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Principles of Topology Fred H. Croom The University of the South o's CENGAGE Learning” Australia + Canada + Mexico « Singapore « Spain « United Kinadom « United States Principles of Topology Fred H. Croom © Fred H. Croom This edition is reprinted with license from Fred H. Croom, for sale in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sti Lanka only. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher ISBN-13: 978-81-315-0465-9 Cengage Learning India Private Limited Alps Building, 1” Floor 56 — Janpath New Delhi 110 001 Tel: 91-11-30484837/38 Fax: 91-11-30484834 Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For product information, visit www.cengage.co.in Printed in india by Baba Barkha Nath Printers First Indian Reprint 2008 PREFACE This text is designed for a one-semester introduction to topology at the un- dergraduate and beginning graduate levels. It is accessible to junior mathematics majors who have studied multivariable calculus. The text presents the fundamental principles of topology rigorously but not abstractly. It emphasizes the geometric nature of the subject and the applications of topological ideas to geometry and mathematical analysis. The following basic premise motivated the writing of this book: Topology is a natural, geometric, and intuitively appealing branch of mathematics which can be understood and appre- ciated by undergraduate students as they begin their study of advanced mathematical topics. A course in topology can even be an effective vehicle for introducing students to higher mathematics. Topology developed in a natural way from geometry and analysis, and it is not an obscure, abstract, or intangible subject to be reserved only for graduate students, The usual topics of point-set topology, including metric spaces, general to- ological spaces, continuity, topological equivalence, basis, subbasis, connectedness, compactness, separation properties, metrization, subspaces, product spaces, and quotient spaces, are treated in this text. In addition, the text contains introductions to geometric, differential, and algebraic topology. Each chapter has historical notes to put important developments into an historical framework and a supplementary reading list for those who want to go beyond the text in particular areas, Chapter 1 introduces topology from an intuitive and historical point of view. This chapter also contains a brief summary of a modest amount of prerequisite rial on sets and functions required for the remainder of the course. Chapter 2 tes the rigorous presentation of topological concepts in the familiar setting of the real line and the Euclidean plane. Chapter 3 takes an additional step toward general topology with the introduction of metric spaces and treats such topics as open sets, closed sets, interior, boundary, closure, continuity, convergence, com- pleteness, and subspaces in the metric context. Euclidean spaces and Hilbert space are emphasized. The core of the course is Chapters 4 through 8. Chapter 4 extends the ideas of Chapter 3 to general topological spaces and introduces the additional concepts of basis, subbasis, topological equivalence, and topological invariants. The topo- logical invariants discussed in Chapter 4 include separability, first and second countability, the Hausdorff property, and metrizability. Chapter 5 treats connect- edness, with particular attention to the connected subsets of the real line and to applications in analysis. This chapter also introduces the related concepts of local connectedness, path connectedness, and local path connectedness. Chapter 6 deals