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Analysis – I 1

LECTURE-2(sec – 1)
Definition-: (Bounded above set) - A set S ⊆ IR is called bounded above
set . If there exist a real number µ such that

x ≤ µ ∀ x∈ S

Definition -: (Upper bound of a set) - A real number µ is called an upper


bound of a set S ⊆ IR

Iff x ≤ µ ∀ x∈ S

1 1 1
EX -: S = {1, , ,
2 3 4
} is bounded above by ”1” and hence 1is an upper
bound of S.

1 1 1
Ex -: S = {1, , , …………} is also bounded above by 1
2 3 4

1 1 1
Ex -: S = {-1, − , − , − ………..} is bounded above by 0.
2 3 4

NOTE -: In this example 0 ∉ S

Which means upper bound of a set may or may not belong to


the set .

Bounded below set -: A set S ⊆ IR is said to be bounded below if ∃ a real


number ‘ µ ’ such that
µ ≤ x ∀ x∈ S

Lower bound of a set -: A real number ‘ µ ’ is called a lower bound of a set


S ⊆ IR

If µ ≤ x ∀x ∈ S

Bounded set -: A set S is said to be bounded If it is both bounded below


and bounded above.

Unbounded set -: A set is said to be unbounded if it is not bounded.


Prepared by-: Sanjeev Kumar Shukla
ALPHA
PLUS EDUCATION
9
718445143
Analysis – I 2

EX -: S = {x : x ≥ 0} is bounded below but not above and hence is not


bounded.

Lower bound of S= 0 and has no upper bound

1
EX -: S= { n : n ∈ IN} is bounded above by 1.

NOTE -: A real numbers ‘ µ ’ is not an upper bound of a set S

If ∃ y∈S: y>µ

EX -: S={1,2,3,4,5} µ = 3 is not an upper bound of S as ∃ y = 4 ∈ S : y


=4>3=µ

Few more example -:

(i) n +1 3 4 5 7
{ ; n ∈ IN } ={2, , , , ,........}
n 2 3 4 6

(ii) {(−1) n n : n ∈ IN } = {(1) −1 , (1) −2 2, (1)−3 3.......}

(−1)n 3 2 5 4
(iii) {1 + / n ∈ IN } = {0, , , , .......}
n 2 3 4 5

1 5 10 17
(iv) { n + / n ∈ IN } = {2, , , ,.........}
n 2 3 4

(v) IR+  
→ is bounded below by “0” but is not bounded above

(vi) ]1, ∞ [ is bounded below by “1” but is not bounded above.

(vii) { Ø } is not even a subset of real numbers.

Ans -:
(i) Is bounded above by 2 and bounded below by 1.

Prepared by-: Sanjeev Kumar Shukla


ALPHA
PLUS EDUCATION
9
718445143
Analysis – I 3

(ii) Is not bounded.

(iii) Is bounded below by 0 and bounded above by 3/2.

(iv) Is bounded below by 2 and is not bounded above.

Supremum of a set -: Let S be a non empty bounded above set then a real
number µ is called supremum [ or least upper bound ] of S If and only if.

(i) x ≤ µ ∀ x ∈ S (µ is an upper bound of S).

(ii) If V is any other upper bound of S then µ ≤ v.

And it is denoted by supS = µ

Theorem -: Supremum of a set if it exists is unique .

Proof -: Do yourself

NOTE-: Supremum of a set may or may not belong to the set

1 1 1
Ex -: S = {1, , , …………} supS = 1 ∈ S
2 3 4

Proof -: clearly 1 ≥ x ∀ x ∈ S .Also If ν < 1 then as 1 ∈ S ∴ν cant be


an upper bound of S and hence any number smaller then 1 can’t be an
upper bound of S∴1 is least upper bound of S and hence is supS.

Remark -: Greatest member of a set, If it exists, is always the supremum of


the set .But sup of a set may not be a greatest member of set.

1 1 1
EX -: S = { − / n ∈ IN } = {−1, − , − ,.........}
n 2 3

0 = supS

1
Let µ < o we can choose n ∈ IN : µ < − < 0
n

Prepared by-: Sanjeev Kumar Shukla


ALPHA
PLUS EDUCATION
9
718445143
Analysis – I 4

1 1
As − ∈ S & − > µ ⇒ µ is not upper bound of S as µ < 0 being
n n
arbitrary, we get no real numbers less than ‘0’ is an upper bound of S. or o
≤ every upper bound of S.

⇒ 0 = supS.

Infimum -: Let S be a non empty bounded below set. Then a real number t
is said to be Infimum of S, if and only if.

(i) t ≤ s ∀s ∈ S .

(ii) If α is any lower bound of S then t ≥ α.

Infimum of a set S is denated by Inf(S)

Theorem -: Infimum of a set if it exists is unique.

Proof -: Do yourself.

Lemma -: A number µ is the supremum of a non-empty set of S Iff µ


satisfies the conditions.

(i) s ≤ µ ∀ s ∈ S

(ii) If ν < µ , then there exists s ' ∈ S such that ν < s ' .

Proof -: First assume µ = supS

⇒ s ≤ µ ∀ s∈S

If ν < µ as µ is supS ⇒ µ is l.u.b and hence ν is not an upper bound

⇒ ∃ s '∈ S : ν < s '

Conversely assume (i) and (ii) hold

then (i) ⇒ µ is an upper bound of S also, (ii) ⇒ no number smaller than µ


can be an upper bound of S, ⇒ µ = l.u.b of S ⇒ µ = supS.

Prepared by-: Sanjeev Kumar Shukla


ALPHA
PLUS EDUCATION
9
718445143
Analysis – I 5

Lemma -: An upper bound µ of a non empty set S in IR is supremum of S Iff


∀ ∈> 0 ∃ s∈ ∈ S such that µ − ∈< s∈ .

Proof-: frist let us assume that ∀ ∈> 0 ∃ s∈ ∈ S such that


µ − ∈< s∈ to show that µ is Sup ( S )

i.e to show that

(1) µ is an upper bound of S

(2) Is least upper bound of S

µ is an upper bound of S this follows from the given statement.

Now let ν be any other upper bound of S

Then to show that µ ≤ ν Let If possible µ > ν then µ −ν > 0

Let ∈= µ −ν > 0 then by given condition there exists S∈ ∈ S :

S∈ > µ − ∈= µ − ( µ −ν )

⇒ S∈ > ν which is a contradiction as ν is upper bounded of S.

∴ Our assumption that µ > ν is wrong and hence ( µ > ν )

Conversely assume that µ is sups then (i) µ is an upper bound of S and next
we need to show that ∀ ∈> 0 ; ∃ s∈ ∈ S such that s∈ > µ − ∈ Let ∈ > 0 be given;
as µ = supS

⇒ µ − ∈ can’t be an upper bound of S (Q sups is least upper bound of


S.)

⇒ ∃ s∈ ∈ S : s∈ > µ − ∈ .

Prepared by-: Sanjeev Kumar Shukla


ALPHA
PLUS EDUCATION
9
718445143
Analysis – I 6

Definition -: (Greatest element of a set ) – Let S be any non empty subset


of real numbers then the Greatest element of S is an element g of S such
that

x≤g ∀ x ∈ S.

Definition -: (least element of a set) – Let S be any non empty subset of


real numbers then an element l ∈ s is called least element of S

If x ≥ l ∀ x ∈ S .

Question -: Every finite set has a greatest element and a least element .

Proof -: Let S = { x1, x2……….xn } be any finite set . Let xi ∈ S be any element

If xi is greatest element then we are done if not then ∃ xj ∈ S :


x j > xi If x j is greatest element of S then we are done. If not
∃ xk ∈ S : xk > x j > xi continuing like this we’ll get our greatest element. (Q
this process will stop somewhere as S is finite set ).

IIlr proof can be given for least element of S.

Prepared by-: Sanjeev Kumar Shukla


ALPHA
PLUS EDUCATION
9
718445143

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