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V NAME- RAHUL SINHA.

V CLASS- B.Tech(ME-147)
V SECTION-M4901.
V ROLL. NO.- B38.
V SUBJECT- GENERAL PRESENTATION.
V SUBMITTED TO- Mr. VISHANT.
V TOPIC ²GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
V ˜hat is geothermal energy?
V R   
- energy that comes
from the ground; power extracted from
heat stored in the earth
º R earth
º m heat
—   ë  
V Small scale uses V Dry steam
V Heating homes V Flash steam
V Hot springs V Binary cycle
V Greenhouse heating
V Food dehydration
plants
V Agriculture
º Crop drying
º Milk pasteurization
V Earth·s core heat
V ˜ater ń steam ń drive electrical
generators
V Turbines
V Area specific
º Geothermal energy is localized
V Each uses the heat from underground in
some manner to generate energy
V Different combinations of water
temperatures create different effects
V How Geothermal Energy ˜orks
V Used for bathing in Paleolithic
times
V Ancient Romans used it as a
central heating system for
bathing and heating homes and
floors
V 1892: America·s first district
heating system was put into
place
ë  
      
V 1926: a deep geothermal well was used
to heat greenhouses.
V 1960: Pacific Gas and Electric
has first successful geothermal
electric power plant in US at The
Geysers
º Turbine lasted more than 30 years
V To get the steam and water out of the earth, a hole is drilled using a
drilling rig. ˜e call this hole a well and it is about 27cm wide and
can go down over 2.5km into the earth. It is very expensive to drill a
well and it can cost up to $8 million dollars.
V ˜hen the well is being drilled, a special drilling mud is used to stop
the well collapsing. A metal pipe is then put in to stop it collapsing
when the well is in use. Inside this pipe is another pipe called the
liner. The steam and water travel up this liner.
V At the top of this well is a master valve used to control the flow and
then a pipeline carries the water and the steam to the power
station.
V At the Mighty River Kawerau Power Station there is about 8km of
pipeline. The pipe has to be thick and welded together so it can
stand the pressure from the hot steam and water. Bolted on to the
pipelines are valves. These are like very big versions of taps we have
at home. They are used to turn off the steam and water or to slow it
down. The pipelines are also covered with insulation to stop the
heat escaping and also to stop peoplefrom burning themselves.
The pipes heat up to about 180oC.
V ˜ater is not used so it has to be separated from the steam.
V This is done by the separator which sends the water to a re-injection
well that puts the water back deep into the ground
V This means the water can be reheated and used again. The steam
is sent to the power station. The steam is sent to the turbine and as it
passes through the turbine blades, it makes the turbine spin. The
turbine causes the generator to spin and this is what produces the
electricity.
V ˜hat happens to the steam? Once it comes out of the turbine, it
goes to the condenser. The condenser·s job is to turn the steam
back into water so it can be re-injected back into the ground.
Because the condenser needs to cool the steam to turn it back to
water, water is used for cooling. The condensed water is then sent to
the cooling tower to cool even more. The water needed for cooling
is then used again - recycled ²and the rest is put back into the
ground.
It is renewable
It doesn·t cause pollution
Owners of buildings using geothermal have cut 25 to 50 percent off their
utility bills.
No cooling towers, rooftop units, or individual room air conditioning units
are needed, so buildings and schools using geothermal systems look
better.
There·s no fire hazard and no outside equipment that could potentially
hurt kids
Geothermal systems are quieter, more reliable, more efficient, and more
compact compared to regular heating and cooling systems.
Daniel Boone high school saved $33,000 by using geothermal energy.
Geothermal energy costs dropped from $.10 - .16 per kilowatt hour to
$.5 - .8 per kilowatt hour.
The earth under our feet stays the same temperature year round,
whether it·s blazing hot in summer or freezing cold in winter. In summer
the earth is cooler than the air, and in winter it·s warmer. Geothermal
heat pumps cleverly put that fact to good use. They use the earth to
warm buildings in the winter and keep them cool in the summer. They
work so well TVA helps Valley businesses and school systems install them
in their buildings.
å 100% renewable
Œ Earth·s core is always going to be heated
ΠAs long as there is a way to extract the energy
from the heat, the energy will always be
available
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V Remarkable
difference of
environmental
effects compared to
fossil fuels
º Leaves almost no
footprints
V Most hardware used (http://www.geothermal.nau.edu/about/e
to extract nviroment.shtmlNorthern Arizona
University. 2009 Oct 27)
geothermal energy is
underground
º Minimal use of
surface
i   
  
 V Easy to operate
 
V Open up economy
R   
 
V Much more efficient
use of land
 
V Fluids drawn from the
deep earth carry a
mixture of gases u  
   

V Pollutants contribute to
global warming and 6     

acid rain !   


V Construction of Plants "#  
#    $  (  
can adversely affect %  & #'
land stability ) #   *
V Sources may hold trace
amounts of toxic "#  #$   
 ## #  %  '
+

chemicals/mineral
deposits ,%  $--.   ( 
%    #   '
V Loud Noises
V Initial start up cost
(expensive)
V Not everyone agrees that geothermal energy
is a solution to our energy crisis
V Too costly
V Noise
V Use of fresh water
V Land surveying
V The technology is not quite there
V Some people just believe that our fossil fuels
will ´neverµ run out
º Don·t believe that fossil fuels are finite
V Overall, geothermal appears to be a
sound solution to energy needs
V Geothermal energy has the ability to
expand
V Few environmental effects
V Very cost efficient
V Geothermal is RENE˜ABLE
V ASK.COM
V GEOTHERMAL EDUCATION SOCIETY.
V GOOGLE.COM
V ˜IKEPEDIA.ORG
V ˜˜˜.GEOHEAT.OIT.EDU
V http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/fossil.htm
V http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/fossilfuels.htm
V www.worldenergy.org/wec-
geis/publications/reports/ser/geo/geo.asp
V http://lsa.colorado.edu/summarystreet/texts/geothermal.htm