different forms shown in Figure 224 Before a stock or finished barrel is clamped in the vise they should be used, The woo den ones shown with felt glued to the face of the 'blocks are the ones mostly used by a gunmaker, They can be made from any hardwood measuring % to 0/8 inch thick with a piece of felt glued to the top surface, A notch is cut out 011 the bottom which straddles the square box, of the movable jaw. The felt glued to the face of the blocks protects the surface and finish of all parts clamped between them.

Lead jaws rna y also be' made, as shown in Figure 2' 2, together with the mold to cast them, There are also false brass and copper jaws for holding small metal. parts wi thou t marring their surface" Heavy brass or copper bent over the vise jaws is sa tis factory for metal war k in the jaws 0] the vise wh e,' ~ -e- t, he,'. fac e ~ c ome to get. her The' se sur f ~ C. ,e!.S are

_ r. ". ac,.:lo. _ _ _ '" _ • ~ ~,.:I u~, a ........ _ _

cut like a file" or knurled, and then tempered.

False jaws must be employed, for if the plain kn urled surfaces. of these jaws are clamped against any work they 'will necessarily mar and bruise it" Common lea ther can be glued to these hardened jaws, and even 'bees wax has, been used to retain the lea ther in place. A satisfactory leather holder is also ShO\Vl1 in Figure 22;; Tw'O pieces of thin gum wood" the width of the jaws ~ are used and made

. .

much longer than the standard wooden jaws, and

two small blocks are used as separators, at the bottom. The two outer pieces are nailed or bolted to these, 'YV hi ch allows the two ends to spri ng a par t.

~ ,

Thi f 1 - LId th r d

. , . •. o th ... - _., - ... . f1~'·

In pieces 0 ea _-c' ,I er are g ue to " ,e.5U I a.ee, an .

the spring in the 'woo d keeps them apart, When using these ~ the spring of the wood follows the vise jaws as they are opened ..

Clumps _' The gunmaker has so many parts to clamp throughout the various operations. he per ... forms that a good supply DC clamps is required, Figure 22 illustrates one which is necessary for the restocki ng of shotguns r

The special home-made tools a student requires are many, but the ingenuity of a mechanical mind

tools til roushout these chapters and mention onlv

o ~

'the tool; or appliances necessary ~ They' can, be

used to advantage many times, but their uses are for the st udent to figure out for himself in the partie u I ar trade or profession be may be following,

The financial posi tion of the 'reader may have the g rea tee t infl uence upon the sit ua t ion t but the amateur should discard. the idea that he should have all that ha s been suggested. E nil d your tools. as, you need. then1 with, the: means you have at hand ~ and you wHl be snrprized to see the tools

, ' "..l- bv th e leif('o' ,F"I'S'" '01"" ", - 11'~" " labor

,rna·uey , , " '" ,L,~- ,,' ,your own ,10 >,il,,~

'will devise a great unmbet til) ,il l. the needs that arise in a small shop, The suggestions, made in this chapter are only a 'means of setting your standard of improvements with 'what you have at hand ..

The student req uiring a tool which cannot be procu red from, the regular source o.f supply will usually make that particular tool by some method best adapted to his surroundings and by means dlffcult to suggest in these pages. "There are, nevertheless, a number of tools, used almost 'CDnstantly by a gunsmith that a, student would never'

use U' 'n't'"'l] he 'knew' the -, al ue - f such- -.. t 00'15' , 'd-I j'b' '.'

": 'I ", ,1",,· ,_,~_!_,_ _ :. ., ,',' v,, : ' 0.",,;.": ,', II, '. an., : 'elr

purposes, .I wUl try 'to eliminate all unnecessary

CHAPTERJII Materials" M,etals,,., and Supplies

"u'·~m' ~'''~~:_l

. -

TN T'H.lS chapter are' set down a. list, of the sup- 1 plies which compri se a" gunmaker's stock in trade. Some 0:£ these thi 11gS are seldom required, some you perhaps will never use, but this book is written espec ially 'for the fellow' wh 0 wants to complete: the array, and perhaps has to do everything in the whole range of gunsmithing by himself ~ and who, moreover, cannot rush out in the lunch hour and easily buy the things. he requires or the services he needs for the: next evening's wo rk. Then, again" this book aims to inculcate self. ... reliance, for the fruit of th ~ s is the sweetes t sat lsfaction of all. The prod net 0 f one's own band and br ain becomes, a'S, It were", a part of one's self ..

This extended list runs, into a lot of money and becomes, quite an investment, but you are not, going to buy all these, things at once, and you will, after all, use your 0\'1 D. j udgment as to quantity, . As your needs develop, you will therefore turn back to this chapter for the extended in r ormation you win require' .. , - N ofhing is so fool i sh as to purcha se tlrings you will never need; so consid,er the work you are planning to do" and the scope of it J and let your requirements be your guide. Tbere is one axi~m}.' however, that must never' be lost. s,ight of, and that is that one cannot make something out of nothing. An enforced makeshi ft often displays startling in-

. -.. i'

genuity and earn! great credit, but only because It

is a tri umpli over odds, an d not because it has real excellence, Now, I am sure you do not 'want your work to 'be classed as ,R. makeshift, so 0.0 not handi ... rap yourself by inferior materials or the lack of' suitable, ones ..

The materials used by' the gunmaker are, in general specialties, and most of them are no t carried in stock. by your local storekeeper, 'You win hav-e to secure them, from a variety' of sources" and to serve all occasions, I ha ve g iven 'in a Directory, a list o:f merchants and manufacturers who. specialize in these goods, Ga ther and file the ca talogs of these and of our leading tool and, accessory makers and. dealers, You wUI find much useful informafinn, therein, and wU] be: able to determine just. what best suits you:r requirements and your pocket-book ..

In gun work the fi rst essential is prec i sion and then mor'if prec lslon, so start out 'by' arranging' your supplies, in an orderly a"tni precise manner. Have a place for everything and, 8$ far' as possible, keep

everyth ing in its place, y,ou can male simple: racks lor your steel, and. shelves and, cupboards for your smaller items, Empty cigar hoses and empty baking-powder cans are ideal containers for your small articles, Be sure to label them so tha t you win know without fumbling just where to find what you are seeking, Screw ... top glass, jars are fine for many small parts .. ,

Let us start by en umeratlng the metals you will need and the forms in 'which to buy them.

Tool SI'eel ~ 'Tool steel comes in many different grades and is :f urther complicated by many trade names. It Is roughly' divided into "Standard Carbon. Steel" and the so-called (,' Alloy Steels," The Ia tter are, steels alloyed with other metals, These alloys comprise li'ic:kel~ ,CItTQmillmr, V anadi1lm,~ ,M ol:'Y',bde 11;wm·,'ji etc, or combinatlons of them, All ha VtC: their specific 'USCS, and in each case nothing else ,is quite 50 good, As we advance into actual work, I. shall have something to say about these special steels for particular uses, but when we shall hereafter speak of steel in this: hook" unless otherwise noted, it win be "Standard Carbon Steel." I shal I be rather arbitrary in my choice of steels" not because I have an ax to grind, but because my experience has ta ught me that certain makes and kinds are be s t, and you will wisely take my word for it The, wor'k we are going to put on this small fragmen t of metal is so i 11 fi ni tely more costl y than the rna teria i i tsel i that to econ om ize at the price of quality would he Iolly,

Steel. Cold Drawn -- Thls comes in. an endless varie t y of sizes and shapes, ill, rods, bars, and sheets. Your needs, as they arise, will determine 'what you will wa nt. 'The fo~ lowi ng' ] lst of Si7~S 'wi 11 cover some of' the things you will certainly want. tu make ..

Sise lis"

%G inch x '%, incb .. 'I ~ ,~ront s'igh{~ ramp, soldered 'witiloll,t :n:ng:

% inc h 'x 1 '%: 'in£.h., -s ~ 'Front. .sight -ra'mlp~ ,:vitb E"De.irc1in,g'

rine .

---.0

'%; 'iDcD, x % moCn .. '. 4' ,Bar,rel bn nd 'bases, % imdt.. x % in.ch ... ~ ~,S]ing, .. swivel 'bases

2, ]~dl x 2 ineh, 'I' ~,I~af~!dghlt bases, These are bored 'barrel diam,eb~r; and '\vben, sp lit make' fou.r bases each

1,,4 Inch it 1" inch

(OT' 1 ¥2 inch) ;; .. Qu ~ck dletacna b le Siwl'VC ls

12 gauge: sheet ,. Barrel bands

1 S '0 r 16 gauge sheet, . Butt pla tes and grip caps

41

THE MO,DEIt'N GU,NSMITH'

This 1 is t could be continued, but it 'w~'11i be' better to get the rna terial as needed, 'for if: you sh ould procure sizes on. a complete list you would have to open a steel warehouse in connection wit h you r shop

_ V·!II

S,teell Drill 'Rod. - Drill rods come in 36 inch 1 en g ths and in sizes 'from, 11 to 180 in dril l ... gauge di mensions They' are also made in letter and frae t ional sizes, in squa res and in. fla ts, This 'i s very useful material, It makes pins and screws in lock work, firing pins, and cleaning rods, besides endless tools for special purposes, It is invaluable ,for special rea meers 1 counterbores, checkcri ng tools, rna tting punches, and sc row-drive rs ..

:Sprlnq Steel ,_ The very best spriug steels are stlll made 'in Great Britain, and, fur springs of' the best shotgun locks it is advisable to obtai n this steel, :F or the ordina ry springs yo u w w'11 use i 1.1

repal ", ,'!' .. 'k ~',; ch ::"', "p: I .r, : i: f'·; I' ·'b·'i,,., ·1·· I,.·,j'...:;:t:, 1."

_ air worx, sue as s. rings or o. su ere pis OC",~

'1 J d'~ h d ,~ I d

muzz, e .. " ,03'" :Ing guns, etc ..... ; t e . tomesnc steet Ina,., ,e

'by Waid or Ryerson "dU, answer foe purpose quite welt

S'leel [I'ubblg - Shelby' steel. tubi ng co, nes in, an required 'wc'ighls; and diameters and is :particnlar ly useful in many ways. From, it you will make barrel bauds, Ioresigh t protectors, cleaning tubes, bushi RgS, etc, There is also S tai nless Steel Tubing', 'which. offers a further advantage Ior certain purposes ''\l""'e shan, mention J ater,

,A spec lal t u bing is made by the Ellwood 'I vins Tube \\~'or ks in ,Philade l pbia, Pennsy 1 vania, Th is company wiJl make any size of tubing from 'that of a needle 'Up to the largest size, not Oldy in coldd ra wn seamless tu bing; but tool-steel tubing as well, ThI s tubing is used for the 'Oil tubes of barriel d rills, barr-el reamers and rift i,l1,g heads where it ,i So impossible to secure the proper sizes in the standard SheJlly t ubi ng'" The making o:f barrels requires more rigid t 'U~-"l"'I:1I'g<

_ _ _ ." _"'. . _ ~' .:,_:. .. .IU .: ~',f _ . ~

}\ recen t use or seam less al loy-steel tubing is for

rel lnh ,., .]".0 ba r r'~] s S·· '0 f - t h' ~.;A ~;"Il '." " .. O' d

,_"ng ru e ..••... ,.', ,~;; Ii.,,; , ar .. '!"i",?\..' . ,Lllle:rs~:' :rl ,e,'

and ready fur i:ns.€',rtion ~ are a means ~)f savl rag many fine old rifle barrels, As yet these "liners" are exclusively a, British product, 'There' are two kinds, those made of ordinary carbon steel, and su;i table only for lead buUet.s, and those, made of the 'fines t alloy steels and 00 made suits b le for metal .. cased, bullets, The, former, which ha ve the advantage in price, are p roeurable f rom ,A;; G,~ Parker &: Company, Bitmlngham, and the 'latter from Vickers-Armstrcng, Ltd., Grayford, Kent, both in En,gland.. They carry a supply of these in various caH be'rs~

S'leel ,Spring Wilre, = This comes under the name: of piano wire and Is made 'in all sizes from, :1;80 to, #3 O. This is the: m a te rial 0 f w hich you will make your <compression springs, 'Helical or so= called spiral springs are used in many places in 1110 d ern firearms, and replacements arc of ten rJJ ecessary .

M 'L.: S

hl "1" .'

... - ac ·'.l'n,e '_. crews ---- ] n general use,; they a.re

made \with two 'kinds nf heads, 'the' 'fiat head and the n,n ~ sf er h ead, Y ou shou ~ d have a sma ll stock. .0 f both. kinds, as, these, in add i tin u 'to their gene ral use, \\1 ill, 0 r ten repl alee 0 t her special 5(';TP.'lVS. which ha ve been lost or broken ~ The f uUOW] ng :11 st covers a multitude of needs. Get them long enough; they can be, shor tened easil y ii too long"

s~ TIJ:r(!(J'(/, L('tt1:tk
.. li"!I·"
, $,..'1,
2 64 :~4
"
2 56 ¥t,
3 ,56 %
,.1 4-8 "m
., .
. 'c
4 ,40 %
,
4- 36 0/:
~J, ;3'
~ 0;,.
S 40 1"-
, . 'J"2
6- 40 lh
'6 32 ¥.l
8- $2 t~,
8 36 '~
~'.~
10 ~s2 I
" -:
l:? 2'8 i Brass ,_ There are a number of uses for this [easily worked metal, both in sheet, rod, and bar 4' A, few pieces of rod or di{'lere,nit, diameters wHII,1,t3,ke drift. I) unche s r -:iivpl,in'lJi" ,~~I ,['1;\1 :'15'. soec ia"1 screws etc

l . . ., ~ ..... - 0 A. ,Ii .. 1, .t"'" ............ '. ,I "_'.. . ...• "" .. t'L."

whU,e Ior small, bushings and esc utcheons 3S well as, templets, etc., ,3. sheet of ,24 -gauge brass. win be most desi rab le. Purchase short pieces of %,- 111JC'h~, ':}4,mincb, I-lnch round brass to drive with as "\vt!U as to hold in th e vi se to rivet on; also secure the SD It sheet brass 11' n inch thick. for use as vise jaws; and ob tain 1/4.- i nch and '%-inch roo nd brass to drive with and 'for making special screws; bushings, and escutcheons,

'Cop:per _, For drift punches in removing and replacing ~ights and dovetailed secilons, soft copper

d .. ~ ltd b If 1.1" h· h ~, 1'.

ro IS excei ent, an: s reet c.oPP€''T '/11 ti mer .. t· lC.K.,

makes the best protecting medium, for your vise jaws.

L d A' sm III ·IU'·· tlt '., af ~"'. d .. '.~Il orovid

. eo: - ,.". sma q ranu -y 0 read 'Vb. provi e

for num e tot! s needs, and you win have no diffic ulty in gF.tt.ing this in. scrap form or at your plumbers. \i""~'Sre J~ ws, ben ch plates, etc, t require lead. Y QU wit 1 a lso use i { Io I~ 'I tipping' barrels, ring' gauges, c hamhers, a.n d 'b u ne't:s~

' •• :. 'Tit;:I!D'l' • '1"8" ~,~ ]I l' 'S 'iI'IlTD S"UPP" LIE' "S' I ... a~ ~~.- ,III' ~W:ILI.l,n.,...;~ " zU"',,' .- ',"" " ,,' ,

various proportions, That used by a turner is usually 50?b lead and S05~ {In. ,A slightly higher

,,'I fti 60' "'0=-"" be' - f'

P reoorti .... 11 0" 't1111; "" ~a' ,'. 'y I ~ 4 - l~ . ~ t,~ Sf ' .- or g' un

'.!IL",l.""""" ,!U,,', "JLll-"",', ',,,' ....... ~'",' ,go "..,..,,'I:r~, """ ',"

work,

Silver Solder S p.e.-l t er is used for brazi ng operations; tin and bis ttl1tt,h are ern p 1 oyed to harden lead and make the soft solders.

Solderfnq Salls - Nokorode Soldering Salts, are the best, on. the market fOf' solderl ng operations. These come :in, pound tins, and an that. is, necessary is to. add a, small amou nt of' water to the salts" put the, mixtu re in a separate jar, and keep it handy on the solderi ng bench,

E'mery- You will need a small quantity of emery powder for your lapping and polishi ng wheels; #90,~ #1 ,20,~ and, the nne grade caned "ftour" emery will cover your requirements, The coarse grade is used. to true oilstones,

Em" ;I"'II!_1", Th""'''' b" d' "~'."" elY ~'Ke- ',.',,15 rs emery comtnnco W~ui

grease i.n a. soft cake+ It is used. to charge the re-

. '

volving polishing 'wheel" It is a fast .. cutting com-

pound and brings out a goo d finish on steel par ts, such a ~ barrels, etc.

Emery Cloth and Paper - Thls is your

..

standard abrasive, and you V'rill use it a great deal ..

The numbers most use r ul in erne ry cloth are # 'I , :10, and iOOO~ Jt is possible to get even Iiner cuts than. these in emery paper, and so' your finest use may require a few sheets of Turkish and French emery paper,

C,rO-CUB Cloth .......... This is the 'finest abrasive of aJI. You will need it for your finest polishing ..

San,d'pape'r ~ This universally used material has been, greatly improved of late by making it

t (; 1'1~h H ibilit f the wet k

wa erproo f. ,I·" e nexinui ty 0:, t e wet paper mai res

it more adaptable and prevents scratching; I t is also sel f -cleaning 311Jd cuts Ias ter, Y au w:n~ not want anything coarser than .#]" and for- your finest work 1/","0: to ''':/'0-, ,

__ _ ,', ' '," iii

Flbe'r ~ l:~ au will need a small amount of round fiber rod, 1.4 inch to 'n inch in diameter, to make 'into drift punches. for use on finished surfaces where 'even copper would mar and spot If you do damaskeening this 'will al so be the- material you.

"~HI~-' '.' , to '1' f' ,," ,',,', abi , 1"'h"·, ' .-",. I

w,~_ use as a 100" ,'Or your ,a,r,a:;,lve~ I __ ..IS materJ3

is used by som .. e' gun-makers ior butt plates and ,grip caps .. , It is c:'beap ,a'nd easily worked to .shape; and!

ffli""" ~nOi'Vp;Ol;n" 's"~ve', w~'olr"'k 'lI"}'n"'TIil'e"';rc:" q' 'u=te" 'w'e't'11 -I"1J...e.-,

'lUJl. .:1:, '~" ~".',I. '" ,'d, :s."~";':' .. ~.: ., .. JI!~ ~. JJI.

large 'found ~'ber can 'be turned to va,t·ious sizes lor

"·:",....,.,,,,""'1' _(11""t"'" .. 4':' .. , .... ,.",t..'·'i".·'·,.-· ,.' ,~;qi-, b arrels

remo VI ng de n "S on nne ;)110 !!.-,guns or r me . .- arre s

it. h ere adi usta ble - teel pl u . OU'I'd da g"" t' h e L" -" h

'\, '. '" :~,_~ ~ ~ ",II;.,.' s' ., gs 'W'.: '.1:' I' "rna. : e ''',: Ji.d,g:

polish,

Glue - As all glue is soluble in water J its use is qui te limited. i n gun work, The s trongest 0 btain ~

ble i d f 1 id k d 'h" b ...

a te IS mac cram. 11," e stocl ~ anr t ae I, est 1S im-

ported. from ,F ranee or England, As it m list be: prepared in a double boiler, a small glue pot is

necessary Remember foot glue is strong onlv

~ , ~'" __ ,," t ",' "' ., ,." ,",'" _ ,,' "".. ' y

'wl1en freshly made: and quickly applied while piping hot" and that boiling and Irequen t reheating destroys its strength, For attaching born and rubber we suggest that you dissolve your glue in lin ... seed oil Instead or water, as this. renders it 'more nearly water-proof,

Du Pont Household, glue will 00 found very use ...

f 1 d' • t f .. d it d t

I . I I: .- .. ' I "!I .. ' , I I I, . . I I _. " I e . ..' ,- ';". ' .' ~ .! . . I J I I :.~ . '. I

ui ann convement ur repairs an, as 1 . . oes no

require heating, it ,~s always ready for use,

Fel,t A small su P' pl ~ 1'1: and lh Inch t" hick

,: .. ,,' __". ,,,:- "I', ~':", .Ily In 7 .... 1. d."" '1,2:" I, '",ul·, __ ... ,

[Jesses is, req U] red wi th 'wh ich to nne vise-jaw blocks and 'I1'UI b down stocks when groun d g]d5S~ rottenstone, and pumice are used as polishing mediums ..

Horn, Buffalo - This is one of the essential material s 0 f t. he gl1 nmaker, I t is used for butt plates, forearm tips, ,gd'p caps, and Inlays, Asiatic buffalo horn is the best, and it is wise to buy the entire ,born and. cut i l. to shape as .yo u need ,it.. Horn but t plates Icr the best shotg un work. should be fmported complete, as these are hydra uUca.lIy com pressed into shape Thev 1I"[l;iI'}Y" be hs d 1~'t"I' a'1il;

. , [ '-. . . .. ~~U , .~. ~ ," ~,. JL! ~'r!l .IJ:.~ '. _ ... ,' ~ _. '" .: 'Ii~ ", ·Jf

thlcknesses wan ted.

Pumice aDd Rotte,nstone Powders - These su bs tances are very fine abrasives and are used in obtaining a fine polish on stocks. A small can of

,~'a, ch C '!i:!iii'i' ,II" P"~'~()·'· :-,~,:i' 'd' :: e 'Im.Q' 'I' ,-" h f ", ", ilir . ;' ted u

L L.Y"- ,k, ,J! VI, e . ~,~ . ug, or un Jml ~ use,.

Wood SClewa _, These are of so great a variety, and so readily obtainable, that one is hardly justined 'in carryl np;: a stock, Your work .. box: will fur-

ish . r d'

msn most ot your neecs,

Steel W 001 - This is a necessary article, A p,()t1n d of' #000 will serve all purposes, for a J OJ]g time. Its lJSeS wiU be made manifest throughout these pages.

The Iollowing substances and chemlcals are also used. in gu nsmi thing'" and are chiefly' confined to tbe :surf'ace treatm,ent of materials, either to harden. their surfaces, to :ren.der tbem, more beau ti-f'ul" .or to add to. 'the,i'r' preservation,. The ones, first en.u.m,er-' atcd andl described are those for use: in con nectloD 'with metals,t

44

THE MODERN GUNSMITH

Acids _, Acids, one must always, remember, re ... quire care both in their use and in their storage. They are often. dangerous in combina tion, des trueti ve to animal and vegetable tissues, and highly poisonous. Some, must be kept in special conta iners a' n ',d awa 'Y' fro m direct llcht Bu- in S', ma -,' ll

- L ~ , ,_ _ _ , ,_ n. _ ,4 , -y - -

quantities, as most of them deteriorate rather quickly.,.

,Sulfuric Acid (cotnmonly called Oil of Vitriol)This is a most POW€I ful acid, and, as its name implies" is derived from sulfur and niter, For the gunsmith it is limited to its use as a cleaning agent, such as removing rust, sand, and other fo reign su bs lances from metal.

j_ll itric Acid (commonly called Aqua. Fortis}~ This acid is derived from niter or saltpeter th rough d ecornp osi tion by s 11 1. f uric aci d. r t is a most useful a.CE d, both alone and 'i n comb i na ti 011 ~ It is a constituent nf all bluing solutions and 15 the acid w-hich is used in etching ornaments on steel.

H ydrochloric Acid-In its commercial form this is often caned llrI uriaiic A rid or S piri t S 0 j Sal t ~ It is made f rom common salt by the action thereon of sulfuric acid. It is use d by the gunsmi th as a flux in the operation of soldering and brazing. Hyd rochloric acid. combined with ni tric acid--one pa r t nitric acid 'with two 'parts hyd rochlorlc, h y measure-s-makes A qua. Regia. 'This is used as a component of bluing so lutions 4

Potassium (Potash) --- In its numerous forms this is another chemical of many uses. Potassium Chlorate, which i.s the arch enemy lurking in our fired primers" becomes a useful friend in our bluing formulas. Potassium. Bichr omaie and Potas siun:

Cyanid ,8; re the forms in which it 'is used as a case-hardening agent. Potassium Permanganate is a very useful agent in darkening walnut wood, This will be described in stock finishing. Potassiu 11f. I'{ itr at e is used in coloring 5 teel. Other chemicals besides the Potassiums used in bluing solu-

,. B·' tit C· hi "d Std' h j' C'

1 .. .' r . t: -.- _. . .' - . . .

t: ons a. 'e' sm·u " '. ·...on j . "-p, ate 0, . opper,

Sulphate of Iron J' ore oppe:ras, Bic ldorid 0 f M er-

, , .

cur», Ferne C Iflorid and some others of 1 esse r

~ t

nnpor -ance ..

Ammonia - Commercial ammonia is, well known to us aU and demands no explanation of its properties or general uses, It is useful to the- gunsmith as an agent for the removal of grease preparatory to bluing. A mmonia Per sul p,hate mixed with ordi-

~ -

nary Ammonia in distilled water 'makes a valuable

cleaning solution J as it will dissolve wi thin the ba rrel the metal fouling deposited by cupro-nickcl-

ca·s" "e' d bullets Highly' concentrated Am' m', ' o',"'n" ~ " is a

, "_, ,... " _ _" _ ,,_.la a

most useful agent for darken ing walnut and other

hard woods, as only its fumes are necessary. A finished. 5 toc.k 1 before oil s are applied, can be placed in an air-tight box with open dishes of strong' ammonia and th e dark color win be attained wi thout moisture 4 Ammonia C hlorid (Sal Ammoniac) is used ch i eft y as a :fi ux in sol dering by ti nsmi ths, For most gun work, Nokorode Soldering' Salts are pre fer a hI e. ,,7 ben. sh 0 tgu n ribs are. to be solde red, rosin is the safest flux to use" as no injurious residues are depo si ted.

Alco'hol..........., TwO' forms are in common. use: grain alcohol which, as. its name denotes, is dis HUed from grain, and wood alcohol which is. distilled from wood, ,~"""Lor all the formulas I shall give, I advise the exclusive u.se of grain alcohol. As pure alcohol is S urrou nded by t ro ubi esome gove rumen t restrictions, I advise that in making up 111y formulas ynll take the ingredients to your druggist and have him compound them. He will be able to, provide the P UIe, undena t ured alcohol which is essen ti at If

hi · ·

t 15 proves mconvement you can make your own by \

procuring a small glass laboratory still,

Acetone ........... This 'is an alcohol de ri va tive which is a co ns tit uen t 0 f most cleaning oils and so] utio ns .. , Remember, always, that acetone is very inflammable,

Merc.ury (Quicksllver) - This mineral is used by gunsmi ths to remove lead from the rifle bore .. I t has a great affinity for lead, which uni tcs 'with it, but from which it can subsequently be. easily remo" - -ed

.... v ..

Sulfur (Brimsl'one) - This was one of the bases of our good old black gunpowder, but its use in gun smi thing is la rg ely in the ]11 a k] ng of casts 0 f shell cham be r5 ; it is pa rti cular ly ada pta b le because of the ID"v temperature in which it melts, and the sligh t shrinki ng it develops in cooling. It is also used. in the tempering bath. when making

..

springs,

Campho,r ......... A small supply is all that 1.S necessary to mix with the sulfur in the making of sulfur casts.

The following substances have largely to do with wood work, and while not chemicals in the strict sense ~ are best classified with tbem, Let us take the su bstances used in stai ni n g first:

Alkanet 'Root --- A vegetable derivative, which when mixed with your stock oil will impart a reddish tint to 'WOOd4 Arnette, or Armato, an orange red ·~lID. is used to give a sirn Bar ti n t in s tal ning.

MA,'TERIAL S., METALS. AND SUPPLIES

This is on]y soluble: 'in aleohol and therefore cannot he used directly in the polishing oil,

Umber (Raw and Burntl- J.\ mineral formerly much. u sed as an ingre dien t in wood s tal ns, 1 t has been superseded by anilins, which are soluble and so penetra te mote thoroughly; and they do not obscure the beauty of "the ,g rain like in sol ub le substances,

DragOD"'S Blood, ---- An, old, constituent of red wood. stains" now superseded by a lliili 11 s.

Loqw'ood -- A very useful dY'E!Sl uff, but rarel y used today in wood stains for the reason above given" It is often used to impart a better black to gun barrels in the bluing process ~

\\r e have described the foregoing dyest uffs largely because they are a part of the historic development. of stain i Dg and wi n t herefore be 'found. in all the old formulas and recipes, }\fy opinion, however, is that the amateur gunsmith. wiU find in the commercial ar l']iif\, ,~,t~, i 'nis·· n aaterials more easily ob rained 'more

n __ ,Il,1 .,;,. "" _, ,., ' ~ . . . . _. _ __ _ ,. "

easily applied, and more- easily controlled. The old def ect 0 f anil ins, their lack 0 f endu ranee, is now practically overcome. Per ha ps 0 fall the old vegetable stains the first one mentioned- Alkane t root=-wlll be the one most generally preferred .. Mixed wi th your stock '0 il, it will heigh ten the color of 'most 'wood and add to its beauty,

Varnishes and, Ruihbing Ona - The: uses and properties o f these su bstances will be Iull y de-

-.- ihed "'1·- ~ l··-It--,---"it,·t ' "~~'.'·"·'-'lf--i~ . ,~. 'HI"'I"

scrme In a . it .er cnap er on I:.' imsnmg. riere

we shall descr ihe them only as su bs tances,

Varnish - All the old varnishes were made of vegetable gums dis-solved i n linseed 011 and t u rpentine, Only th e very toughest and best of these were suitable for gun work, Those known as "Spar \r arnishes :t'~ are the best It as these resist 'water most effectually. Valspar is a well-known and worthy' represen tatlve,

Lacquer _, This rather unfortunate word 'means a, 11 urn ber of th ings, q c uite different fro m each other .

. ,) I' ,

In the sense in which we employ it here, as a treat-

ment [or wood; it. is the ni tro-cellulose product

d b D -..,,- - t '11 ed- "D - - " ~,-- d Is the best rna ,e;y · UL:"Oll, ea _ ... ,1][,0', - ~n ~.. .... ~'_

kno\Vll,,, - Applied with a spray gun it is the modern substitute for varnish in nearly every case~ If one bas to v.ar:nish a gun stock, \v,ell, .. ,.~.don."l; la.cquer

. -. . d iIi'-" ~ 'k d · 'be

It lnst,ea,. ~t IS qUlc,cr an, :m ,eve'ry 'way __ tter ..

Sh UI S' '1.., 1]'~' '.' h .JI r

_· __ el .. a,e~ .......... ,:-,ue_, ,ac IS ,a 'Va'rOlS,' 'matte 'I'Fom, a g'wn

secreted by .an. insect and dissolved 'hl alcohol"

45

Some sunmakers use it .Ii, -. connec tlon with llnseed

o _ b,Y _ ,,];I\..!l.,;;t . 1. In . . n ... _~ _ 'n]',I. __ 1Jo.J .

oil and then it is known as "~ French Polish." Its use in gun wor It is passing, the lacquer a hove men tinned is taking its place.

Linseed Oil .......... This, the only oil adapted. to the preservation and finishing of \v 00 d, is derived from H axseed, J t is at its very best when, it has been extracted Irom the seed by' presst1tt only, and, without heal. This grade, however, 'is not generally procurable In America, 'Linseed oH comes either "ra w,?') as 'I t is, called, or U boil ed, nOne m us there ],.... ~ d d h h ~ c: (. b "1 d ·1" hi I" "] ne remm ',e 'tc _3. t 1. . ere IS .. r 01 er oi '. . '\N' ,'i C 1 is 0'] ,

,

11 b "'1 d · d 'h · '1

aetna y . 01 ec In ,a vacuum, anc t. •. e ccmmercia

• ~ b oiled oil, t, w hi ch is merely raw linseed oil cornbined w lth cer tai n ~"' dryers" ~ l' F or the gunsm i th the latter is worthless-she must have the really' boned article, As there is. a use in gunsmlthing 'for both th - . ,- ''I' Q ,d- t-ICI4J. b iled . t. -.. upply should ;--, '1 d'··,

le rav.: ,,,,,n__ 1\;,0 .Ol.e " your su., . .y ",U . ,it ,~,nc u e

a small bottle 0 f each,

n~:ll nub '.' ....... '"' d 'n....,,_.,... Ii·· .) Th'""

"-IuS 'LI __ :nc'~llImg an r,[~elV'a_, ve .......... , . ,15 is \,

a subject that is provocative of much argument and

d~ff . f . ~ Th · ,.

J ... erence 0' opin l on. ' ... ere ,arc unCQ,mp rom lSI ng

opinions regarding all these classes 0 f oil: animal ~ nl iner al, and vegeta b 1 e J and .all their comb ina tions, Perhaps the best line of argument I can take, is to give you my preference, and then. if you disagree

.' 1 ~ .- ~ II b lik·· ' '0 - h d

with me, it Wi " -·e .... e a conversation on tne rae 10

·d'..J' F b '. f di

"'-----On e-s,l : _ ed ~ '4,ar, i e It ,:ronl ,me toc I,spa-rage any

or the well ... ,k, nown, 'highly' advertised 1 ubrlcating 'oils) as they are, excellent "for most purposes, It jus t happen s that I jJ (sat jn " on long: courses o,f 'ex ... perimentatlon conducted by the IF. S~ Government chemi st So to del ermine Ole best 0 i.1 s· and greases for use in the Springfie ld and 0 (her Un he d S ta tes at ... se nals. It was f oun d that fur the 1 ub ricat ion 0 f guns, an oil co nsis ting 0 flO par ts pu re sperm an d 1 part par affm speciall Y' refined, boiled toget her, was the best ob tainable; and, that a heavy grease, mad ,e, ~~11d: er a pr op rie t ar Y"" form ·'U- ,11""1 by 'E- _.-. 'H, H' ough-

,0.'. '. _ 'UI" ~ .. I -. , ,. . it .. , ',', _ I,a. '_ 4 ~, " , . '1I.lII, ,' __

,-:' .. ."

ton of Philadelphia and havi ng the trade name of

'1\.:","'. 8""' ... d' 8··4 HCI-- ,.,,"' " - . 8" - .. ' ts . f ' - hi ,-h· . ~

.1, o. .. ~ an _~ ,.' ·osmlc.." to.· par S. .0.' w .. lie" wa~

added 2' of pu re sperm, was the very best. preserva ... , tive, Sperm on is obtained. i rom the head of' the sperm whale, Both. are entirely free from acid; both are non -drying, This means that they not only do the work required of them J but that they

k doi ~ d .. ~

eep on. • __ omg It, ano your gun, m use or In s tor age ~

is safe and sure,., l"his information :solved all my oil problem:s ,for the momen.t an.d, I believe, foreve,r,~

AInong t.he ot.her nBs need.ed is l,ara ,o,ii, fo:r use .in eulling screw threads!' ,and for cutting, reaming, and la.pp,in_g ope'Fations genera.lly,. Ker{,setle' i'i used.

f,· 1··· -.' ,.,. ,;, I' '·-··1 -.';, .. - -·,d··· ·d· iII'.~' ···t; , .. .J S<p:···· .... O··~'f b-:·

_ or oosenl.ng up (:orrO·f. J 01 n .. s, a Ilu, : .... ,(orIn " . 'Ii" ,as

. ., 11 " .. ~ - h a n urn ber' 0 f 11S€'51- eSpec.la .y 1n' connec t 1 on Wi t .

Rou,ge o,r F errlc Oxid ........... This is the finest of

II b - d .. d " h hi' h -

ai araS1VCS, anc IS usee to give LJe ,_:_lg lest pos-

'-b'I' olish to teel and ""~;\'I metals

Sll . e, po IS, . 0 s eel.an 0 u,~er m,e. 8,'-- __ '"

46

ODm G - THEM "'- ··N ' .. UN SM I TH'

rifles-use's which vdll, appear' as the workman goes furth rer into actual gunsmithing

~ ': - ., .... - ,-,_ ... "'- .... \' ".Ut· W\llilllill.J!,·,~JJ,_· o.

Vamish Rem,over' - 'H,a.ve a small can oJ this in stock. 1 for it hi, a great time saver in removing the old varnish from, a stock, preparatory to refinishing it ..

Bee&,wax _, Beeswax is sometimes used as a polishing agent: but as It is affected by' moisture tp it is not well adapted lor wood work on guns, It is no substitute f-or the combination of one part lin, .. seed oil and ten parts elbow _grease ~ A Ii t tie, perhaps, added to the oil, accele ra tee resu 1 ts, I t finds a use in the gu nmaker 's supplies for coating surf aces in the etching process.

I S" · t t b 4 't '.

_ vory .......... ' cmce Iva ry lsecomlng very rare ~ 1 IS

more expensi ve than former ly '" I t is used for pis t Q 1- grip caps, f orearm tips" inlays and grips for revolvers, and pistols, and 'for special sights on shotgun s and rifle'S. 0 lid bin iard balls 0 f ivory may be, picked up a.t times and 'win supply' your needs,

Chareoal,- Charcoal, you will need. in your' furnace as fuel, and also :i n a powdered form, Ior bluing' small parts, That made from willow 'wood is es ... teemed the best, but you win be, satisfied with. that commercially obtained. Charcoal is also used to cover lead In hardening operations,

La'cque:rs :£or :M,etcd - These lacquers have no relationship with the automobile lacquers formerly

d ib d T- h " -." - ~

escn e ;,~ " 'fir cnmposition rs of no interest to

the gunsmith, They 11lay be obtained from dealers in metallic finishes and are applied. to metal previously marie warn). Their uses will be described in the cb a pter 011 metal finishing.

Prussian B, -Iue: ,_ A'· fr II be of Pruss "']- an blue "P r 0-'

. . __ -I.. .. - , ~,., . ~ , . ,c,ID, __ ,n ~ .I't,;." . -

cured from, yrlur paint dealer, will provide tile best material ,i 11 your trial and e rror ope ration in all 'your close-fitting metal .. to .. metal work, I'n. fitting steel to wood, lampblack made into a paste 'with oil is rather more satis facto ry",

Bone-bloek - A pound, ot this, wlll also be necessary' to have at hand. This is used to coat exposed and dellca te polnts when mixed with sperm oil in to a pas te in the heatl l'lg and hardening process,

Water ---- Distilled water should be invariably used in every chemical formula, A.sa tura ted solutio n means all, and no more, of any sol uhle substance that can be held In suspension in the liquid,

Woods ,_, The woods for stocks are, best secured from ~][ik'hen Bosley of Birmingham and J. R" Owen of Li verpool, England, Tbey ca Try the fi nest of the Ci rcassian t French, and Italian. 'waJ n uts, For the supply of American walnuts, Harner of Springfield, Ohio ~ h as a very nne selection" It is best to have 'these lent to standard size for' tbe particular firearms you wish to restock, You ,"viII need a sn p ... ply Ior odds and ends in or de r to do considerable patching, and the local s upply of American walnut ,3. n swers th a t pu rpose + You will also need pieces of ebony , rosewood, uta II ogany c h e:rry ~ and f:'1 aple woods. These are very attractive, especially the rare. varieties. A separate chapter: will be devoted to this 5 ub jec L See'" Sel ectlon Q I Woods j; before any' steps are taken to secure the supply required .. ,

CH-APTEB' ,,' IV""

-. - - . I: _ _

Th,e Use of Tools

CHAPTER IV

The USB of Tools

CE'~'RTAIN .!' ndivid ,.'[. ,-,.'. natur -I)" d"- ·,t' ,:" . .• . ,,"'1! In ]V1~lUhS" ~em, ,~!ai_ ura s ,a' ,epi ~,1n.

the use of tools" 'wblle others must reeeive definite inst ruction b efo 'Ij,D tb,e':Y"'" can make progr ess

'_ ·,.ILI:&l[L~ .Il~~:a:!i.li . .LL I:. ",_', . . ,II.~ ._'_ .... r ._IU.'!I,~ . a. ,'IW , ..... '-J.", ~~.!II!

] t is for the la t ter class tha t this chapter j,s written.

E "J '. 'II!,. do t

veryo ne attem pting a tas { wisees to' -0 1 t cor-

rectly, and the student" having located his shop and purchased or made some 0 f the tools, often finds, himsel f in a q uandary, not knowing haw to perfo rm the simplest ope rations, such as sharpening a wood, chisel, drl ving a nail, or using a file in. the righ t. manner,

'Th-roughout this chapter I have endeavored to trea t each subject so that the novice "",ill clear ~,Y' understand m n;il:!t; of 4tl..~: tools used ~'Y·'-_. a f,J"11'1(:''''·ml rit h.

. Y, _ V~ "IW"h .. """'IV a.- . .,;J. __ u~. 'f:i,~,D5 __ .. __ •

'N aturally a, number of topics, are not touched

b h+" Idd - ~ d

upon ~ ,- ut enough IS Inc udeo to give aaeq ua te

work i ng k nowledge, Wha t follows may be 0-£ little use- to th e fi ni shed craf ts In an , but the beginner should read it carefully in the hope o-f acquiring an understandi.ng that could otherwise be' had only by

'.. h

apprentices ] l p,

'\~l cod-working tools win be considered first because .of their Interest '1.0 the beginner. Edge tools of' all kinds come ground" but not stoned, therefore

it ~ - - -, d' , d fi - h - h

r is necessary to '1l.1 n r erstan _. . rst ",10\" 'to S. I, arpen

a nd keep" the. rn '. in co', 'n--' dl tir n ~o·.' d 0-' th a best ] k

_ . __ '_ __ __ ., . _. , .. 0___ ~ ., Ii; . esl!I. wor ""

\i\~tO-O'D-- --W·: O··RK·:IN· G'- T'" 0""'0" LS·····

",' .: '. -. "."..,. .. . ' ' . ,- .

Chisall, 'iiiiiiiiiii The wood chisel, carving chisel, gouge, and bottoming tool are the most important in stock inle t ting ~ You can buy' chisels such as the short buu chisels will' ich S':II'ViQ t im t1 and U-O,-i -. -:-1: "'1-1:'"

.;J __ v. _' _ _ '!.lI,,':', '"_ ~<;n..I,S ' ' ,\,r" _ u.. 'L .. !I., 11,;>-", . __ ,', Jf. u ca n a ,~O

fashion them from old. files .. , Grind off the file cuts, being caret ul not 'to draw the temper' whHe doing' so" and sharpen the end by holding it an t. against the eme-ry wheel as it revol ves to secure the proper angle, On all gunmakers' chisels the angle is twice

. .

as great as on carpen ter chisels. "ri th a, long sharp

angle the ell t ting edge performs bet ter on hard

"l"", '1- 'h ~ di f: di th ~

wooos, . e gnn Ing 0 a ra [US one cutting

edge of a chisel reduces to a min imum the necessit y f or stoni ng ~ It is ad visab le to grind a 1. or 2' degree angle !on the flat si:dle so that it wUI not. bite in t.hat dire"',tJon:l- ~'u-- '. II', '''".". 1I~'e- 0- U!'~', "Jii 5·' t"l(a';'g" h': "[: ,c'~·m -:-' : I ,,- I" I, t-

_ ~ _ ,. U .,. 1b4b. . 11. G, . Ii,. III, ~ _ _.~,",aJ~ Clh .. ", , ,

~.. .. b- '1-' d' , {h':" ~, '11- ~ - '.

' .': ' -. i " .. ' -.' ... I ":' I' '"'J .. I ' I' . I' - ",' -. . , -.' . I" - f . I .. ' . -". ..' - I', I " , . - ..

,IS Inl,pOSSI, . e to . ,0 . . lS, WIt gouges" Sl n'ce t ley are

made, wHh a diversity of [',adi] and a ve:ry 'Stee.p

angle to the cut t.ing edge, 'wi, th only' a very sligh t I th 'fl- t id

'- 1'- - .... '1 ,-, -,- I .;' '-

ang e on,. __ e ".,3- 51 c.' e,~

Carvlna chisels come 'under tile same headins as

- -,0 . -_. .., - ,_.,. .... .... .. -.0' Ii(

gouges and are made in many differ en t forms. Th e reversed radius gouges are se-ldom used on stock work an d m a·'· -:-- be ad" ded to. o ne's kit when occasion

. ,y... ..., _ .i'L . ,~,!I c ca.~ u

for their use ar ises,

The chisels you buy usually come rough-ground and with a short angle, Regrind this angle as described, neat to the cutting edge; then, reverse the, same on the emery wheel so that a short radius will be grou nd about one s'i xty ~ 1.0 urth to the cut .. , t:ing: edge ~ 'Wll He: gr j nding, all ways be caref uI 'to' gr:ind straight across 'so that the cutting edge "liU,

t b t d t -- . d . L"1- ~ - - t - - ti - - h- - - 'lid[

, .. "," .• .... • •.... '". '",' ~. 1 "" .' :' Ii.'.~' '. - I' .. .'.. ' I' 1 I I,i .

no .,e can ec 0 one 51· e. l.·e Ins. rue .. tons s on '-'

be followed for chisels made from old worn files, As machine shops arc always accumulating old files" a good 5'upply can usually be obtained 'without much elf or t. 'Your choice should be: flat mill, hal f round, three sq uare, and pillar files. Those of the narrow' pillar variety can be made into small narrow chisels, and the d i fferent-shaped needte :fi leg 'call be ground f 0.1' smal I inlet ting work such as sh ields, etc .. , y our needs w'i U be con fined. m05 tI-v to 6 and 8 inch

"',

Iengths, the 1 () a n d 12 inch being I ather cumber-

some for gen eral use, The 10. inch mill file may be broken in half and ground for wide butt chisels ..

Another type 0,£ thin chisel is made, from power hack ... saw blades, broken, to the proper length, the

- d' -- -- -

,.' '0' - .'. ,-' , . - -' • - - - :', '.' -. . - , , - - ,-- .- ' :" ,-', ' ' ,- - .' - . -. . -, .

teeth groun '. off, and a tang ground on. the end to

fit a file handle. A full set of these tools is inexpensi ve no t d [fftcult in con struc tion, and the wor It will be most 'interesting to the beginner .. ,

In ston i ng, t1 rst use a. coarse carboru nd u m stone to hasten "the: work on the cutting edge, and a Wash ita or any fi ne-gra lned stone to obtain, the desi red keenness, Get a piece of J, inch bel t lea ther , 12 inches in length, and glue: the smooth side to a convenient place on the bench '; use it to rub the working chisel on now and then a's needed, Charge the leather with .320-Iv[ optical emery by mixing it into a. paste with olive oil, and rub well into the leather. By' drawing' your chisels tow-ard. you, as tho -rotJ wer,e str-p-,pina ,3, r,azor 'Y'ou reestablish·, d

.. )r - .. - -. .. O. 1 . . "~ .. _ _. ". _ _ _ _. , _ _, an .

'ma,i:ntain fhe shn:rp cutting edge .. , Th:is. devict, :is,

d f' H" - 'h ~ ~ d h ,- ~ '}] ~ d

' I ". '-:;-' -.' ,:-.:: - l'-' .• ' '. '; ,-..' , ' •.. -:.' -'-I . '., ";" I' - .' . ':1'

nse or" at c, ,~,se, san. , gouges on test ra.~g ,.t SI . ell

'1t1 ". 'h'" 1- 'h dOd' II.. d d~' b

1\" 'ost carving' c' 18e:5 ._ :ave' 0: _' s.uapes a:n-, ,ra ·,:u.'~t

49

course, on straigh t -g rained blanks you can takelonger strokes" thereby reducing the surplus wood more rapidly. Do not go 'too 'far ln your CIll ts, and bear in m i.nd that. the spoke-shave is, 'Used, to. con-

i" U-" ~'h··,.· "th'·,,, dra ~_·k·,·_4'~' '1'-""""'" off

!J; l,n .. e, "1\, "e,re t, '.' e . fa ow ' ,0.11 e ' ea.ves 0 . ~

One: of' the' best. instruments of this kind is the:

h 1 izht d k' ~ f .. h d' h ..j'l 1:

'W ee.ll.\Yr.I,g. ·,t ." 'ra,w~ mue WIt: rouno nanares erose to

th bl d l1J"~ h h k if h

. le ... a·le,.1l'¥lt· sue' a I, 'In :e: t _e cuts a,re con .. ,

t '1'1 .... ...:1' b c,' tt ..... -· :-,).",: th .'.', t .) . ,.:.' to i -, d '." ' ro I,eu '. e; u;.:[ I w,!; Ie, _ e r I, ronl or ' .. war. you,.

so

rHE MODERN GUNSMITH

you. will observe that the gouges have, in most instances, a true radius, To strop these, the best results are: obtained 'with a 'bu.ffing wheel mounted either on a 'buffing-wheel stand 00:[' emery-wheel spindle .. , Charge the' wheel with rouge: or chromeplating polish as 8, light abrasive, 'W hen the tool is stoned and, you wIsh to complete the stropping operation, all that Is necessary i.s 'b) hold gouge 'Or

, . '.,. .....it..~,. '1' ... t the f" st .. " .' '1 ,;00 , ", • he '1 . t

carVln,g '~.;.ui5e ,ag,alns. ' .1 e' . ,as -f'evo Vlng W : 'ee' 8." an

angle of 80 to 8 5 degrees from the horizontal; or hold the tool near the bottom of the' 'wheel to secure the proper edge, Only one thickness of a 111. inch

I',· h Li · d' 'L i I d

sewn mus ] n W .. ,lee!, is require to nn ng t .. re ec ge to

a fine cutting design.

When using' the huffing wheel, hold the tool close to a. vertical position, bringl ng it against the wheel gently. This method will give it a, razor edge, the

" . ill' ti ,~ '. whl ·'h-· It sh . ·'ld be ke "t It, '.' , .r., ,t'

con. ionm '\v .l.C r ',' QU, 'c .. e ept, ir is W~,' a

the first si.gn of dulness, to touch it up on the wheel; thus returning to the razor edge the possibility of malting a smooth polished cut against the grain of the 'wood"

"~en making, chisels from old files and after grinding" draw to a" blue' just verging on purple, Procure suitable handles w'ith heavy steel ferrules for protection in the use of a. mallet, Generally speaking, chisels used in conjunction with a ]na~Uet are' of the ordinary carpenter 'kJndJ reground, 'while home-made thin chisels are for hand use only.

Only rudimentary instruction can be imparted to tile beginner in the use of the different c hisels, since pto:fiefen.cy 'will depend largely on practise and experience, In the, use of the many :forms of hand. chisels" the hold varies sUgb tly, but speaking generally J the right hand is the pushing force and the let t acts as the guide ~ If you are the least bit artistic you will find it gratifying to watch your ability grow, par tlcular 1 yin the a pplica don. of the small carving chisels" In ,n t t i ng ac ti ons in to stocks, the 'wide shor t .. but t chisels will be found the best, Ior wi th these 'V'Ou can take o.ff the til innest .sha vi ng

~ -

cleanly,

Dr,CIW-I[:Dif:e, - Most '0,'" us are famlliar wi th this tool, but, very few unders tand :its, proper' lise in.

'00 '.' lit., S··· b t t th A -0'

s .' .plng: a, stocs. , tra:u,ge' ut true, .... e Amencan

stock, maker. 'uses it, far less, 'freq,uent1y than the spoke-shave: a matter of' fashion and teaching" J: :suppose~, ·W'.hen:it is r,az:a.f 'keen" 'it is, a relia.ble and thoroughly' efficient toot Instead,o-f ta:kf:ng the

. . - h

. '. _. . . . .. ., -- - - ..' .',' -. '.'. i' .. , I

long strokes ,you :see a carpe'll.ter use, hold tl e

knife ,at an angi1e lor let the left hand extend further than the right 8,nd only take off suml!. chips 'with a kind 'Of motion a's tho, y(~'U 'would gouge out the wood 'with ea,ch. s..troke, cu tting ,aero,:!;! .and a. t times aga,inst the grain wifhout spH t'ting the wood.. Of

:PI'anes - '\Vheu. the 'student begins to use ,3

1- .. ]. 1 ld ~ l t· I '.' te d' . f' sh ,. " .

, '.'., '.', . I " '"'. . . . • . I ,7 . . '. ~., ,.... ,',' ,,".

p ane re ,10' S II a an ang e [lIS sa ,-' 0 pus mg It

in a straight line J and you 'will find tha t a great many carpenters do the same thing. Turning the too 1. sidew Ise permits, it to f ollow an uneven sur face and your work becomes more or less out of square. Holdin g the plane stralgb t is hig hly im po rtan t in laying out the top lines oi' a. stock correctly: and

f thi it i dvi b -1 • k 1

or '. IS 1 1.S ar visa ·.···e to 'use a j acs -p ane,

When starting to plane, use the lightest cuts possible, the blade scarcely sera ping the wood, Then set the en t ter just a lit tle deeper t un til thin tr ans- ~ pa ren t shavings are prod uced the :f: ull ,,"id th of the blade, When you find that YOU are cuttiD.'t against

!Wo • •

the grain." reverse the: piece of' work, and. plane from,

file opposite end, Should the grain run in different directions, take only the: D nest cuts possible to avoid fraying and tearing the fibers,

In, the: use of the smooth plane to clean up a

h '. f d·' ~ ~ ibl h

. . I . 'I"'.' ''',', ',. :-.', 'i '1 ". Co ._ ...... I' '0' .... '. ,.', '.. ", ". .." 'I '.', . ',"

roug piece 0 woo" 1 t is permissu ,_,e to turn. t .. e

plane at any angle to cut the: high. points off the work '; follow, however, by s traigh t cuts. to attain the desired level s urface from, which the, remaining sides a re trued,

V1Th ~ t .., t 1 ~ 11 .... d. IV . '. en nrst examining a new pane you WI nn I

that the blade is ro ugh -gro und only: it is, theref ore necessary' to stone it to secure the proper 're-

, - 1 H' blnatl d fi +'1

SLUtS. . ~ ave a com nnano» coarse and nne 0'1 stone

located at one end of the work .. bench recessed in a wooden block! so tha tit is stationary and can be reversed from tine: to coarse. To stone the 'blade, turn the smooth side up, Apply a few drops of sperm oil on the center 0,1 the stone. Hold the plane blade with both hands wi th top of angle resting on the stone, Slo,,~ly 'bring the, cutting edge to the stone, a.nd 'move the bl ade 'in a. circula r mo ... tion without, too much pressure. Examine often to

1.. '1i... ., 'h' l~ 'I tho ~

see that you nave a. straigt It, me S" ,ong .. ~,.: Ie cutUn,g

,edge o.f the 'blade. Thi.s will be ,i:nditated. by a hrigh t edge., 'Now' reve:[sc' 'the blade, lay the' :Oat side down, and dr,Rw' it back, and forth until '(h,e

b . 'h ' d' d 1 h ~ ~ b I'"

-fl,gi It stone' e .'.,ge aso :SOWS in a str,alg,it ,i tne as,

on the opposite side;; 'N ow sb\tt stoning Ilen,gtlrwise on the angle to f1emo;v'e the 'wire edge; reverse and do likewise un ti.1 aU of it. 'has disa. ppeared.. Use the 1 il y ... w hit,e 'Wash ita. oils tone; ston.e the blad.e in the

THE U,S,E OF 'TOOLS

same manner a's last described, and when you run it across the top of' ynu r f nger-nail you win note

l .. { d rr .. hi- 'I]

: " : '.if':, [ i . '.',,'., _:_ I .":__' .' .' ,:." 1"11 I' I' ,'. i'. ,(.'

t U:! SIgn 0 a saw e ige, . ,) OU exam [De t 1.5 rougr

edge under a magnl r yin g gla ss i l will look ] ike a num b e r o '. f ~ In' p, ,~;Qw, ~'4.6t'~'!1 W' rh ich are ea 's::~~i,V' d At ected

_ . l'.'.. ,,~,~. __ ['-r' ~._ -' I.....:;:.~. ~'- "I. II 11;"" ~ ~ .. : 1,[ ... : ,L~L:·.··

with t:he top of' the flnger-nail ~ A'fter these are removed by the wh he \V'a:sh ita or Arkansas stone" strop the edge on the bel t leather as described, for wood. chlsels until you are able to IL ILl t a hair with it quite as, readily as, lNith a. razor' after being ~ stropped. This, procedure applies to. all plane blades, but, of course, the: angles differ in certain types, necessi ta dng slight changes in. position when stoning,

When assembling the plane j 'note the amount of pro j ec tion of the blade through the slot. If to 0 high on one side and. low on the opposi re, it can be adjusted by' means of' a lever under the blade, on top side which shifts the position until it becomes, perfectly even. The adjusting screw regulates the thickness of the cut, wh ich can be adjusted to produce the thinnest of shavings.

R,as,ps ........... These are manipulated in the same manner as files are extremely use fu 1, have a, broad field, are quite simple to work with, and are the beginner's most important tools, Even tho you are able to remove 'wood easlly with such a tool, you must bear in 'mind 'that It is possible, at least for some workmen, to do. much better 'work with other tools "~ he'D a more advanced stage oi' adeptness ]S' arrived at.

Rasps come in different sizes and cuts and are known as rasp" cabi net, and vixen. The two mostly used in stock wor k are the rasp and the cab inet, The cabinet rasps are thinner with very lit t1 c radius on the curved sidle. The rasp i5 used only on wood where it is impossible to use any other tool to cut down to shap e, such as in a, butt stock that has. been cut from the stump and where the kno ts and b urls stand out. prominently, I t is surprising how rapidly the beginner becomes proficient with these imple ments '; and be will accomplish be tter results, by far, when he uses them, on 'Such wood as curly' maple, slump walnut, etc, Wben. you. get down to the ou tlines (~,( the stock, fi nish with a bas lard and a. mill-cut file before sanding, 'Good rasps are rather expensive and it doesn't take ') ong to wear one out an hard wood, When the teeth 'become dull it is, better to discard 'i t altoget he'f~, for you 'will, require' :fi fly strokes w,i th a, worn rasp to one stroke: with a, nt'w one., \\'f'lle'I1 you ,vant exertmse to develop muscle in your' sho\ude rs .and a.rms, a worn file or rasp W'E 11 aCCQ,m pI i sh the, desired effect. A vixen file is used on aluminum, and for barrel 'striking.

51

San - Tible,.· ,l!'~'W:.!!i W' h' ,~.I':L t7'Un':: ~m' ltb .':~'. '.'

,~, ~,_ ten e,,~" 5 ',:.' 1 s use are a

good crosscut. rin h. ack, copin g r , ieweler's h iack a ~ d

~ , , , t"", - . '" :v. ' .. " ~ t;;. " . . a. ,n.

small cabinet, The first two are used for all the rough sawing required, and when used 'with care will last a long time wlthout any sharpening, Of course if you allow' it to hit your vise, or saw into nails it doesn't take Jong tOI dun the teeth, If this happens often, i t :~s best. to learn how' to 'fi],e a. saw, fOF whic:h (I. special vise i:~ convenient. To do this:

C],alI11.p the' saw i 1:1 th e vise 1 a nd wfth ,3 triangular sa w- Iile sta rt to fi le the' fi rs t tooth at the same angle as the original cut" Hold. the angle, and, file every other tooth until they come tIp to very sharp pain ts. Reverse the saw In the vise and file the opposite too th from the other side, Bef 0 re starting to file t take a straigh t edge and 1 ay over the' teeth. If they do not come up even, take a 1.2 -inch mill file and just touch the tops of the: teeth un til all are even.

I t is difficult to give instructions for the use of a wood SR'W J for the contr-ol of a saw is only developed by pr actise, and it is well for the- beginner to usc rest pieces to see bow straigh t. he can. keep to a line wi th both saws, one for cross-cu tti ng the grain 'Of the wood and the: ,riP-58'Vi' to ·cut 'with the

~

zram O .. ,.I: . ,_

'You wH.l find tha t the hack-saw Is the most use ..

Iul 0'£ al l, since; it is adapted to both metal .a nd wood. The Atkins silver-steel blades, I believe, are best The leng ,t;'h· '0," blade sh ould b ~, '1iI2·· "II' ..... t..,., . '.' ith

1!J1;..,_" ,", .. " ~ .I! _' '~. , __ : :' ',' Ji. _. ,~ o::!\, ullh.. '.' e J.. ml;JJ,es. WI, ,

24 or 32' teeth to the' 'i ncb. ,. The coarse teeth are,

used vh n cuttinzst 1" id .. iod ·· .. f .. 'I'" '. "iI'., . d

usee wnen cu ,'_ .:_g stee an .'. woo, 0 targe size, ano

the fi De teeth for li gh t wor k, small stack J an d sheet metal," When a. blade wears down, you can grind off the sides of the teeth and use it to slot screwheads, etc.

'[he jeweler's hack-sa w is used ex tensi vely by

til ., n i th ... , d 't·' h bl de zost I·' . '

e gu __ ism ~", an, as tne ,.a, es cos on. y ten cents

per dozen it is a. good i nves tmen t to buy' five or six dozen in different widths and numbers of teeth, Th is saw is used for cutting off small parts, cut-

ti d ., 1'" ] 1 · ·

, , ". ". . ... - . .. .~:, ~ :',."". II:: ,'~ . '~. ~ " ". '.' ' . ~ '" ,. :.:

Ing screw ri \ er si 0 ts m smau screws, etc, " It IS

I• m I po ssihle to 1I.~~·t· here th e mu ~ ~t' lp licitv '''i'''f its 11S···...-:!·

•. ' .,.:11.-::11, 'L< .'. . .Ih,~ ~ . ,. .L iL:I l. I.'. 1,.II!l :L,y '\ill 1 ,8 ." e.?+

JI n practise man Y' blades are 11 navoidabl y broken; however, knowledge of the use of the, tool is so desirable that this should not lend discouragement,

The coping saw 'is used for cutting out. odd forms ill 'wond and templet work 'w hen .it is .necessa,ry to fo now 'I ines. Thi s 'is 1110 re read n y possible because

,,"I!.. hl '1i~ li.. ~ dl '.' • • .-

Ulf:I,3!(lt caIl l!Je turne', to any pUrSlU.un In tbe

-frame., F'Of' cutdllg uut pistol ... g·r.ip caps f'rom burfa~o :hurn ,and :ivury, it is. Indispensable.,

Spo,k.shave - This ],S, one 0" the wood",worki.ng' 1.ools the a.ma teur should by all m.eans, hoecom e ac· customed to, especially 1n shaping the out.lines of

52,

~' M--O,~'.'Di , .• 'ru'~ 'G-.~--,I"'IIj1US' I,.~' &,11Ei ", ' .. ' '~i' '". U!lll:' 1."1.11 . .1 Q

a stock. ] t is ODe oE the easiest devices to understand when you once see the advan tage gai ne d in its use. \~rhhutH.a doubt, its. employment is. becorning mo re or le ss obsol ete a 111 ong J.~ me rican workmen; but European gunrnakers usually have a co mplete collection in perfect u rder in thei r to 01 ches ts, and pri ze them highly ~ '\:" o U \V il J be s ta .. rtled to see how rapid ly' you lean, remove \VOIO d w j th on e of these Utd[e tools 'wor't.ing the shave both r'~io~n and tow,81,rd you, the same :aJS 'w'~ th a d raw-kni ie.

Vllb en. g't! n ding' the' bla de. it is necessary to have a, convex. form up to the cutting edge on the pa rt which, p roiects from the wooden handle. On the unde r sl de 0 f the kni fe, it needs a long a n..g] e to free th e chips. AI ter s to ning the ell t tel to a keen edge} place it against the musli n wheel charged wi th T'DU ge as, explained in finish ing go uges o r ch isel s wi t11 od d f orms, I t should. be set, usuall y.~ for the 511 A ll owest of cuts,

I. use 'various spoke-shaves on s lock wor k, f rom the vc:ry smatlest fer odd forms on s110 ~,gun stocks to the reg_u] ar size 'wn:i cit 'is used lor long hi ng clo\~n. wherever possible. With one of these Iittle 'tools YOl] can see what you are doing' when shaping a stock blank but with a cabinet raspy an uneven su rf ace resul ts which makes it difficult to keep in m in d the; ou tl ine of yon r 'Nor k ~ On difflc ul t wood it is ad vi sa b le to resort to on e of the rasps, Ior here it is nex t to im p ossib le to use a sha vie because of knots and diversity of grain"

W'[oodi Bii,'s,..-.- These are €isse,:nU,an.y for boring' into. wood, but other f orms art' also em p loyed '" The wood bit is freq ucn tly used in gun work ~ an d it is advisable to buy the very best, for the hard wood of gun, stocks d. ulls i ts quickly ~ Look over an assortment of' needle files and selec t a sui ta b 1 e 0 ne to keep your bit sharp, File from the, inside '; sh arpe ning the side lip from the outside will cause .' t t -, ~"'" -- 'd- ,"'. .. t'-]· iLl .~, • - . ·d- .,. III t'hi~' '~'p, ~ - ;[r-ee·· ';[, r,i"ii.m- ,

l_ 0 I~)ln, Ul -ele lW.o!l.e an pu~ - _~ ~_ ur >_ ,,' v"

t hie 'lvnod~,

,CenLle:r bl,ts, :u-e used '00, statt t.he I"~orst.ne'r' bits 'W ben shallow 'h oles are re:q uiFed,~, t'he: ,F otS;tne'F' bi 1.s. 'being' used in pr~Ddl1:rifJJg a. flat ... ,'botto'm bo1 e ~ As these are only 'Used on shotgun stoc.'ks you 'wiU find that tbey do- not T-equire sharpening .as Q'ften as th,e

allJO"er bits - 'HoV\rever. Thd~J1ticaj m,ethod~ are em'-'

'- , '0 " ,-'. - - - , -, - !W -- ,-

11 d 11:.. "t" d ...li

pl,oye; w;uen [' .IS nee- ,eu~

In selecting ,a brace, choose the belit with a large strong chuck that runs true,. and has a SW[Bep of

b '''t ' ' , ,-, 10'--- ,'- d 12' .. - 'h···· "l·'h· _ ~b,iif.' ,"-,. -"':iol' ·te·· I d' .Je ween 1 ,····an.· ,-- ~ne, ,es~ 'f'" ,_f[l a 111. ts (~n 're.,_

there ~5hould, be no runnru,ng out" O·Qcas[onaJ I.y it 'is the 'hi t. ] tsei,f: '\vb~ ch is beJu,g :spr'ung" and .it is ,im:n~' poss~ble to bore a. str.aight hol e- '\vlth one ,so :ruudi ~ :n.ed, e~spec]ally wbe'l1 reces.si,ng' 'in t.he butt, 'fur

- = -

Qc;.cessories, .as these holes, ,are 'bored the 'i'u1l1e'llgth

of the bit, You must have the combinatlon of b~'l and brace running in a bsol u te alinement ~ To ha ve a b it come t hrough the side 0 f a fin ished stock is a calamity and humiliation great enough to' make one realize that it is adv-isable to have everything runni ng t ru e f rom the very firs t ~ Before s tarting operations. which require the use of either auger,

F hi - '1 - k b k

'1 "'.", ... _ ,-- ,". 'I-!i!o ;~ I ;-_ ,I' _-: - - J -"._ -:' [' :.,'. .-. j" : ,." . _" (" I ".- . -. I _' [,I.. . I': I I :r.,=.

cente r 01, .ors tner _ I t, _ ay on t your Vlor, 1 ,Y mar .

'." 'in" th·· -i ,-'-_-~" ,-, ,- ~II'- ~',-.-ll.."if ,·,,'·'th ,C,' ,', :,,, ter , 'III-I"-h T' .'L_ "-',

ill.l,b . I if~, cenl"ers p,W,'tun~) lll,. 1 , ,ll. cen, _er pun.t, "i ... .IIl'w,e:re

"is no exc ill pIC i'JI, for holes bein - 'g:' .tiIiU-'- t ,-o':i' center _ 'l~trllkn'lI\iiI

JII~ w . '.I. • t .... I\..· 1Ij,~~",r. I.' IJ .. t. '!.JI!J'IL~' ",-!t..,.,. 'lUI _,.,' '. v '. I' '!II l.!'W' ~~~,~~,II,

'[' ~ ~'~, '1 ' ~,t-' ,'Ii. ..j,-- t" a 1'1 .' . , ' '.' 'k~ '-- '--, hast ,

. ~] IS 131 pp~'11IS ~ ~ S, u ue .' fli ,6 UeSSFWOr .. or . UI5~e~

1', the i __ ,.,j,_,-, - of twist d ,~1I1·' used z.; ',,', br: , .. ', m Il.. ie 1. I]IS ra nee (1 ,liV] S .. ru s usea in a _ sraee J

. d I I' i'] 1 b '11_ iI h '" - h f

g r HL_ 1. re dru s - ac It\. ionger t.: an In. t.! =e case o .-

s teel. Dr 111"· a 11 \\ r sm 2('11 er than 1 ( inch. shoul d be

- - -- -- :s . _, _;: '"' _ c - - :;t - . . .,

used in a hand drill

T\IEr".r~~,L-vVORKIN'G TOOLS

Drills and D,rilling" -: - In. the armamentorium oft be metal worker ;':9 ,too~,s~, none has, a more defi,nru~:e or Important place than the: twist drill, One-hal f the' metal is cut away in the flutes, but. notwithstanding this, the cutting surface in pro = portion to its cross-sectional aeea, is large, This is made possible by the fact that the 'walls through \v hich it passes aetas. a 5 U pport, an d the feed p ressure forces the point into a cone-shaped hole which reuters it. Drills should be ground so- as to cut to actual diameter and be capable of operation with as little power or pn~~~ure as possible, To have one ,cut to correct 'Sii:~e" both lips :!1bould 'b-e or the same ,a.:ng~e;; A great conven i ence is to h u Y' a s tanda I'd d 1"]11 gat UJ(~e' (~[ho\'-n m n Fig nre 3,,2 ) '" Th ese a re

:FJJtj,", :32;

CO.fr~],y ----,1',.,[- -.-,c d 1t.',........." 'Ih,~, 'iW'lO[ Ui"iil are

_ g_'VUIli _ .lilpwoo _.... ~

~!: th. :IiIl(l~.e 1ell.gth- (fn.d the selme Ql)ig'l'e; to, ~he axbi

THE USE 'OF T'O'OLS

made from, sheet steel with an angle of j 9 degrees and graduated on the angle portion, so that when the d rill. is reversed, bo th side s check to tbe center. After acquiring the knack of grinding them it is no more difficult to grind a. N urn ber 52 than a 2' - inch l and the same hoI ds true f o:r giving correct relief. Start from the cutting edge and roll it back; then reverse the drill to opposite side and r cpea t the opera tion ~ This does, not ass ure microscopicall y perfect size, bu t the accuracy 0 f the eyes, is s ufficien t f'or an practi cal purposes he-re to determine if both angles are co rrect, and sides are 0 f equal length. Shnuld one side be longer than the other, the drill

"'II t ,. d ~ tl f -ll d '11 tho e

WI " CU~ overSl7.e, an- Ul :.1e ease n, a. ,arge, n ., ' .•

aperture would be enlarged considerably, _. Smallnumber drills are stoned: they are ton small to he ground, By stoning' a small radius 'On the en ge or lip of any size drill, It maly be used as a reamer by drilling' fi rst with a smaller drill, an d then using the one so treated. until the desired smooth opening is acquired,

For drilling brass or .any thin stock where the drill goes clear through, it is, best to grind or s to ne a narrow bevel on the cutting edge. Figure 33 i 1 ~

lustrates the edge to stone. This noes away with the tendency to draw in to the work, which means removing more than it should, especially at the bot tom, of the opening' wbere it b teaks through. TO' avoid this, grind as heretofore explained-from the cut ting edge,

,DriUing Holes in ,Glass~A, number of methods are offered for choice ~ F or hol es of medium. and large, sizes, use either brass or Shelby tubing ha ving a. diameter equal to ilia t of the openin g required, as illustrated in Figure 34" 'or make IIp

, l d' ~'~Il e 1 ~ll 1 '1' ;"'II'} t t ~

spectai .. tl~, S 'ruFOID. co u-t rawn steel, .1 ie cu ... ing

face in €'a,ch instance should have a SD100th, flat, ci rcular surface ~ The spe ed sho ul d be a bout 100. feet per min ute, or just fast enough to have the

f

I



.1 __ L _

I,

I, ,!

eND

END

U L: - ~. 'V:·:·: A',···, T- r- 0··.·, N···,·'

~ . ~~ . : ' . '_,',

FiqF 34 Glass drill

emery cut well, Use either 90 or lOa emery or carborundum and water between the end of' the' drill j' tubing" and glass, Place the abrasive under

.the drill 'wfih a thin piece of' 'Soft wood to avoid. sera tching the su r rounding glass" Construct a wooden box so that the grit-impregnated 'water will not run over the- drill-press table' or floor, Cushion. the glass with a. piece of rubber with an opening in the center not larger than the one to be drilled. \-Vh en dri IIi ng ~ it is best to penetrate approximatel Y hal f ~ wa y and then turn the glass and drill. f rum the opposi te di rec tio n, Any fin left In the hole can be easily removed, with a round file dipped in. turpentine. I t is poss ible to d rill small holes by grinding the triangular end 0 f a three-cornered file to a. taper, and using it as a drill tool. For a lubricant, use a mixture of turpentine and camphor. Holes up to ¥2 inch in diameter can be drill ed in glass \V'I th a fla t d til ~ by hardening it. in s ul f urous acid J and IJS i ng a 1111.X ture of turpentine and camphor as a ~u b ri can t, TIle m os t succ ess fu J, glass drilli ng is . acco mp 1 ished with sue h i 1T1 plements as are shown in Figure 34.

Drill Troubles-,T'wist drills will stand more in proportion to their size and '\veight than almost any other tool s, and \v hen a good 0 ne does. give- troub le it is due to neglect, When drills chip, on the edge, the lip cl earance is too great and fails to support the ell t ting edge". I f the outer corner wears~ it shows that the speed is too great" Figu.re'.3 5

F~ (i!1:. _ lq~ {l .....

An bldicatiQn of 1-00 q,rem, &peed:

The 'O'U ter C:Ol':ners 0,1 'ilhe drin have, bee:n worn away beeeuse excessive spe,&dl 11GB drawn th,il'

temper

54

TH.E MODE.RN GUN'SMIf.H

shows this defect. This is particularly notlceable on cas t Iron, Al ways keep drills, sharp and wa tch the speeds au d f eeds, an. d above all keep them well lubricated with, a free cuttine oil such as lard

- ~ ,

A

B

,Fig~ 36

(AI thinnIng- the WE'}), of a drill on. ,(In g,mery wheeL, (I) Shewing" w hete Ihe wheel has remofved the 'me'led

oil, When using small drills at high spee d i a wonderful help is to moisten them with the index finger dipped in. oil" 111 drilling hard material use t urpen tine as a lu b rican t.. Drills feed more easily by carefully thinning the extreme point Figure .. , 6 HI~: rstra ees t hi 0 Th · ~ is imp or ta- nt in h snd f,. scdine

'Ii.!,o.)' _ _ !;,..:Ji, 1..:J.. __ 1,;:;1 .:J _ _ _ _ ,~ _ _. aiL , if _ ~

with drills at or over % (; in diameter ~

When 'metal has been case-hardened or tempered,

F.ig~ 3'7

Cotrecl Up r::tearanee~. showing' :pJ"oper 'wa:y 10 gr,ini:l the sudaee bac'll: ot tha cutting lip

it is. best to spot-anneal by building wet clay around the spot that ~s to be drilled, and beating over the Bunsen burner, Or spot-anneal with an acetylene torch; or a spot can be g:ro und off so that the drill will start In drilling rna terial 0 f this texture" grin d the tool as flat as possi b le ,;, it will cut m uch better on all hardened parts, using a low speed, and turpentine as the lubrlcant.

Often a drill can be used in pl ace 0 f the regular tool for counterbores, Start the opening with a regulati on-ground d rill and then replace wi tll one of the same, size, but ground fiat and. with lust

fi,q'~ 9,8

[ncortectly ground Ups~ Here we see the angles of lips, to. be aql/.u:rL burl i1he:ir' lengths me difle·:rent

enough clearance to insure its cutting. These we call "bottoming drills": they will do for holes where s pecial care is necessary'.

When using metal-cutting drills for wood, increase the angle to 30- degrees on a side and. give the drill a considerable amount of clearance so' the chips will come out freely and not act as a b rake, I-ligh -speed drills costa Iittl e m ore than carbon drills and a. r e th e ones use d IT} ()S tl y ill gu 11. work. For wond, th e common carbon dril '] s do very nicely 7 hu t for steel t 11 e f orrner will ou t] ast a carb 0 n dr in t"TO to one ..

The Drdl Press and Its Us.e-,Many operations can be performed OIl this machine, s uch as using it f or inlay wu r k on. W(J od, as a milling machi ne to cut out grooves in shotgun hammers, to set sights in revolvers, grooves in sight bases for covers, to mor-

fiig' .. ::]:91

l~cQIf'\ecUy qroond Upai When this drUl was qJ'101lJ:n d 1he two· !lips We1".e diflefent~ N ole till"ed the helle lS la['lEliiPt. than tb,e d'nn

2 ....

tise long grooves, as in checkering frames, square wooden. sections, etc '.

A surprising number of different set-ups can be a r ranged 0 none 0'£ these mach j ne:s, fronl the d r illing of holes :i n steel or wood to using it f or special c ut-outs, ,As an instance", suppose yo lru w ru 511 to set in a piece of ebony or ivory, It is difficult to ex-

Fig~ 40

the correctly 'grQund drill.. Note how e C':m~ paetly' tb}ese, cni:p'B fn. I,n~o each otlte·r'

cavate Jon- this, by ]l1!a:n(l When i t ,~s possible' to. do this with the ~ld of the d 'r"'~],l. press ,~ small flo e'~~lta.U

~h.~" II. .. ,.'!f". it" •. , .",11;,.. . ,"- _1i.;.;.x;!,)!U, ,;,;J"I,(iIi._~_.;JI".~ ("

cutter can be Iormed nut 0:£ a piece IO:f: drill rod. File it. to the required size, and. harden and temper,

rr"":h:l -,-," tte -~h";-" '"I"~I,",l ~,.,. ~,- 'I'~'nl'] and .fll:-:·'- ,"", . It h"1 r·. :b" I

, us (~U. te r s ,I '0 UiIlUl ue ::i nli,a~" an _, an ven at ',lg"

55,

spe ed ~ Set the piece in t he drill-press vi se and place a bloc k of wood so the back of the v ise wi 11 ride sq ua r,e~y agai nst It, Place steps Ior tile requi red lengths, setting them on the :fe\ed, handle so as to req uire 0 nly sligh t p ressure to bri ng the cutter a mite deeper, .. l\. light outlining cut results in a milled-out recess for the in],ay'". F-or mortislng, buy

F~q~ ,41

A r,o'g,'g'h_, :ma\cic~r{lh;,~; ho~_Ul. re~,uJlt, ,ltd' a: ,dull dr~in lIU' 'WOl"D 'wter ~d:g!f.8

spiral end mill 50 up to 112 inch: these clan also be used to r sur f aci ng wood wor k. 'The)! prod uee a well-finished surface and ,(1l1 that is afterwards necessary 13 to sand and polish, A drill press can 311510 be used for lapping, fJHlI1g,~, and polishing screws, For: reason of its innumerable uses it pays bT) add such a machine to your shop equipment. If it is. no t p r ac tical to buy a regula r 1 Y' rna de drill press.~ secu re a smalle r one 'v h ich wi th. motor a t~ tachment may he made to. answer the purpose sa L is ~ actoril Y'~

Files and FUing - The file plays a most impor tan t pa r t in 1] U~ g uns 111 i th 's trade as Wilen as that of die' rna kers, ~ nd i.' '1_ ou 1 d be di ffic[I l t to conce i ve of a ,P ieee o,f' work in the con st ruction a-f' wh ich it does not it 11 d i ts use. PTa Pi c i en cy in t he fi~€ 's use d emands nrac tise ~I rcuracy, ~ nd P atience, While

. .. rf l'~ l'..:l' ;). _ . .;- ~) u. ' .. ~._ .. ~~", 1 [~J.J.. : . (:u .. ,. - ~ ~. ~ofi f" "~ Ii.;

em ployed .3:51, a dl e mak er ~ it '(auk me two 'weeks to file out (U1:e d~e' block whlch made tw;o tumblers, In the hands ,of the craftsman it 'marks a degree of s kin that never :f ails. to impress, I L1 ge ne ral P r actl se fiJ es. a re desi gned bo th by the spac in g of thei r tee th and t,h1e: shape a nd cross-sec t [on of steel 011 '\-V hich they are cut. The' size a lways ref ers to their lengt b ~ which f~ measured from the p ...... .int ocr en d of th .. e

'(',., , _' _ _ J~ .,. !\"'-~. _ ~ ,~ . . . __ ,~__ . \,j oiL .,. . . ~. . J • ',', • a , , ' ..

file proper and never includes the tang that fits

into t t~ (1, ~~, ndle

~~t, l!i.h(; lD,h,_"", '~"I .... ~

Terms Used J or ,F J'le s- The back (),f the: file: :is,

THE MOD'E'RN GUNSMITH

the convex or rounded or half-round side, Cabinet and other file s have simi! ar slde s. The secon d cut is finer than the first. Some pre fer the sl ng 1 e-cu t for fi.ling ln la tiles, and I am of th e 0 pinlo n that the best results are secured. with this style when draw ... hi ing a barrel or sim ilar 'york.

Care f ul 0 bse rvers will notice that a file does not cut well when new ~ but rather that' it is at its best

a' Iter it ha q, been used f o.r :: while .. , and tha tits,

o,;J IIJ _~, ............ ~ . , a v. J. _. ..

proficie ncy te rminates suddenly, not gradually. Gunmakers of past generations accomplished marvelous results with the aid of little 'more than this simple implement, I have studied the locks and actions of many an old 'weapon and unhesitatingly concede that their makers were real craftsmen, highly trained and possessed of wonderful artistic ability, Examples of their efforts are destined to live thro ugh the ages in the' di ff e ren t m use urns 0 f the world, True, very fine work Is turned out by 'men with a, file today, but we are living in a. machine age when it is possible to eliminate much of the time-consuming toil, leaving only the finishing process to be done by hand,

The best advke for the beginner is that he should. firs t of all learn how to use a file, goo d prac tis€' being to reshape into correct alinement test-pieces

0'( s tee 1~. tha t are O~!' t 0'1' sq ua re Let him' . ~ 0·.·.· ~ id .. e .. r

~ ~ _ .. .!;;. '1l,;Ii. . 0;1. ~.. ~t . ~ . ,c n s . ,

also the proper manipulation of flat files and. acquire the habit of making strokes itt, a straight line without rocking, so that a perfectly flat surface follows instead of a rounded one, Convexity of su rtace may be detected by placing a small amount of Pru ssia n blue- or lampblack on ,3. 'face plate or any oth er which is per f ectl y ft at and sl i ding it over 'the part being filed, the high points 'being thereby revealed. Apply the file in a manner that brings

l"t into cont ~ ct onl with the" ~ le tio 5 tQ sti . ,,t .. ' ' ..... ~ .. 'a .' ,~y l"n I:. . ·se ~' .. :va .!fl; ...:;,5. lng

mea nwhile for sq ua re an d leve I q uali tie 9., I t is necessary to hold any and an work firmly in a vise, 1-101 ding a file wi tho u t rocking it, so that the s tro k e is taken on an even plan e is a rna t ter govern ed enti rel y by pa jn s tak i 11 g practi se ~

Manu fact urers furnish the trade with many kinds, shapes, and sizes of files, yet no one works for Ion g' b· efore .. ·. he, f eel e the v:_'~ a'· . : t 0,1; .' de .. lg ... ~ f· o .. '.

v ~ . .. . ..... .. .. ~ . ¥ n . 110. a est n r

. .

a particular angle or bit of wo rk that has never

appeared. in a catalog, 'For this, do not, hesitate, to grind one that comes nearest your requirements into the pattern you desire, for files are cheap cons idering the work they perform, and a special file ground today will alwa ys come in handy in the future .. ,

Thi s re-minds me 0 f an inc.] dent that strongly impressed on my' min d the importance of such a tool.

. During my early days in the N orthwest, I

stopped one' night with a Swedish sheepherder, As I drove up to his camp I was greeted with the lrresistlble odor of mutton stew' and coffee', and the uniorgetable sigh t of a steaming pan of biscuits. The ill-disguised rapture on my face no, doubt moved this herder to generosity and he insisted that I help in the consumption of these delicacies. I accepted with a celerity that gave my host no opportunity to change his mind, After putting' away as much stew, coffee, and biscuits as possible for one of my proportions" I sat back, con ten ted and listened to his conversation. He was most anxious to recount to me the story' 0 f' one 0 f his recent accomplishmen ts,

It seems that only a few' days before our meeting he had accidentally filled the muzzle of his rifle with gumbo and then shot at a. coyote, The result was naturally disastrous=-the muzzle was blown off up to the front-sight slot .. In a vicinity 'where coyotes are th ick J a herder wi thou t a gun Is about a'S useful as, a cowpunch er wI thou t a horse. U ndaun ted by so small an i nciden t as ha v j ng a portion of his ri l1e muzzle' destroyed j he immedia tely set about to remedy thls situation. Rummaging about, he un- \ ea r the d a 6.1 e, or ra ther the remain S 0 f what had once been that useful article. After roping the gun to the b ottorn of the wagon the barrel was filed off square; or nearly so, until no vestige of the recen t disaster could be detected, Slo ts were filed. in the hexagon. barrel and in lieu of a f ron t sight a piece of baling wire was wound in. place. The' impor tan t thi ng ~ tho, was th at it was servicea bl e and shot satisfactorily. Not a bad job for a sheepherder,

G:rlndinq .......... A most valuable addition to a wellequi pped shop is a small grinder" Thro ughou t the bo ok I have men t inned g r ind.ing often j and the- 'use of the grinder for pol hilling opera tions, There are a Dumber of good, yet inexpensive 'grinders on the mar ke t r El ec trici ty to operate the grinder is ideal, but if it is not to be had, several other methods of furnish i ng power are a vaila ble ,. In isola ted pl aces, a gas engine can be used, or a hand or sickle grinder which has a. train of gears to furnish speed fo r the stone. The speed of grinders in gener at

• ;c, . ~ bi f· ~ dl

requires nttmgs capa ore 0 varIOUS a'.' justments,

such as being driven from coun tershaft etc, '; ether assemblies are makeshifts. understood best by those \vho make tbem, The best arrangement is to attach power and cou ntersha f ts to the machine, Since its use is now universal, I shall assume: all have electric power, and give instructions accordingly. 'Figure g, Volu me II, shows an improved fixture to be made for grinding wood chisels, and the blades of planes, etc" This is to be clamped to the bench

... .-- 'S' 0-' -

'THE 'U .• ' E 'OF TOLS,

L .ii-, ,t - - . ~- t''lL. ~ ',-, T-''-h'' 11 'r' b

uy' nrst rem,OYlng ne dlOl rest. ne a.ng~e ot 'I'- e

fix:ture can be: adjusted to any degree which suits, t he purpose and produces the desi red resul t. B etween 30 and 4,5 degrees is, the prope r amo unt of bevel req ulred f or to ols, With this fix t ure it is possible to grind chisels 0 r blades s tralgh t. and. at tight angles. Select a grinding w hee 1 su i table for m '0' '1:!!'lt· W": '0'·, rk an d ln clud e 'l·'f p' osslb Je a. m b -_- .' "f

' I ,,~, '. ~:~ ,_ n - 1 ,- lUI" ,. !o"i!ob', lJ '.,1." C_' , ,um,er u

others, dl fferent in size and cutting quality; t41 be' used, for the multitude o:f purposes constantly found,

for them - .

. ,I .\, ,,~, I~'

Grade' and 'Grain o} Grinding' 'Wheels-Tile term "grade" as, applied to a grindi ng Vr,? heel refers to tbe tenacity with which the bond holds the cutting particles or abrasive grai ns in place; and not the hardness o'f the abrasi ve. A wheel from which the a brasi ve grains can be easily dislodged is called "soft" or of "soft grade," and one which holds the gralns securely is referred. to as a "" hard wheel," By vary ing the amount and composition or the bond, wheels of different grades are obtai ned, 'The grades. are design a ted, either by' letters 0 f the alphabet or numbers" according to the system employed by manu f ac ture rs. The letter ~'It'I ~:, represents a

medium grade, and the successive ora er of letters preceding the 'following U M " denotes softer and harder 'wheels" or vice versa. ( This me t hod of gradl ng whee ls Is not uni versall y a s ta ndard sys tern , except among the larger man ufact urers .) The grain or coarseness of a wheel is designated by numbers which indicate the number' of meshes to the inch th rough wh ich the grains 0 f' the ab rasive material 'will pass. For example, a 36 grain means

t- h ,t 't'L- b - - -~. - "'1:11 pass throucb a W' ea..::-e· 'h- avin .... . a Jl.l:e a :f,a51Ve Wlu .. , !l.,_'!~~,-I" :-' '-'{-.' : avmg

36 meshes to the linea r inch, The method of grad ... lng whee Is adopted by anum bet of differen t man u-' Iacturers can be secure d from them, as they print these in chart form.

S,electio,n of 'W h,eels Jar Grin.din_g ........... The grade and grain to use depends upon the kind of material to be ground, its degree of hardness, and. the surface area in, contact with. the wheel, Theoretically a wheel is of the proper grade when the: bond is just hard enough to ho~d the abrasive: UD til it becomes too dun tOI cut effectively; then, because of the increased friction, the dull ~'ains axe torn out and new points come into action, so tha t the 'wheel automatically sharpens itself, The harder the stock being ground ~ the more qui.ckl y the grains are dulled; 'hence, as a general rule, the harder the material the :softer the 'wheel, a.nd vi.'ce versa, aI-Lbo :so·:me very :so:ft materials:, suc'h, a'S br,a.ss" are ground with a :sclft wh.eel 'which crumb1es easU,_y'" ,and dues, hot become, loaded or clogg:ed. with. me·tal;; ~'hen, a nard VI'heel is us,ed, for' grinding hard. materlalJ t-he gr,a:ms become duned~ but are' Q,o;t dislooged as

S1

j,apid1y as, they should be. Consequently, the' peri", P sherv of t.he wheel is worn smooth and becomes

;p

glazed, and excessive pressure is required to make

the wheel act A ny undue pressure tends to- distort the work" and this tendency is increased by the heat gener ated, If the: surface of the w heel becomes loaded with chips and burns the work, even when

i f - • ....... )1. .• 1 d- A h· hI

plenty' O'~ water rs used, It IS too narc ~.,', ng ,.y

polished surface is sometimes obtained at the expense of accuracy by using hard wheels that require so 'much pressure to make them grind that the work, is, dis torted ~ In order to secure accu racy as well. as the most econo mlcal re sults, the wheel 'must cut freely and without perceptible pressure ..

I could con tin ue through. one or two pages of such advice in the use of the assortrnen t 0 f grinding w heel s. Co ndltions under which wheels a re used vary' widely, so no definite rule can be given for

I tina th d d " Th b ;"

. .... .... , I'D' ;' .. - . - .... . .. "'. '. '. "I'~ -i ,- - -I' . . ..... '·-1+

se ecting t_ e pr,oper ,grn. e an ,gr,al.n.~, '" e .. egln .

- .

ner's problems are limited in grindrun.g operations,

but, as. hls fi,eld of activ i t Y ,i ncreases, many simple rit lUJal S ,;v,i] l be followed from habit, such as always to have at hand a container of clean wa ter lor' (001.i ng purposes; a nd he will learn never to grind a tool to greater heat when the color begins, to appear V\' j tho u t first re d ucing its temper a ture to normal by dipping.

71 f t ~ G · a'" 'W t. 1 G'· d" 'h-I

1.- .. 0 un "J;n,g . rrn ·in g , .... rice s- ' lin ung i;' ~ ee .s

should no t fi t t'i gh tl Y on their spi ndles, nor should they have any play. If ,3, 'wheel is forced on to the spindle, there is danger of cra.eking~ The diameter of the flanges should be about one-half the w'bee] diameter ( never less than one .. th i I'd ') j' and they should in all cases be relieved to secure annular bea ring at the ir ci rcu rn.f e renee, The Inne r fl an ge should be keyed or shrunken on to the spindle. 'Compressible washe rs 0 f blo tting pape'r or rub ber may be placed be t ween the wheel and 'the 11 an ges to distrib ute the clam ping pressure evenly, and the flanges 'should be clamped just tightly enough to hold. the wheel fi rmly, The: latter should be carefully inspected, and tapped lightly before mountlng

d~ k '-1' t; 1- ;0 'II"

to, sscover crac _:-, S,. ..., ~W' wnee s occastena I .f ourst

when first brought to high speed, and, those who have witnessed such an ace i dent a re usuall yen ... thusiastic and thorough in. thelr examination of both wheel and. mounting before exposing them ...

1 ~ d

se ves again to unnecessary aanger,

Glazed or Clogged' TV heels-A wheel is considered glazed. when its cutting su rf ace has become dun and worn down evenly wi th the bond, which is so hard that t'lle a brasiv1e grains ,a.re :not disl,lodgled

'urh' Ie· n· '·0'" ·d IiIll'l '1'0 C'U t, e' ff- ~t~'t:P,.JPi,] w G', . ,J :a~~n- 'g-: m-l·al'Y'·' 1·"0 =

t!lfllJ • _ '_ L _. lJ!I " ,'-~ I. 'J.;.-. -, . _ ~,. . IL'L· .. .IJ W 'L .. ',~ ... . . ' 1 _._ &.!~, , : ',: ',.; _ .:.' I •• _'

di,[a.te- e'ither that the' wheel is 'too ,ha,rd for the, '\vork ~ or th ell tits s,peed ]s too hlgh. The: -remedy

th f 1:" ,io d h d

en .' or g-,L,azlng IS to .··ecrease t.e spee' or use a

sa

DO

THE MODERN GUNSMITH

'Softer \V'hee'l~, Ahv,ftys keep the ·,~heel true by the use of either a diamond or carborundum stick ~ As, a, rule manufacturers of electric grinders 'make a vailable two 'wheels" one soft and one hard of the same grade, which 'when Re\V are perfectly true, and the only satisf ac tory way to arrive ,at good resul ts is to keep them in their orig i nal condi tio n .

Learn to make use of the tool rest. when grinding an d always keep it adjusted properly to the wheel J thereby avoid ing the danger' of get ti ng t,OO] 5 or your fing,ers caught between the' wheel and w:ork. Lastly have <§, O"hard-" 0" wr 'th e lll'l'l!..'CCll Ior P _. - teet- ion ·0 lace ,:,"~' 11;4 ,i::),~'.,', over '. ,-: )'1'1.11:,,1, ,JI".'I'O':,· ~,E,V ;~:, I ,II' ce

and e"y~ '~n ,p>i1lll~n the '1tib"c'cl sho uld burst g'n' d ~" in

.., ..~ ,,Ii.:,;.;..g~ .: ,'n' '. oJ .' '.', ..•... _ ~ . ....: i ' .. ' ~!I.. ."

action fly~ng' particles imbued. vi,ith terrific momentum impa.rtcd through centrif uga] force.

'Laps and, 'La,ppi'nq _, The gunsmith is often cal led. upo n for such wo r k as lapping special dies to size: lapping chambers, ring gauges, plug gauges, special test gauges, snap gauges, barrel pl ugs, etc, F 19u re ,4,2 shows a set. of lap arbors wi th tb e' same

[ I

TAPEIR, PIIIN STA,N DAR D

taper as the: taper-pia 'reamer~~, inc'b, to the 'f'oolt~

Th- [,', . ,- .. ;,"·,d:1 'f":'", :': "t .'" "";1 ' ' 'k ," h' 1"·,·, "'."

: ese are: use. _ "o.r nnerea war." sue. I as ,Ipplng

:rin.g. gauges or any" other w'Or:k req U'~'riDg-' a straiaht

. ,.e - - .... . - , r " E", .- -,D

hole, Laps are usuallv made of soft cast-iron which

, ,- _, ',' .,," _, , ,,' _ . - , ,,' 50, , , " .. --

makes it possib Ie to prod uce a better finish, '\Vha t- . 'e'" 'e" . ' .. ' terial .. ~ used the lap sb ., rd, b 'e·· softer th n v, r mater ,I.;:;! -.~-'.J '1., '.; .s. OUiL.· .-' 5.JI._,_,· _aIL,I,

the- wor k, 0 the rwi se the latter will become charged with abrasive and cut the lap" 'The order of the opera tian 'would then be reversed,

.. All la ps for die work used ,3. t the Arsenal , "When I was stationed there, were made of pure: lead" as, it was inexpensive and gave nne resu 1 ts, The arbor for' the: 'lap W3,S 'made, of cold-drawn steel ,with grooves to. 'hold the' lead, which prevented It from . .. h 'I I li 'h ). 1"1 h h

I I:' i •. ' - I -: _' '.' . ",: '. I' 'I ..... . I .. ' " . .' .' ", . . '. .. '. I' .. .~~,.-.. ," '. . . "-, .' I i ['

turn ~,ng w en t n~ .ap was S .Ig . t.y sma er t" an. t __ e

hole and. ceased to cu t. The lead was expanded on the end ~ and this W'3;S repea ted a number 0 f times, Other laps, were cast. from pure lead and turned to the required size 'fur the different draw' dies" and these 'were used co ntinuousl y for a number ,of days by the operators.

'Fig". 42

late:rno:'l Iaplil arl)Q'rs, and Qr,ivin.q pIn. If mut'h lCI.P'pinq Is to he d,ou9,!' g lun _t should be mode

I .

CID

,

,

,

,

I

F,l!g'~, 4,3: ~cd, lap, ho,idel'

I . r t U-+-lJ

THE USE OF TOOLS

External laps are used in the form of a ring with an outer band or holder and an. inner shell i whic.h forms the lap proper J made 0 f copper, cast .. iron or br ass, The lap is s pli t and. screws are provided in the holder for adjustment. Length of an external lap should be at least equal to. the length of the work; a little longer does no harm. Figure 43 :il .. Iustr ales one of these ..

GTudi"ng Abrasives for Lappin.g-For high-grade lapping, abrasives may be evenly graded as follows: a quantity of flo ur emery or like abrasive is placed in a heavy cloth bag which when gently tapped causes fine particles to be sifted through, After a sufficient quantity bas been obtaine d it is mixed in a dish wi th sperm or olive oil. The larger particles will sink to the bottom in about one hour and the oil should then be decanted into another dish. Be careful not to disturb the sediment at th e bottom" The oil is alIow'€ d to stand for several hours longer, after which it is pou red again" and so on until the

d '·00 de i b ined

eSH"-. grace IS obtainec ..

Char,gi:ng Laps-To charge a copper or cast-iron lap, spread a little 0 f the prepared. abrasive over the lap and roll it between two hardened steel blocks; do not rub, but roll the lap with even pressure, On laps for external 'work, a hardened steel plug smaller than the hole should be used to roll the ab rasive into the ring, F or breaking, 'when there is a considera ble amoun t of rna terial le f t on the gauge, I mix coarser emery with sperm oil, chargi ng and using the copper lap with it until there are only two to three ten-thousandths le f t to finish with the finer specially prepared abrasive. When a lap is once charged it should he used wi th .. out applying more abrasive until it no longer cuts, If a lap Is overcharged with abrasive, a roll ing action 'between the lap and work takes placet which results in uneven distribution, .A proper I y charged lap should never develop brig'ht spots, On the contrary, the surface should be a uniform gray ~ Use plenty 0 f sperm or olive on to 'wash the fine st -. ·1 . - utti . - - · .. ".' from the' Iap keepin the' e

s,ee ell .UlgS .away , .. _ _ .. _.. a·, _..... .. _ g . . sam·.

5'9

adjusted to prevent the work. from becoming bell .. ·

mouthed. .

Dry La.pping-Use the finest optical emery by lightly sprinkling it over the fast-revolving lap; wash off' with gasoline and test. for slse 0 f ten, . To finish, use powdered rouge in the . same manner; 'when completed you have one of the most hi,gbly finished surfaces possible,

Laps [or Flat Surfaces-Laps for plane surfaces are made from cast-iron and lead, Figure 44 illus .. tra tes a small cast- iron lap for small work, In order to secure the most accura te results, the lap ... ping surf ace must be a true plane. On. the cast ... iron lap the surface is checked or scored by Darrow grooves located between % and lh inch apart across the full length of the plate, forming a 'series of diamonds as en a stock. The lead lap ,is constructed in the same manner except fo r the grooves, its surface being a true plane. The latter is. used as a roughing lap and the cast-iron one for finer finishes" After a lap is charged, all loose abrasi ve should be washed off with gasoline to determine if the surface, has, a gray appearance. Repeat until all brigh t spo ts are 'charged, if til is is not the. case. When lapping, the surface should be kept. moist with ke rosene: gasoline wi 11 cause the lap to 'ell t a li t tle f as ter, but it eva para tes so rapidly tha t the surface becomes. glossy in 'Spa ts. Loose emery should never be applied while lapping, for if well-charged with the fine abr asive in the begi nnlng, kept wellmoistened with kerosene, and not crowded too much, It win last a long time. The pressure 'applied to the work should be just enough to insure unin terrupted contact .. · A, lap can be made to ell t jus t so fast" but wi th too great pressure it will strip in spots, The causes of scratches on the work are: loose abrasive on the 130 P 1 too much pressure, or poor ly graded abrasive

Diamond Laps-I use diamond laps and diamond dust extensively, especially on very fine holes, charging laps for lapping the spindles of anvils 0 f microme t ers, and c ha rging cas t .. :j ron. lapping plates

FIq~ ,.4

. Cut-lroD Iczpp1zlq plczt.. Made 11l vGdou IIHS to suit requirem.etll.1

THE U'S!' OF T'OOLS

t - h'" d+t' "'1-1- I .. ,I; id d

o rr IS con 11 ron .. ~ WI, ias L tor years, provided you

exercise reaso n able care in its use.

All reamers .3. reo grou nd lenath -~ - ;; se [- a sp . .' ecial

_ _ _ --- _ . _ -, -. _ _ c·WI , n _ _ I

- - -

I ·Ii de- d C-: th d llk d 'k~

. I' - ",. I I --.- _-, . _ -. ·,"1' •. ":_: . I' -', .. :~ i'- -, - '.t ... •. -;- ,_' .• 1-'- 'I ill"

too ,g~IDJ.", r mai e or t. em, an. -.' I e \VOO,' wor, 11.100

tools, they mus t fi rst be' put. in to sharp coudi tion be •. fore re 11'" a ble WO' ,f""·. C3-'''.n- be expe rted. AIl ''-.e'' mers

_ , , ..... ,L" ,,Ii, ,_ _l'!_;" , , , __ . et " ,I ... ,I _ a

wbe!l new are, 'up 'to slze or thr-ee to four ten-thousandths over, Copper .. plate each flu te, and witb a. medium o-r n.n.e ~t2 ~ inch oilstone, stone the II utes up to' ell t ling edge by starting from the: rearmost por-

,~ If ,. .. d i 'h- '" .

'. ",,, . ,. ,~, .. I ',' ,,". -- .' .,' 'I c , ' , -, , . -. '.' - •• -," - ,'--' -- "-, ,

non, yo u are exper iencec 10 t_, ,e sto mng process

~ ,t I" C! P- ,- os si b: liD. to' (t ~ '0- ne ] en- '--Ig- th 'w--; ~.o. a- .n op er a' t "Ion In

1:'_ ,~ ,-_~ -I:", _.' "",lIi.c-,,1Iio; ",.",~,,".1;;::;!V, -,'. V. ,'I;.,- '_'" _._

l\' hich the .high poi nts left by the grin ding wheel are immediately discovered. They must be stoned lID til the fl ute has a bright evenly polished sur face,

t th tl t "'. " T- id h t

a - ne same nne re at nmg S12~C._ 0 avo 1 a C . It .-

tered hole, see that each flu te cuts, wit h the 0 thers, an equal "amount of chips, Particularly with tapered reamers is, it ma-re or' less common to encounter chatter; which, naturally, is fatal to a satisfacto ry recess, Imp ortan t to rernem her is=-nevcr ch uck a hand 'reamer in a lathe or drill pres's, as hand reamers a re made to ream by hand only; the

":-'. -:" ,-,'" 'b, - ',' aid f'- - ~'·a' per-pi -, '1 .- .. - : - -e· ... 's '~,[~,i'"h~ne

swme m,a.y_ e sal _, . or 'i,. "e. .It"'il n. f1eam. ,L.!. J:t _ .~. .

.. 1'1 d -Ii -I - d - d '" 't- "h'~ t - ,

," "-,". ",', -: ': ~" ~~ ••• ~-..... r 1"1 '~""'I _'~ ';1": I:'" 1·· u ··; I . I" . -'.'[: ","

reamers are specia .Y m a e .~ mcru ae )[1." _ [5 _ y-pe

are the taper-pi n reamers, It is a grave mistake to allow more than three to five thousandths of stock for the reamer to remove. '\VIlen. a rough

dn·llI .... ...I hole ':'5- A'ncliFtu nt ered ~'~ ~'1 - os '['e quire m' '0" re' ' ,.lleY ~0.1r; -'I, ~.~ .';';" ,,'_.' "'~ ". h.. UO..... .':. 'l~. , '.'., "

stock, A. clean-bored ;hole need have only t.1V'O or three thousandths of metal to be Ii nish-reamed +

Scr·ew .. clriv·e'rB and, Bi.ta, .......... This subject. ba.s, been more or less negle.cted, b~cause ev-ery one looks upon a. .sc:rc·w· .. dri ve r as it - tool in te·oded either to

1 .. ~ • 0

remove - a. scr'ew or' to P lace one In. post t10 n+ ' ' n

gun work, oV'dng to the sc,rew slots being much smaller than the sta.ndard recommended by manufacturers, t'he qu.ality of the. screw-driver is of

'lnajor importance~, It w,ould be impossible to pie-ture a h:igh-gr.ade shotg'un n1ade with screw slots fro·m 1.02 S inch ,yide for 7i 6 screw to ,,057 .. inch width fo:r a % .. inch SCI"e\';. they would look and be entirely out 0 f proPQrt iloll.~ F'ot this n~aso u. the makets hav,e adopted smaU· .. sl-ol ted. scr'f~W heads for both riOes and ,sbot,guns+ .In. or.der that the .gu n.~ s'm~(th ca,n ,cope, 'with this si tua Hon ,he n~ust ha. ve screw -drivers constructed :in a \v,ay q uile different from. tha.t of the 'Ones usually ·purchased. ,00. at :ha.rd:~ wa.re· s·to-re·. The latter are'.~ as .a. rule', mad.e -on1.y from. chea'p :mat.e'rial·i: and when gro·und. to fi t. a· g:un scrc'w'" they' twis,t out and. 'rna r- the head., a. .f a ul.t ·w·m·ch is incx,cusab1 e even :~.n ·an inexpensive arm ~

Figure 2':1 win :show the correct way to 'sh ape screw.;>diive·rs for gunsmit'hing purposes'; un]css the bit Ills the slot i-n every dimens'io n, there resul ts,~

II

as just mentioned, a distorted or damaged head. This fact makes it i:mpe ra tl ve, f(Jr really fine. work, to ha ve a. drive r for eve ry slot size.

In attemptl ng '1.,0 remove a tightly' Imbedded screw that do-es not .yield. to ordinary eJfort., Lob- _ tain the best resul ts w ~ t h corree lly sized driver bhs that fit a brace, exert i ng steady pressure on. the brace "\vilh the' lef t. h and, and 'w-i-th the right gently' turning the se rew out. This method l\~Ul start any screw no matter- how fir-mly' set, and may also be: employed to seat them ti:ghtly. Have you ever noticed tha t on a high .. grade ,g'UDJ, resting on its butt plate; all slots point in the same direction, north and south, according to the points of' the compass on the map? Well, it's true', and the same applies, in a continued line, to the butt-plate screws. Any 0 ther arrangement Is considered unsightly and a detraction, marking the difference between. precision and. indi ff erence, Be as particular in the care 0.£ good screw-drivers. as of any other valued too 1 b,Y relusi ng to submit them indiscriminately to the grinding wheel for every odd- "

. d b t th 'h I ..

. I' --:-- "._ , .' • - -,' • ·r ";. I'" . I i I' ". '. '., ~. '. . - .. I ",' - I '_ _- ',-:- '". ". " .. '

size screw, I .u_ ra __ er ., ave a generous selection,

III ~-I· d to, m .... d -- , d f-- - ,- " t·h· L.... t ,- .~.

we,~ _ ,~le _'.' I e:_, __ pe·re:·., ma.e ! rom "., e .1Jt::$i :sprIng'

ste 1 '; Id'in od ",,-. d fitted .-t'-' ,'--' ",,:: •. - "'.' b,lc handl ',c,.-,

.s ee. or .. r .__ __ ro ".an ~ ~ __ -f -0 Serv.lcea __ . ,I.e . -- l . _ . _ es ..

S,""o,;:I"d' 8'·';··""iI"'I' - 'Y···iO?·r'O nf:· D~ne~-r--~·,o1f!ioc-e· m',,-, thls Iine

•• t _ &11.11111."';11 ,.a ~ ~. ~~Ii~'~"_' .I,~,.,I ... , , ~. ,I fl ," .. ' . '_.' '_ ..

have led me to believe that nine ,out. of ten men. who have oeea sion to resort to tills, art could. stll I, with advantage to' their work .. , improve their technlqee, Soldering Is sometimes erroneously referred to as ;;, g·\vea ting," but there: is a· v.as t differ·ence· in stren~th be t \vee n .a ,veil fitted a.nd sweated union and one soldered in the· ordinary way. An. important point, frequently overlooked., is the proper cleaning of surf.aces to be joined.; and th.is operation. is too 0 f te n Ie ft f.or the fl uX' to- carret t ". \V.hile nearly .all meta I s can be joined by use o·f the sa me flux, a proper selection is at times necessary., The result following improper prep.aration and cleaning ove rshadows in every instance the effects of good soldering and is part.icularly noticea.ble· .in gun work+ For strength, adapt tbe .parts to one anotber perflCicUy, be,cause the m.ore: 810cu:ra.te the· fi t'ting., tbe st.[longer (.be union~ Use a :soIde;r 'wi th as h.igh a :melting poi:n.t a.s possible·.. The t'empera~ t ure o.f the· wo:r'lt. t.'o be jo-i ned should. be b:r-OU.ght ·as nea.r as possi.bl e t;o the me] t-i ng poin t of' the solder to ] IlSU re he-tter .f us.ion a nd. :fJ.ow'~

There .a. re 3 ntlnlbe-.r -0 l' .fI.'Il1:xes or soldering' salts on the market. th.at are sa.t.islac·tory... 'Their a.ction. in sold.e'ring is to re.move and pr,e,,~~nt the· f·o.r,ma.~ lion of oxids during the operation~ to allow' the· solder- to flow' .freely, a'nd to unite firmly the sur ..

faces to be joined; ,

F or :sheet tIn, rosin or colophony may be used,

:8,2

THE MODERN GUNSNITH

but owing to the .ease and rapidity of applying, a

'1 ·4 I zl h I ld (. di 1 d i He' 1) t

solution 0 zinc cr 011,·, lane " isso ve i m -,', IS

more generally employed, Beeswax or tallow can be used, and so can almost any of the pastes, fats,

. .] '!' ',.-, + d' ,.... ,,- . d" f' .. , , th t -- , .

or rq ui s prepare, ror a, purpose,

For lead, a flux of almost any oil and rosin in equal parts is sati sfactory,

Lead burning" now almost a lost art, Is a different operation from soldering. Here the surfaces, must be bright and free 'from all oxid, while instead of 'solder which is tin and lead, the operation is done wi th pure lead, rosin and oil,

Fl,uxes _, Hydrochloric acid, rosin J turpentine, tallow ~ and especially cblo rid of zinc or soldering liquid" ,are among the common fluxes used in soldering .. ,. For a complete list see Chapter XXVI.

·A very good acid mixture for cleaning work to be soldered is equal parts nitric and sul f uric. acid and water. "l'l ever Pour the water into' the acid!

By laying a piece of tin foil, covered on 'both sides with a Dux" between two perfectly fitted and, clam ped parts and heating until the foil is melted, a satisfactory union is effected. This is very' good in joining broken. parts of brass and bronze work, II their apposition is good, they can be joined in this manner so that the joint is not only strong, but almost imperceptible ..

,A solution of copper. for copper-plating steel or cast -,1 ron before soldering is easily made and" ap-

U· d It" ld • 1 · h h d d

p. ;'e., '. .],5 identteal WIt., t e one recommenr ec

for coppering. the flutes, of reamers before stoning, and is composed of copper sulfate 3% ounces, sul .... f uric acid 3 Y2 ounces, distilled wa ter 1 gallon, . Dis-

" ,t' h . 0 "':' liat' . Ir '", t '" ,d .'., dd t h '. , ... dO

SOlve .. re cr pper su e n wa er an. anr .. e .aci 'I'

The best solder i or gun work such, as. sol dering ram ps, rear-sigh t bases, sling .. swi vel bases, etc. ~ is, 15 -per cent lead and 2 S per cent tin, which has a, melting point of 482 degrees Fahrenheit Solder having a low melting point is not recommended for gun work· because of the heat a rifle or shotgun is

b • t '·d' fi Th ...·1 f "f <Ii

su ject to In rapn .. re.,.. e tropica sun 0. - ..ri.· fica,

has been known to melt off soldered parts of firearms where no attention was given to this feature,

The, soldering copper for ordinary use should be about 1112, pounds in weight, length 21;2 to 3· inches l' octagonal in form, and pyramidal point with square edges. It should be fixed to. a straight or angulated iron rod about 8 inches long with an ample wooden handle. When healing for use, the best way to ascertain correct temperature is, to hol d it near the face. By virtue of heat emana t ion one soon learns to know if' the copper is heated to the right degree" and i,f a bright wann g10w is. felt"

it is hot enough f or use~, '

Taps, and Tapping - When the amateur first fi nds use for: taps he is likely to become discouraged, since most tapping tro ubles are caused by the . use of drills that are too small in diameter ~ Tap drill sizes made specially for machlne screws .. should be varied according to. the material to be- tapped and the depth of the tapped hole, Soft; tough rna ... terial such as copper J N orway iron, stainless steel, at uminum, etc .. , sho uld ha ve a larger hole for the tap than harder metals. If the recess is a. trifle too smal I when tapping soft material, the thread is in danger of being torn off, the effectiveness of the thread depth is decreased, and is not near ly as perfect as it would have' been had the tap drill been larger, When tapping soft 'material, the metal a t the top of the thread is somew hat drawn, there by increasing the depth of the threads, particularly if the keen edge of the tap has been dulled from use.

For the, beginner it is best to check from a table of double depth of threads. ,As an illustration, suppose we wish to tap for a 6 x 4 S screw which is a U. S. standard form, of thread, Let us turn to the

:.

table of double dep ths 0 f thread, Vr.1 here . it will be

observed that for a number 6 tap measuring ~I3S inch in diameter, ,,02i is, double depth of a 48 thread, But because the metal expands as a tap is used in a hole, we can drill a hole only is per 'Cent of that depth of th read ~ Therefore the correct dri 11 would measure 0; 111 inch '; this being too small we must select. a si ze larger, which, m us t measure 0.1-20. The nearest drill to tha t size is selec ted l' which is :1.31.. When only a shallow' hole is to be 'lapped, t\VO drills are needed=-one for starting and one for bottoming, The latter may be accomplished by use of a drill grou:nd off square at point, or "a flat .. b ottom drill, originally constructed for the purpose, permit ting installation of the greates t number of threads, I n the use of small taps, be par tlcular to

· d th 4 h th . 1 d hich i h '

gnnr 'em wit tne correct ee 'J w; I: ... IS t, e cut-

ting paint of the tap. Most taps are furnished with a correctly' ground leed, but after they become dulled, it is necessary to grind the end back and regrind the leed. Be fore grinding a tap, study ·a new one for the purpose of learning how the manufacturer first ground the Ieed J - and follow that pat .. ter n, Even the best mechanics are inclined to grind too much clearance, which causes a tap to break easily. Satisf actory results are obtained only when using a tap wrench: proceeding slowly with sm an ta 'ps: nd . r e' ver t rvi , :,' to comple .. te ,- ft"ll turn

__ , . __ ," 1 a.. n v y ng. . 'iIlJiJ·.. a, U ,

of the tap, The secret of success is to back it out a good half-turn, starting again slowly, for taps are bri ttle and easily broken. If you are conscious that a tap springs i n the least; reverse and start over ..

To Remoue a Broken Tap-When broken near the surface 'it is an easy matter to remove it by

.

.' ...

~

·i

... I

• ~

,an'vmg' OlD, both sides with a 'round punch, ground in the ,fO'r,m of a round .. nose chlsel, - Two persons can do this, much, better than, one by' strlklag light blows,; 'when 'they are strjking evenly the force of the blows can be increased as. 'may be requlred, 'By dI'i~]'ng' on 'both sides, the: tap is not wedged agains t one side' o:f the hole as w hen usi ng a single dri-f t} but is 'f arced to turn out, This is an old method, and one of the' first I wes ta ught,

Anotber method, wbich has proven. a 1:i f e .. saver ma,ny tlmes, is to illjlec t Into a bole ali tt Ie nitric acid, diluted j,n the proportion of one part acid to three parts water, The action of the ac id 'Upon the broken part and, steel loosens the tap so that it can be removed easily, Tb e remaining acid shoul d be washed aut so' it will not des troy the threads. in the steel, which then should be coated freely with oil"

,Lu/),rklants .lor :Tap,I!i:"g~The breaking o( a tap is caused, by:: improper Iubrlcatlon, 'the tap not be ... :in.g square with the hole, ignorance" or carelessnessFrequency' 0:£ this mis:f'or-t u.na can be reduced greatly by proper lubrication alone. Ranking first and best among the greases :I use is, a mixture' ,of 'white lead and sperm oil, Another reliable combination ls tiC)... per-cent graphite, ,30-per .. cent tallow ~ ,40"pe:r -cent white lead, and 20-,per-cen.t sperm oil" lWlach:in.e and lard ,oil class ,,: j th the poorest o,f III brlcan ts for tapping';, ,however', they are probably used more ex tensl veiy than c':i ther of the, two g'ood formulas just mentione d. lVnen tapp in,g in cast Iron, a small amount (),f kerosene helps materiallv. In h['~b: ..

, IJ M'

power firearms a full, fine, smooth. thread Is im ...

perati ve to obviate the dangers 0:[ the: sudden, violent, and, repeated shocks, 'whi:ch. :ha.ve 3., cumulative effect upon every part of th e mechanism.

M'ake.shift 'T(1;$---1 have often made a tap by th reading a piece of s tcel in a lathe Q r with a die, fil ing three fi utes in the end, then back i ng off the clearance, and after hardening and temper ing I had a tool that lasted, for many operations, I [: the need 19 urgent, file 3, flat ,on the end, on a taper; then. remove a small segment of' the remaining arc con-

tt th b t- ill' dl b d d

strue :~ng (, aere ~,y ,8, -c:u,t lng' e nge; : arc en aUI I

temper and finish 'the hole with this, You wUl find very (l,fteD. in. gun. work, that the ma,nu.f a,cturc'f has nof 'Used ,a, standard screw lor thread and it wiU be. ,necessa.r.y ,to ,e,a:se out a, tapped, bole for just one ,parucu'hi:r .sc:rew.. A tap made :in, the, a,bove' man-· ner bas ,3; ,cQllSidera.b'Je' (\'mOiunt o-f clearance, a.n,swers. ~he: purpose nicely;, ,a:nd ~'s 'no,t, ,easily brokent 'Vhen it becomes d,uU,~! aU tllat. is nece',ssary is t,o grind the face Of' Sat; ,if it should, then ell t too large, narr'o'w

th,e faCie by fur tber gr i:n,di,ng", '

TUIIlblq Tools and Tool Grinding' - Turnin,g tools, I're' of var.ied sba,pes; adaptable' t,o the: man~'

different purposes, 'they are in tended for, There are certain :principl,e;s goveml ng the :f arm of turning tools w hlch apply generally, Whe:n grinding lathe tools or any other turni,ng tools there' are three points. to, remember; first, the cut,ting edge of the tool as viewed from the top must have a specifi c shape or con tour; second; there m ust be a. certain amount of clearance below (I r behind the cutting edge; and thi rd J' tools are ,g:i ven a back wa rd shape ~ so to speak, a nd a side slope, lor a combina tion 0 r the t wo on the part a,.gaJ nst which the chip bears 'when the: tool is in u- rse, Ho \"~'l'er experienc e is our

,- ' -, -, - '_." -..' , ' __ ' --- ~ -' . "¥.",. "', : - ._' -"- ,"",: . ", '.

bes t teacher in the dlfferen t w'ays, of ,'rinding lathetools, I t is 'mu-ch more econom leal to buy the o/J. 6 S ta ndard hi gh-speed to-ol bits and an A rmst ro ng tool h01 d er than for goo tools, Th ese are designated by different names, 'Such as parting, thread, side, turning o-r round nose, boring, etc, The shape 'when. viewed ,r rom the top Is suggest ive 0.(' other uses than plain cy 1 i:ndrical turning, The exact form can be best determined under working condit ion-s", Th i 5 is: ill ustra ted by re f erence to, the pa rting tool w h ich is used. for cut tl ng grooves and par. ti n,g wor k at gi ven lute rvals over sped n:ed dis tances, N atural i y it must be widest at the cutt i,ng edge to prevent

bi di 'Ii.... '"''Ii f di ~ h 11..

, ... U1. . lug wmre ,lee·. :1 ng l nto 1.. e WQr A~

Aside froml the contour, i:n relation to the cutting edge, t here rem ains to be determined. the proper clea ranee, amo unt, and direction of' the slope of the tu p or th e toot 'The word "top' ~ is us-ed to designa tie that surf ace against 'which, the c'h.~ ps bear when severed from the' work, For most tools it should, slope away from what is, the working part of the cutting edge and 'be' set, a tr.ifle above center, 'To use this type- in turning a diameter all', sa.y' %-6 of an inch, i'£ would be im prac ti ca ble; so we grin d

i-h d ~ d

one W'lt: . a more pronounce" point an: grea te-r

clearance at the to P4 On smal 1 work, the meta I must be removed with an even free cu tti ng effect.

1·- "'~"I' id '·'-··-1-1·-· the .,_,1. - •.. ,- ' . ,-. -. -. ' ist be 1 s dec 'Id - d

.. n 1U.~,rea ~oo s. !e ciearance must . Ie J!ess,ecl ,f; "

but Ior really good w()]"k it is ad visa ble to stone the point on ten ter ~ If the reader familia rizes IdmrSe'J r-

iO - h th t... 'I... ·'11i t ,t ' h- kl 'Ii... ..

W1t : 'Ij. C: anove ne WLJ] at Jle'8St. ,.I,a,VC' a wor __ ln_g oasis

to sta rt from; bu t, ,as, alre',ady :s ta ted., success. vlin 'be commenSUf,ate with the ,amount .of pa.instaking prac ... tise, \v:hl,ch has, been lexpended."

,A,CC,ESSORIES

Al.c:ohol t,Gm,P' and, BUD'18n B'lUl1AH' _, An, alcohol lamp or', '~r ben gas, is, a v.aHa ble J' a B u.n:sen burner" I,s a~m,os-t iud'l.s:pensa'ble t.o the guns,mi'th .. Let us :sup:pose .a small bent t.rigg,er spri ng is t,o be 'made~ It ,ean be fo·rmcd. by' fte50rt.iQ,g' to ,3. 'sman :pIece of di:sca,rded wa'lch, 's,pring.; hea-Ung it over the 1amp 0'[' burneT' untn blue, the't1 with s'ni~s, C'l' hand

"k • I - h •. d ·d b H- -. ·

snears, cutting It to t e requirec widtl .. 4 I eat again

i.n the 'Harne of the burner or lamp, and with a pair of pliers bend to" shape, It is not always necessary to temper these springs, but when they are heated U 11 t i] red and harde ned. in oi l, dra \v the tent per to.

.. :Tb · ., b d oj. h - ·

suit. .1S operation can oe r one ,\¥It: 'out moving

from th e bench" much rna re quickly, an deer talnl y better, than it could be done at a forge or wlth a

gasoli ne to rch 'i ~

. 'The advantages of the alcohol lamp and Bunsen burner, over the forge or furnace are: they draw temper on small part'S evenly; the temper colors can be readily seen, as the flame of alcohol or gas makes no smoke to obscure it; i' they are coovenien ~ for" small tempering such as taps, small screws, sp eci a I d r il Is; ben ding SIll all f 1 es to ·od d

h d th · d-' ble I 1 b .

s . ape's; an t .- ey are In r ispensa ore m . a oratory

work, Figure 4S illustrates the burners used by' g unmakers ,.

Emery P·aper and Cloth - The finer grade's of French and Turk-ish paper for exquisite finishes shoul d b,e on h and a nd used a:f tcr t.h e pol i shi n g process by the clo th t N ever des tro y the c lot h) as

f=:~l ~, II ,

• I:

Ii

I

I

I I I

~ I

___ L.

r .... -~".:.~ I

~-

employment of a finer, \Vhen using the finest emery cloth, moisten the surface \yith sperm oil for a. fine, soft-appearing polish; to bring fbe finish to a high luster, use fine French paper without. ell, completing with crocus cloth, To use emery paper or cloth in a lathe, run on high speed and hold the cloth on. a 'flat file. When holding emery cloth by 'hand for polishing fast .. revolving round pieces, care must be taken that the hand does not. get caught in the cloth, as at times it clings to the work} thereby

• ill. •

causing a serIOUS injury,

FO.f9'e and Anvils -- These are possibly not t used as f req u en t 1 y as ot her tools, yet th ey are extremely important and desirable as part of a.ny shop equipment, especial! y that of the gunsmith. The forge may' be of the regular forge design, gas fur .. nace, or gasoline blow torch, The latter is 'only

d i h ,. f

use In emergency, 'v en a proper rorge or rurnace

is not a vailable, Suitable anvil and small black .. smith tongs to handle the work should be included, Jt is said that the quality 0:( an anvil can be judged

b- . he ri A t d anvil ~ - ... y the rlng.. t any rate a goo. anvi gives out a

clear sharp sound when struck by a ha mmer, and

I ;

Fl'q. 4·5

Be ncb burners end e '2u.·jpment custom.utily used jOf h 1l1d.anin·q an,d temparia, .small paris

this is useful in one way or another until devoid of all abrasive. There are a number of different grades of the latter, from FF to #40t Cut or tear the sheets. into convenient pieces for the work to be done, When using the cloth on work where file mar ks show, fi rs t use a coarse r g rade by r {1 I ding it around a file, which is then appl Ie din the ens .. tomary manner, Be 'careful to remove all marks and sera tches I eft by the: previa-us gr ade before th e

if soft. 0 r def ec ti ve the tone is dull an d. unmusical ..

A f 'I . d h ,...~ t .

per ect anvi 50 mounted tat It gives out a

volume of sound is much easler to work on than one having a dead ring. They vary in we i.ght. from .50' to 300 poun ds, but for the gunsmith an anvil wei gh ... i ng between ,60 and 100 pounds is adequa te, It is necessary to st ra pit to a block to. i nsu re sta bil it y .

~ Its height shouldbe such that when standing beside it one's knuckles will Just reach. the top surface" A

· - .-

!HE USE OF' TOOLS,

solid oak block set end wise in the grou nd makes a good foundation, but for the small shop a cast-iron support serves as well, An anvil should never be strapped rigidly to its foundation,. as this checks the vibration which tends to keen its face free from

~.

scale.

The square 'hole in the face for receiving the ell tti ng and formi ng tool s is call ed a "h a rdie hole, l" the small round hole near it, the "pritchel hole," and the pointed end, the "horn.' Anvils are usually 'made with a wrought-iron body to which is welded a hardened steel face ~

When ha nd f urging, t wo q ualitles 0 f heat fig 11 re in the operation. If the object is merely a drawl ng ou t or sur face smooth ing, the ''" ch erry ... red h ea L" is called for. The work of drawing out or smoothing is, pe rformed by striking Ugh tl y and evenly \"'1 ith a hammer un til the desi red result :is secu red ~ A like degree' of beat is, employed \Y here closing the s 1 rue .. ture 0 f the steel is, the ob ject to be at ta i ned, hut in this case the blows. of the hammer sh ould be hea v ie r ~ If the for gi ng is to emb race a rna te rial chan ge in shape, the rate of heat must be increased. A gunsmith rare I y needs a sle dge hammer, as th e rna .. terial he works with is not of a size to warrant a tool of that weight.

Micrometer and Its Use, _, This is the Instrument of precision pa r exc ellence fo r the gunsmith, wi thou t which his ac t i viti es are like those 0 f a rna r i ncr at sea depr ived of com pass and sextant. .I t furnishes. a constan t means for checking screws, pins" drills, drill. rod, bullets, and a tho usand and,

, ,e· .. th . ' thi gs, T· 0 read a micrometer co: unt the

on· 0 . ,er . 1 n . ~ .. .. . .. . ... , ....

b f h I di + + - • bl h al

nunu er 0', W" oie r rvisrons VIS., re on t,.e sea e or

spindle, m ul tipl y this number by 25 (the number of tho usand ths 0 f an inch that ea ch d i v Lsi on rep resents) and add to the product the number of that division on the thimble or barrel which coincides wi t.h the axial zero ll ne on, the 'frame. The resul t will be the diameter expressed in thousand ths of an inch, As the, 'numbers I" Z,. 3, ctc=-opposite every fourth subdivision on the spindlo=indtcate hu n d red - thousa n d ths J the reading can the n easily be taken mentally ..

Suppose the thimble or barrel were screwed out so that gradu ation 3 and two additional subdivisions were visible, and the graduation lOon the barrel or thimble coincided with the- axial line on the spindle'. The read i ng then would be 0;300 plus O~ SO plus 0 .. 01 or 0 .. 360 inch, Some micrometers have a vernier scale on the side of the spindle in addi t i on to the regular grad u a ti on so the measu re .. ments within O~OOO 1 part 0 r an inch ran be taken ..

(Th,·· ., ,t 'f ml .. te - I r 11 l't. [or - r . _.

-. .IS sor 0 rmcrome . er 00 su or re erence,

and use a, plain micrometer for wha t I call rough,

work.) Micrometers of this type are read as f01 .. 10\\'5: first determine the number of thousandths as on an ordinary micrometer, and then. find. a line on the, vernier scale that exactly coincides with one on the thimble or barrel. The number o-f this line represents the number of ten-thousandths to be added to the number 0 f thousan dths obtai ned by the regular graduation. The reading woul d be expressed as foIl O\VS : Suppose the bar rel we re sc rewed out so that gra dua tlons -4 and one additional subd i vision were 'V isi ble and the graduation lS on f. be barrel came: over the line hall-way, so the reading would he O.400t O~02·S~, plus O.015~ plus O.OOOS~ or O~4405, as 23 would coincide with 5 on the spindle ..

A micrometer to the amateur is a novelty and. he usually makes a plaything of it at first, measuring everything with which he comes in contact, from the h alrs on h is head to the whiskers of the cat

Oilstones - These embrace a large variety of shapes and sizes applicable to such work as stoning reamers and actions, sharpening small d rill s, relief on taps, all cu tting tools, etc. The nat ural" oilstones most commonly used are the India and Arka nsas, The Washita is, a coarser and more ra pld-cuning stone than the A rkansas, and Is used 'mostly for sharpening wood. ... work.ing 000]5,.. There are various grades of Washita which vary 'from the perfect crystall ized and po rous whets tone gri t to vitreous flint and hard sandstone. The sharpness of the' grit of any Washita stone depends entirely upon the character of its crystallization. The best whets tones are porous and uni form in text u re, and are composed entirely or si lica crystals, The' poorer grades are' less porous, mak ing them vi t reous or g lassy, a nd may have hard spots or sand holes at contain grains of sand among the crystals" For general work a soft, free-grit, qulck-cuttlng stone is required, altho a, fi ne- grit medium hard stone is someti rnes preferred, Some Washita stones are w hi te J w h ile others are st reaked more or less with 3; yellow or red. tinge. They are found in the spurs of the Ozark mountains of Arkansas, The Arkansas s to nc is ha rde r , more transl ucen t, and 0 f greater density than the Washita, It has an exceedingly sharp grit, and win cut as well as polish very hard metal's, such as h igh -speed steel tools and reamers, The A rkansas stone is used more frequently in gun work than the Washita to produce the fine cutting edge' required on chambering tools, etc,

Artificlal stones are made, in a multitude 01 shapes and sizes and are ada pted 'for sharpening aU ki nds of tools. Such stones a re made by the N orton Company of alumdum and crystolon, the former being known as J ndia. oilstone and the latter as crystolo n sha rpeni ng stones, Similar shapes are

18

THE MODERN GuNsNITH

manufactured. by the' ~'merican Emery ""orks, and The Carborundum Company, which makes them. in a. great variety,

They ·are _ supplied .ln three grades or grits: coarse, medium, and fine; the coarser 'ones are used to rough out wo rk or sharpen extremely dull 0 r nicked tools, etc ~, w bile for sharpening carpenters' tools and as a general purpose stone" the medium variety is selected.

Fine Arkansas stones are; best adapted to the finishing of reamers, particular cutting tools, etc.

How to Care fOT Oilstrmes-Like all other tools an oilstone can be ruined. by abuse and lack of care, There are three axioms to be remembe-red in the care of an oilstone: flrst, to retain the original life and sharpness of its gr.i t ; seco nd, to keep i ts surface 'flat and even'; third, to prevent its glazing,

To retain the original freshness 0 f the stone it should be kept clean and lightly covered with oil. To' let an oilstone remain dry for long, or exposed to the air, tends to harden it A new natural stone should be soaked in oil several days. before being used, If in a dry place, it should be kept in a box with. a closed cover, and a few drops of fresh clean oil Ieft on it; preferably sperm oil.

Tools should be sharpened on the edges of a stone as weU as in the middle to prevent it from being worn down unevenly, and it should be turned end for end occasionally ..

To res tore a. flat even surface, secure a cast -iron plate ha.ving a true surface and sprinkle loose emery mixed with water OIT gasoline on it. Place the oilstone upon the plate and grind it true by either a circular or back and forth motion, but hold the stone. in center :so it will grind. evenly all over. ·Tb.i.s ~ethod is adapted to all grades" bu t stones of special shape may be reformed by planing a groove corresponding to the shape 0 f the stone in a cas t ... iron plate and: drawin.g the stone through the groove, using water or gasoline and emery as just described. #90 or 100 emery is the best for this operation.

To prevent an oilstone f.rom glaz~ng requires the proper use of oil and kerosene. The purpose of

• 4' h il k sharnenl

usmg ei t er or 0 r . erosene on a :. a rpenmg stone

is to float the particles of steel that are cu t away from the tool, thus preventing them from filling in between the crystals. and causing the stone to glaze,

On medium and fine-grained natural stones and in all artificial stones, 0 il should always. be used, as kerosene is not thick enough to keep the steel out of' the nor e[:!'·

... .,~~",_", .;,'.'

To further prevent glaaing, the soiled oil should be wiped off as soon as possible alter use, This is important, for if allowed to remain, the oil dries into the texture and carrles the' 5. teel dust with it ~ If the stone does become glazed or gummed, a good

1 ~ · . h 1· '·11 . ... · '1

c earung Wit gaso me WI. restore Its cutting qua -

ities, If not, scour 'with loose el'nery or sandpaper f astened to a per f ectly smooth board, K ever use turpentine on an oilstone for any purpose!

Sandpaper _, This is furnished in grades rang .. ing from #'3 to 7/0.. The latter is. the finest grade and is used only for the finishing operation on stocks or other wood work. 'To use sandpaper properly, fold it, after cutting to desired size, a.round sof t rubber or cork 1 * by' .2112 by 4 inches, which makes a convenient and very efficlen t hand hold. The flexible cork or rubber follows a curve much better than if the holder were solid. When a large fla t s uri ace is enco un tered, or one just a li t tIe irregular, make a holder from leather and. thin strips of wood, A large amount of space can be covered by this device 'much more thoroughly than any method I am acquainted with.. For reducing the size of rubber recoll pads 1 sandpaper or emery cloth glued to wooden discs .for attachment to a grinder spindle is i nvalua ble, A good investment is to have a generous supply on hand embracing a wide range in grades, ·as its uses are many and it fills a need that can be replaced by no other accessory,

C.HAP·TER V Re·adin.q and Makinq Drawinqs

CRAPT',ER V

Read'jng and Makinq DrawinqB



A N UNUSUt\LLY large number of shop drawfi ings have been used to illustrate. the two volumes I am presenting on gunsmithing, espe .. cially the second. I realize that a number of these: books, are gOlng t.o be placed in the hands of men

'not trained in the mechanical arts, and they should have an idea of the things the pic lures represent. The drawings have been reduced from a tracing rneas uri ng 2' 2 x 36 in ches a.n d la r get down to the required page size of the book" consequently the reader may not be able to decipher many small figures and letters without the use of his magni .. , fying glass, To be able to read a blueprint or drawing is as essential to the beginner 's success as to be able to read the p rln ted mat te r be t wee n th e covers. To read the dra wi ngs we sh auld know so me of the principles of making the m, 'These, ,vi 11. be, explained as concisely as, possible according to the space permitted. The reader should first unde rs ta nd tha t a drawing is a record 0,( ins true tion .. c:·· ~,. - t.: " ',- . d: - ~... ,. , ., dl·· ., b·· h ,ld- r liz, th: t given rnm 0 rea ,1, secon 1'1 e s .. ouu ea e. a

. h ] db·· ki hi

. . . ,.. -. ,. . i . (J. ..... - .. 1 . - 1 '

the Ianguage use ny an engineer In max ng .'.' S.

drawings 'is largely a language of lines, and that un 1 ess he, knows how to read li n e s ~ the ins tr ucti on s recorded on the drawings are written in a foreign tongue.

Study the several views until you have a. good men tal picture of 'W'11at is to be constructed, A drawing ·is a flat surface" and, as with a map, It is necessary for the reader to use his imagination to make the lines and views rise from the paper, When a clear-cut me ntal picture h ~~ been to srm ied

• .,. . _ _ . . Go,;:! . . n. _ . _ .. __ ~

the dimensions should be studied until understood. N ex t, all the le t t ered tex t shou 1 d be read and ca re f ully cons ld ered, Ca re less ness in. anyone of

1 h .' ,. b·

th e se tree res pee ts 1S mexc usa le co

A drawing is, in a sense. a picture made up of views: for' exam p le, f ro nt v iew , top view, end views, etc, These views are made up of lines which \~TOU] d show c lea r iy to the eye i:f the part, accessory, machine or fixture were viewed from the several positions noted. A front view consists of those lines which would be clearly seen if the observer were viewing the part or fixture from the front. The d ra wing s houl d also con tai n a~ I th e essential dimensions and indica te clearly from what surface they are to be taken ~ In mos t instances, a d isti nc t,

arrowhead with the point resting a.gainst the line represents the surface, or outline from which the measurement starts or from the work line which represents a surface edge and has, been lengthened to make it convenien t. for placing the arrowhead. A no ther a r row h ea d is placed aga ins t the line re pre ... senting' the surface where the measurement stops; the arrowheads are connected by a line caned a dimension line, and the given dimension is placed either "in this line- or directly over it, The drawing will probably also contain lettered. directions: some are: to be ground, and the words "precision grInd'" or' the letters PG 'may' appear on those surfaces; others are to be finished, and on these the letter \ F may be used, etc. Figure 46 illustrates, the

manner in which a part is viewed, !

M an y 0 f th e d r awings ln the be oks a re mere projection. drawings with which a single idea is meant to be conveyed, To understand thoroughly what the term "projection" means, study the action of light upon an object. Take as an- example a street car along the street; our view of that car is made possible by the fact that light. is reflected from it into our eyes. This is true of all objects which we view, and we say that we see the car or object. In other words, the light which is thrown hack frorn the car into our eyes gives us a view of the car. If the car or object faces. toward us we get a. front view, if away, a rear view ~ While the ob ject itself is nut a source 0,( light, it is so treated in viewing it, and the light is said to. 'be projecting from the object viewed, When a view drawing is, made, it .is often known as a projection of an ordinary (part) without any dimension, The-se d fa wings are merely a means of co nveylng to the reader an idea. of the part; later- it will be found necessary to work out the details.

It wo U 1 d be well fo r every reader in teres tc d in this 'work to make good mechanical drawings, for with the ability to 'make drawings would come the ability to interpret them. But there are : often many reasons why this is not possible, and it 15, with the idea of giving the requisite amount or knowledge and practise in visualizing the finished prod uct from plans" e levat i on s, an d sect ions tha t this chapter has been prepared, for it will explain more to the mecha nlcall y trained man than I could

69

70

ISOMET'RI.C

PER5PECTIVE

PLAN

END E.LEV,A T I D·N

,~ ........ ,_...,~--,--.-

1--- -~-~----

~·ID'E ELEVATION

SECTiON

VARIOVS VrEWC3 OF A VEE D R.J LLI N Q B L'O CK, FOR CYLTND',ER ,8HAPED O'BJECT8

S,HOWING. THE USUAL TI'TLE PRACTICE FQ'R 'D RAWING,~

Fig- .. 48

DI ...... 11:... d:J'f" ·1 .. ..t...... I -_.. ... 'I.._; - ,I • - - L_'I ' '. •

_ USw;,g,,,,n.g ',1,1 .:relh y&w'W. 01 un. QJIII .. ec,. In meI;:Wo.,&.uAi' ....... 'O.q.anHnnq

ever' explain in wrl ting, With a careful study of the drawings herein will 'come the ability' to ;U read" one of these complicated drawings like the rest of the book; it is interesting to translate every shade of meaning intended by the, designer and thus be able to tarry out the' work fn an accurate, effici en t, and craf tsman-like manner ~

These drawings 'were first sketched freehand as ea-ch, chapter WaS written and then handed to englneers or draftsmen ski ned in the art 0 f mechanical drawing, These men first had to lay "the- foundation for the more advanced work. by learning the kind of equipmen t. necessary, They had to train th ,I! to vl 1" th b · +,1:'1 hich I h d

aeir eyes '. visua rze jne objects W ic .a',

drawn freehand and which only expressed the general meaning, In vi suallzing these objects it was, necessary to measure, distances, to draw with preclsion . lines 0 f uni form width, and. accurate diree ... tion, I t was necessary for them to learn the rules of geometric. construction, the method of represent-

· la: h 1 .. f bi d fha nri

. " - . . . . .' . . . -. '. "'I' _ .. ' - J l . - ,:- .'" ~ ~" .... : .. :.. : I '", - I .....

lUg pans, tee evations o. o. J ects, an t e pnn

ciples of orthographic" isometric pro j ections and profile wor k,

Even tho a great reduction has been made from the original linen tracing, the reader can 'read every detail distinctly, If he should wish a repro ... duction (a blueprint) from these original drawings, I have made arrangements with the pu blisher j so that it 'will be possible to 0 btain such reproductions

at 3.' 'rea' ". sonable cos' -t The- f ull-page d' ra lngs 'II!n

a. _ .. s . p,. . c. c ~ . c • c . c, WI c' 1

these books are 22' x 36 inches, the half-page are 2.2 x 18 inches, and others. in proportion. A blueprin t, . as used by engineers and by mechanics in .. L .- -'0' " ln d ',- - - t-'r' les, Is a:' reproduction of 'W" h - t

we van, us L .. us I c, c _ ~ _'c. C c. a

is known as a l 'working drawing." A working dra wing, made from the tracing, ShO"TS by means of 1 i nes w 1181 t the piece} part, or fixture is J' on the f u11 scale, and gives the necessary working dimensions or whatever other data the machinist needs to know in order to build the piece or the part, In other words, it is the drawing by which the workman does his work and to which he looks for his information. However, it is essential thaj the tracing i tself be preserved for 'reference and there ... fore a blueprin t 1.S made from the tracing '; this will be what the reader uses in his .shop, The, lines, numerals and letters on the original tracing or drawing are black on a linen background, but these appear on a blueprint as white lines on a blue background; hence the name "blueprint,"

The importance of having large-size blueprin ts to work from, is that they simplify the reading or solving of the problem before the student. It is well also for hi m to understand that his large blueprint is a real and exact reproduction of the drawing shown in the book" that it is. usually' drawn to scale or larger, and that, if he implicitly follows instructions. and dimensions as given in the blueprint; he is fortified. in any argument which may occur over his work, If his work checks up with the blueprint, he is assured that there is no possihili ty of' error,

Seen,anal Lines ~ In addition to the working Hues. and the dimension lines on the dra wi.ng views, the reader will, in some cases, find a series 0 f parallel Ii nes drawn closely together at an angle to the working lines, of the view, These are 'known as

THE MODERN GURSMlT,H

to "finish burnishing reamers, etc, Diamond dust may he' pu rchased, and its preparation as a lapp lng abrasi ve is simple, 'The diamond ,3 f ter being crushed to powder in a mortar is. mised wi th a highgrade olive oil. The mixture is allowed to stand f ve min utes, after w hich the oil is po ured in to another glass ~ Th.e coarse sedime n t lef tis, removed and la beled :10 for future di fferen tia tion ~ The oil poured from ,#0 is, stirred, allowed to stand ten min utes, and is then poured into ,a separate glass ';: the sedime nt remaining 'is' labe led '.I... 'This opera .. tion Is repeated un til a II t he du st has been recove red from the oil 4' The' time t Ita t t he oil isa llowed to stand is increased :f rom 10 m i nu tes to 10 hours for the #6 operation, and even longer or until it becomes clear. to or coarse dia mo nd is w ashe d in benzine and recrushed unless this coarse dust is, required for some particular grindi ng ope ra ti on, To 'the gunsmith the i ntelligen t use 0 f a br as ives is, an, invaluable aid, It finds its most. important, expression in lap'pi:n,g shotgun barrels :f or' increase or pattern removal of :pi.ts or tool marks, as, a final in-ish to r:l fling faa t adds the highest r,e.fi nemen t in accuracy, etc, ItIs also the only prac tical means of evenly removing coa tlngs 0 f rust ~ provided this, bas not. already wor ke d its destructive process too deeply into the texture 0 f the metal,

Lapping Chambers in Shotguns and RifteS'~This feature will be' explained more technical ],3' in a separa te chapter. It would be well, however f because know ledge of' the sub j eel is, so desirable J for

. h 'b ,"" " - '1i~, te t ni to sal ,~

t, .:' e eegmner 1j,0 WOT'J(, Oil. - st pieces . '0 gam ex pen-

ence, As an. example, in a piece of: steel, say ~ 'lh inches thick, drlll a ~4 2 hole and stone the cu.t t ing edge of ,a 1 % -it drill. to a small radius, usin g this as a reame ["' for finishing. 'Then harden and. remove the strain in the steel by passing it back and forth in the fire until unable to touch, it without burning the hand; Let C(~o1. Make a plug g.auge to measure ~2'9.s· inch in diameter from a piece of drill rod; it is not necessary' to harden, the ga uge, Then con ... , str uct a Jap Jrom a, piece 0 f % o:-,i:nc h. brass, the same size as the hole, ,5 inches. In length, Under .. cut it 'back 1 inch from the end '~ong enough to pass thro ugh the hole, ,,'] th a hack -sa v.P', spll t .nn the center, back 1~ to 1¥2 Inch, and spring it apart. Now start the lapping operation by either chucking the lap or the plece to be :1 apped, 1 f same is chucked in. it lathe" place a lathe -do g on. the lap in order to. bold firmly, Mix flour of emery wi th sperm, on until it. forms a paste, and with a small piece of wood [or an. applieator, place what would be considered a, reasonable quantity' on 'the lap, and start the machine, Draw' the, lap gently 'back and forth from one end 0.£ the hole to the other; being sure' to supply a sufficient amoun t of' emery and

on to insure cutting, the' machine meanwhile revolving at €I; rna derate rate of speed. After ,9. short t r Ial cut, depending on how' much stock must be removed, wash out the bole 'with gasoline; and check. progress with the plug to see how close it measures .. Continue until you are just able to pass the gauge through th e hole, In. th is form of lap the ends are mo r'e or ] ess bell -mo u thed ; nevertheless, you have accomplished a lapping operation, with ,3; form of Iap dIal is used very o,f ten. for jobs that do not req ILl ire (Jose precision 'W'OT k, F 0:1'" perf ec t, dia'me:te':r.s the standard lap arbor and copper or cast-iron laps are used, for the reason that thei r construe tion per'!' III its del ic ate expan sian and proper cha rg i ng '"

When dealing w j th a taper hole it is necessary' to make a cast ... iron lap of the same taper as the bole on a straight mandrel or arbor, The lap proper Is onl Y' a shell with a pin through it and the, 'mandrel. to hold it 1'0 place, but small enough on the pin ,50 the Iap can work f reely during' its per formance.

R,e.ame'fS and, Th,eir' U:ses ~ This is, another impor tan t tool :f urnished 'in diff eren t types and styles 1 and in ma.ny cases capable 0 f being 'U sed for a multitude of purposes" A working knowledge regarding 1: ts sphe re is mos t desira b le, The followln,g list conveys an idea of the num ber used in one way' or another in the b ui 1 ding 0 f a flrear m: ball or cherry, burnish ing, cen ter J cha,mberi,ng t ch ucking, flat, hal r -rou nd ~ hand, pipe, taper, shel I,; barrel reamers etc ~ Each [s of a. different type accerdlng to the purpose i t. serves, I presume the reader knows th at a reamer is ,3" tool used to enla rge a hole that already exists, 'whether it is, a drilled, cored, or ta per hole, imparting to it the des; red size and

fini h Ir \7 h - . 'II Ch I·X·· f': '11 d ~1

S._~ "fi·· 0 ume '': .napter .. ;':., "U ~ etai s

on the maki ng of reamers will be given, but a pre .. , liminary understanding of their use w in not be

..

amISS,!

'There ate one or two points to remember in, the proper use of reamers which should be understood, by every one" as. for' Instance, providing a, proper tap wrench the same as you wnu~d for a tap, and . not attempting to make the same tap wrench do Ior all reamers, A small reamer should. be' used with as much care as a small tap, always with plenty of lard oil; i or 'when area. nle r becomes d ry it tears out the steel instead of cutting it In the use of barrel 0]" chambering reamers the best grade 0 f 'lard. oil sho u 1 d be used.

Always watch the cutting edge of a reamer carefully to' see· that it does not pick up' metat lV ben a, reamer starts to do, this, take a fine ,Ar'ka:nsas stone - and. stone the top, edge to the cutting point and also the face 0:£ the flutes~ erea ting a keen edge which, after it is once b rough t.

"

RE'AD[NO .AND MAKING DRAWINGS

,section lines and, are used by the engineer to tell the reader that the part of the view covered by such lines Is as :if the work had been cut through and a portion removed, Chapter IX, Volume .II, furnishes examples of' section. 'lines in the various figures It contains. Sections open up 'the interior of an object or a combination of 'working parts; as an. example, the .spi.nd:le of' a drill. press or an electric, motor' 1s sectioned to give .3 cleer 'view of the: inside. To use a. home] y il Ius tra tion ~ the engineer seeks the ~":II'me' effec t _; t'b'-',40 ,r: -Ur,-"t pe ,_" d 'd' :11-" do ',~ , ,,'b'" " h:,' ,',' t ,; ~ , " ". '. as ," v .Ilr 1,." ' .1 ler "oe~ W ,.en. ,e ell IS

a. melon in halves for the customer's inspection", A view so draw n is said. to be seed onal; hence the term "section Ii nes, n In the case 0 r the drill-press spindle, some of its parts may be of steel) some of bronze, some of cast .. iron ,. To show w hich parts are of cast ... iron, of steel, or of bronze, the engineer ........... f' to f .. I mazes use' oi various arrangements 0 sectional

lines, each arrangement showl ng' a different rna ... terial,

Shaded Lines - It must be admitted that the average view of a piece of work. on a drawi ng' is

til, d d d th· S' ... .. !I

a ra c.r flat anc neae _' 'IJn.g. Some unagtnauen

on the part of the reader Is needed to give it life-« to make it rise from the paper and take on form and. substance. Fortunately' for a machinist who is just 'learnin,g' to read blueprints, much of his

k "hi""' hlv i lh f ~ hi b

wor comes, to mm ro·ug, y m t ae rorm In w IC' I

he I fi "'sh ·t Th'" <Ii '", 11 h h

e :is, to rus I~, ) to;; , I ' I. is IS especsa y true W I. en ne

is, fi'ni'shing' ordinary castlngs. There are'. several methods used to give the blueprint more life. One much-used method is 'to make certain of the working lines of increased thickness to represent a shaded portion .. , These heavier working lines are known as "shade' lines and aid somewhat in makl ng the 'view s tand, or li r t from the paper . Shade lines are used to a lesser exten t now than formerly; as the mechanic is supposed today to use his imagination when reading blueprint views.

Line Shading - The term "shade lines" should

-, - b nf d with the term' "line shading ,.,

n'ever e con~ use' WJ.~, _ .. , ".,' ',iI.iL;'. , .. ,!..'..I , . :pc

which refers to a decidedly d.iff erent use O'f lines, Line shading as commonly used consists of ,a series of lines placed on the v,i,ew within its working lines and arranged in. such a manner as to give a picture effect, of the view'~ .As in 'the case of shade Jines,.,

Ilne shadi .. --..::1'1'" h ., h d .,

une ~I1J" . 'ng )5 U~ ._'CSS m mac, • me-s , OPl , [a wmgs

than it formerly 'was •. ··

r'iJJjsbed tmes _. Another line used in dra"~]ngs or blu.eprint views, is someti me! termed a "finish ,., llne, Such a line is usually broken up into dashes and dots and is then known. as a "dashed" li.ne .. It is placed on the view close to a, working line' to

'1

lndicate that the surface represented by the working line is to be finished. Dashed lines are now little used for thls purpose because of the chance o,f their being confused with dotted .ii,ne.S used to ·rep .. resent hidden surfaces and edges, and other methods of' indica~ting finished s·ur,faces are popular, but

elimin ated liI'n a' 11'( the views sho iii, the - t

~~ .... , :"" ,I ',1, _,'_' " ~' own In, " 'ese wo

volumes, 'When dotted n,nes are sbown they represent an inside hole, etc".

Certain conventions, as, 'they are called, are often to 'be found in a number ,of drawings. throughout the books, Screw threads, as an example, are shown in two ways: fun thread, and, parallel or vertical lines, They are seldom shown on a drawing as actual threads, but are "indicated" by an arrangement of parallel lines across and vertical to the surface which is to be threaded. A note Is usually lettered on or near the threaded surface, giving the number of threads per inch' and the form. of the thread,

The careful reader of this chapter must now 'be impressed '\\' Ith the need or knowing things" The way to know a. thing is to study it" just as a child studles hls book 'when learning to read, The child first learns the simpler 'words" ho'w they look, ',vital Ietters of the alphabet are used in spelling (bern J and how the 'words are pronounced; an.d, one 'who Is wiUin.g to study' this chapter and the (kawi'ngs the books contain can learn how to read. ordinary drawings readily,

It will help if you take a, va.riety olf simple drawings, with which you are more or Jess, familiar, and select one 'for analysis, together with the part in your hand ~ Carefully study each drawing' as well as the text, for in the first place. you will 'become acquainted wi th good practise carried out by finished engineers, and in the second place you will, by this thorough analysis, train yourself to see in any drawing everything that was intended to be brought out better than 'words could express. it"

Mech,ani,cal Drawinq - The subject of mechanical drawing is of great interest and lmpor ..

t t 11) hanl d Ii! D" Ii- '.

ance o all. mecnamcs anr engineers. ., ., rawmg IS

h d f h '. hil al 'I h ~ d '·1

a met 0.' ,0. :8 OWl.ng' grapr tea ,y' t ie minute '" etai 'S

of machinery, tools, gauges" di.es, etc, It _ is the 'language by' 'w:bith th.e designer speaks 'to the mechanic: it is, the most graphlc way' of placing

- , " . . . _. '.' . : [, ,]

ideas and calcu la.dOD'S on record, An. inspoction of'

any' of these accurate, well-executed drawings glves a. better idea of. a part. than a I,engthy written or verbal descrlptlon, The better and more clea.r1y a drawing is made, the more intelligently the mechanic can comprehend the ideas of the dfSign·er. Thorough training in· this important su bject is·

72

THE MODERN GUNSMITH .

necessary to the success or everyone engaged in mechanical work.

The draftsman. or designer is dependent for his success to a certain extent upon the quality of the lnstru ments and materials 'W hie h he uses, As a beginner, he can often find a 'cheap grade of instrurn en t sufficie n t for hi s needs, but after he has, b erome an expert, it will be necessary for him to procure' those of be t ter co ns tructio n to ena bl e him to do more accurate work, If possible, it is better top urchase the "'C 11 -made ins tru m ents at the, s ta r t t

Paper --- In Sf le cti n g' dra wi ng pa p e-r} th e 11 r s t thing to be considered is the kind of paper most su i t abl e for the proposed designs, F or shop dr awings, a manilla paper' is often used because of its toughness and strength, as these drawl ngs are likely to be subjected to' hard usage. When a. finished drawing Is to . be: made, the bes t white dr awi ng paper should be obtained) so that the drawing will not fade or become discolored with age. A good drawing paper should. be strong, "it should also have uniform thickness. and surface, and it should st rete h event y and lie sm 00 thl Y when s tret ched ~ The finer drawings are made on tracing cloth transferred from the pencil drawings and inked in. A linen tracing cloth should also be of the best grade, a grade' which should neither repel nor absorb liquids and should allow considerable erasing without spoiling the surface. It is, of course, Impossible to find all these qualities in any ODe paper or linen, as, great strength cannot be- combined with flue B ur race ~ However, ,3, k i 11 d should be chosen w hie h combines the greatest number of these qualities for gi ven wo rk,

The usual method of fastening paper or linen to a drawing board is by means of thumb tacks. Fasten the upper left-hand corner and then the IO'~Ncr right, pu lling the paper taut. The other t\VO corners are then faste ned and a sufficie nt n urn be r of tacks are placed a lon g the edges to make the paper or linen lie smoothly,

Drawinq Board.....- The dra wing boa rd is usually made of well seasoned and straight-grained soft pine, th e gr al n ru n ni ng leng thwis e to the boar d 4' The experience gained in stock making should en ... able one with the use of wood-working tools to construct one of these very easily} in tlny desired width or length, together with the two horses to support it, Each end 0 f the board is protected by a side strip, .1% to 2 inche-s in width, whose edges are made pier Iectly stra i ght for accuracy in USl ng the T - sq uare ~ Fr eq u en tIy the end pi eces are fastened by a glued matched join t, n ails, or sc rews ~ Two cleats on the bottom; extending the' whole

width of the board, will reduce the tendency to warp, D rawi ng boards. are made In sizes to accommodate the dimensions of paper in general lIse •

Pencils - Lead pencils are graded according to their hardness, the degree 0 f 'which is indicated by tbe letter H" as HH, 4H, 6H, etc, For general use a lead pencil of 4H: or 5H should be used, altho a softer pencil than 41-1 is bette-r for making letters, figures, and points, 'The hard lead pencil should be sharpened so that when penciling a drawing the lines may be 'made very fine and light. The wood is cut awa y 50 tha t ab ou t ]/1 or 112 inch 0 f 'the lead projects, 'The lead can then be sharpened to a chisel edge by rubbing against a piece of sandpaper fastened to a wooden block, or even a fine file with the corners slightly rounded. Only a light pressure should be exerted. on a hard pencil, as otherwise the chisel edge will make a deep impression in the paper, which cannot he erased,

Erasers '_ The Ii ttle erasing necessary should 'be done "vi t h a so f t ru b ber, 'To a void erasi ng th e s urrounding work a metal eraser shield' should be employed. For cleaning drawings when they are comp 1 et ed, a sponge rub b er t or a prepa ration call ed "Art Gum," may be used, but in either case care she uld be taken not to make: the lines dull by too hard rub bing.

T-Square - 'The Tvsquare (which gets its name from its general shape) consists of 3., thin s traight ... edge J an d the "bla de") w it h a shor t piece called the "head," which is fastened at right angles to it. T -squares a re usually 'mad e .0 r woo d ; pear and map 1 e are used in th e c h ea pe r grades. The: bet te-r woods, such as Honduras mahogany, are made with pro tee ting edges 0 f ebony or' c.ell ul ol d. 'T ... sq uares are sometimes provided with swivel heads, as it is frequently convenient to draw lines parallel to each other which are not at right angles to the left .. hand. edge of t he board.

Triangles - Triangles arc made of various substances, such as wood, rubber; celluloid, and steel, "r ooden triangles are cheap but very apt to warp out of shape. Celluloid triangles are almost exclusively used on, account of .. their transpar-ency, which enables the designer to se\e the work already done even. tho covered with the triangle. Triangles from

~ - ~ h .. ' "d ""l-·b ~ d •

SIX to eight inches on a 51 e Wile tound convem-

en t for most work, Altho there are many cases 'where a small triangle measuring about four inches on a side will be 'found useful), every student should ha ve a t least two triangles, one having two angles

De. "'~G··---':'-' -:-, ,.. ·'V"IJd'G·: 'D' · .. ·B' .'.nuO= ,8·-'.· ~:u" _. AND .P'.I.ft.D.I.I... .•. An .... , ~ .. ~_.

of 45, degr-ees and one' ',ri,glht angle; and, one: having

I f 3· 0· .. · 6'-0' d- 9'-0' d ti 1

angies O"Ji J; ane " .' egrees respec uve :y'.

Ink - India ink Is always used for drawing, as

• 1I~ bi ,*.. 1 i I ~ b - · bl

It maxes a permanent, ack J ne, . t IS 0' taina _ e

In solid stick or liquid. form. TIle liquid form is

- - h .. _. . ~ t b t - t - .. id hicl

. .' .... " .' .-", .. -. I ", :. '", '. ' . ".' .",..: -'.' -,. I' .", . ~ -: ' I . .

mue -, more con, enH~!n,. - II - 'COil. allIS, an aCl ' W Ie 1

corrodes steel and. makes it necessa ry to keep the. pen perfec tl.y clean t

Protra,ctor -- The protractor is an instrument used 'f,or laying o.ff and measuri ng an gles, and is made of steel, brass, born, or celluloid. Whenmade 0,( metal, the een tral portion Is cut out so that the engineer may see tbe drawing. The outer edge is divided :into degrees and ten ths 0 f degrees, To lay off the required angle, 'use a, very' sharp hard pencil so that thee measurements may 'be accurate, Place the protractor so that the two zero marks are on the given line" produced, i:f necessary, and the ten ... ter of the: circle is, at the point through which the desired line ,1s, to' be drawn",

Scales - 'The scales, 'used r Dr obtaining measure", meats on drawings are made: in several forms, the most con venlent 'being the fiat with beveled edges, and the triangu lar, The scale Is usually graduated for a dis tance 0 f 12 inches" The triang ular scale has six surfaces. for d,[fferent graduations and the

- d that the d If b

.. I' .' .' _ .. _.. , .. . . - . - - --. -- ,- - .- . - ...

's,cales, are so arrange· _ t i'. at t,· e rrawmgs may ne

made in any proportion to the actual size" For

ch ~ 1 k 'h- dl ! ~ 1'"

me amcai war"_ t:e common c ivisions are mu .n-

ples o f two; . therefore ,dr'awlngs ~'re made fun. sil:e ~

I' '. . '11. 'II 11 '11 etc Tl'- a dr - . '~n,C1 ls 11

'Y2 'Slze:,. ,74:, 'i8" 71 G ';, 76 "':~ . ,'-I~'" .l.' '- '. r a Wh~ ,I. 14

size. ,3 inches equal one foot '; hence ,3 inches are divided into 12 equal parts and each division repre-

- ':"'. I '.'. "h 1- "f: the ".' '._--', 1'[- ··t-' ,d-'~v'· [--n " 'D .' ..... '·1 ·

sents "IDC.. _ _' e sma, _es ... ·I.IS 0 _ 0._._ ,a sea Ie

rtprew.D'1S KG, ,inch.,. the .scale, is sald 'to read, %,0

inch, Scales should never be 'used as a substitute for the triangle o,r T~square in drawing JInes.

.Irreqular' Curves - One of the conveniences, of the' designer's outfit is the "French .. '" or "irregular cu rve," whi c h. is u sed to d ra w curve S 0 ther than

arcs of circles with elther p. enc 'il or- line p .. er T' - his

. .....~ _ _ _ _ _ . .. . . . 1 '1,;0 . n.. . l ~

ins t ru ment is made 0 f wood, hard rubber, or celluloid" celluloid being the best, and is made in various shapes, Curves drawn with an irregular curve are called free-hand curves, In inking curves, the blades of the pen must be, kept tangent to the curve

',,_, '~-:. '.

N,f) drawing of a mechanical nature is finished

U nless a~'~ hea . d t n' ~ l~ tles ~ nd . dl - - - - - ~ - - - - I t IU e ~ ':-'~il "~'~n~,. '1.'1,' ,'~t ,~,.,~-_I,menSI,Ons are e ,-

tered In ,a plain nea t type, :l\ilany dra wings are accurate, 'we] I planned and finely.' executed 'but

- ,:Ii .- _ - - . _ . " - . ., - .. , .' . - . - . - - ..,' .

do not present a, good appearance because the de~igne·-r o r dra .ft· sma 1[", ~:~d.· . n 0'· ,t. ", th ~ .... ;l.. ; t -~oi"iir .. th c, ~·I·'~'e •. -,

..,. _ _ .. _ . ~,UiU,U 1I..h , . "hm ,II, WI!U!" 'YJl,W!L.

, ) r ')1 Le ii, '" ii, d

"J.'] . _. 'I :., I . '1' .' I"'. " '. . - .. :. . _', ";:' :- ',1 I' - , . - ;;' j' ~'.':. t" -.- -. ': : 'I - - ': _. ..... -. ,

to etter .ca,re. u ,y. , _ ttenng requ l,res time an _ '

t.. '" 11 f- , - h b .. , d

; . , .- i" I 1- ," i .' ..... I .:. ~. i.~ ,,' i' ," -: .-' I ...; I"" I'- -' :., '-j -I' t : •• h . -'. '1' I" . .' :." i' " I

pa I enee, especia y _ or t, e _ egmner " an. man y

'fhi nk ita good plan, to practise lettering be fore: \ commencing drawing, P'OO'f writing need not neeessarily mean. poor le ttering, for good wri ters do not always letter well, In making large letters, for

-.. I d h di .. ... f-t t

tit es ano •... eo. '. i ngs 1 tiS 0:' .en necessary . 0 use

drawinz i - d hanl 1 · db' '1

:ra mng Ins trumen ts an- _ rnec - ani ca aios, .. u t smat '

I· -tt -','.' ,. .h "'.~. ·th··· -, " 'tjii _ ed 'f· ,-.,_ dime .-,-~ . -. -. -- -.~.etJ-.

e. ers t sue c __ as _ '_ ose ~ is .... . or, 1 menSl0ns" nam" 5

of materia Is ~ dares, etc, should. be made free-hand.

If the reader has, fully comprehended the impli .. cation of this chapter" a fair degree of drawing knowledge may now' be assumed, and he is ready to pas'S on to more compllcated problems, \Vbell we turn to sub jects i. n e~ tber the n .. rs t or second " ... }- .... h - " Ie' .:,c- '-, ~'e find that 'a kno: rledge 0' f'

YO, ume., , ow ver.~ 'Wh _, ~ _.. . w" _' ',", .

geometrical figures and their properties is abso ... lutely essential 'to a clear 11 nderstanding of the .prohlems, chosen in gun ,ma~ldng,

CHAPTER VI Safety 'With F,irearms

CHAPTER VI

show wha ( happens \\' hen one ma J.u .. ~·s a careless m istake,

Because 01: the limi ta tio n S 0 f \\'cigh t, f e\\'f' gu ns ca rry more metal t han necessary, but th I s is 0 f '{ h e best qu at w ty and j s scien ti f C(l,n,Y heat ~l reat ed '~O sec ure the: ill! 1. rnos t of i ts j n here n 1. s.n tel:'l1gl h ,a n d stabil i t Y 4 Rcmem ber, :i r you d istu F b ,t h is H temper ~, ,jill!"l. vo 'U' r 'O .... tpe .. rim ..... nt l' 1i"'IIfj" or c ha dli"f,/"~l« ~'11·~'11 do ,,~,

,Ji,I~, ,)"'. ..... "'II.:" 1Il., ,I ~ ,!I". , .... , .. ,I, I' . , .' ,W ~, ~ Ilnll ibJ' '. ~ y , .' ,nu!J"

know how tc restore j t surely ,:ltl1 absolu ~"ely, ,yuu ha ve weaken ed you r is un to. a da nge rous po ru ~ t and rendered m tun fi t r or t be' ,P ressu ric'S. i t was made to. u:o~ th st ? 1~·..J ~ The ~ "-"':' ~"""'~ ~ ~'''' ~I' ,n ~,t a: ppl J" a E'. ~'O"' t he remov ,~~, l~

''''r~1 ", la:i ~t~i~ ~~ II ~~'~,lIl~jJJ'-" I~l,~", D . ~", I \;.. . .;I! I~ ..... ,·];1· '_' ~lJ.:~, .. !I.;L,

of metal at vulnerable points, To insure your sa f et y as we 11 as L he o the r f el lo ws, let us here consider a Iew rules tha t must never be broken.

I~CT J\jLUST be realized, especially by the amateur , starting to remodel guns and rifles, that firearms bear a close relationship to the ammunltlon they were designed Ior ,a nd tha t Iew 0 f them can be Us tep pied up; ~ to ,t he' use 0 f 13 t er a nd more power f ul loads. It one' will consider the tremendous increase i:1l1 pressures that has, 'been obt a ii n ed and k eep 'n hi s fiJm]y in mlnd, it will go'Vc':rn him ,'\·jisc~y and. sa fcly in, his, experiments, :1':0 one in hls right senses would pu t a steam pressure of 300 POll nds upon. a bO,1 Ier designed :f or 50 pounds, yc't me n ,\',i ll st rangeIy in si st on dol ng this very th i n g wi th f rea. r [11'S_ Tak e ,r or i nsta nee tb c 11 n e old Kr ag r j 11. e-'\V hy was it set as! dean d a b rand - new r i tle ado p ted? Because it was 110t a clip loader, and was only desi gned for a D1a xi mu m ella 111 be'r press 11 re of 42,00 0 pounds, while the advance in ballistics provided a new car tri d ge, a nel 'the ~3 0- cali be r 111.0 del, 19(6) required .a :riRe capable ol ,\tj:i;thst~lndIf:lg fi!J(J' t'fJ1~S more pressu re than was :p'r'ovi(l ed i'O'F' In the Krag, N 01, only was a much superior grade or steel 'heed ed j 'but a new' a nO. di fee rent breec b act ion, stronger in ever y way, was i: mpe ra t i V'(~;,., Now because these pressures are maximums, it is possible to overload it rifle and get .3.\!la.y wi ~h It at times, but remember you are fl:i.rtin,g with death or disablement when you attempt it; and if you deem this prfce too nligl-l~, be' ultra careful wlth pressures and aJ\\!'3Y'S C'F'r on the safe' side, Flgure ,47. "iiH,

1" Do not draw the temper .of receivers and breech actions unless you k nnw- how to. restore ~t scientifically and surely ~

2',., D'Q not attempt 'to weld or even braze appliances 'to an y par tor an act ~ on Of' receiver ~

3,,,, ,D'tJ not remove metal :[ronl a.nj" point of an action ~v hlch Is I nvolved in t, hie stresses, .0:[ exp loslon ..

4-" Never permit a cartridge in a g:un in which the Iocking mechanism is fau~t,Y'~

5~ Be cautious in the remodeling or 3 gun to the usc: 0 f a more p ower fuJ load than it was odgi ... , nall Y' d csigned for ~

Fi<t., '"

A SpdngUeJd. dHe that .lew' UP beH:"(luse 0:1 ea:re.,less,ness. Heal'Y grease in, ch clinbeZ' (:I,IRa be_tIel" :plu:s exco,l. Rea4.,

~ ,I,ace ad a .oJt carlt'kil'o case-a pede,ct c,otnbinatlou to ;WI! I'UJCA aCG!den'l.I

77

78

THE MODERN G'UNSMIrH

6,. Remember' that in ninety .. ,n,j ne cases out of one hundred the higher pressures, velocities, and power attainable in a ri Hie are not requ Ired for any work you will call upon that ritle to do"

7' Remember tha t 1"'0"'" a :s~,bo"tfJu.n. unlike a' rifle

'Ii "-'" - "- -" "n"" t ':t

higher pressures add very' Ii t tle to range or

power,

8~ Do tJQt, spend a moment on, a firearm which is to be actually 'used ~ that is. not su bstantial ~ correctly deslgned and made" and capable of' be:ing' restored to its, needed strength and utility.

9' .. Remember that the dividi.ng' line between black and smokeless powders and lead and encased bullets is a dead li ne, and marks an abrupt t ran sl tlon in the des ign and make, 0 f firearms t Never compromise this deadline ..

10 ... Never say "good enough" in firearms, If you can't say "right," put the job in the antique cabinet, or, if broken, In the junk pile.

'11. Eschew makeshifts. You have seen hundreds of them just as we have, All OUt marvel has been that they worked, \\;e never expected they would, and some tlme they won't.. Take the makeshift fir,in"g pin; dld ,you ever stop to think what would happen if this makeshi ft ~ '. weed 3' pro ;ot' m ,.tII.f'~

,rMrl;,u""",' ", 'I ";'" ,I" "~ "

:12 Ii 'Watcb trigger puU:SJ~ The ("rigger is the spark that fires iile mine, Learn. and, 'teach how '1:0 press a, trigger tha t. offers safe resistance rather than reduce a pull to .2, point that, endangers sa'fely.

1,3. Remember i'n, co;nd,iU:oni:ng old muzzle-loading rifles for use' that you cannot. get advanced power o,r accuracy out of these old guns by modern propellants or 'heavier charges, Stick to and advise a, rigid. adherence to the old black powder and the bullet that belongs with such rifles,

1,4. It may seem strange, but 'people often leave charges in guns; therefore, habituall y make su re a gun is empty the 'moment it touches your hands, If it, is loaded" al ways u nload it, never shoot the load out,

Modern developments 'have made firearms as safe

. L ~ l ....I ~ "" 1."... '''1''

a'S ,any other mechanica " .. '\levitt that 'we uti rze

today, 'The au tomobile, ,for· i'ns tance ~ 'is 'in i tself a fairly safe means 0:£ transportation, yet .it has taken toll. o,f countless lives, and statistics ',rill show that the greater percentage 0 f' these have been caused through sheer carelessness,

There are many cheap and obsolete shotguns in eirculatien that, should be, d,i,sca.rded or tbrown in the scrap pile, Many of t'he: old guns have been handed, down from generation to generation. Natura1.1y, there, is a certal n sentiment attached to them and their preservatlon is admirable. However" we

should be able to discern between sentiment and danger .' It is a pi Ly-, in th i s respect, tha t we do no t feel as the Chi nese do toward their ancestors; :~O[ then it would be sac rilege to, use the! r personal pas .. sessions, It would at least, prevent a number of accidents that are incurred from using antique arms,

One day a man came: into the shop with an obso .. lete double- barreled hammer gun on which be wan ted the: f orearm replaced, N a t.ul"any the' cos 1t" of the replacemen t was p:r'ohibi t lve, "or he could purchase a modern gun for less than the price of a new f orearrn, Upon examina ti on of the gun, I found tha t when it locked, the barrels could be ral sed from the action 7i (j inch. There was also an opening of ~ 2 inch between 'the' barrels and action. I advised him to discard the gun and to purchase a new one for his own safety, ):ly' warning only caused him to become very indlgnant and he informed me, not very politely, that he had used it in its present co ndi ti on for two season s, and expected to use it several more season s ~ as he si mply held the barrels ~ and action together while firing! I will let 'the reader d raw his own conclusions as I have mine,

E'Ve:ry no,v and then :80 me misguided person replaces a broken fi ri ng pi n with a common 'wire nail, instead of sending the arm to a gunsmith for repairs, or to a mach i ne-shop 'where' they have the proper tools to pauern one after that which has been, broken ~ r tan name any ,n um ber of' such cases, 0;£' gross neg:l~ct, where a person could not Ioresee the: results 0 f a sharp .. poin ted nan piercing a, primer" causing the gases to rush out at the time of ignition, and force the nail hack into the shoo ter 's face. If one should happen to see another using such a cornbi ria tion, the 13. W 0 f safety' should be explained, in language that a church member would not care to hear,

When changes are made, such as using one of the o ld 51 ngle- shot actions fo r mo dern high -y~~~:i~ity ammuni tion, be ve ry careful. tq ~~thaera:U parts fit well, particularly the block, \vhe{e, the flttng. pin, is located, For instance, in ,fitting a. new tiarrel for the . .2 2 Hornet cartridge, or even 'Using 'the old \~lin~chester s i ngle-shot action that originally 'came for the ~,2 2 \Vi nchester een ter .. lire cartridge" since this is ,3, lead bullet and, a low-velocity' cartridge the

1 firing pin or (i ri ng .. pin .hole is over Vs inch in diam. et er in t he block, J t is then OlU" fi.rst consideration to, 'turn. the- firi'ng 'pin, and, bush the hole so' that. it measures I rom ';t, 4 Inc h to ~~ 2 inch in diameter .. Our bet ter Judg:me'n t. '1V,H t ten us 1 after measuring' the . primer, that be tween the pr i mer and fi ring pin there, Is onl Y' a li t t le over * 2 Inch Ie r t on a. side' to hold the primer in place, This may be, enough to hold the primer, but if the: firing pin is sof t, and it

SAFETY WITH FIREARMS

,I

develops a point that will pierce: the primer, there is enough pressure developed to send. the escaping gases back i nto the shooter's face; causing a painful injury and possible loss of eyesight, By all means, figu teo out the urea 0 f the pri mer and the fi ring-pi n hole and let the results prove to you that. there is present enough metal to hold back any gas that should escape from a pierced primer ..

The deeply interested person will study the devel- . opment of powder J'rOLn the early' Middle 'Ages up

he nresent i d "I'" d d i

...' - , - - - '] '1 tar -, " 'r - - ,- I-

to t e present Improve m._ _, _ y pow e s use _ n

high ... veloci ty amm uni tion, A 11 the large powder compani es dl s tr 1 b u te tables of the corree t powder charges to use in certai n cartridges and the weight of lJuUetS40 Still, some disregard these tables and add just a little more' to obtain a higher veloci t.y than the other fellow.

I recall that 'when I was at the Arsenal, tests 'were made with the armor-piercing bullets agalns t armor tank plates, and the diff eren t ligh t plates 'were carbonized to certain degrees. 0 f hardness. These tests were conducted on the artillery r ange, The plates were placed in a frame and the Model 1903, Spri ng ... field rifle in a machine res L The regu lar armorpiercing ammunitions would not penetrate some of the heavy carbonized plates, so ammunition was loaded wi th the standard improved mil i tary powders, such as Du Pont No~ IS, 1.5'721 16, 17'Y2 Pyro, or No. .2"0, and also the later improved pow, .. ders under other numbers, The recommended loads, were increased. by one grain at a ti '01 e, in order to have the projectiles go through the heavy plates, \Vith Du Pont No, 16" one of the Iast-burning powders, a load of sixty-one grains was reached which blew up the rifle, The action held, 'but the case blew out the rear allowing the gases to escape

• t th ;. I' th .. th

In 0 ne magaz~ne, openmg ie magazme on , ,oe

sides and splitting the stock from the front sling swivel back three or four Inches from the comb, completely shattering the wood, The same thing is likely to happen if only one or two more grains than the given charge are add ed ..

I have: had much of this brought to my attention, Men have brought in cartridge cases, after firing, showing the bad primer bulges, and even the primer

it " b k· th firi I h I N 11

. ro'.r, '.. .'. :" i ...", ' > ,. "_ "c" ":~ , I' .. I" ,," .'. . ..

0\.\ ing ac In to e ' n ng pin .0 e. Natur a y ~

h d h id b '

,- " "I ,-' .. "" • -, '., ,. a"- .,',. ,', " '-

t ey con emn t, e cartrir ge cases, ut upon ques ..

tinning them I fi nd th at they 'increased their powder charges one or two grains. Talking seems to be of li t tle va 1- e: ~ t ," s only t h roug h hi 1 te r expe rience tha t

_ ~ ,,' u ,. I IS " _, _ _, _ _ "V_

they wi 11 ever learn or' accept the truth ..

At the present, there seems to be qui te a fad, forusing old muzzle-load i ng. rifles J and they' are loaded with every kind of charge, from the military POVl" ders to the 'black powders, 'These old guns are only made of' common 'Wrought Iron, a grade about ten

79

degrees lower than the common machinery or colddr-awn steel used today, and even an overcharge of black powder is more than they can stand. One was brought to my attention on which the nipple plug was blown out and just escaped hi t.ting a per ... son stand ing a t the side of the shooter, I learned that E .. C't a quick-burning shotgun powder, had been used, as i t was much cleaner than the black powder whi ch le it too TIl uch resi d ue in the barrel,

As we know; excess grease or oil in a barrel or chamber will cause the first shot to be hlgh, It not only runs the pressure above the allowable pressure recommended, but may cause excess. head space' between the bolt and cartridge cases, Very often you will find a soft case among the ammunition you

· A f ". hi hId d I

are uSing., sot t case IS one wr icn was. ,0 - geo in .

the drums of the annealing furnaces, and probably stayed in the worm for haIf a . day. The furnaces are of the rotary type with spiral drums. feeding the cases In one end, and by the time they reach the opposite end they have the proper annealing for the \ fo 1 lowing draw, This seldom happens, for such condi tions are: watched very closely, and when a furnace shows th e least de fee t, it is remedied. Still, there may be such a condition existing, so it is, best to use every preen ution, Check your rift e for head space and mak e sure that a.1I oil or grease is, cleaned out before firing,

Such a small obstruction as a cleaning patch placed in the .m uzzle oi a ri fie to protect the interior from moisture; and negligently left there, will split the barrel from muzzle to chamber. When a bullet hi 1 s an 0 bs tr uction 0 f thi s nature, it may be compared to a swiftly movi ng box car that. hits another whi ch is at rest, except that there is a propelli ng force of gas behind the bullet, and this, sudden stoppage of the projectile 'hitting the obstruction sends the gases around the bullet, thereby opening the steel to allow' its passage, Even the .22 caliber short rifle cartridge will ring or bulge a barrel when it comes into contact with the lodged bullet, If these small bullets can do- this; you can imagine what a high-velocity cartridge would do.

The first thought that occurs to one', when a bullet or part 0 f a cleaning rod is lodged in a barrel ~ is 'to shoot .i t out by removing the bullet from. a case and ," '" 'ti - - --. th ,- b - L Id~ 0' the , ''',fl·'' ,~-- rtical mser' mg tr e case 'y uO._ lnti ,. e rl ,'e' In ave" . _ a .

position so that the powder will not 'sea tter around in the 'VOl~ k,i ng parts of the at tion, It is possible i.n this manner to remove an obstruction when it is only lodged a short distance in the barrel from the chamber end. The instance 0 f bursting a great dis .. tance from t be chamber is due to the' air 'Space that is compressed wi t h the ga ses 'W hich are greater ill velocity than the movement of the obstruction; the w hole expand ing fo,ree of the gases and air concen-

80'

THE MO:DERN GUN'SMI,tH,

tra tlon at that point expands the barrel ~ I f it is not possi ble to take the gun to a gunsml th J it will be best 'to remove 'the' bullet, together with hal f the powder charge, and try to, shoot the obstruction out" rather than s;poi~ a, )()'ng .a'l1,ticipated hunting tri:p. Th.i s however, does not apply to a shotgun, for you will most certainly have a burst barrel and a ru ined arm,

Many p lstols an d revel vers ate also rulned l n this manner, A, .. 4S Colt automatic was brought, to my attent ion which had exploded :in the shooter's hand. The bullet 'was Jodg,ed. 'hal'f,,,,way' in. 'the barrel, so he tried 'to shoot :i t ou t ~ The barrel opened at the bottom, split the underslde of the frame, and folded it back t.o the trigger guard. It also blew' the spring and guide free from the action. ,At ti mes, it will only bulge a barrel {of course practkal Jy ruin ing the arm) , hut usually it means a, completely ruined revolver or pi'sbjl.

'V'elroy often J there, is :i'mpropet head space bet ween cartridge head and bol t or breech block. Th is condition will manifest itself by the parting of the, cartri dge case a bou t on e .. half inch from the head". At first a rupture will appear, which is the first indication of excess head space 'in a chamber. Upon

exam ina't""on u ..... u W ... ·] 1 A d h th b ''lit· ~, • th

"-;'~ _ mna 1 .. , :,;" ,i ,.c I ., J.Il n . ~,'w'en. u e-G,,:" IS, In :" e'

fl:ring posit ion; (hat too much space exists between the head or the cartridge and the face of 'the bolt; you. can de tee t this cond i tion by insert i ng shims, of brass or copper ~ A good many Mausers have this defect, particularly the actions which were sent over after the 'war and made into sporting arms 'f also the large magnum actions that came over in the white and 'Wrere never Ilea t -treated before being made in t~JI rlfles of the ~31'5 a.nd ;2'15 calibers. The Springfield rifles _or any other titles using high-velocity am .. munition turned out by the private arms companies 'ha ve the' correct head spate ~ as they use g,a uges to determine this chambering to the min lmum length; [and since they have a 'ri.gid.inspecUo:n in such Iac'tori::es'j there is. nervet ,any danger' 0-1 this defeclHl' \Vhen there is only O~004 inch tolerance, 'it necesslta tes pick i:ng ou t a nu m ber 0 f cases iii order to come to some conclusion as to the proper head space.

The most. prominent defect of the Model 95 Win~hes:t[er :riRe using the Model 06 ,ammunition,*,

was that the frame of this arm spread u.n,til the car trldges parted in the chamber: as a result it was. necessary for the Wi.nchester Repea tin,g Arms C~m, ...

d'~ . HI' thi .... ,..l' I Th· t- ~1,]

pany to iseontmue 'It us moue 4' •. _ sere are S 11_ .3;

number' of tbeim in. the, hands, of Am,eritta:n sportsmen, but sooner or later' they open up to such an exten t tha t they are discarded.

When a barrel wears out on a high - veloci ty rl fie ~ many persons with limited means win look. around for bargains, and of cou rse, nine times out of ten, they never get 3" barrel to fit the action, they have, F OnO,y].ng: the va rious suggestlons of their friends, they either sweat or shrink a collar on the, chamber end and then thread. the barrel to fit the action. If you will cond uct a Iitt le experiment of your own" it will demonstra te bet ter than any description just what results win follow from dohlg this. Take a. test

'.. f' . h ~ ~ 'n - h h '] ;; th

'PIece 0: the same size, 'Wlt~ t, e same ,I ioie 1'0 .e

center, Sw'eat or' shrink a, collar to this piece and, then take it to a place where they' have a good: hydra u 1 ic press and you will be surprised to learn what little force it requires to tear them, apart In a high -ve loci ty arm there j s a. pressure 0 f' 5'0 ~OOO pounds, developed'; by adding SQ?,o for a margin of safety f[OU will note that such an operation falls short 0 f these figures, 'Do not t hi"n k that the amatenr alone' is responsible for' these ideas. 'Par' from it, 'f Of gc nerally they or igi na te from others that are in a posi tlon to kno ... v better" The first ~ 5 O-callb er gun which came to the Arsenal from the Springfield . Armory had just su ch ,3 collar shrunken to the end of a ,~,50 .. caliber barrel, and upon the first shot for velocity, the barrel was stripped from the coUar and landed seventy' feet down, the' range, They had made doubly certain. of the shrinking operation 'by placing taper pins on each side. These were sheared ofi as clean as tho ell t by a chi sel, Pic t ure "that damage wou'ld occur to the shooter's hand by ,a barrel breaking loose ,r rom a receiver [n the act of firing~,

The man capable at beco,'ming proficient in, the' handl i ng 0 f fi rearms will requ i re no special rules "f o~ his govern men t in this rna t ter, 'R ules are for' the careless individual" and yet one could give such a person. [8 book full of them and he would then D'bd something that no [one else has, ever discovered,

C,HAPTEB, VII:

Selec:tion ,of Woods

CHAP'TER vn

Selection of Wo'ods

T~~r C~~~i::~~:i~;v::~in! ~::::;~~iO~~:: ::~

choice in the matter is practically determined in advance. 'T he, wood p' .. ar e: ··C.· ill e . c 'e. is.' wa In ut and:

_ .. ' _ x e n _,.. .

there 'is no su bstitute, Waln ut seem s to be pur .. posely d esigned for gun stocks, No other wood or material possesses all the qualities that are demanded by the- gunsmith" and nothing better could be d eslred t 'The growl ng sea rclty 0 f this wood, especially the European varieties" which have been dr-awn upon i or cen tun es, has, cauS€ d in tensi ve search to be 'made for subs titutes an d the forests of the whole eart h have pa .. raded their fine st gro- .. -ths

_ _.. _ _ _ _ .. _, _ ~S '. ow s

on ly to have it more firmly demons tea t ed that walnut is king of them all,

The chief qualifications in the wood to be used for stocking are as follows: It must be tough and very strong, for gunstocks are much cut up by th.e mechanisms and yet have to endure not only the shocks and stresses of explosion, but the hard uses that are inseparabl e from hu nting and the bat tlefield. It must be homogeneous and fine in its grain so that it 'may be worked down to an exact fit with .. ou. t splintering. Thi 5 j s parti cu lar Iy apparent when one is inletting the locks of a side-lock gun .. It must be a wood that, when thorough ly' seasoned, ",~in "stay put" and not he subject to further warping, shrinking', and twisting. It must be' a wood which withs tands the rot tin g effect of 1 u b ri eating oi r , for Iu bricants and rust preven tives are indispensable and continuous, It must be, in spite of its strength, of moderate weight, r or balance is one 0 f th e prime requirements in a gun. and this cannot be secured in wood that is too light or ton hea vy 4 Last but no t least, it must have beautiful grain if it is to pleasethe eye and satisfy perfectly" Strange and won ..

d ful asi 1'" b ·

ternu as, 1t 'may seem" wa nut, at Its est, 1S supreme

in every on e o'i these q uali ties, an d furni shes the gr-eatest ornament you can. place on a gun-its own na t ural, inimita ble beauty ...

There are a number of species of the walnut tree, several of which are indigenous to America. Thill t species, however, wh ich yie Ids the nuts 'v hich we call English walnuts, is by far the best Its botanical name is Juglans Regia, and it is native to all the Central and Southern European countries and that. portion of .. 1\ si a, which we designate as

Asia Minor. It was brought 00 America by the early colonists, and, while not hardy generally north 0 f \V ashi ngto n, D ~ C., there are :5 ti II numbers of these trees scattered through the Northern S ta tes, U ndou bted ly, hard y vari e He'S of J u gla ns Regia can and ,vBI be developed that 'v\'Hl thrive wherever t he apple and peach can be grown ~ l\l] thi n the las t f ew decad es this so-caned. Eng Ii sh walnut has been extensively planted in Califurnla and all ou r nu ts and eventually our gun stocks "Tal be home-grown,

Actu al Engli sh waln u t, that is, waln u.t grown 1 n England, is practically non-existent so ,far as tlbe gu nsmith is co ncerned. There is in deed. a ] i mited supply, and lt is good ~ possessi ng all the' best char .. , acteris tics of the wood, except the very finest figure; but the bu lk 0 f the best Engll sh walnut comes from, Southern France and Northern Italy, together wi th other supplie s 'from Eastern Europe and Southwestern Asia. That known ,as "Circassian" is from the last-named countries and is a very beautiful wood, showing perhaps the most splendid markings. 0 fall. However, it is not gen ... erall y cut an d han dled so well as that grown and cut by expert foresters in Europe, and for this reason it is hard to get blanks free from preventable defects.

Our American black walnu t, botanically J uglt.11ts jH • era 10. ~ a mos ~ useful var ~1'~ ty ~11d" fur _. sh es to. h' .0.

ll1ci"', ~ ,,". , .. ~':iL., .' ~~, .L . ' .. " ~~ll'~' ~ ,". . __ ' ·nl~, .... i,J ~,,'~

stoc k s for practi ca 11 y an our COJll 111 erci al sporti 11 g and military firearms, With the one exception of Jug l (Ins ,R e gia, it is the bes t stock wood extan t r It is not generally as well figured as the European varlet y, bu t the rna S t bea uti ful stocks are f req uently obtained by grub bing out that portion of the tree where the roots and. trunk [oln, These are t,h,e sou rce 0 f the "'.f ancy' stocks 'furnished by au r leading gunmakers, Black walnut is a dependable wood and fortunately relatively cheap ( it would be a calamity not to have a. constant supply available for all time); 'but it is not=-Ior we must not ass ume that all. 0 f the- great Crea tor 's mas terpieees are confined to our coun try-nearly as good a stock wood as its Europe-an congener, I ani quite sure- of 'myself when 'I say that you, Mr. Amateur, will do a much better Job in 'much less time if you use the more compact" yet more easily worked,

S3

It

[- HE· - '1... M"" 'O-'D'I:'iD'u IG·· .• ·'I'.,US··.·· ·MIT-~-. JR- .

, ,_ (J.. ~'J'" '''I.~i,. ( . _' '

~ .

European walnut, \Vllen machinery does all. the'

cutting and 'profiling', the case is not quite the same, as a lightning-speed spiral cutter' does things in. Inferior woods that hand tools only accompli sh la boriously and slowly,

The seasoning of wood is well understood professlonally, and great advances have been made, especially in our own land, in artificial drying. For

.. L k hOO-' 'I, b

most P'1!llrposeS ,t: ~L:S, ,q_uu:' . metl ',._ .. , serv,es 'we, _" t. Jut

'where aU the Iatent strength of file' tlmber is to be preserved ,it isn.ot nearly as good as, the ,slow and more expensive nat-ural seasoning, Time and fresh circulating air always do the 'best [ob,

One of the:' chief causes of the hlgh price of 'imported blanks is this expense of seasoning. It means, in the first place, a dead investment for several years, necessitating suitable storage facili-

... .;: ,..... t'" d f-' t h dli

'u.esJ, cons~an t Inspec 'ion, an . ~ , 'I"eq uen· .. ' an,· .' ng"

The walnut forester has learned how to ICUt stock blanks, to, the 'best advantage and he s'impHfies his transporu .. )fon, and saves freight or ''lastage by doing this, on the ground, These blanks are sold. to. vi'si tin fI' 'buy, ers larue ly.: from Ll verpoo 1 England

'.' "'0' . '_ .'__ J:!I r ~. • - . .,' . . "

who grade them. and store them for partial season ... ,

ing 'ready for' later distribu don to the trade, There

.. 'I' .... ,-1..': 1"" .. d

lS quite an art In 1.I).u6 pre immary seasoning ~ an '.

it is remarkable how clearly the vexpert distlnguishes the hidden beauty in an ordinary-looking blank, Moreover, the preliminary seasoning calls for defini te knowledge, for this is thl€! really crl tica] stage, Excessive dryness o.f atmosphere wou·ld.

'~,~, f 'I'"~ 11 A,t" ",,'"'.- .. -." . ",t'~fi'_' .'. 'J 'IL.. " idit ,', 't'- J.. ' ...

ne atar, .,. nmes arn ' CIa·" nunu I~ ] !!I.,y must ne pre-

vided.The ends of' the blanks must, be' coated wi th some seali ng materia 1 such as paraffin, paint, or specially mixed creosote to prevent too rapid shrinkage, and the butt ends kept from the light.

The gunmaker, having bought his supplies from the dealer, now continues the seasoning to the point

of' completion. This, is practically only' a question of time, and so each batch is dated and set aside for a period well in. the future. 1\5 the' time 0 fuse

d "hth blank 'hd"" 1. ....

raws .DIg :,1 '. c- e- .a '. ~ s are weign c: ~, at In tervals,

and not until they have become 5 tatic are they, deemed thoroughly seasoned and. ready for use ~ ,AU this. has d oubled and trebled the original value

f h d· 1"'1' h f

o the woo )' so we see ,,"ler,Y .p,'a~nly' w"Y perfect

stocks cost, so much money. This. is particularly nod,cea'b]e in 'One-piece stocks where 50, much 'more attention bas to be given to the, dlrection of the grain and the con ti nui ty of the fig ure ~ ·Tll]S. accounts for the apparent discrepancy between the pri ce 0 f rif e and shotgun StOCkS4' It is very easy' to obtain, in the smaller piece 'required f:or' a, shot ... gun butt, the, choicest figure; but when you double, the length and a sk for ten. times the strength your demands are far greater t. Figure 4.8 Illustrates shotgun butt stocks-

A great many of. you.", I fear, wi I for 'v:ari~"us, reasons. be compelled to get your' stocking wood locally a nd of loca I material. By all 'means get walnut if procurable, If you expect to make a number of stocks, buy a supply that you can cut up and lay aside for complete seasoning" Don't get your plan k too thin. To get straigh tness and cast-off in. th right direction you will require a

2' '- incl ~ ~.1I. D" t 'th .' >10 t

72 me 1 r,a W piana, ,1,0 no:' cut '. ,'. e piece In riO

bl k til ~ 'I ~]' I' . 1.. 'lid b t -) t

, ' .. an "IS un "i it is air-dry. It SI.I.oU~ a ne a " east a

year-old plank. Store your blanks lnslde-s-a loft over an ou .building is ,g 00 d." and it is '"ell to start, a" rack overhead in your workshop to finish their

;1',_,'"

drying,

There are many features that contribute to the great d,ifierence in the quality of walnut, Rich soil hardly ever produces beautiful figure" the' tree has grown too swiftly for that Figure, llke 'virtue t seems to be the product of struggle, of adverslt Y ii'

Fi9't 48

ShotfUll "I,oak I:Jlcmkl, fUIalabed &, Mlkh,.-D Bosler of Ilrmlngbcrm, !n,lan, Ci'fCGSslOlI ·oDd rroBch waJaa,.

:S-RlIC'-.","O.-'N. O':-:F'" W"":'O"'O" 'D"'S'--'

.... ·Gt:v{.~ .. II& .. '~.: :'. . ." ',_,;,_. I" ••.••. _"','_' •• '.

8S-

1.,"""':'

Climate also has its €fi'ec-t The' walnut tree in the Middle States is the largest and, cuts up int-o the best merchanta ble lu rnber " Rarely, however, does thl 5 have the closeness 0 f grai n and the fi rmness of tex't:lu~e' that is found in the lumber of the hotter

:~-" .. 11 ,..l, ", -!' IC .... nthwest W" ,-I'-m '(1' ,",-:-,-,'i'" ' ,'"', I hi I:h,-, ',-,---,~l"'1

ann eryer i;JVl!lIli,~J,yes_,,, ,81JJnuli., B;rown In , 19l'" we ,I

d .. d "'I' ~ '" .. bll 'b ' 't. h- t ,;

rame . .sOL :]5 mvananty eetter than tna _ grown lil

swampy ground or river bottoms,

. So -' as f,at· as y' ou can, be very') "eersnlckative"

... J' .. .. - _ ::. -,. -." ,it--' .. . __ 1

in your wood, getti ng' the best, procurable j and

'h- ;f'iI,'t!H',i;lill!lr~:· ~,~ ... on 'Ig ,~. 1i,.,',iIl:!. tempt ~ tion do not n ~'e-' ''';Ii p. I~'e· .£"iiCil

_._-'I!.!' "II!' '!!o.'II!' 1I!.,.,.r a~-!!, V-, '_' L,W h.. 1Ij" ,1.1:,11,1 '. ~"~ l\,III, '~'~, ." .. '" Ili, '~JI!.,;! . Q. ;- Ji '1i;.,J ..... "i

- '-= -- - - -" '·'1 "'" .. - , -, d -- , , - --1i..., - ,-- -- , erbl ,'I b -, -,'

ever, un II , It ,~,S as ry 8:5 t.u'C prover .nl ~ . _one ~

Good stocking is the acme of all our' \\"00.(1 working. You wB] get more 'real satisfaction out of this phase or gun sm [t11 i n.,g than. anythi ng else if you do it sp',]end.id I,y; so start w~ thout hand icap,

In choosl ng ,I, ]};(1ll~'t:wlc.u]a:r 'blank, for a specific arm, you will have to- keep balance uppermost in your mind. A. heavy gun forward will require w'e:igh t at the bu t t, and. you will need a dense stock; while on 'the other hand, ,3, Ught~ lively

'IiI~l'e- ap lI"II.'iFiI 1~'I'I'iI!"'h' 1 'I!!ii ,~, ;;!jj sm a'll bore ,,,,'t., otg un '1Iin:~'nl']- ril'illlitlhJ:ti\i'"'~1 0[10

""I 'u '-,'V'OI,.I,I .... II;,-I,!II"." ",,~ J[i; riJ,I_._III,_ ,~" -11lJ-'V, ,I ,,;;t.UvllJ,: :.' "j ~:!!I'.l~" ,~!!IIIi..'!I,..d -U,

U,ght 'butt .. stock, \Velght of st-ocks cannot, 'how ..

ever, be enti.re'ly con trolled by the wood i tsel f', a:nd 'it is quite permissible to reduce butt-weight by

b - - ~ - -', - - '" -, _:!" t '!' - ' -- ' d -' , ,th '- b tt 1- t, ' , T-----b is ~. .

ormg cavi res un er . ~e:u-· '·p_a ,'e~ ,~, 5, In no

ak th i k B' +,~,~ iii ] • ht'"'

,\yay 'we. _ ens 1 lJiC Si~OC,~ , '."I aru llCla weig , '1_-1ng

in the :samie place, balance can often be improved .. ,

Be 'vlery' carefu], in selecting your stock blank,

- h '.'.. f f-' 11 k de h k Th

•• , , . ti . ", I ," .. I' ~ , . - _" t··· - "', .. - '. '".," ~ . ~. -' ," -._ .... - _ " _ - . - -:-.

to see u _at It is rree rom s ases an. cnec s. ·cc ne

former are caused either by wind strains in the growi ng' ,t ree or by' carelessness in 'felling the tree: checks, on the: other 'hand, are the: result of t_,OQ rapid dr'y~n.g'., Both defects have au unpleasaat habit of getting worse rather than better as you work your stock down, owing to the fact that you, are relievl ng them, from the support of the, surrou nding wood ,j so be careful to, it scertai n the depth 'u:I' ~he5e defects before placing ,3. lot of w[),r'k on your stock ~

There arc a number of British firms who supply stock blan ks and who will send by par-cel pos t to your door just wha t you order ~ The' pri ce charged 1:S based ,cnU,rel_y' on the qual ru t:y , and )'iou. wIn be t reated "with absolu te falrness. There j s no d'u t.y'

-- the ---. ,'--; bh k 0' " (I' -, , '-', t'dl'" .~ - • ~ ,,' "1, ,1,"'" c.-'t. - - ~u

0]] ese r an, S1:" ur 00 .,' 00[" joumais a 50 -~rr s

I 'Fiil,., 4'91

11.09 stock blanks, 'wnlsh.d. 13,' Milch .• ,n IQll01' .. oJ .,iI'm'!.I'l1am,. 1'.,load

'1:1!--,'I'!C!' ~:ir'III ;',iF,o".. ,,..,n'11 0-:' r 'H1t.~'~IC': L ;'S ,"-II"'i!iI'u1'- L_'~'rlli'\ift:Ji'1;iI ~I_.:I '=',II!!I'

Il.nl.., ,!Ii ~~, ,I!!, I~ ""'''''''~''' :" 1'1f,lU~, •. ,~l ,ii, -' I b W IQeJ' ,OJ S!Il- ,I!,J. V 'fiI' ,~.IL. 'C;UI,'(I .;Iij3

marked 'witb b~ui sb streaks, ,A,n blanks. d,isplay a, more or less wavy and curly grain, with those forms of rich fi,gll re tha t ate commonly designated as "roe' j' and "splash mottle, l]1 A vt'r,Y :ml'ne wood

',:b '.- "- .t'~~'1!...- .. , ..... ··:···t,'h"",- 'I 'I~'''t-''I''-' .,iI,",U' '. '-'t :·"--1;

\-V, _ en one ~,I:..:..UCS somet .1 n,g a ,.I. me tII.~..I,.!Jleren,. m a,

presentation stock.

Il!o a

.. -E- ~·ODElDV G' 'U- ·"8'···'-H,J"H_: ,tq' .'. - .. ~, "-."'1" 1_':'~'Yu -.'

,ad'vc",tisem,len,ts lo:f' several ,A mer itan, 'pur','ey'or:s, .0:[' seasoned blank .. s of Anlerica,Jl, 'wood" I ha VI! found these equally reliable. Figure 49 illustrates ri,De, blanks,

There are a nu mber of our. native: 'woods. w'hlch havlf' been, used a various t imes for gun, stocking. The ,e,3Hd"Y American gunsmiths were partial to hard maple eS,peci:a;Uy when they cO'U ld obtain those beautiful freaks 0'£ nature 'which w'e call "curly fllQ,plle?" and i:'~:b:~rd~s .. eye maple," There 'was good

II .'l!.. '.' 'I; 'IIi ,- , lU...'m L

reason ~o:r uns. ,J." apw.'e' has many valuable ICJ,1l8,r-'

acteristlcs; it Is strong, close-grained, and in its own particular way J ha n dsom e. \V'j th a, pro f usion of' brass trimmings it toned quite' well, It does not harmonize nearly as 'wen,t however, with the blue of' our modern steels and colorful case-hardenlnsr,

- ,~

Its ,Ugh t color makes it ,1\ bi t too conspi CUI~)US i.u

the 'woods, and in my' opinion it gi ves up most of

... b - hen s ~ '- ~, , ,-- d"

, .' • 1 ...' - • I' j" " :- •••• -.~. - .. j 1 • ," • -. . .'. -:- . . •• ,. - '. ,~ •. -. '.. • _ ..'

Its beauty wt en stained to a. darker COlor. It __ oes

not tone down attractively by age) and It is par ... dcular1.y susceptible to the rot'Um.g effects 0" Iubri ... , cants, seen becomi ng' ,U dnteyj"" when i mpregnated,

The selection of a wood depends upon the personal taste' of an Indi vi dual ~ Some like the Amerlean black walnu t, of he rs the' forelgn walnut, and s,tiU others admire such. woods, as cherry, an'p-I-Ole

- - . - - - . . "- . it'" ' - "

'----;-'~.r"Iilg.; .... ,'-- .. ' '-'. -',11 It,.' A····. list nit: .11] theweod

mana _,n,ny, n13,Pd~'", e re, " " ,J 1- -'Ii,., vi. ,a.~, ne WOO_ s"

not only :(10[' gun stocks, but hllay,! and cabinet

.. - -_l~ - ··,t·· . "-", c· -, -, h-- c'~.- t"''1)..- .' ider .- , ... m.. b -. t"" .

wo fK.,:, if; " C,." may . I. iel,p ne rea: er ~O mane r e ter

selectio'D'S,., Some o,f the wood.s, can be 'used :f or

p~ "'., 11-.11 ----- .

......... penmen l~aJJ purposes,

1;;he, l,"e'~ghts given i:n l:his, tha.ptcr 'On, woods a:re t:b,e 'tYlel,glll$ 'per' Icubi,c :foot in, po;g nd,s,. The lde'a~, 'weigh t ,0 f '\vood fo:r a gun s t,,~ck is b~~reen 3 i ,and

- d 'N - • ~

48, poun.';$ ,per cu'b-ic foot Ad. slJbstances are

judged. b,Y tbis me'ihod; a:nd the gunsmith :must also judge his :stock b~a'nk. by this :r'ume,~, All figu'r'!e,s, are taken 1n the: d:t'y' s'tate~

Almond 'Wood ' ..... We'ight 42 pounds~ Cuba" In te'xture t w,e"i.gh t i and. general c harac ter it re'min.ds one: of' Cuban. ma:nogany, bu: t di if ers grea Oy from

Ambo:yan - '~le:ight 3,9 pounds, Borneo, Tbe name A 't:I,O(J'~J/jn. air ,K iabora lfcuxl hi a,npl.lied to, eer-

lr?'~ ,F_.

,,. . ...,,;', . l ... 1 . -. ,~ ... , - "',. d 1":, . ·tl· ... - ~ ~~' I' .- -- ,'." (' " ..... '.11.. d- ,'j, - 01'

lain eurrs 1 m,pOId;!. JJro,rn, I •. l.e ,1"'.10, UCC,8)S 1 .• ,U1C~,U. mg

A - - k - - "- ,,) - -- d '-B' """ Th- .,..JI '!' - br "

. mooyanj an ,Iorneo., ,Ie' 'WOOu. D'S __ rown

tinged wi:t,h, yellow or red, but changes with age to, a dull brown-leather color, It is marked with little twisted curls a nod' k mots ']'"n· " "".i m nanner sim -. '1""1,1i"i1'. to b. ill"l'·

"'-".IJ~ ~. - _ ~I~. . . ,'.' '[ I _ I~ I I Q ., ~·Jjlll I ~ iIJi· , . .Il g I. . t:.. ~I _ u,~

. . . - '~'. ,.' d· t 'L" bi - ,..;a[ ~'. . c ' c· ,--- .. -, ,-, _'] 411 ,-'Il,"',j'h th a.

,mo,re \! ,alin~- _' . ua.n.'1 .. lr~ s-e;ye m,al"p ,~i.T1·1!l,\,- •. _u .... ;

- '~ .. , - d ,. ,"'t ,.' d" :·'ffi:-O-: ']-'it< .,. dl'" ·t] . ~ ''i." b-' 'i ···it .. - th ..

naseo eye it J.'S . .~ lieu .!N.. II,jO 'I:S to: U~ S~)J, I et ween _ ne

burrs 0:£ Arnboyan wood and. 'Thuya, or even y'ew;, but tho the burr' wood '0 f the yew is similar' to tha. t of the other two as regards color, it Is, neverthe-

1· .. ' -. -, - 'l:'k-:J" ·t-1!..'I- ,~, r all .- -,·t<h· :,: 'r'n· !n·n;i"!·.-,- A: .. Ib-·' ~ ,.c- . I

,ess, un.l:ce . nem lD al,_ 0 _, ,e,r I (.,s,~!(.,1;,..~s,., .. , ,mo,yalll

wood has been :f:'r,ee'~y' utilized 'in, the 'manu f;actU'~e

f 'iii ~ f .' - d I' th t, ..

0- ' ornamental Of' cosuy turmture ano "or 't ,'e' mte-

. d . .. Th' .' d '.

nor c ecoranons In motor cars, L-tS woo: 1.5 very

fi ne for decora tion on firearms such as forearm tips, 'pis tol-gri p caps, and j nlays, It is rather expe , -'D' e ~Vi:. e ': ~ I ~ r\O'~' p-- ieces

~'d _' . I ~l~ ", l~~" "~ "'CI'\ir " i'Y- ~~l!!

iB'· ,·.it 'W·' ,:,':' aod ,_ '1.:11 .' .. ~' ·t' i!::in, p' - , I''':~''' 'B· "O;;Io'~'~L, an d

, . ee,I_·_ 00,.· . "f~ e~,glll _' ;;)'':1 ,_.-OUDuS,.. . rh,.J,~ aLe_·

Dutch. Guiana, The wood from B ri tish Surinam

.' th - b .. ' st ,- .1[,",{-',,: 'l,ji '"": .. ,. d 1,11'1 .11' U -'iii: ,--·d' color

IS ,e I-es. quallly.. '" IS a __ u,U, p~lllm, ,re __ 'I.r--V\ .,.

d ,.' h'·' i 'b't h r-'

>- _- ,~--. t' 11'-,1 'C"].:" ..• ~ ... "" • "," 1 .. :....1." .• _"~'I" 'I\.<~'~I '_ . : ,"_ ']':j",' ····:__·~·ll.

,an. , 1.1), t,lS reS,pee t SOllne·w, ~al ,re,se:,m,_i es ,[,jill W ,_ ce, .'

It is ,8 vcr.Y' d.ur.ab~le wood, 3l,nd :sta,nd's ,e"ptOlsur,e,. It is one 0 f the best woo d'S. :for ,cDe,an~ Dg ;o>rods; handl,es,~ and uther useful articles) because '\-vhen it i's, ttlf,n,ed thi n :i t :is sd]] VElry strong~

,A:p:pla, ~ 'United .sbites~ This bas :its ind,ru:'v:;du.al quaJUlcatio,ns,~ It l's it 'v,er.y .ctose .. grwned wood and most homogen.eous.. It i,nlets beautifully' because of its matted fiber ~ It works well and .is a strong

, - -,-.-·--·:--d" b "t, h--·· -:- -- ... '---··-I't-' ,,--- 1 'b, -... t', 'b···!1'· .. .-.,. t· ,., I ~,:

woo,~ .c.lJ.~ I,:as no n3_lilratau-y;, ,elng· nen ,ra. III

Fig" 511

CQUbcr 18 .. 5, mm .. :~Ueyt ,a~Uon~ t'wlEm.1Y~Bix~'I.~~h 'bCQllel :ftled,e' DY Bicjb:r,., :S,t,oclc oj ,pl,alo, Fred wam~l

SELECTION OF WOO,DS

color and devoid. o:f' smamental gain or figure" It is. not on the general market and consequently is hard to. come by ..

:Bedd ~ Weight 46 to 58 pounds, India., The heart woad is. very dark red, very hard and close ... grained, beautifully mottled with. light and dark, Le ~, black and orange s treaks, It seasons well, works and polishes admirably, and is, d~.stinctly one of' the finest and most beautiful woods in India. This wood can. be usee for a stock on a rifle or shotgun when one, wisih.es somethieg just a little different.,

B's'u,·II'e' ': ~ w,' " ",:"",7 h' S'" , ","",' 'W' est C",[II'"ri( st ' f ._', ,I ',. - lell_,_I_" o po n s,., ~,' ,rdasl: 00"

I ndia , Tbi 5 'wood is ,I, lV,Itm, b:r'O'wn color simi:~ ar' to that 0.1 black. walmu't", and has a smooth close texture and straig:'ht ,grain. .. , l't :15 hlgb~y' 5uitab e for decorative fumitare and gun stock Si', and could be used. wh~'re black wa~ nut is required. This wood

·1' ~ ._.':1_ ._1... k • ...lI t'}

W,l I take cnecs enng ve'ry reao 1"1 ..

Blackhean ---- We,i_ght 40 pounds, New South W'ales, Queensland, The merits -0 f thi s timber are well known In Austral La" and. some 0 fit ,i s . sent over here and sold as, myr tle for gun stocks. 'B lack ... bean or Castenospe» .tllum Am,trale has an. attrac ... tlve appearance showins various shades 0:£ brown traversed w:ith black streaks, and IS, often beautifully 'mottled so th.at it resembles slightly bleached East Indian walnut. A gun stock of this wood is rather beautiful, It works well 'with edge tools,

'Bllackwoo .. ;. ,A;friJcCDl ,_ \\',eigbt 89 pounds, Trop:[lcal. A:'f:r,ica~ This is, a dark, purple plumcolored wood, no"'· imported from M'oz,a,mbi'que and the least coast o:f: Afd .. ea, known ,1;01' this reason as, If,o,;z'ambr,ane' ebony, It is· m,Qs;Uy suited 'for turning, as, it i:s ve'ry' hard" close, a:nd r ree from pores, but not des'll'·· clive' to the tools. '\ll,en they :are in proper condi'Uon, the wood, receives a brilliant polish, It is con sidered -f reel from any rna tter that wiU cause 'rust 0.11, this HCOOUiit it is used Ior the handles of surgeo ,.' Instruments, 1 tis used

also for fine inlay work on firearms; forearm tips,.

II 1 ~ --h· dl f- f to' 1 d 'II

pisto -grip caps" ! an _ .. res or me tc 0 5, an .. ;' grips

for side .. arms.

The blackwood of Aus tralla is just half the weight of the African blackwood, and in color it varies from a rich reddi sh brown to nearly black ~ banded with golden brown; sometimes "t is brown and red with dark streak 5~ and may show' a metallie luster, Its grain. is close. and often curly" and

it appears to be' somewhat cross-grained, so that '> the wood often shows a beautiful figure and mottle, Thi s class 0 f wood is, used more fO:1" fine cabinet

k h ish d k ..;j'"' ,

w()r , w, ,. eu OIO,lC wts :,', ,8, ~.. . -;_3'f,1 :" 'WOOu ,lD aD lexce'p· ...

, ,

,. j fi d Thi- 'iI< f' th t

tiona . ,yo 'I -,n,e: pro': uct, ,,' IlS IS, one O'i' " I. e stronges

.~ . .l' . .1 'b ' ~ill dl ~

"VfOiOCl,Sj ann can, oe success UI.Y usee m many ,aYSI

'w'he:n strength is r,equ~'rled ~

',L'" ~~ . b

leelen ' U'.rute'd Sta tes, Th:ws has proba:b~,y' neen

the commonest su stitute Ior walnut in gun ~!OtJik by hack woods gunmakers. It 'was a very usual

. r' ad' ~ the e Id~ milit ,-",' .-. k-' ets ~ f: , . ll ..... ~' 1',·, d· ~"0.,· In ,U~ 0 mur ary muskets 0 muzzie- oaamg

days, It ,is ~. servi-ceable wood '~o~ Its strong qual~ iti It I f- ~ ht d h ~ t 1.-. d 1 aes, "IS 0_ proper wetg :.:, an. as an In enaceo

fine grain that permits close work without danger of splitting. It is neutral in color and devoid 0'£ natural beauty'. It is purely utilitarian and is never 'used when better woods are available,

Birch - United States, This; 1 ike cherty t bias: many' fine characteristics, It is. a strong', firm wood, pleasant to work. with and amenable to a good fi n ish" It is ,gcHlcrallV' ,8 vailable in seasoned stock : someti mes a freak p~ ,·lauk di:spla~ '~od

I ' , [J loll O'U--

markings, but this is unusual. It has no natural

bea.ul~l~ but cen be stained tOI tbe color of 'waln.ut [' r mahogany 'v@',ry : e.aIUy· an I successfu ly" -S'tai'lll~ ru ng, however j req u~ ~'i', s a varnish fi.'ni'sh" ann, tJl1 i s ~ not to be' recommended.

Che'IIY' ___, '~lelght from 3,3 to 4S 'po(~lnds'!United Sta tes Europe, Asia M'l nor ;0 Thls wood when n'rst cut. is light red 01 pink, has a close firm texture, and is capable of a very high sur face' polish, Ir is mostly 'Used for chair' making and for 'the . batb; of

88

THE MODERN GUNSMITH

brushes when stained with lime" oiled, and varnished, It is also used tor common and even the

b - t Iurnit re -Th' -_ . od ' 'f th ' '1-.1 ckh ' rt ' h --- -

CS' . , __ . - l-u_e.. _ e woo-: U 'k e u_ac ._.' e·a.r, c' ,erry

tree is con si de red the best grade ~ Thi s wood was u sed by the ear ly Ameri can gunmakers. There seemed to be a fad exi sting between 183 a and 1860 for cherry stocks on the muzzle-loading rifles of those dates, 'when these rifles were made by the backweodsrnen themselves. Cherry is a much easier wood to work than curly rna ple. I have seen a number of such stocks on these antique arms a nd could not help bu t adrni re their bea 1(.1 t Y'J as the workmen had finished the wood by various methods, Today, with our advanced knowledge of woods, 'we would not care to stock a ri fle wi th a cherry b'l ank t

ll'itd C herry-« "r eigh t 4.1 po un d 5 ~ IT ni te-d States.

This too had its admi rers, and ·\V hen i twas plen ti ... · ful, which it 'was until thirty or forty years ago, th ere wer e opportuni ti es· to selec t pi eces of good

C·u.rly Asb. _, Weighs sa. pounds, 'United States.

This j s a most. bea utiful wood when you can find one of the 10 gs whi ch ex hi bi t thi s u:nu 5 ual bu t marvelous figure, Ash varies greatly in its weight

- , - d de -, 'en".o, ~', - -I' t ~ e a· strone - . 0' '0 d f: '0- 'r ~ ,t s -, rei eh t"

·an', u: ns ...... ss.. " loJl . .;!'IL., ·~~o W ' ' , ',' 'I 1 .. 'V\". 6 ""., ..

d his i 'L..... ~ .. 11 for i I

an t.IS IS why It IS III universal use or implement

handles, It is usually coarse and straight grained, t\VO characteri s ti cs which make it u n-fi t fa r a good stock wood, It is also lig'llt in color and so is ,generally unpopular in gun work ~

E-b' 0' ny A-- - 4.";1" can' 11 'ei g- ht ..... S pound S' 1:1" 0 st

.'.:,. ~_ ; _", U,~., -t ~. -.' ~ ,"It '1':.' .: ~ I~ ,:-' ,.-v..: ',".- "1" '~t.1 ..

COalS t o-f A fti ca .. - This wood is sen t over in bil ~ ets and short logs with the centers le f t in ~ The bill ets are from about .5 to 1. 0 inches wide and from. 2 to 7 inches thick :' the logs from 2 to 13 inches in diameter, Caboon Is a good black ebony of fine grain, Ebony is a handy wood to have around the gun sh op, for it is. possible to do so many inlay jo b 5 wi th thl s black wood, par ti cular 1 y when used wit h ivory to offset the wood. You can not make

\

Fi.q" 52

Willi'am Ford 2:0-q;ulIJQe d'e!Uble~ Fle5toc:~ked with be,a.u tiEu'l p:ie·ce of French. wa]n'ut 0'. 'LuiuiSual iligu'ze au,d COlOI'.r ,anel

. peded m.crJdnqa. OD bo·1h sides

color and texture which made' r a ther g-ood stocks. Wild cherry is a hard firm wood with little grain, and it is a delightful wood to work with, as it cuts clean and takes a good polish ,. I t a lso, w hen dry, is very stable, It is not a strong wood! usually has. very ]j t tle figure, is o f ten 'marred 'by "gum pockets," an d nowadays. is scarce in 11l.OSt In arkets,

Cocobolo -- Weight .8.S pounds. Tropical South and Central America, 'The striped heart-wood. shows a] terna tely bri gh t or ange and. deep red ban ds, th e latter bein g 0 ften s treaked wi th d ark, or even black velns, Its rich" handsome appearance someti mes 'has the e ffect, 'both as to color and markings, of tortoise-shell, It is hard and heavy and yields a fine fini sh. Wh en well po li shed this is, a brlgh t. wood and is used lot such parts as forearm tips, inlays, pistol grips for revolvers, also handles for fine tools.

a more beautiful pistol grip 0:£ any other wood. when you inlet elongated pieces of ivory' about J.h inch wi de through the center of a. cap, for it stand s out 50 distinctly wi th an i vary' cen ter

HoUy- Weight 47 pounds, Europe. This wood is w hi te to gray ill shad e, is exceedi ng 1 y close ... grained .J n tex tu re, and capa ble of a very Ugh t sur ... f ace puB sh + H.o 11 y is c hie fl y valued Io r inlay work and is the whitest and most costly of woods, When fi ne walnut ] s inlayed into holly it gi ves a fine con tras ting effect,

Mahogany·~Africa., Cuba, Central America., Honduras, West Indies, This wood might suggest itself to. many of you, owing to. its universal appeal in the best ca binet wor k ~ I t is eas ll y the- ki ng 0 f cabi net "10005,. It has, in some varie ties" the utmost beauty in grain and color, ranging from

SELECT,ION OF WOODS

U"ght cherry to reddish brown, and is reliable, for w'he.n sea soned It "stays put." Mahogany is really it generic name, for it is the product of a number

~ l..... 1] .' disti Th h

OJ[ trees, botamcally quite distinet. ' ie rna, tog-

any of commerce ranges all the way from the' soft plain "buy wood" of Honduras to the hard, beau-

· f 1 S D · hl h ~ I

tl'U,',:an ".,onungo, type wmcn is now aimost

unattainable, The African varieties are also splen .. did cabinet woods, often with fine figure, but do not possess the lovely color 0'£ the West Indlan varieties r It wo uld be folly to say that there were not odd specimens of 'mahogany that would meet the: gunmaker's requirements admirab ly, but thl s would only be the exception that would prove the

1 th t h ' .. t ~ t bl t ial f

- I : ,_". . 1-······ l "," .... :. 1:-'.' ,"" :'1' '. .." .. I.,' .:.-. _. . . "l,'

rille . ~L rna ogany IS no a suirac e rna en _ ·or

stocks.

M'aple ....... ,''tV'eight .38 pounds" United States and Canada. The best is always asked for' and sometimes obtained. Jt is termed in specifications "hard, white, rock maple." A considerable quan ... H ty is found with a curly, t\vi sled grain J and is known as, ,'i cur I': " or ':'" bird' " -e: ~ ~ e In a I e ~, T, 11 is

_, _._. . ,Y .. , . s .y. ", "p. ~ '" 5

variety is much in demand for veneers and deco ... rative work. A particular variety of a wavy, curly g'[ ai n wi thou t bi rd j. s-eye markings has also been

89

can Stink-wood _, N early all the wood imported into the, United States and sold as myrtle is tbe

A 'I- b I- .... it-,Il... 'r-'1Il.. + '. 1,' d'

,tt S tra ian o acxnean ~ '. 1w 15 species 0 I WOO. 1 S

very eas y to war k. wi th edge tool 5." takes a beau ti ful po lish, and checkers we 11. The grain ru ns verv close and is of a fine texture. These woods. have' come nearer than all -0 ther tropical 'woods to the standard set by walnut. But for various diff eren t reasons they must stand asi de and bow to his majesty, "Royal Walnut,'

Osage 'O,range ~ Weight 48 pounds, North America. The wood is a. bright shade of orange" deepening' with exposure to air and light, It is, ra ther 1 us tro us and very pliable and elas ti c, The fruit is green, orange-shaped. and large" with a very warty appearance, and late in the fall of the year the fr ui t s ti.ll hangs, to the tree, I t would be well f o r one- li ving in a district ,y here these trees grow to cu t and cure one', for' it is useful in the construction of bows to take the place of yew; in fact, it ~ k L 4 d' c (bow w ood) It ts alse

1.- IS 'nown.as vOtS' aT .. ' " >'. ' :. _,N

for ramrods for muzzle-loading rifles,

'Oak ,- Weight .52' pounds. United States, This grand timber' has great quali ties, but none of them

called. "papapses wood,' ~ and t hi 5 is. in demand f'o r gun stocks at the present time. The early American rH1 e makers all d gu nsmi ths u-sed this VI a vy ~ c'mly grain on their best stocks from the flintlock to the percussio n period. In those days maple seemed to be the, wood mostly used even for d1C finest furniture. I have 'made up rifle stocks from this class of wood" but do 'Dot encourage a pro-

tl ' , ~. ~. h h d

spec uve customer to use It, as It ts so mue ' nan er

to work than the, walnuts, I 'must admit tho that there' seems to be- something in our b100d that

l',", d' ~ hi d f h '·B ck

... K_'. . ... tr ',-,. '-' .' . -

ma .es us ae mire t: IS woo, or W:.· en a rn e sto,.·

4' d f' fl' ] ~ f' I ~ d

- ," -,:- -. , l , - ". '. .- - ',. ~ . ·'l·.'· ."; '1' - - ,- ._ -.... .:' -. - .. ""'.. . 'I . . I' I . - 'I ." '. .

IS rna. e rom a . ne curry piece 0 map e, It slan· s

out and apart from all other 'woods"

such as would recommend it for gun work. O,f all the oaks, the wood of th.e live or evergreen. oak of the Son them Sta tes dou btl ess lends itsel r best to gu n wor k ~ as it is very tough and closer .gt"ai ned than the deciduous varieties, Oak." however, Is a wood fur large surfaces and "big" uses It '~~, not

... . - ,;I, . .,' . - _', ,OJ< . ..,. , 1.;;!I , 7

in nature's scheme" a wood for little things, but it is chief of our native woods, that might, in '3 pinch ,. be used as gun stocks, N one, 'however; are

l~ n ,a.ll ways as go' · •. ood. 3'.· nd few' :in any W~ ~ay:· as eood

i!;,;! , . • ' , . ',' ,- . :0. .... W-;t

as walnut.

Padulca - Weight 5'3 to S9 pounds, Burma.

This wood 'is the product of the true forest pad-uta tree. The' wood varies in. color from a bright yellO'wisb red to a dark brick-red and 'is sometlmes

I'~ 'H'-E-' .M·O··,D, p.n~'i' C',· "01 'N' ',5' Jl~H': ..

,.,,~ ~ i ,I,q, ',,·.nJ,11 ",','., I" l:Ta,I,:__ ,:._:

:F:w, " :5,4,

Resloek.d Kra,' :rUl!e." .Mc:dLel 1.:8918, :Spl:iD!rfie,IDd." :lhMl:Ull~bl]. sb~ cl:. of: ·I;~c·b'~,· ·U;pI·ed 'C~moa;ssia. wO']lIwu'L M'o~e, por!'e:d

- :Iinu:t'ar,• 01: gr,olD ia .e ·woad. '

streaked with brown, F or any one who likes red; this class o.f woo d has the proper shade wi th dark streaks.

P8rsim.·mO.D Wood. - Wei,ght 49 pounds. North America, This is the ebony of America. Persimmon wood is the most sui table for shut t Ie s, because it wears -:S'mooth,,~, is . hard, strong, tough and of (he proper ·w,e·i.g;bt. Sometimes the amateur gu nsmith is a, g:o]_f en thuslast j' and it is a hard matter 'to fmd a better wood than this :for- golf-club heads, 'Very rarely a few pieces are fou nd that have a handsome marking of light yellow, brown, and almost black streaks, The nearest resemblance to this can be 'found in a selection. of 'highly striped ebony or coromandel wood.

.Plu·m""'" \V,ei,gbt 54 pounds, Europe, There are m",a,ny wUd. species I~Jf plum ~ bu t ,a.~ I 3J·,e· more or

] · ~'] '1'" h d ..:all d i

ess 5;~.m·ha.r.,t .1S, ,3, 'v',er'y nan some WOOru all. I IS

not 'vI.1 ued as, :twigbly a 5 its, undou bted q UtiJ ities deserve, It is a reddish brown with darker and Ugh ter streaks of the same color and is occasionally varied. by some yellow ~ No. tree of this nature should ever 'be wasted or burned, even in America, as it frequ ently can be used by the gunsmith for some decorative work on gu n cabinets an d to carry out other ideas which come along from time to tlme.

,Rosewood ......... Weight 53 to 6S pounds. Jndia, It is generally known as Eas t Indi a rosewood or as Mala bar or Bombay rosewood. I t is 81 so occa =a

S~ on ally - t erm - ad- B' '0, m b" a' y- b '1 a: c kw '0, '0-' d- . T'C:-'h-~- b co '1- or J'. Ii:!!

~, .:._" ct -,_:, -.","J I, .~ ... _ . I .. '! _ .' '. ',' ", . '~'" ":"'_''P. ..:...=. ,,~, ~ .. 'v"_ .. 1i.'J1

"" ,

varia ble, r angi ng Irom light red. to a. deep rich

purple, and streaked with every shade from golden .yeUo'w to, almost b lack, 'The chief use :fo(' this wood Is for furniture, as it takes au ,ex,;Oeed.i.lll.gl.y· fine :po~.ish.,. .It is so heavy that it is seldom used. solid in any but small articles, and is known to us chiefly i D venee rs, ] t Is very hard 'to! 'work J is brittle, and far too heavy for gun. stocking ..

Saline •. _ \Velght S4 pounds, French Guiana, This valuable hig·h_l.y decorative wood. reminds one of curly maple, except that t it is of greater beauty". The color Is a light red. which bleaches .2; n.ttle and assumes a 'v,ery bright l uster 0-[ sheen, ,es:pecial~ y' when treated 'W ifh. a thin transparent pol i sh, T~h.er,e' ]s aJ.w,ays, a s]lighUy marked, narrow shade' IOlt roe caused b.y the con tr ary soft and hard gt',ai.fi,. \V'i th this fi.gure in the wood, bea uti f ul s toeks tau be made up-s-stocks to delight the person who has a HId ng for fancy maple,

Walnut, European. - Weig.ht ·40 to 48 pounds, N i \V.. Hl In a] ay as; 41 pounds: S lkkhn, 3 S pounds .. Great Britain. France 11a1'-\,. Turkev, Caneasla

, ,.. - - , ..• ~' . n •• _ 'J! ... 'J :,, _.'.- - .... r!" ~ , e- -~ . ~-'"~'

India, Chi na ...

. fi.g;, 55

M1'ode,l 18918: Spd~,le,md remodeled,. 'Wood.. 'Y~rr pJa1:n pleet at' Am,eftcaa ••• ,

SEL,ECTION OF WOODS

91

In color this varies from light grayi.sn-brown to dark brown, I t is o ften tea versed by black and go iden or golden-red streaks a.nd s tripes ~ or i So beautifully mottled and shows a wavy, roe, grain,

'Il'~ 'I .'.. d

w a. nu t req uires some time to season, an:'

shrinks considerably during the process; yet when

b tl d" drvi ~ ..

su sequen ry' expose; to" rymg or moistenmg in-

fluences it stands up excellently, and it is exceedingly difficult., if not impossible, to find another wood possessing this attribute to the same degree.

growths showing black lines which curve and twist j 11. to, i antas tic shapes, . These i or ms are w ha tis termed (" blis ter l; or ,(; snail" flguFe~ Other un usual

markings. also occur, The color is somewhat similar to that of French walnut, but it nearly always has a golden tinge. By careful selection, a yellowish brown or golden tint can be 'Obtained which is quite unique, When this wood is caref ully selected it makes a very fine rifle or shotgun stock, rather ligh t in weight .

. , , •. '~f('f~fijWtj~;;~;'j:;:~~:, ~~l/Y~~fl;tt:Z's~,!'~~!

.... {'

. _,

,Fiq~ 56

Model 1. 9.03 Sprinqiield 'tifie re:mod,eled into sporUng' type,. 'Stock o~ French wttlnul.. no'l oJ the B:pe~t ficIur,!&. yet not" IGckin,g in chcugc:t,er

For this reason it is the best wood known for shotgun and rifle stocks. After the s toe k s ha ve been cut out and. shaped, the wood retains its form and shape exactly, so that the rifle barrel and receiver or the sho tgu.n locks -wi] 1 drop j n to thei r posi tic n and rest without bending the locks or throwing the barrel ou t uf line, No vari ation in climate affects thi S"

The combination of characteristics which con fer on walnut its reputation of being far the best wood for gun stocks may be summarized as follows:'

1~ Relative strength, toughness, and elasticity, which provide the power of resisting shock.

2,. Appropriate weight, which gives proper balance,

3 ~ ,R elati ve freedom 0 f the seasoned p )lished. wood from any shrinkage, swelling, or splitting when. exposed to wetness, dampness or heat.

4i Uniform texture and appropriate hardness, so that the wood is readily cut into delicate shapes, yet yielding a smooth surface which is easily

plugged by polish.~· ,,'

S. Hardness necessary to prevent the wood fro ITt being den ted ..

6~ Lack of brittleness or tendency to split, which decreases the- danger 0 f fragments of wood being knocked off ~

. .4 jrican nT alnu.t~ Weight 30 pounds, 'Vest coast of ... Africa, The woods which are obtained from Benin and Lago se show' a large portion s trongl y mark ed with. stripes or roe, which" tho sometimes straight, is more often broken up into irregular

Blac k lJralnllt-- -\'V'ei ght 31 pounds. Nor th _A mer ... iC:~L This wood is so familiar in this country that a de tall eel descr i ption would almost appear superfiUOU8., The color, which is of a more uniform tint than the European wood, is a rich purplish brown, The beauty of the color is, apt to deteriorate under the unfortunate and ill-advised use of shellac or French polish as employed by some of the arms companies: altho admirable for some woods, this is quite out of place 'with black walnut. ,A limited quantity' of burrs or "burl" is still obtainable at extraordinarily high prices 5 During the European war ~ black walnut, besides being- largely used for .ri fle sto cks, was employed to a great exten t for propeller 'blades for- aircraft, The demand was so great that supplies rapidly diminished,

The black walnut that comes from Texas, CaHfornia, and other States that have a hot dry elimate, is the best. The black walnut that comes from Ohio, Pennsy lvania, N ew 'y ork, Iowa, and other States where freezing weather occurs, is a

: very dark, porous wood, "Then working such wood )~OU will nq~:ise in the sunlight a fine crystal eff,ect~ The walnut 'that 1:s grown in the warmer climate and does. not freeze has the finest grain, Is much harder, an d 0 f a ligh ter figure, prom ding it. is grown on the high grou nd away from water 'where the soil is more or less, rock V'. Consider the stocks

....

on the Springfield service rifles: this class of wood

is caned the "Mississippi river bottom walnut": it is porous, a quality due to the low swampy ground and a quick growth, Thi 5 is a very f amili ar tree

92

THE MODERN G,UNSMrrH

Fig .. 57

CaUJ:~>e! .22 made 0:11 a Martini uetiCIl. Turkis'h wab1.lIL ibis, wood is very dense" h,ard" and s'b'aiqht..g:fcdnedi

in the rich lands of the Mi ssissippi 'basi n ; but because of the locality in which it is gro\v.n{ the wood has a figure that is not the best f or gun stocks in which you would take great pride, From the standpoi n t 0 i' beau ty t 11 ere iE 5 no t a waln u t th at can compare: with the Iereign wood s. True, some American or black walnut has a wonderful figure, bu t still you do not find the: rich color tha t you do in the Ci rcassian, French, Engli sh, or I talian wal ... nuts, These are more expensive, but are well worth the difference because of the dense grain and strength of the: wood" Whenever one wishes the best; he seeks the best, regardless of where it comes from or what the price, Black walnut is, all right in its place as a be au tifu 1 piece .of wood when given the special finishes supplied by all the gun manu facturcrs bt i- t, i f vou t rv to, sec .. ' u ,~ a fi nc oil

_ _ ~ _ _ _ ;",. U,~ _ _ yo _ _ y ~ _ .r\,. _ .

finish, it becomes very dark and. loses the effect it had before the oil was applied ~

Clrcassian Ul,alnut-- In. England the I talian wal =s nu t bas always held the reputation of. being the finest in quality" 'color, and figure; nevertheless, by far t'he 1 arge 5 it part: 0 £ th e 1)€:8 t wood in all respects is that comi ng from the Caucasus,

The walnut imported from Circassia has long been the best 1 and. especially tha t Ci rcassian which actually comes from, the district of' Poti, This supply of late- years has been much, reduced, and most of the so-called Circassian walnu t has in reali t.y b een Georgian, 1\1i ngrelian , Imere thian, Go urian, and A basian ~ all coming from dls tric ts

much farther east and farther distant from the seacoas t, The trad ers inwood in these co untr ies have been genera'lly very astute, and it has been exceedingly difficult, unless the trade has been ca rri eel 011 by Engn.shu1en, to discover the real source uf t.he sU,PP]Y,: as a result, many disputes and, difficulties have arisen ~ Every year the sup = ply becomes scarcer, while the quality deteriorates so that the walnut of the better class 'win soon become uno b tainable unless some new source- 0 f supply is found, This is the case 'with other valuable figured woods, as the greater part of the wood finds it 5 wa y in to furni tu re and si rnilar work i

Without examination of a great many samples of each kind it is impossible to distinguish any structural features characteristic of the wood 01 diff ercn t cou n tri es, for in the same country the wood varies considerably both. in this respect and j n weig h t ~ When you are working Circassian walnut you will find that you. can detect it among of her waln uts. Circassian walnut ru S 0 ne of th e II es t IN()('Hi s for glUl stock s, as it JEI.:S that ri C 11. b rnwn color ~th the dark lines well broken; and when you have a gun stork made fro In a piece that shows a -(0011- tail effect together with a mottled fig ure, YOU have one 0 f the most beautiful stocks that can

!I!P.

be sec ured ~ I use more 0 f this class of wood than.

any 0 ther for gun stocks, because even in the lower grades. the color is pleasing to the eye. Naturally, the British control the available supply of this "rood for ~'un stocks, but you can secure from

\

Fig'. sa

,Fmncoife 121tau.ge double shQlglll1!. S10ck oj' beautiful ClreaSisian wa!nut.. C'oi,ors raD.'qln,q h~ ,Je-ddiB!h cran,ge to: :bl,acli.

Wavy character' en botb .ides.

~'''','~~o··''' 0···· ,'[!!\Ii 'W:' [10'·. ····O· .. ··D-,~ g,~ JUll."l. ,r' ." .. ' _' Ull

England blanks of tllids wood at prices ranging' f rom four to forty dollars, and as the British are most upright people to deal with, you can always expect to receive true value,

East InrJian IVal'H.ut-Weight 47 to 60 pounds.

India, It is a hard ~ dense, close- grained wood of a dark brown 'color, with black and gray streaks. I t usually has it cur I y; wa:'iiY grain OJ [0 f ten ~ t contains. the characteristic figure of mahogany ~\fbiICh, is commonly known as roe and mottle, sometimes wit'h a, very pronounced and strongly marked f~,ddle mott Ie. The 'wood tlas a smooth yellow appearance, 1 t has been used in this country' for decorative work and furniture, especially by the Pullman Company in c'ua1tbes" where it is known by the names of Koko and Laurel wood, It is not, 'how ... ever, sui ted to some of the purposes to which European and American walnut is P'lI t~fO'r rift e stocks, for i [is tance, It Js too hard, brittle, and heavy' .. ,

E.'1J:g,liisA: 'JValnzt~:A, native 0 f' 'the temperate regions o[f' 'the northern. hemisphere, The:n uts of the various species are: well known, The 'wood vari es conslderably in quality ~ texture and color, according 'to the place and .s011. on. which the tree grows, ,1\ much larger proper lion than is usua Uy recognized of finely figured; blood-colored British wood can he obtained, Its commercial cul t ure in this country is practically confined to California, tho it is grown in llideJy sea ttered sections of 'the, country. A hardy variety is grOi\ltn ,in Oregon, The' E,:ng'~~s;h walnut of Europe' is[ of' the same species and :S]~j'ip:pled u nd er th e t rad e: name o:f EngU.sh wa1 nut, As this wood makes very fine gun. stocks, .it remains one of the most valuable 'Of woods. Ha vlng in mind the world ... wide demand and universal depletion of supplies, the planting of walnut trees should have an Important place in any future scheme of reforestation, 'F'Of those who ,Uve in a suitable climate with, land available, what better plan could be carried OU~: than 'h) plant these

trees along the llne fences for future generations? It is far' bet ter than a trust fund for those 'who are to inherit such property.

French Waln,ut-=rrhis wood Is for the most part light-colored and straight -grained, The relatively small amount of :fille.Jy figured French wood available is practically all absorbed by Paris and Marseil [1e.S. for' veneers, Recently a grea 1. amount o f deeora tive arch itectural work bas been exeeu 'Led in plain French 'walnut~ The qniet gray color ,a,hd s;tr,aight grain produce a dignified and restrained artistic e.fi ect and particularly suit the modern st y le of cabinet work '. You can alwa vs tell the French

- - ~

walnut that co mes from the southern part of

France, as this part of the country produces the fi nes t, a 1:1 d when it is possi ble to get a blank from this source of supply you must pay a high price for it,

l'[ta.liu;n; H! (l[Z'1Ult-----. UTh ~ le th rns is most general 11 1-' amed ;'n' I arch ].:~': "':~tut"~'1: and I other seeclfications it

.n,~ _""~'.' !II.._" ~~, r;., , ,1!t!E;!t:. lUI L, oJ], """ I!I. .. ~.~ ~~ ..... '''-''_lJ '!i.o,,-," ,~. ~,

is .actuaJ~y very rarely obtained .. , 'Formerly it. 1:0."" eluded a. large proper tion 0 i dark ... gr ai ned, figured wood, but 0 f Ia te years supplies of at, kin d 5 have: been greatly reduced and the quality In all respects has very In uch deterlora ted. What li 1 tl e Ttalian walnut is a vaila b Ie is of poor q uality ; i 1 is, In ue 11 better to use the best of Circassian walnut for the finest gun stocks,

[S'panis.lz "7 al.nu,t-:A regular hut not 3 large qU3J),'''' tity' of wood bas been imported, from Spain. The general qual it y and cond itions are the same as tbe French, from which .it is difficul t to dw:s.ti.:ng:u:ish" ex' .. , cept that on the whole "the shi prnents have, conslsted of sizes more irregular in width and length and contained more faults wi th a, much larger' percentaze of sap CWO" "0' d

i( b .. ,'1- ~:'____>l.-_ ":.:'!II'

Tu« kislz Walnut.-:This most nearly resembles the French 'w'alllut, but. includes. a greater proportion of figured wood, The last shipment coming in to this coun try' Vi hich I examined was a poor grade, and when a. we]] figured stoc'k was found

prig". 59

oR. 'Chmtas Dg)ey t:hre&>'oarreled 'qdit. :Stock of plizdn fl.pf&d French wl;dnUi

are often found to be thoroughly wet in the middle, Even if su ch logs are de: cri bed as seasoned 1 their w1iIlocl,(~ nnot be so descri ... :1. wben the ~.ug is cut np, The resu 1 f n.g pieces, i ncl udi ng the mois t center wood, 'win shrink and are liable to split ~ n the same manner as unseasoned pieces, Yet such ,; sea .. soned' ~ logs are very diff eren It in properties from . i reshly felled specimens, This is c] ear when it is remembered tha t:

.1 ~ I' eformation, '11\, arping, and cracking are in .. the beg~n.n;·ng caused b:y' .. remature rapid drying at the sur face,

.2 ~ , . ry wood is s tronger than wet wood; and

in mechan leal s truct ures the importan t rna t ter is to have the external part strong ..

,3" Wood-des troyi ng fu n gi, Cat usi ng rot, ga~ n entrance s 'lcly' 'L :-I'roiu,gh moist \l{OOd4'

·4" It is possible 'that ·""ood seasoned slO'~f]y' is superior in mechanical properties to 'woo d. rapidly seasoned, It is also certainly less liable to split d ur i ng seasoning ..

Thus the seasoned blanks on all gun worx, when obtained f rom the dealer as seasoned wood, she uld be p] aced ina warm, dry place and .n~iJrt used 'for a rJon~" die' ·a.ble. length 0 I. time. 'You Blust understand that gun. work a'S a hobby' is not taken up merely or six months or a year, but is continued over a period of years, There isevidence that wood first par tiall Y' seaso ned in the bulk. .a nd then fully seasoned after being sa wed is much inferior to that w'h:ic'h Is ·f el led ~ b rought straigh t. to, the: sa w'_ m ~'U) sa ~1·,e.d at once, then seasoned ,0 It is ·fa.r more. economical to, sea'S n blanks and small pieces

~ .

in f .. ,:', latter manner, The time required. to season.

walnu t properly varies so : 'rca tJ y according to the di fferen t kinds and sizes and. the: po sition in which it .is placed 1- that itt is im po ssible ~ almost, to lay down .!ny general rule ~ A very rough manner of reckonins has been 'ene·'f·,a."my· accepter J which. allows . ne year fOF' each inch of thic ~'.n@s, '" but this i'" not reliable.

TIle (] II es tion has 0 It ell ad sen, '~l.hi ch is bet ter-> natural or artificial seasoning? Artificial season ... ing ha ving .now been presen ted, com pariso ns can

94

THE .MOI.DERN GUNS,MITH

Fig' .. SO

J'oseph 1~q 12,~qauge trap gun re:S'Io~k6d with; fine ltaUan waJn.ut~ Charaet,er' Qlf WOQ:d PI' sents wavy gPIP ~ arClnc.e in. cert-~n lights

there was always ·a very definite defect somewhere ..

'Y"ew" :&iliab·~ '"!e:iiO"hl 41·8 'to SO pounds. Europe,

The <color is a pal. red somewhat like cherry ... woo d or pencil cedar. J t has a beau ti full smoo th, . lustrous grain" It 1S sometimes beautifully figured and occasionally has a 'burr growth, The product wil! 1 compare favor a. bly wi th i\,'m boyan j! and. has! ofte IlL been mistaken f r it, 'The' strength and. elasticity of' yew' wood l-Ias been known for centnrles particularly on. account of its use for bows, and of' course a number 'of amateurs who work on guns also make their own bows, so with this wood in mind you have the best, providing you can secu re the fine strong grain, As J~e'w wood ages it ecomes as bard as steel a. . .d has a dark. beautiful color.

y O-U. may 'not only secure " he well seasoned wood in blanks, but you may also wish to secu re the 'wood in the log as well and season it yourself. So it is wen to have a clear idea as to the meaning of the term. "seasoned," as particularly applied on one 'baud to a piece' of wood, small in thl ckness, and on the other hand to a log or' beam ~ The S111a 11 piece 'w·hen. seasoned ms Jl1'0["e or less dry rr,onl the outside to the. core, whereas the wood of the "seasoned ~,. log is by 'no mean s necessarily so. Thi Slatter fact is rende 'ed cornprehensi ble by a CODsideration of the sequence of events during the seasoning of' a log. While the log has been exposed to suf.rN::ie'.nd.y d.ry· air, .] 't loses w·a ter by the evap 0- ration which ta~,es place over the: whole surface, but most actively at the two ends, ""hen. the bark is left on the log, evaporation is excessively 'slow, sa ve where there are cracks or at the ends, As the mois tu re is lost at the sur face, the drying-up superficial wood receives water from the interior i B ut as time' goes on, it. receives less, and less; the log t: .- en, when. proteete -'. from outside moisture, ,3.8-' eumes .8; condition in which. it Is relatively dry' externally' and rela t[ ve y moist in the Ill} j d dl e ~ Th is condition may endure for years, possih ly for decades 1'f the wood is d ense ~ Thi ck wa 1 '1'1 U t t 1"' unks when cut open a. Iter bel rig' stored indoors for years

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