Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 547

Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology

ISSN 1512-3154

Studies in Modern and


Contemporary History

1(7)

`UNIVERSAL~
Tbilisi 2010

2
ivane javaxiSvilis istoriis da eTnologiis instituti

ISSN 1512-3154

axali da uaxlesi
istoriis sakiTxebi

1(7)

gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi 2010

3
uak (UDC) 94(100) `15/18~ + 94(100) `1918/...~
a-984

saredaqcio kolegia: EDITORIAL BOARD:

gia gelaSvili Gia Gelashvili


SoTa vadaWkoria Shota Vadackoria
vasil kaWarava Vasil Kacharava
vaJa kiknaZe Vazha Kiknadze
voicex materski Wojciech Materski
(poloneTis mecnierebaTa (Academy
akademia) of sciences of Poland)
gela saiTiZe Gela Saitidze
(redaqtoris moadgile) (Deputy editor)
malxaz sioriZe Malkhaz Sioridze
avTandil sonRulaSvili Avtandil Songulashvili
(redaqtori) (Editor)
xaTuna qoqraSvili Khatuna Kokrashvili
(pasuxismgebeli mdivani) (Executive secretary)
dodo WumburiZe Dodo Chumburidze
(redaqtoris moadgile) (Deputy editor)
niko javaxiSvili Niko Javakhishvili

gamomcemloba `universali~, 2010


Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30
E-mail: universal@internet.ge

4
Sinaarsi
Contents

Platon Joseliani – 200
gela saiTiZe .................................................................................13
platon ioseliani — redaqtori, publicisti
(dabadebis 200 wlis gamo)
Gela Saitidze
Platon Ioseliani – Editor, Publicist
xaTuna qoqraSvili .....................................................................35
Pplaton ioseliani — saeklesio istoriis mkvlevari
(zogadi mimoxilva)
Khatuna Kokrashvili
Platon Ioseliani – The Researcher of the Church History (General review)


The History of the Georgian
dodo WumburiZe .........................................................................49
rusuli kolonizacia afxazeTSi da dasaxleba
parnauTi
Dodo Chumburidze
Russian Colonialization in Abkhazia and the Settlement Parnauti
caca CxartiSvili .......................................................................64
afxazeTis Teatraluri cxovreba XIX saukunis
80-90-ian wlebSi da istoriuli mexsiereba
Tsatsa Chkhartishvili
Theatrical Life in Abkhazia in the 80-90es of the 19th Century
and Historical Memory
oTar gogoliSvili ....................................................................77
aWara ucxoeli istorikosis TvaliT (XIX s-is 80-iani
wlebi)
Otar Gogolishvili
Historian Evgeni Veidenbaum’s Writings about Adjara
ilia vadaWkoria ..........................................................................84
gazeTi `iveria~ saqarTvelos istoriis wyaroebisa
da gamoqveynebuli mecnieruli literaturis
Sesaxeb (1886-1889 ww.)
Ilia Vadachkoria
The Newspaper “Iveria” About the Sources of the History of Georgia and
Published Scientific Literature (1886 - 1889)
5
qeTevan mania .................................................................................98
qarTuli nacionaluri identobis wrTobis
procesi `iveriis~ (1887) mixedviT
Ketevan Mania
The Process of National Identity Hardening According to `Iveria~ (1887)
nato sonRulaSvili ..................................................................113
identobrivi avtonomiurobis ideali: Tavisuflebis
idea da misi kultivacia beWduri mediis saSualebiT
XX saukunis 10-iani wlebis qarTul erTobaSi
Nato Songulashvili
Identical Autonumous Ideal: the Idea of Freedom and its Cultivation on the
Basis of Printing Media in the 10-years Georgian Unity of XX century
irina arabiZe ................................................................................125
damatebiTi cnobebi eqvTime TayaiSvilis
1917 wlis eqspediciasTan dakavSirebiT
Irina Arabidze
Additional Information About Ekvtime Takaishvili’s Expedition in 1917

lela saraliZe ............................................................................132


e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ avtonomiuri olqis Seqmnis
istoriidan (1917-1922 ww.)
LLela Saralidze
From the History of So Called `South Osetia~ Autonomous Oblast
Formation in 1917 – 1922

SoTa vadaWkoria .........................................................................168
Sida qarTlis mTis osebis sagadasaxlebo politika
da qarTuli politikuri azri (XX saukunis 20-iani wlebi)
Shota Vadachkoria
Exile Policy of the Shida Kartli Osetians Living in the Mountains and Geor-
gian Political Thinking (The 20es of the 20th century)

nugzar zosiZe ..............................................................................190
baTumis olqi 1920 wlis pirvel naxevarSi
Nugzar Zosidze
Batumi District in the First Part of year 1920

nino RambaSiZe ..............................................................................200


vaxtang RambaSiZe — cxovreba da moRvaweoba
Nino Ghambashidze
Vakhtang Ghambashidze – The Life and Activity

6
Tamar TamaraSvili .....................................................................227
ganaTlebis istoriidan saqarTveloSi (Telavis peda-
gogiuri teqnikumi (1924-1939))
Tamar Tamarashvili
From the History of Education in Georgia (Telavi Pedagogical Technical In-
stitut (1924-1939))


Georgia and the World
niko javaxiSvili ........................................................................238
qarTvelTa kvali baltiispireTSi (XVII saukunis
miwurulidan — XIX saukunis Sua xanebamde)
Niko Javakhishvili
Trace of Georgians in the Baltics (From the end of XVII th – to the first half
of XIX th century)

giorgi beJitaSvili ...................................................................254


poloneTSi qarTuli samxedro emigraciis istoriis
zogierTi aspeqti
George Bezhitashvili
The Certain Aspects of History of the Georgian Military Immigration in
Poland

avTandil sonRulaSvili ........................................................260
saqarTvelos urTierToba dasavleT evropasa da
amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan XX saukunis pirvel
meoTxedSi
Avtandil Songulashvili
Relations of Georgia with the Western Europe and the USA In the first
quarter of the XX century

nodar xorbalaZe ........................................................................283


saqarTveloSi ruseTis imperiuli politikis
istoriidan
Nodar Khorbaladze
From Russia's Imperial Politics in Georgia

malxaz makaraZe ...........................................................................295


damoukidebeli qarTuli saxelmwifo da ruseTis
agresiuli politika
Malkhaz Makaradze
Independent Georgia and Russian Aggression Politics

7
sofiko davlaSeriZe ..................................................................299
saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgena da
aSS-is politika postsabWour sivrceze
Sopho Davlasheridze
Restoration of Georgia Independence and Policy of USA of Soviet Spare

korneli kakaCia ..........................................................................306


aSS-saqarTvelos strategiuli TanamSromlobis
qartia: icavs Tu ara is saqarTvelos usafrTxoebas?
Kornely Kakachia
United States-Georgia Charter on Strategic Partnership: Does it protect
Georgia’s Sovereignity?


The History of the Caucasus
mzia tyavaSvili ...........................................................................321
SotlandielTa axalSenis istoriidan Crdilo
kavkasiaSi (XIX saukunis dasawyisi)
Mzia Tkavashvili
From the History of the Scots’ Colony in the North Caucasus
(The beginning of the 19th century)


The History of the World
Tamar anTaZe .................................................................................329
Uuiliam III oraneli
Tamar Antadze
William III of Orange
vasil kaWarava .............................................................................342
1952 wlis saprezidento arCevnebi amerikis
SeerTebul StatebSi
Vasil Kacharava
American Presidential Elections of 1952
vasil kaWarava .............................................................................360
politikuri partiebis ideologia da platformebi
aSS-is 1952 wlis saprezidento arCevnebSi
Vasil Kacharava
Ideology of Political Parties and their Platforms in the Presidential Elections
of the United States in 1952

8

The Policy
Tengiz grigolia ........................................................................372
ruseTi da irani axlo aRmosavleTis regionalur
geopolitikaSi
Tengiz Grigolia
Russia and Iran in Close-east Regional Geopolitics
Tornike SurRulaia ..................................................................378
aSS-s nacionaluri usafrTxoebis saagento
(`Savi oTaxi~)
Tornike Shurgulaia
National Security Agency (NSA) of the USA (Black Room)
maia amirgulaSvili ..................................................................385
globalizaciis Tanamedrove tendenciebi
Maia Amirgulashvili
Modern Tendencies of Globalization

Millitary History
Teimuraz dalaqiSvili, xaTuna TodaZe, daviT
mamulaiSvili ..............................................................................394
tradiciuli kavkasiuri sabrZolo iaraRis
warmoebis istoriul-geografiuli mimoxilva
(ZiriTadi tipebi da saxeebi)
Teimuraz Dalaqishvili, Khatuna Todadze, Davit Mamulaishvili
Traditional Caucasus Cold Weapons History and Geography of their
Production Main Types

Religion. The History of the Church
eldar bubulaSvili .................................................................405
ucnobi masalebi sasuliero ganaTlebis Sesaxeb
XX s-is 20-iani wlebis saqarTveloSi
Eldar Bubulashvili
Unknown Material about Religious Education (20-ies of the 20th century)
sofio andRulaZe .......................................................................412
qarTveli samRvdeloeba sabWoTa totalitaruli
reJimis damyarebis periodSi da episkoposi
stefane bodbeli (vasil karbelaSvili)
Sophio Andghuladze
Georgian Clergy in the Period of Establishing Soviet Totalitarian Regime and
the Bishop of Bodbe Stephane (Vasil Karbelashvili)
9

Historiography
merab kalandaZe ..........................................................................423
dasavleT evropis axali istoriis sakiTxebi
XX saukunis qarTul istoriografiaSi
Merab Kalandadze
Modern History of Eastern Europe Studies in Georgia


Source-Studies
niko javaxiSvili ........................................................................445
toponim `Tbilisis~ istoriisaTvis
Niko Javakhishvili
For the History of Toponym `Tbilisi~
xaTuna qoqraSvili .....................................................................448
`oseTis sasuliero komisiis~ arqimandriti nikifore
Sida qarTlSi osebis gansaxlebis Sesaxeb (1817-1818 ww.)
Khatuna Kokrashvili
Archimandrite of `The Osetia Ecclesiastic Commission~ Nikifore About the
Settlement Of the Osetians in Shida Kartli (1817 - 1818)

mzia mgalobliSvili, lela miqiaSvili .............................463


masalebi XIX s. 30-iani wlebis afxazeTis samTavros
istoriidan (frederik diubua de monperes `mogzaurobis~
mixedviT)
Mzia Mgaloblishvili, Lela Mikiashvili
The Materials From the History of Abkhazia Principality of the 30es of the
19th Century (According to `The Travel~ by Frederic Dubois de Monpere)

gia gelaSvili ..............................................................................499


sami dokumenti saqarTvelos Sesaxeb
Gia Gelashvili
Three Documents about Georgia

10

Numismatics
irakli faRava ..............................................................................515
Tbilisuri monetebis woniTi standarti, nominalTa
sistema da moWris teqnika (avSarianTa dinastiis periodi)
Irakli Paghava
The Weight Standard, Denominations’ System and Minting Technique of
Tiflis Coins (Afsharid Period)


View Point
zurab kvetenaZe ...........................................................................533
saWiroa Tu ara saqarTvelos istoriis `xelaxla
dawera~
Zurab kvetenadze
Is it Necessary that Georgian History `Write again?~


Criticism and Bibliography
niko javaxiSvili ........................................................................540
soliduri samecniero wigni
Niko Javakhishvili
Solid Scientific Work


In the Memory of Our Collegue
dodo WumburiZe .........................................................................542
aleqsandre bendianiSvili
Dodo Chuburidze
Aleksandre Bendianashvili

11
krebulis saredaqcio kolegia xelmZRvanelobs kano-
niT presis Sesaxeb. gamoqveynebuli masalebis sizusteze
pasuxismgebelia avtori.

redaqciis misamarTi:

ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis instituti,


axali da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofileba

Tbilisi, petre meliqiSvilis q. # 10, III sarTuli


telefoni: 93 41 37

12


gela saiTiZe
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori,
profesori, ivane javaxiSvilis isto-
riisa da eTnologiis institutis axa-
li da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofilebis
mTavari mecnier-TanamSromeli

platon ioseliani — redaqtori, publicisti


(dabadebis 200 wlis gamo)

1875 wlis 11 dekembers, gazeTi `kavkazi~ pl. ioselianis


gardacvalebasTan dakavSirebiT dastambul werilSi, miuTi-
Tebda: `Cvens saukuneSi platon egnates Ze ioseliani iyo pir-
veli qarTveli mecnieri, kavkasiaSi rusuli perioduli gamo-
cemis pirveli qarTveli redaqtori, xelmwifis mier samecnie-
ro-literaturuli saqmianobisaTvis dajildoebuli pirveli
qarTveli moRvawe, sxvadasxva samecniero sazogadoebis wev-
rad arCeuli pirveli qarTveli da aseve pirveli qarTvelTa-
gani, romelmac Tavisi samSoblos arqeologiisa da istoriis
Seswavlas mohkida xeli~ [38].
kavkasiis mxaris oficiozis furclebze qarTveli moR-
vawis aseTi maRali Sefaseba gadaWarbebuli srulebiT ar
aris. pl. ioselianis, XIX saukunis qarTvel moRvaweTa erT-
erTi TvalsaCino warmomadgenlis, mravalmxriv nayofieri
saqmianoba sakmaod kargad aris Seswavlili, Tumca bevri ram
kidev elodeba WeSmaritebis maZiebeli mkvlevaris Zalisxme-
vas; axlebur wakiTxvas da Sefasebas imsaxurebs misi gamoqvey-
nebuli Txzulebebi — istoriis, literaturis, xuroTmoZ-
Rvrebis, eklesiis, qarTuli damwerlobis, gramatikis, rus-
Tvelologiis, saredaqtoro Tu publicisturi moRvaweobis
sakiTxebze, amasTan gamomzeurebas elian arqivsacavebis, mu-
zeumebisa da sxva samecniero centrebSi daculi jer kidev ga-
mouqveynebeli nawerebi, maT Soris mdidari epistolaruli
memkvidreoba. isini, umeteswilad, rusul da sxva ucxo eneb-
zea dawerili da maT ara marto amaTuim konkretuli dargis
specialistis, aramed gawafuli mTargmnelis kalamic esaWi-

13
roeba. ra Tqma unda, Cven amis pretenzia ara gvaqvs, aq mxolod
Sexsenebis mizniT vayenebT am sakiTxs.
mokled gavixsenebT im wyaroebsa da literaturas, rom-
lebze dayrdnobiTac winamdebare statia daiwera. pirvel
rigSi, esaa saqarTvelos saxelmwifo saistorio arqivis me-4,
440-e, 489-e da 1438-e fondebSi daculi dokumentebi [1; 2; 3];
imdroindeli qarTuli da rusulenovani perioduli gamoce-
mebis kompleqtebi; sxvadasxva enciklopediebi da enciklope-
diuri leqsikonebi; dokumentebis krebulebi. kavkasiis arqe-
ografiuli komisiis mier Sekrebili aqtebis tomebi; qarTve-
li mkvlevarebis naSromebi, romlebSic sxvadasxva kuTxiTaa
mimoxiluli pl. ioselianis cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis peri-
petiebi. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia: a. abramiSvilis, arC. barami-
Zis, ak. gawerilias, m. gocaZis, v. gorgaZis, j. vaTeiSvilis, g.
TumaniSvilis, al. kalandaZis, k. kekeliZis, g. leoniZis, n. ma-
xaraZis, s. mesxis, l. meliqseT-begis, pr. ratianis, sol. yuba-
neiSvilis, d. SuRliaSvilis, z. WiWinaZis, al. xaxanaSvilis,
sol. xuciSvilis da sxvaTa naSromebi. ra Tqma unda, CemTvis
upirveles wyaros warmoadgenda pl. ioselianis aTeulobiT
wigni, broSura Tu statia, romlebic yvelaze saukeTesod
warmoaCenen mis pirovnebas...
winamdebare TemasTan uSualo SexebaSia nino maxaraZis
vrceli saJurnalo statia: `Платон Иоселиани в «Закавказском
Вестнике»~ [18, 366-388], romelSic avtori dawvrilebiT mimoi-
xilavs pl. ioselianis gazeT `zakavkazskii vestnikSi~ moRva-
weobis orwlian (1845-1846) periods. mkvlevaris azriT, es
wlebi srulad asaxavs am araCveulebrivi adamianis saredaq-
cio-publicisturi moRvaweobis stilsa da xasiaTs imdroin-
deli amierkavkasiis rusul presaSi; rom `es ori sruli weli
warmodgenas gviqmnis pl. ioselianze, rogorc moqalaqisa da
mecnieris uzarmazar patriotul gmirobaze~ [18, 375].
savsebiT gasaziarebelia n. maxaraZis Semdegi mosazrebac
imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom pl. ioselians Segnebuli hqonda ra
kavkasiaSi rusuli gamocemis redaqtorisa da publicistis
pasuxismgebloba, amitom igi, yovelTvis cdilobda farTo
mkiTxvelisaTvis gaecno mxaris warsuli da awmyo da amiT ru-
seTis mcxovrebTa Soris interesi da mxardaWera gamoewvia
Tavisi qveynisa da xalxis legendaruli da gmiruli istoriis

14
mimarT... [18, 376] magram ver daveTanxmebiT n. maxaraZes roca
igi pl. ioselianis misasalmebel sityvaze amaxvilebs yurad-
Rebas graf. m. s. voroncovis saqarTveloSi CamosvlasTan da-
kavSirebiT da TiTqos ar surs daijeros, rom maTi avtori p.
ioseliani iyo: «Приветственное слово, произнесенное П. Иоселиани
в честь приезда в Тифлис наместника Кавказа графа Воронцова (№8,
1845) звучит дисонансом по отношении к остальным его выступлением.
Напищенность,патетическая приподнятость, непривычный пафос его
речи: «Кавказ! Проснись от вековой дремоты! Твой царь дал тебе
миротворца»... и т. д., настоько не характерны для такого автора, как
Иоселиани и выглядят как нелепо, что кажеться не он писал эти строки,
а писал за него необходимость привичка к такому тону в отношении
официальных персон, общепринятость, но вряд ли искренность. Ибо
весма сомнительно, чтобы такой патриот и крупнейший историк как
Иоселиани мог считать, что от пресловутой дремоты Кавказ призван
пробудить наместник» [18, 380].
am sityvebis avtors, rogorc Cans bolomde Tvali aRar
gaudevnebia pl. ioselianis pativiscemiT aRsavse da siyvaru-
liani damokidebulebisadmi mefisnacvali mix. voroncovis
personis mimarT, Torem Zneli mosaZebni ar Seeqmneboda is aR-
frTovanebuli da madlierebis grZnobiT aRsavse striqonebi,
romlebic mis araerT `mgzavris CanawerebSia~ dafiqsirebuli
`mxaris angelozad~ movlinebul am didmoxelis mimarT. vfiq-
robT, es srulebiT ar amcirebs pl. ioselians, roca igi gul-
wrfelad da ara mliqvnelurad Tvlida, rom grafi mix. vo-
roncovi, evropul civilizacias naziarebi pirovneba, bevr
rames akeTebda mis qveSevrdomobas daqvemdebarebul mxareSi
da met adamianur yuradRebas iCenda aq mcxovrebi xalxebis is-
toriisa da adaT-wesebis, enisa da kulturis mimarT.
meore naSromi ki gaxlavT arCil baramiZisa da juanSer
vaTeiSvilis vrceli monografiuli gamokvleva — `platon io-
seliani — cxovreba da samecniero-sazogadoebrivi moRvaweo-
bis narkvevi~, romelic 1978 wels gamomcemloba `mecnierebam~
dastamba (rusul enaze).
wignSi avtorebi pl. ioselians warmoaCenen, rogorc XIX
saukunis Sua wlebis udides qarTvel istorikoss, Jurnalis-
tsa da moRvawes, romlis mravalmxrivi mecnieruli interese-
bi, misadagebuli iyo mSobeli qveynisaTvis sasargeblo moRva-

15
weobasTan; rom misi `enciklopediuri ganaTleba da mecnieru-
li keTilsindisiereba, romelic maRal patriotizmTan iyo
Serwymuli, srulad iyo gamoyenebuli mSobeli xalxis ganaT-
lebis keTilSobiluri saqmisa da misi umdidresi istoriuli
warsulis popularizaciisadmi...~ [9].
xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT, rom monografiuli gamokvlevis me-
ore TavSi, romlis saTauria — p.e. ioselianis Jurnalisturi
moRvaweoba (avtori j. vaTeiSvili), farTodaa Seswavlili da
ganzogadebuli pl. ioselianis moRvaweobis es mxare, kerZod,
misi saredaqcio da publicisturi saqmianoba. savsebiT vizia-
rebT avtoris mosazrebas imis Taobaze, rom razedac ar unda
ewera pl. ioselians, ra Janric ar unda gamoeyenebina mas Tavisi
nafiqralis gadmosacemad, erTi ram aSkara iyo: igi gamudmebiT
fiqrobda samSoblos keTildReobis amaRlebaze, misi soflis
meurneobisa da mrewvelobis, kulturisa da ganaTlebis ganvi-
Tarebaze... mas ara marto Tavisi qveyana uyvarda, aramed pati-
viscemiT epyroboda da afasebda sxva xalxTa uwmindes grZno-
bas — samSoblos siyvaruls... yvelaferi es masSi warmoaCens
WeSmarit patriotsa da humanists, rac mxolod didbunebovani
adamianebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli... [9, 193].
Temaze muSaobisas, rasakvirvelia, angariSs vuwevdiT
sxva winamorbed avtorTa nafiqrals, magram CvenTvis upirve-
les pirvelwyaros warmoadgenda is mravalferovani publika-
ciebi, romlebsac pl. ioseliani missave redaqtorobiT gamo-
maval gazeT `zakavkazskii vestnik~-is furclebze Tu calke
gamocemebis saxiT awvdida mkiTxvel sazogadoebas. swored ma-
Ti axleburi wakiTxva da zogjer striqonTa Soris Cadebuli
azris gamomzeureba warmoadgenda Cems mizans, raTa Tavis
drois am mravalmxrivi moRvawe mamuliSvilis damsaxureba
ukeT warmomeCina, Tanac ara yovelmxriv, aramed erTi konkre-
tuli kuTxiT. kerZod, rogorc redaqtoris da kalamnayofie-
ri publicistisa.
***
XIX saukunis 40-iani wlebis bolos ruseTma administra-
ciuli cvlilebebi ganaxorciela kavkasiaSi. gaauqma mTavar-
mmarTebloba da mis nacvlad mefisnacvlis Tanamdeboba Semo-
iRo. ganTavisuflebuli mTavarmarTebeli a. i. neidgardti,
ruseTis erT-erTi gamorCeuli sagvareulos warmomadgenel-

16
ma, grafma mixeil simonis Ze voroncovma Secvala `kavkasiaSi
mefisnacvlis~ tituliT. mas, vidre kavkasiaSi daniSnavdnen
saxelovani cxovrebis gza hqonda gavlili — leib-gvardiis
preobraJenskis polkis kursantobidan — odesis (novorosiis)
gubernatorobamde... londonSi, rusi diplomatis ojaxSi da-
badebulsa da gazrdils, iqve `brwyinvale ganaTleba hqonda
miRebuli~, xolo axalgazrda oficers Tavisi qveynis gafar-
Toebisa da ganmtkicebisaTvis brZolebSi hqonda monawileoba
miRebuli. kavkasieli xalxebis, frangebis Tu osmalebis wina-
aRmdeg... maT Soris gamoCenili mxedarTmTavrebis p. ciciano-
visa da p. bagrationis xelmZRvanelobiT [5, 222-223].
SemdgomSi, am marTlac-da mefistola kacs, did pativad
miaCnda maTi saxelebis gaxseneba... SesaZloa, es madliereba
poulobda gansxeulebas mis damokidebulebaSi saqarTvelosa
da qarTveli xalxis, misi istoriisa da kulturis mimarT.
1845 wlis dasawyisSi mefisnacvlad da kavkasiis jarebis
mTavarsardlad axladdaniSnuli mix. voroncovi, kavkasiis me-
5 fexosanTa korpusis mebrZolebisadmi gamocemul brZanebaSi
miuTiTebda: umaRlesi nebiT miviRe ra ufrosoba kavkasiis
jarebisa, samarTlianad vamayob, rom 40 wlis winaT, me samsa-
xuri daviwye swored kavkasiaSi cnobili generlis, Tavad ci-
cianovis xelmZRvanelobiT... masTan erTad vibrZodi eliza-
vetpolTan; Semdeg imereTis damorCilebisaTvis... axalgaz-
rdobis wlebidanve me Seviswavle da SeveCvie kavkasiis mamaci
mebrZolebis gmirobiT gaocebas... damorCilebuli xalxebis
mimarT Cven mSvidobianad da megobrulad yofna gvmarTebs.
kavkasia mSvidobianobis dros imdenad unda gviyvardes da pa-
tivs vcemdeT, ramdenadac gveSinoda saomari moqmedebis
dros, Tu aseTi ram isev mogviwevs~ [36].
brZaneba, romelsac xels awers general-adiutanti, gra-
fi mix. voroncovi 1845 wlis 14 marts aris gamocemuli q. qer-
CSi, anu jer kidev gzaSi myofi mefisnacvlis mier.
1845 wlis 18 marts saqarTvelos sazRvao gziT Semovida
kavkasiaSi SeuzRudavi uflebebis mqone mmarTveli, grafi mix.
voroncovi.
misi mogzauroba dadianis samflobelo q. grigoriopo-
lidan (?) vidre Tbilisamde, TviTmxilvelis, gazeT `zakavkaz-
skii vestnik~-is redaqtoris pl. ioselianis mier dawvrile-

17
biT aris aRwerili werilSi: `kavkasiis mefisnacvlis TbilisSi
mobrZaneba~.
avtori sixaruliT aRsavse, aRfrTovanebiT egebeba axa-
li mmarTvelis qarTul miwaze Semosvlas da mas argonavtebis
winamZRolis iazonis stumrobas adarebs, mxolod im gansxva-
vebiT, rom `iazoni daupatiJebeli stumari iyo, exlandel ia-
zons ki yvelani sixaruliT movelodiT... amitom, kavkasiav! ga-
iRviZe saukunovani Tvlemisgan, Senma mefem (gulisxmobs ru-
seTis imperators — g. s.) Sen mSvidobismyofeli mogivlina...~
[38, 1845, #8].
gzad momaval mefisnacvals, pl. ioselianis TqmiT, gamo-
uvlia martvilis monasteri, sadac Sexvedra hqonia episkopos
antonTan; Semdeg das. saqarTvelos sagubernio centri q. qu-
Taisi; 22 marts Rame moliTis sadgurSi gauTevia, momdevno
dRes suramis qedis SuaSi mas qarTlis Tavad-aznauroba mige-
bebia; gorisa da mcxeTis mcxovrebTa mier zar-zeimiT daxved-
ris Semdeg, 27 marts grafi ukve TbilisSi Semosula da genera-
litetisa da qalaqis maRali rangis moxeleebis TanxlebiT si-
onis sakaTedro taZarSi gamarTul RvTismsaxurebas daswre-
bia, xolo Semdeg saqarTvelos egzarqos isidores Sexvedria
mis rezidenciaSi da xangrZlivi saubari hqonia masTan («На-
местник имел свидание с мудрым преосвященейшим Исидором Экзар-
хом Грузии в его доме...») — amTavrebs pl. ioseliani.
unda vigulisxmoT, rom am dReebidan iwyeba is axlo ur-
TierToba pl. ioselianisa mefisnacval mix. voroncovTan,
romelic Semdeg mTeli aTi wlis manZilze aRar ganelebula.
aRsaniSnavia, rom pl. ioseliani gazeT `zakavkazskii ves-
tnik~-is redaqtorad daniSnuliyo 1844 wels, anu jer kidev
mix. voroncovis kavkasiaSi Camosvlamde. gazeTis istoria ki
1838 wlidan iwyeba, da misi aRmavloba pl. ioselianis saxel-
Tan aris dakavSirebuli.
istorikos j. vaTeiSvilis TqmiT: `kavkasiis sazogadoeb-
rivi cxovrebisa da beWduri sityvis istoriaSi gazeTi `zakav-
kazskii vestniki~ ara marto originaluri dasaxelebiT gamo-
irCeva am profilis rusuli gamocemebisagan, aramed, rac uf-
ro mniSvnelovania, Tavisi Sinaarsobrivi TviTmyofadobiT.
Tavisi dauRalavi saqmianobiT pl. ioselianma SeZlo manamde

18
usaxuri oficialuri gamocema, yuradRebamisaqcev periodul
organod eqcia~ [9, 57].
pl. ioselianis redaqtorad daniSvnisTanave araerTi
dabrkoleba aRimarTa mis winaSe. erT-erTi pirveli — stambis
sakiTxi iyo. imJamad TbilisSi did kontrolsdaqvemdebarebu-
li samiode tipografia arsebobda: kavkasiis mefisnacvlis
kancelariis, generaluri Stambisa da somxuri saswavleblis.
swored pirvel maTganSi ibeWdeboda gazeTi `zakavkazskii ves-
tnik~-i, romlis redaqtoris ZalisxmeviT xerxdeboda misi Se-
uferxebeli beWdva [38].
meore sakiTxs gazeTis xelismomwerTa povna da maTTan
kavSirurTierTobis damyareba warmoadgenda... swored aq, aS-
karad ikveTeba is keTilganwyobili damokidebuleba redaq-
torisadmi mefisnacvlis mxridan, romelic maT Soris nacno-
bobis pirvelsave dReebidanve damyarda. mix. voroncovma yve-
la Tanamdebobis pirs iZulebis wesiT daavaldebula xsenebu-
li gazeTis gamowera; adgilobrivi administracia gazeTs do-
taciiTac uwyobda xels. yovelive es ki misi sicocxlis Senar-
Cunebis myari garantia iyo.
siZneles warmoadgenda gazeTSi saTanamSromlod ramde-
nadme kalamgawaful avtorTa moZebnac. amitom iyo, rom xSi-
rad Tavisi gazeTisaTvis korespodenciebis werac TviTon re-
daqtors uxdeboda. saqarTvelos istoriaSi, literaturaSi,
xelovnebaSi, kavkasiis xalxebis tradiciebsa da kulturaSi
Rrmad ganswavlulobam, rusuli da zogierTi sxva ucxo enis
codnam, pl. ioselians SeaZlebina, rom gazeTis arc erTi no-
meri ar Cavardnoda. paralelurad igi TviTonve zrunavda ga-
zeTSi saTanamSromlod avtorTa SemokrebisTvisac. maT ki Ta-
vis megobarTa, nacnobTa da kolegaTa Soris eZebda... misTvis
erT-erT aseT wyaros imJamad TbilisSi saxelganTqmuli al.
WavWavaZisa da manana orbelianis salonebi warmoadgendnen.
mkvlevarebis arC. baramiZisa da j. vaTeiSvilis mowmobiT, swo-
red iq SeZlo pl. ioselianma gazeTSi saTanamSromlod Semo-
ekriba iseTi adamianebi, rogorebic iyvnen: nik. baraTaSvili,
gr. orbeliani, mari brosse, giorgi erisTavi, dimitri yifia-
ni, d. meRvineTuxucesi, g. gagarini, x. aboviani, mirza faTali
axundovi, n. xanikovi, i. slovicki, a. ianovski, a. muraviovi, o.
konstantinovi, f. lada-zablocki, i. polonski, nik. berZenovi
da sxv. [9, 72].
19
imave xanebSi, pl. ioselians daevala TiTqmis analogiu-
ri dasaxelebis gazeTis qarTul enaze gamocema. es iyo qarTu-
li Jurnalistikis istoriaSi cnobili `kavkasiisa mxareTa uw-
yebanis~ gamocema da redaqtoroba, rac Seusrulebia kidec,
magram xelismomwerTa da sxva siZneleebis gamo misi gamocema
didxans ar gagrZelebula... [15,111].
1849 wlis dasawyisidan pl. ioselianma gaz. `zakavkazskii
vestnik~-Si mniSvnelovani siaxle danerga. gazeTi mefisnac-
valTan SeTanxmebiT orad — oficialur~ da `araoficialur~
nawilebad gaiyo.
swored `araoficialuri~ nawili gaxda popularuli da
mosawoni gazeTis mravalenovani mkiTxvelisaTvis, maT Soris
qarTvelebisaTvisac, pirvelyovlisa ki imaTTvis, vinac rusu-
li ena icoda. gazeTSi farTo adgili eTmoba samecniero-sais-
torio Tematikas, adgilobrivi cxovrebis amsaxvel publi-
cistikas, saqalaqo cxovrebis, swavla-ganaTlebis, litera-
turis, Teatraluri cxovrebis, erovnebaTaSoris urTierT-
damokidebulebis sakiTxebs, gamoCenil moRvaweTa cxovreba-
moRvaweobis warmomaCinebeli masalebis beWdvas...
gazeT `zakavkazskii vestnik~-is Tematuri mravalferov-
nebis Taobaze, konkretuli saubaria redaqciis mier 1847
wlis dekemberSi gamoqveynebul gancxadebaSi, romelSic vkiT-
xulobT: `momavali, 1848 wlis 1 ianvridan, `zakavkazskii ves-
tnik~ misi brwyinvalebis Tavad mefisnacvlis nebarTviT, ga-
mosvlas daiwyebs axali formatiT. sam svetad — `kavkazis~ da
misnairi perioduli gamocemebis msgavsad.
oficialuri nawili darCeba ucvleli: winandeburad
masSi moTavsdeba — brZanebebi, samTavrobo gankargulebani,
sasamarTlo gamoZiebani, palatebis gadawyvetilebani, cnobe-
bi, sazRvargareT wamsvlelTa saxelebi, sacalo fasebi...
araoficialuri nawili mkiTxvelebs gaacnobs amierkav-
kasiis mxaris warsul da Tanamedrove yofa-cxovrebas.
mcire moTxrobebi, istoriuli statiebi — Targmnilni
qarTulidan, somxuridan da TaTruli enebidan; arqeografia,
iumoristika, mogzauroba mxareSi da bolos mTeli ganyofi-
leba feletoni, romelic mkiTxvels gaacnobs Tbilisis sazo-
gadoebriv cxovrebas. feletoni Seatyobinebs saxalxo dRe-
saswaulebsa da adaT-wesebs, isaubrebs mejlisebis, Teatris,

20
koncertebis, seirnobebis, axali mSeneblobebis da sxva sakiT-
xebis Sesaxeb.
`vestnikis~ bolos mudmivad iqneba moTavsebuli meteo-
rologiuri dakvirvebani.
`vestniki~ gamova yovelkvireulad.
misi fasi Zveleburi darCeba — 5 vercxli 52 nomrisaTvis,
anu mTeli wlisaTvis; ruseTis guberniebSi gagzavnisaTvis
daemateba 50 kap. vercxliT.
msurvelebs `zakavkazskii vestnik~-ze xelis mowera, anda
TavianTi statiebis gamogzavna SeeZlebaT misamarTze: tfili-
si, `zakavkazskii vestnik~ redaqcias~ [38].
gazeTis formatisa da periodulobis gazrdam, Tematur-
ma da Janrobrivma gamravalferovnebam, TiToeuli masalis Si-
naarsobrivma datvirTulobam, avtor-TanamSromelTa profe-
sionalizmis amaRlebam, redaqtoris alRoanobam da mxaris
upirveles mmarTvelTan keTilma damokidebulebam, gazeT
`zakavkazskii vestnikis~ popularoba kidev ufro sacnauri
gaxada regionSi mcxovrebi yvela mkiTxvelis TvalSi. am saqme-
Si didi iyo gazeTis redaqtoris piradi damsaxureba.
gazeT `zakavkazskii vestnikis~ furclebze pl. ioselia-
nis mier dastambuli masalebidan naTlad igrZnoba mecnier-
istorikosis ganswavluloba, Tavisi qveynis warsulis Rrma
codna da misadmi siyvaruli... Tumca isic kargad sCans, Tu ra-
oden didi diplomatiuri niWis gamovlena sWirdeboda av-
tors, raTa Zala-uflebis mqoneTa risxva ar daemsaxurebina,
dampyroblebi ki ara, aramed CvensaviT dapyrobil da daTrgu-
nul mezoblebis wyenasac unda morideboda... amitomaa, rom
general p. cicianovze masalis gamoqveynebis Semdeg, somxeTis
patriarqis nersesis TbilisSi Camosvlis faqts uTmobs saTa-
nado adgils... amasTan, mecnieri-redaqtori yovelTvis cdi-
lobda, ara Tu sakuTari, aramed sxva avtorTa Txzulebebic
ganemtkicebina mecnieruli aparaturiT, pirvelwyaroebis da-
mowmebiT, winamorbed avtorTa naazrevis miTiTebiT.
pl. ioseliani yovelTvis cdilobda kavSirurTierTobis
damyarebas istoriasa da Tanamedroveobas Soris. misi mTavari
gzavnili rogorc Tavis TanamedroveTa, ise momavali Taobe-
bisaTvis iyo: `icxovreT samSoblos istoriiTa da sagmiro
saqmeebiT. istoriis gareSe ar aris cxovreba...~

21
mis mecnierul garjilobas da rusis politikisadmi lo-
ialur damokidebulebas, istoriuli faqtebis daumaxinjeb-
lad da gaulamazeblad gadmocemas Tvals adevnebda da, ro-
gorc mkiTxveli, kmayofili rCeboda mefisnacvali mix. vo-
roncovi. swored misi nebiT, iyo, rom gazeT `zakavkazskii ves-
tnik~-is redaqtori pl. ioseliani samagaliTo da erTguli
samsaxurisaTvis 1848 wels umaRlesi xelisuflebis mier wm.
anas mesame xarisxis ordeniT daajildoves, xolo samecniero
naSromebisaTvis igi odesis istoriisa da siZveleTa sazoga-
doebam Tavis namdvil wevrad airCia.
pl. ioselianisaTvis udidesi bedniereba iyo isic, rom
imave mix. voroncovis mxardaWeriT Tavisi didi xnis ocneba
aRisrula da saxelmwifos xarjze 1849 wlis martidan oTxi
TviT mivlinebuli iyo saberZneTSi, aTonis wm. mTis monaster-
Si. misi, rogorc Jurnalist-mogzauris niWi kargad gamosWvi-
vis gazeT `zakavkazskii vestniki~-saTvis gzidan gamogzavnili
vrceli masalebidan: `werilebi trapezuntidan~ (#22, 1849);
`werili aTenis mTis gzidan~ (#24, 1849 w.), `werilebi konstan-
tinopolidan~ (#31, 1849 w.); `werili qalaq salonikidan~ (#31,
1849 w.)...
am mogzaurobasTan dakavSirebiT pl. ioselianis colis
ZmisSvili niko buri (bagrationi) mogvianebiT werda: `pl. io-
selianma, rogorc arqeologiis (siZveleTmcodneobis) iSvi-
aTma mcodnem da moyvarulma, moaxerxa saberZneTSi gamgzav-
reba. aTonSi didi pativiscemiT miiRes qarTuli `iveriis~ mo-
nastris berebma. platonma ukan dabrunebisas Tan Camoitana
erTi Zvelis-Zveli qarTuli xelnaweri saxareba. bolos Tavi-
si SesaniSnavi biblioTeka, romelic Seicavda ara marto qar-
Tuli wignebis koleqcias, aramed mdidari iyo sxva qveynebis
wignebiTgan, man saqarTveloSi wera-kiTxvis sazogadoebas
uanderZa im pirobiT, rom SemdgomSi igi qarTuli universite-
tisaTvis gadaecaT. marTlac, mis gardacvalebisTanave misma
qvrivma mTeli wignebi 12 did yuTSi Caawyo da daniSnulebisa-
mebr gagzavna~ [8].
misive mowmobiT: platonma `ramdenime ucxo ena icoda;
miwer-mowera hqonda evropis did arqeolog-mecnierebTan da
saqarTveloSi Camosvlisas ojaxSi miipatiJebda xolme... yve-
la SesaZleblobiT cdilobda, rogorc mecnierebaSi, ise sa-

22
zogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, Tavisi wvlili Seetana, rom sikvdi-
lis win saSualeba hqonoda eTqva: `diax, me vcxovrobdio~ [8, ].
saberZneTSi mogzaurobis dros miRebul STabeWdile-
bebs pl. ioseliani SemdgomSi moxdenilad imowmebs Tavis erT-
erT mogzaurul narkvevSi `tfilisidan mcxeTamde~, roca igi
sofel diRmis sanaxebs aRwers. Cveni azriT, saukunenaxevris
winaT istorikos-publicistis mier gakeTebuli sof. diRmis
aRweras, dResac pirvelwyaros mniSvneloba aqvs masSi dafiq-
sirebuli faqtebis gamo...
`diRmis miaxloebisas mgzavris Tvalsawieri aucileb-
lad mis uwylo, magram mdidar, mosavlian dablobze Cerdeba.
aq zamTrobiT pirutyvis samwyemso adgilia. mozamTreTaTvis
igi mdidari veldablobia Tavad sofeli diRomi SesaniSnavia
Tavisi vrceli venaxis zRvrebiT da wm. giorgis saxelobis uZ-
velesi eklesiiT. es eklesia, Tavisi SemogareniT, arc ise didi
xnis winaT ganaxlebul iqna batoniSvil Tamaris, mefe erekles
SviliSvilis mier, romelic 1854 wels gardaicvala.
eklesiis kedlebs sxvadasxva epoqaSi ganaxlebis kvali et-
yoba. qvebi, romliTac is aris mopirkeTebuli ara gawafuli xe-
lis mier aris Cadgmuli da warwerebi yovelTvis garkveviT ar
moCans. mTis maRlobidan, romelzec sofeli diRomia gaSenebu-
li da sadac wm. giorgis uZvelesi eklesia mSvenierobs, diRmis
velis vrceli landSafti iSleba. Cems mier 1849 wlis attikis
maraTonis daTvalierebiT cocxali STabeWdilebebis qveS
myofma wamoviZaxe — maraToni saqarTvelos adgilmdebareobi-
sa! oRond aq md. mtkvari cvlis pontos Sav zRvas. momxibvle-
lia es xedi diRmis simaRlidan diRmis velamde~ [30, 80-81].
aseTi istoriul-publicisturi pasaJebi pl. ioselianis
TiTqmis yvela narkvevSi gvxvdeba, romlebSic qarTuli ekle-
sia-monastrebi, Tu sxva qveynis adgilebia mimoxiluli... swo-
red maT mniSvnelobaze SevaCerebT yuradRebas...
qarTul mxatvrul-publicistur Tu saistorio mwerlo-
baSi iSviaTobas ar warmoadgenen mogzauruli Janris nawarmo-
ebebi, romlebSic avtorebi nanaxisa da gancdilis Sesaxeb Ta-
vianT STabeWdilebebs gadmoscemdnen. magaliTisaTvis sul-
xan-saba orbelianis, rafiel danibegaSvilis, timoTe gabaSvi-
lis, aleqsandre WavWavaZis, grigol orbelianis, giorgi eris-
Tavis, giorgi yazbegis da sxvaTa Canawerebis gaxsenebac kmara.
maT Soris pl. ioselianis `mgzavris Canawerebic~ iqceven yu-
23
radRebas. am Janris nawerebs pl. ioseliani gazeT `zakavkaz-
skii vestnikis~ furclebze beWdavda. yoveli maTganis gul-
dasmiT gacnoba TvalnaTliv migvaniSnebs avtoris ganswavlu-
lobaze, publicistur niWze, istoriuli faqtebis siRrmise-
ul wvdomaze, weris kulturaze, azrebis gadmocemis sisxar-
tesa da logikurobaze, faqtebisa da movlenebis ganzogade-
bis unarze, miRebuli daskvnebis damajereblobaze... samwuxa-
ro is iyo, rom pl. ioseliani Tavis naSromTa absolutur um-
ravlesobas rusul enaze werda da beWdavda da qarTul sinam-
dvileSi ufro rusuli enis gavrceleba-damkvidrebas uwyob-
da xels, vidre saxelmwifoebriv funqcias moklebuli mSob-
liuri qarTulisas...
amjerad pl. ioselianis erT-erT am Janris narkvevebze
SevaCerebT yuradRebas. es aris `mgzavris Canawerebi Tbilisi-
dan axtalamde ~.
avtori narkvevis SesavalSive erT mniSvnelovan istori-
ul faqtze amaxvilebs yuradRebas. kerZod, es gamgzavreba me-
fisnacvlis mix. voroncovis survilis Sesabamisad ganxorcie-
lebula. pl. ioselianis mowmobiT: misma brwyinvalebam mefis-
nacvalma ineba Tbilisidan aprilis 11-s gamgzavrebuliyo ax-
talis Zveli monastris nangrevebis dasaTvaliereblad, rome-
lic imJamad berZeni episkoposis rezidencias warmoadgenda.
bedniereba mqonda Tan vxlebodi mis brwyinvalebaso, — das-
Zens pl. ioseliani da ganagrZobs: Cems mgzavrul Canawerebs
vakeTeb im mizniT, raTa gavagebino imaT, vinc cnobismoyvare-
obiT swavlobs saqarTvelos geografiasa da xalxur metyve-
lebaSi am mxaris istoriasa da siZveleebs somxiTis, anu `sa-
qarTvelos somxeTis~ saxeliT rom aris cnobili [29, 3]
Tbilisidan gasuli mogzaurebi gezs samxreTisken iReb-
dnen... avtori gza da gza yuradRebas uTmobs im daba-sofle-
bis, gzebis Tu xidebis, vel-mindvrebis, cixe-koSkebis, ekle-
sia-monastrebis, tbebisa Tu mdinareebis, toponimebis aRwe-
ras, romelTa gavlac maT uxdebaT; akeTebs istoriul wiaR-
svlebs, drodadro iSveliebs Zvel berZenTa Tu sxva evropel
geografos-istorikosTa da mogzaurTa cnobebs, vaxuSti ba-
toniSvilis saqarTvelos aRweras, anu yvelafer imas, rac im-
droisaTvis xelmisawvdomi iyo.
pl. ioseliani gazeTis mkiTxvelebs acnobs, rom imdroi-
saTvis Tbilisidan 10 versiT daSorebul soRanluRs, `Zvelad
24
`gzis kariT~ moixseniebdnen, zogierTebi mas `yuryutas~ uwo-
debdnen... `soganlugi~ TaTruli sityvaa da qarTulad `xaxvis
vels~ niSnavso... TeleTis Savnabadas, sefi-abadis, kumisis, ko-
das, kojris cixis Tu marabdis gavlisas aseve saintereso ko-
mentarebs akeTebs (mag. `kumisis balaxiT mdidari velisa da
tbis midamoebSi mefis aqlemebs mwyemsavdnen~; sof. TeleTi
sam nawilad iyofa — qurdi TeleTi, xatis TeleTi da Tavad
muxranbatonTa TeleTi... kojris cixe, sadac 1837 wels xel-
mwife-imperatorma nikoloz pavles Zem Rame gaaTia... sof. ko-
da, romlis samxreTiT md. qcias napiras mdebareobs sof. ma-
rabda saqarTveloSi erT-erTi Zveli sagvareulos Tavad ba-
raTaSvilebis samflobelo, sofeli, sadac jer kidev dauzia-
neblad aris Semonaxuli wm. luarsab II-is mier aSenebuli ek-
lesia... sabaraTiano, samxreT saqarTvelos uZlieresi saTava-
do, romelsac araerTxel aRumarTavs Tavisi mrisxane maxvili
damRupveli xalxisaTvis da saSiSi mefisaTvis, saxelganTqmu-
li birTvisis cixiT... da a. S.~) [30, 12, 13].
lomTa-gorasTan mimdebare sof. marneulis gavlisas av-
tori aRniSnavs, rom misi vake gasaocaria xorbleulisa da mesa-
qonleobisaTvis, sadac mTavrobisagan daculi TaTrebi Sesa-
niSnavad grZnoben Tavso... aseve miuTiTebs Sulaveris umdid-
res miwaze, sadac 700-mde somxis ojaxi cxovrobso... [30, 15].
avtori ufro met adgils Sulaveris Semdgom 20 versis
manZilze gadaWimul borCalos velis aRweras uTmobs, rom-
lis SuaSi md. borCalu, anu md. debeda miedineba... mdinare
odiTganve mdidari yofila TevziT, romelsac kapoeti ewode-
bao da aRwers misi Weris originalur meTods RamiT cecxlmo-
kidebuli Calis konebis gamoyenebiT... avtoris mowmobiT, md.
debedis gaswvriv gadaWimuli vrceli veli TaTrebiT dasax-
lebuli yofila, romelic TiTqmis 8 versis sididis sofel sa-
daxloTi mTavrdeba. es sofeli qarTveli Tavadebis meliqo-
vebis (meliqiSvilebisa) iyo, sadac maT mefis dros TavianTi
rezidencia hqondaT. amJamad sofelSi TaTris 300 ojaxi sax-
lobs da a.S.
swored aq, sof. sadaxloSi unebebia mefisnacval mix. vo-
roncovs Tavis amalasTan erTad pirveli Ramis gaTeva.
meore dRisiT ki md. debedis dinebis marcxena mxares da
lalvaris mTebis marjvniv mdebare gziT axtalis monastrisa-
ken auRiaT gezi. avtoris TqmiT, es istoriuli Zegli sadax-
25
lodan 20 versiT, anu cxeniT sami saaTiT savalze yofila da-
cilebuli... amasTan ixsenebs imasac, rom iq erekle II-is dros
samefo saxls oqrosa da vercxlis sabadoebi hqonia mowyobi-
li, saidanac yovelwliurad 100 fuT oqros iRebdneno...
... pl. ioselianis mier 170 wlis winaT axtalis samonas-
tro kompleqsisa da misi Semogarenis aRwera da motanili faq-
tebi dRes did istoriul mniSvnelobas iZens... avtori Tavis
mkiTxvelTa gasagonad aRniSnavs, rom `axtala~ TaTrul enaze
`TeTr vels~ niSnavs, Zvelad ki mas agaraki erqva; rom axtalis
Tu agarakis saepiskoposo-sakaTedro taZars warmoadgenda,
romelic jer kidev mexuTe saukuneSi vaxtang I-is mier iqna da-
arsebulio da iqve, ironiulad SeniSnavs: `somxebs, romlebsac
uyvarT TavianT Zvel siZliereze mogonebebi, miikuTvneben ax-
talis daarsebas, misi mezoblobis gamo axtalasTan da sana-
ginTan, Tumca arafriT ar SeuZliaT aseTi swrafvis damtki-
ceba~ [30, 15]. axtalis monastris dawvrilebiT daTvaliereba
unebebia mefisnacvals, Tavad mix. voroncovs, romelsac Tavi-
si yuradRebiT didaT wauxalisebia berZnebi, romlebsac ija-
riT auRiaT misi aRdgena Zveleburi saxiT da am mizniT iq ram-
denime dRiT adre gagzavnil arqiteqtors misi brwyinvalebi-
saTvis ZiriTadi samuSao gegma warudgenia kidec [30, 27].
monastris xilviT aRfrTovanebuli pl. ioseliani ki
wers: romeli mxridanac ar unda Sexedo axtalis monastris
saarako Senobas, ar ici saidan ufro aRfrTovande misi mSve-
nierebiT, vinaidan msgavs rames me ar Sevxvedrilvar saqarTve-
loSi Tavisi natifi mopirkeTebiT da aseTi saunje sruliad
migdebuli da miviwyebulia. sityviT misi gadmocema SeuZle-
belia. is mxolod unda naxo... «ибо один только глаз можеть при-
нять впечатление всего, что извлек здесь гениии человеческий из
каменной массы: каждый прямой очерк стены или крыши смягчень
узорчатым карнизом, каждая дуго двери или окон обвита каменною пле-
теницею цветов; сердцевина малых кругов и квадратов, разбросанных в
виде украшении по стенам здания, представляется тонким кружевом,
сплетенным из камня; кресты, изваянные над алтарем и на боковых
фронтонах, высшей степени изящны. В них отразилось самозабвение
людей, которые жертвовали целыми годами свое жизни, лишь бы только
их произведения было достоины высокого назначения, а имя труже-
ников видимо одному Богу. Но если нет слов для описания, есть сердце

26
для сочувствия, и конечно то безотчетное и глубокое благочестие, с
которым созыдались святилища лущих времен...» [30, 28-29].
am sityvebidan TvalnaTliT warmoCndeba ara mxolod Ta-
visi qveynis warsulze Seyvarebuli da misi Tayvanismcemeli
pirovneba, aramed publicistis madliani kalmiT dajildoe-
buli adamianic...
ukangamobrunebul mefisnacvalsa da mis mxlebelT Su-
laverTan axlos mdebare adgili aRbabalo dauTvalierebiaT
da Ramis gaTevac iqve unebebiaT. pl. ioselianis Canawerebidan
sayuradRebo istoriul faqtebs aqac vgebulobT, romelTac
dRes pirvelwyaros mniSvneloba aqvT. kerZod, imdroisaTvis
`aRbabalod~ wodebul adgils Zvelad `xidis yuri~, xolo
mogvianebiT `polkovniklu~ rqmevia, misi ganmaaxleblisa da
aRmSeneblis, Tavad ilia orbelianis saxelis pativsacemad.
md. maSaveras marcxena napirze gaSenebuli es sofeli, Tavisi
mcxovreblebiT imJamad kneina orbelianis sakuTreba yofila
(cnobili manana orbelianis ? — g. s.). iq, arsebula qvis magari
xidi md. maSaveraze... avtoris TqmiT, amasTan erTad yuradRe-
bas iqcevda jer kidev daumTavrebeli orsarTuliani saxli,
evropulad gawyobili oTaxebiT, xuT qceva farTobze gaSene-
buli venaxis zvriT, Rvinis sardafiT, sadac sxvadasxva wlisa
da jiSis sufTa da gemoiani Rvinoebi inaxeboda qarTuli da
rusuli warwerebiT damTvalierebelTa da damgemovnebelTa
gasacnobad; avtori iqve aRwers xexilis baRs Tavisi uzarma-
zari 16 Ziri kaklis xiT, romelTagan TiToeuls sul mcire 20
kv. saJeni ekavaT da SesaniSnav saCrdilobels warmoadgendnen
damsvenebelTaTvis... dasasruls pl. ioseliani dasZens: `Cemis
azriT evropuli cxovrebis wesis es nawili (открывок) miTume-
tes am mxareSi, yovelgvar yuradRebas da Seqebas imsaxurebs~-
o~ [30, 34].
swored iq, istoriul saerisTavoSi miuRia stumrebi kne-
ina orbelians Ramis TeviT, xolo meore dRiT mefisnacvals
kolagiris mtkice da lamazi cixe-simagre dauTvalierebia da
sofel kodas gamovliT TbilisSi dabrunebula [30, 37].
narkvevis dasasruls pl. ioseliani miuTiTebs: ai, rac
SemeZlo meTqva am mogzaurobis Sesaxeb. dRes es mxare ruse-
Tis uZleveli iaraRis wyalobiT daculia, xolo misi mdgoma-
reoba gaumjobesebuli. vuyureb amas da vfiqrob, saukuneebis

27
winandel mdgomareobaze da Zalauneburad TavSi grovdeba az-
rebi im saSinelebaTa da uZlurebaTa Taobaze, romlebmac
Rrma kvali datoves am kuTxeSi — dacarielebuli soflebis
da daoblebuli eklesiebis saxiT, Tumca naTeli xsovnac Ta-
vianT arsebobazec... es mogzauroba ramdenadac sasargeblo
iyo, imdenad sasiamovno da sasixarulo mogonebad darCeba
Cems cxovrebaSio! — daaskvnis avtori.
pl. ioselianis, rogorc redaqtorisa da publicistis
damsaxurebaze, gadauWarbebel Sefasebas gvTavazobs mkvleva-
ri j. vaTeiSvili, roca wers: `1845-1855 wlebSi gazeT `zakav-
kazskii vestnik~-Si gamoqveynebuli masalebis mixedviT Seum-
cdarad SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rom gazeTis Sinaarsi, rome-
lic winaT `sagubernio uwyebis~ programiT gamodioda, didad
scildeba am programis CarCoebs. masSi saistorio-Semecnebi-
Ti xasiaTis publikaciebTan erTad arc-Tu iSviaTad qveynde-
boda statiebi da SeniSvnebi, romlebic adgilobrivi cxovre-
bis saWirboroto sakiTxebs exmianeboda. imaSi, rom gazeTi
`zakavkazskii vestniki~ mTeli aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi damou-
kideblad arsebobda, upirvelesi damsaxureba, mis redaqtors
pl. ioselians ekuTvnis. gazeTi ramdenadme agrZelebda `tfi-
lisis uwyebanis~ tradiciebs, romelic umTavresad informa-
ciuli xasiaTis masalebis publikaciebiT kmayofildeboda,
maSin, roca gazeTi `zakavkazskii vestniki~ samecniero-anali-
tikur werilebs aZlevda upiratesobas, rac misi redaqtoris,
gamoCenili istorikos-mecnieris da moqalaqe-patriotis dam-
saxureba iyo...~ [9, 115].
aqve SeiZleba, kidev erTxel xazgasmiT aRvniSnoT, rom
Tu ara bednieri SemTxveva pl. ioselianisaTvis da aqedan ga-
momdinare qarTuli sinamdvilisaTvis, piradi nacnoboba (an
urTierToba) daemsaxurebina da keTilganwyoba moepovebina
kavkasiaSi mefisnacval mix. voroncovTan, mxaris mmarTvelTa
Soris yvelaze liberal da ganaTlebul pirovnebasTan, misi
survilebi da SesaZleblobani realizebis gareSe darCebod-
nen, miTumetes samoqalaqo moRvaweobis sarbielze... pl. iose-
lians bedma gauRima, Torem umkacresi cenzuruli pirobebis
viTarebaSi aravin miscemda uflebas, erovnuli Rirsebis war-
momaCinebeli publikaciebi daestamba Tundac Tavismierve re-
daqtirebul perioduli gamocemis furclebze.

28
yovelive es maSinve saCino gaxda, roca 1854 wlis bolos
avadmyofobis mizeziT mefisnacvalma mix. voroncovma dakave-
buli Tanamdebobidan gaTavisufleba iTxova... misma Sem-
cvlelma, qarTvelTmoZule da uxeSma saldafonma generalma
n. n. muraviovma, TbilisSi Camosvlidan sul cota xanSi, ker-
Zod 1855 wlis 21 ivliss vasil osefas Ze bebuTovis mier Sed-
genili proeqti daamtkica, romelic gazeT `zakavkazskii ves-
tnikis~ adgilobrivi mTavrobis oficioz gazeT `kavkazTan~
mierTebas iTvaliswinebda, romelsac erTi redaqtori, samo-
qalaqo kancelariis moxele, tituliani mrCeveli verderev-
ski uxelmZRvanelebda.
pl. ioseliani ki samsaxuris gareSe darCa... miuxedavad
protestisa igi redaqtorobas CamoaSores. Zalam aRmarTi
daxna...
mas Semdeg pl. ioseliani TiTqmis oci wlis manZilze ag-
rZelebda urTierTobasa da TanamSromlobas adgilobriv ga-
momaval qarTul da rusulenovan periodul gamocemebTan.
maT Soris iv. kereseliZis Jurnal `ciskarTan~, gazeTebTan
`kavkazTan~, `tifliski listokTan~ `droebasTan~ da sxvebTan.
mamaTa banakis erT-erTi TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli ar izia-
rebda `TergdaleulTa~ Taobis samoqmedo programas, misaRe-
bad miaCnda g. bagration-muxranelis mcire erebis enebis
kvdomis Teoria da sxv.
dadgenilia, rom ilia WavWavaZe 1871 wlis dekemberSi da-
weril Tavis `gamocanebSi~ uyuradRebod arc pl. ioselians
tovebs da daundoblad xatavs mis pirovnul portrets da
imaT rigSi ayenebs, visac erTi da mamuli fexebze ekidaT...
Cven aq mtyuan-marTlis Zebnas ar SevudgebiT, erTs ki vit-
yviT, 38 wlis ilia, 62 wlis xnovan adamians tyuilubralod ar
gaimetebda, Tu Tavis naTqvamis marTebulobaSi darwmunebuli
ar iqneboda. saqme exeba ara maT pirad urTierTobas, aramed
samSoblosadmi damokidebulebis sakiTxs... vfiqrobT, axal-
gazrda mamuliSvilis aRSfoTeba gamowveuli unda iyos im mo-
nuri TavdadrekiT, romliTac Cin-medlebs daxarbebuli qar-
Tveloba imxanebSi saqarTveloSi myof imperators aleqsan-
dre II-es egebeboda... aRsaniSnavia isic, rom `gamocanebi~ ili-
as, arc platon ioselianis, arc sxvaTa sicocxleSi ar gamouq-
veynebia, igi xelnaweris saxiT vrceldeboda mkiTxvelTa viw-
ro wreSi da mogvianebiT, TviT avtoris sikvdilis Semdeg, iqna
29
poetis TxzulebaTa krebulebSi Setanili... pl. ioselianisad-
mi miZRvnil striqonebSi naTqvamia:
`cxvirdida da Tvaldidroni,
msunagi da trabaxia,
erTi uSnod awowvila,
erTi raRac axmaxia;
sexnia hyavs saxeldidi,
TiTon ki marto grZelia,
Zvelis mcodnea, magrama
ybedi da Wkvazed Txelia;
enabrtyelia, gulmrude,
advilad mosayidia,
am ylapiasac qveyana
Zmano, fexebzed hkidia~ [22, 132].
pl. ioseliani 1875 wlis 5 noembers gardaicvala. sainte-
resoa aRiniSnos, rom igi zustad Tavis dabadebis dRes aRes-
rula. pirveli, am samwuxaro faqts gazeTi `droeba~ gamoexma-
ura... `wuxel saRamos, 15 saaTze, didi xnis avadmyofobis Sem-
deg gardaicvala Cveni Zveli, pativcemuli moRvawe, qarTuli
literaturisa — platon egnates Ze ioseliani. mis literatu-
rul moRvaweobaze imedi gvaqvs, male ufro vrcel statias wa-
ikiTxavs mkiTxveli Cvens gazeTSi~ [46].
`droebis~ redaqtorma danapirebi Seasrula da gazeTis
erT-erT uaxloes nomerSi sakmaod vrceli nekrologi uZRvna
pl. ioselianis gardacvalebas. sergei mesxis mier imdroinde-
li sazogadoebisaTvis araerT saintereso kiTxvazea pasuxi
gacemuli, warmoCenilia `mamaTa~ da `SvilTa~ uTanxmoebis mi-
zezebi da a. S. `nekrologSi~ kerZod naTqvami iyo:
`ama wlis 15-s TfilisSi gardaicvala platon egnates Ze
ioseliani. mesame dRes, e. i. 18-s micvalebuli daasaflaves
misganve aSenebul amaRlebis eklesiaSi.
rasakvirvelia, aravis ar gaukvirdeba, rom vsTqva: rom
amierkavkasiis TiTqmis uZveles mwignobars bevri pativismce-
meli aRmouCnda, bevrma gaacila is Tavis ukanasknels sadgo-
mamde.
aravis gahkvirvebia isic, roca gamyolTa ricxvSi micva-
lebulis Tanamedrove da Tanamoazre moxucebulebi dainaxes.
es srulebiT Cveulebriv movlenaT eCvenaT. magram zogier-
Tebs gaukvirda, zogierTebma TiTqo ver gaiges is, rom gam-
30
yolTa ricxvSi TiTqmis yvela warmomadgenelni Cvenis axal-
gazrdobisa erivnen.
`droebis~ redaqciam Tavisi mkiTxvelebi dapatiJa, rom
daswrebodnen micvalebulis gasvenebaze da amnairaT ukanas-
kneli pativi ecaT imis xsenebisaTvis.
es garemoeba kidev ufro gaugebari Seiqmna zogierTebi-
saTvis. ambobdnen: `ra iyo saerTo micvalebul platon iose-
liansa da axalgazrdobas Sua? rad ucxadeben imas aseTs Ta-
nagrZobas, rodesac imaTi miznebi da rwmunebani ase gansxvav-
debodnen? mama da Svili ver moTavsebula axla rigianaT Cven-
Si da micvalebuli xom axali Taobis papad CaiTvleboda~-o, —
dasZens s. mesxi da ganagrZobs, — `sakvirveli da gaugebari ama-
Si srulebiT ara aris ra. oriode sityviT agixsniT: marTalia
axalgazrdobisa da platon ioselianis rwmunebaTa da azrebs
Sua didi samzRvaria, didi gansxvavebaa. amaze laparakis dro
rom iyos axla, rodesac micvalebulis saflavi jer kidev
TiTqmis ar gamSrala, Cven vityodiT, rom iqneba micvalebu-
lis cxovrebaSi bevri iseTi mxareebi iyo, romelsac axalgaz-
rdoba keTilad ver moixseniebs; iqneba axalgazrdobis haz-
riT, micvalebuls bevri iseTi ram Caudenia, Tavis sicocxle-
Si, romelsac is ver TanaugrZnobs; iqneba axalgazrdobis haz-
riT, micvalebulma imis meaTedic ver Seasrula, rac SeeZlo,
ris RonisZiebasac mas bednieri garemoeba aZlevda.
magram yvela amas, axalgazrdobis TvalSi, erTi Rirseba
gamoisyidis micvalebul platon ioselianisa:
erT dros is iyo moRvawe qarTuli literaturisa.
axalgazrdobam daiviwya yvela rac micvalebulSi ar
moswonda da gaixsena mxolod es erTi damsaxureba. rom is qar-
Tuli mwerlobis Sesamagreblad da gasamdidreblad zrunav-
da; daiviwya yvelaferi rac ar gaukeTebia da gaixsena imis war-
suli Sroma, is, rac gaakeTa da mxolod amisTvis sca imas uka-
naskneli pativi.
qarTuli literaturis siyvarulma ori Taoba SeaerTa
micvalebulis saflavze. am literaturisa da xalxis saxeliT,
axali Taoba yovelTvis mzaTaa bevri naklulovaneba, bevri Se-
codeba miutevos yvelas, vinc unda iyos. oRond Cveni dacemu-
li literaturis gansaRviZeblad izruneT da axalgazrdoba
mudam TqvenTan iqneba; esaa is sagani, romelic unda gvaerTia-

31
nebdes, romelic unda gvaviwyebinebdes yvela wvrilman anga-
riSebs, uTanxmoebas, ganxeTqilebas.
am hazrs vacxadebT Cven micvalebul platon ioselianis
saflavze im Cveni mamebisaTvis, romelnic, saubeduroT, Cven,
Tavian Svilebs, rogorRac ganze gviyureben~ [46].
amrigad, pl. ioselianis mravalferovan moRvaweobaSi
gansakuTrebuli nayofierebiT gamoirCeva aTwliani (1845-
1855) periodi, roca igi gazeT `zakavkazskii vestniks~ edga sa-
TaveSi. misi niWis mravalmxriv warmoCenas, gansakuTrebul
warmatebebs samecniero-saganmanaTleblo da saredaqtoro-
publicistur saqmianobaSi imanac Seuwyo xeli, rom gangebam
igi mxaris upirveles mmarTvelTan, ganswavlul pirovnebas-
Tan graf mixeil voroncovTan Camosvlis pirveli dReebidan-
ve daaaxlova. pl. ioseliani amiT mTeli Tavisi sicocxlis
manZilze amayobda da SemTxvevas ar uSvebda werilobiTac da-
efiqsirebina es faqti... rogorc redaqtorma da publicistma
man SeZlo rusulenovani oficialuri gamocema qarTuli is-
toriis, eklesiis, kulturisa da tradiciebis ucxotomel-
TaTvis gasacnobad gamoeyenebina. madlieri STamomavloba yo-
velTvis gaixsenebs patriotuli suliskveTebiT gaJRenTil
mis brZnul Segonebas: `icxovreT mamulis istoriiTa da sag-
miro saqmeebiT. istoriis gareSe ar arsebobs cxovreba!~.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,


fondi 4, aRw. 1, saqme 129; 182.
2. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,
fondi 440, aRw. 1, saqme 16, 109, 112, 152, 154, 162.
3. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,
fondi 489, aRw. 1, saqme 14074, 14466.
4. Акты собранные Кавказской археографической коммиссей, том XI,
стр. 757 (Докладная записка Бебутова №795); там-же: стр. 764
(Докладная записка Бебутова №796).
5. Энциклопедический словарь (издатели Ф. А. Брокгауз и И. А. Ефрон),
том VII, Санкт-Петербург, 1892.
6. Большая Советская Энциклопедия, том 5, М., 1971.
7. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, t. 5, Tb., 1980.
8. n. bagrationi, burebTan, mogonebani, Tb., 1990.

32
9. Барамидзе Арч., Ватейшвили Д., П. И. Иоселиани, Очерк жизни и
научно-общественной деятельности, «Мецниереба», Тб., 1978.
10. gawerilia akaki, rCeuli Canawerebi, Tb., 1962.
11. gagoiZe v., filosofiuri azris ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi
XIX s-is saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1962.
12. gocaZe mix., qarTuli Jurnalistikis istoria, Tsu gamom-
cemloba, Tb., 1954.
13. Зерцелов, Библиография русских издании, Тб., 1951.
14. Туманов Г. М., Характеристики и воспоминания, Тиф., 1913.
15. kalandaZe al., qarTuli Jurnalistikis istoria (1819-
1853), t. I, Tb. 1977.
16. kaxiani v., winaparTa nakvalevze, Jurn. `sabWoTa xelovne-
ba~, #3, 1965.
17. leoniZe g., platon ioseliani, Jurn. `Teatri da cxovreba~,
#47, 1915.
18. Махарадзе Н., Платон Иоселиани в «Закавказском Всетнике», «Вопро-
сы теории и истории журналистики», III, Тб., 1974.
19. meliqseT begi l., epizodebi platon ioselianis cxovrebi-
dan, gaz. `literaturuli saqarTvelo~, 1938, #31.
20. ratiani prokofi, epizodebi pl. ioselianis moRvaweobi-
dan Jurn. `sabWoTa qali~, #2, 1976.
21. Шуглиашвили Д., Пламенный патриот родной культуры, газ.
«Вечерный Тифлиси», №282, 1964.
22. WavWavaZe ilia, Txzulebani 20 tomad, t. I, Tb., 1987.
23. WiWinaZe zaqaria, platon ioseliani, Tb., 1893.
24. Иоселиани Пл., Кацхский храм в Имеретии, Тифлис, 1845.
25. Иоселиани Пл., Описание Шиогвимской пустыни в Грузии, Тифлис,
1845.
26. Иоселиани Пл., Города сушествовавшие и существующие в Грузии,
Тифлис, 180.
27. Иоселиани Пл., Описание Марткопского монастыря, Тифлис, 1847.
28. Иоселиани Пл., Гора св. Давида в Тифлись, Тифлис, 1858.
29. Иоселиани Пл., Икортский монастырь в Карталини, Тифлис, 1858.
30. Иоселиани Пл., Путевые записки от Тифлиса до Ахталы, Тифлис,
1850.
31. Иоселиани Пл., Описание города Душета Тифлисской Губернии,
Тифлис, 1860.
32. Иоселиани Пл., Описание древностей города Тифлиса, Тифлис, 1866.

33
33. Иоселиани Пл., Алевская святыня, Тифлис, 1870.
34. Иоселиани Пл., Путевые записки от Тифлиса до Мцхеты, Тифлис, 1871.
35. Иоселиани Пл., Путевые записки по Кахетии... Тифлис, 1886.
36. ioseliani pl., cxovreba mefe giorgi mecametisa, Tb., 1895.
37. pl. ioseliani werilebi... sol. yubaneiSvilis redaqciiT,
Tb., 1941.
38. Газ. «Закавказский вестник», комплекты 1845-1855 гг.
39. Газ. «Кавказ», комплекты 1846-1875 гг.
40. gaz. `droeba~, 1868, 7 ivnisi.
41. gaz. `droeba~, 1869, 27 Tebervali.
42. gaz. `droeba~, 1869, 13 marti.
43. gaz. `droeba~, 1869, 25 dekemberi.
44. gaz. `droeba~, 1873, 21 seqtemberi.
45. gaz. `droeba~, 1874, 12 ivlisi.
46. gaz. `droeba~, 1875, 18 noemberi.
47. gaz. `droeba~, 1875, 26 noemberi.

Gela Saitidze
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Ivane
Javakhishvili Institute of History and
Ethnology, Chief research scientist of the
Department of Modern and Contemporary
History
Platon Ioseliani – Editor, Publicist

Summary

The ten years were the most fruitful among Platon Ioseliani’s (1809 -
1875) many-sided activity. They were the years when he was the editor of
“Kavkazski Vestnik” (“The Messenger of the Caucasus”). The many-sided
manifestation of his talent, great successes in science, elucidation, editorial,
publicistic activity was also promoted by his close relations with count
Mikhail Voroncov, the main ruler of the Caucasus. The count was a person
with the help of whom Platon Ioseliani could manage to use the official
newspaper issued in Russian language for revealing and displaying Georgian
history, church, culture and national traditions. Grateful posterity always will
remember his wise suggestion full of patriotism: “Live with the history and
heroic deeds of the fatherland. There is not a life without history”.

34
xaTuna qoqraSvili
istoriis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvi-
lis istoriisa da eTnologiis insti-
tutis axali da uaxlesi istoriis
ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnier-Ta-
namSromeli

Pplaton ioseliani — saeklesio


istoriis mkvlevari
(zogadi mimoxilva)

platon ioselianis moRvaweobis dasawyisi metad rTul


periods emTxveva. XIX s-is 30-40-iani wlebi amierkavkasiaSi ru-
seTis politikur-administraciuli reJimis damkvidrebisa da
ganmtkicebis periodia. Mmas win uZRoda saqarTvelos istoriis
umniSvnelovanesi movlenebi: ruseTis mier saqarvelos aneq-
sia, samefo xelisuflebis gauqmeba, samefo gvaris warmomad-
genlebis — bagrationebis iZulebiTi gadasaxleba ruseTSi,
saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmeba da rusuli sa-
eklesio wes-ganebis damkvidreba, rusuli administraciis
TviTneburi moqmedeba, antirusuli ajanyebebis sastiki Cax-
Soba. am procesebma sazogadoebis erT nawilSi arsebul re-
JimTan Segueba, pesimizmi, konformizmi ganapiroba. Tumca, pa-
ralelurad, iwyeba qarTuli erovnuli erTobis konsolida-
ciis procesi, erovnuli identobis SenarCunebisaTvis brZo-
la.A asparezze gamodis nacionaluri inteligenciis is wre,
romelmac ganaTleba rusul saswavleblebSi miiRo, Caeba sa-
moqalaqo-Cinovnikur samsaxurSi. maTi CarTva ruseTis saxel-
mwifo cxovrebaSi da imperiis samxedro Tu samoqalaqo karie-
raSi, TviTgadarCenis instinqtiT Tu taqtikiT iyo nakarnaxe-
vi. Mmeore mxriv ki, isini erovnuli TviTmyofadobis ganmtki-
cebas cdas ar aklebdnen, im saSualebebiT, rac maT xelewife-
bodaT TanamdebobiT Tu codniT. K
ena, romelic nacionaluri identobis erT-erTi umTav-
resi niSania, rusuli politikis Sedegad, sakmaod mZime zewo-
lis qveS aRmoCnda, amitom qarTveli inteligencia ibrZvis
qarTuli saliteraturo normebis SesanarCuneblad. terito-
riuli mTlianoba, romlis farglebSic unda momxdariyo kon-
solidacia, gareSe Zalis meSveobiT TiTqosda gaerTianda.

35
gaCnda dakarguli teritoriebis dabrunebis imedi. saxelmwi-
foebrivi da politikuri damoukideblobis aRdgenis idea, am
etapze, damarcxda, amitom mTeli aqcenti gakeTda erovnul-
kulturuli faseulobebis Cvenebasa da popularizaciaze. sa-
xezea e. w. `kulturuli nacionalizmi~-s, rodesac saxelmwi-
foeba dakargul erTobaSi politikuri brZola SeuZlebelia
da erovnuli identobis gamyareba, nacionaluri TviTgamor-
kveva eris kulturuli faseulobebis win wamoweviT, misi
kvleviTa da popularizaciis gziT xdeba.
Eerovnuli cnobierebis ganmtkicebis procesSi saerTo
kanonzomierebad aris miCneuli, qveynis eklesiis istoriis
sferoSi kvlevebis gaaqtiureba. qarTuli saeklesio istori-
ografia swored am dros iRebs saTaves, formisa da Sinaarsis
mixedviT zustad pasuxobs drois moTxovnebs.P pirveli mkvle-
vari, romelmac monografiulad Seiswavla saqarTvelos ek-
lesiis istoria da SemdgomSic am sferoSi arsebul proble-
mebs araerTi samecniero naSromi uZRvna, aris platon iose-
liani.
saeklesio istoriis kvleva platon ioselianis Semoqme-
debis metad saintereso mimarTulebaa. Cveni naSromi miznad
isaxavs am mecnieris, rogorc saeklesio istoriis mkvlevris,
mxolod ganzogadebul Sefasebas da am sferoSi misi Semoqme-
debis zogad mimoxilvas. aqve davsZenT, rom es sakiTxi samo-
mavlod imsaxurebs seriozul gamokvlevas da Rrma analizs.
Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis damTavrebis Semdeg, 1831
wels, platon ioselianma swavla ganagrZo peterburgis sasu-
liero akademiaSi. igi iyo erT-erTi pirveli qarTveli, rome-
lic aRizarda ruseTis umaRles sasuliero saswavlebelSi.
cnobilia, rom akademiaSi swavlis dros man rusul enaze
Seadgina `saqarTvelos eklesiis mokle istoria~ [15]. naSromi
metad sayuradReboa, radganac qarTul istoriografiaSi is
aris pirveli monografiuli naSromi saqarTvelos eklesiis
istoriis Sesaxeb. dRemde moRweulia am wignis II gamocema, ro-
melic 1843 wliT TariRdeba. misi pirveli gamocema, samwuxa-
rod, samecniero Ziebebis miuxedavad bolo dromde mikvleu-
li ar iyo. samecniero literaturaSi arsebobda Tvalsazrisi,
TiTqos wignis pirveli gamocema 1841 wels unda Sesrulebu-
liyo [2, 77; 4, 302]. es mosazreba uaryo mecnierma g. SaraZem. is
daeyrdno episkopos kirion saZagliSvilis cnobas, rom pla-
36
ton ioselianis `saqarTvelos eklesiis mokle istoriam~ `da-
beWdvis welsve (1843) gauZlo or gamocemas~. g. SaraZem es mo-
sazreba damatebiT sarqivo dokumentebis monacemebiT gaamya-
ra [5, 40]. man miakvlia 1842 wels aprilSi miRebul uwmindesi
sinodis brZanebulebas, romlis Tanaxmad, rus mecniers a. n.
muraviovs dadebiTi recenzia warmoudgenia pl. ioselianis am
naSromis Sesaxeb, amasTanave aucileblad miuCnevia misi gamo-
cema mniSvnelovani gadamuSavebisa da Sesworebebis Semdeg.
amasTanave, g. SaraZem moiZia cnoba, romlis mixedviT, 1942
wlis 11 agvistos Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis reqtorma
arqimandritma flavianem seminariis gamgeobas auwya, wignis
gamosacemad momzadebisaTvis sankt-peterburgSi uwmindesi
sinodis miwveviT platon ioselianis gamgzavrebis ambavi. am
dokumentebidan gamomdinare g. SaraZe daaskvnis, rom 1842
wlis zafxulSi pl. ioselianis wigni `saqarTvelos eklesiis
mokle istoria~ ar yofila dabeWdili,A anu misi pirveli gamo-
cema 1841 wels ver iarsebebda. is marTebulad miiCnevs kirion
saZagliSvilis azrs, rom am wignis orive gamocema 1843 wels
unda Sesrulebuliyo [5, 38-45]. sxvaTaSoris, platon ioselia-
nisa da m. broses mimoweras Tu gadavxedavT, aqac kargad Cans,
rom 1841 wels es naSromi marTlac ar iyo gamoqveynebuli [6] .
unda aRiniSnos, rom ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eT-
nologiis institutma 2009 wlis dekemberSi platon ioselia-
nis dabadebis 200 wlisTavs samecniero konferencia miuZRvna.
mecnieris aRniSnuli naSromis Sesaxeb moxseneba warmoadgina
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis ma-
gistrantma mixeil qarTveliSvilma.M man sazogadoebas auwya,
rom miakvlia am wignis aqamde ucnob pirvel gamocemas, rome-
lic, marTlac, 1843 wels yofila dabeWdili. am aRmoCenam,
wignis pirveli gamocemis TariRis Sesaxeb (1843 w.), kirion
episkoposis cnobis da g. SaraZis varaudis marTebuloba daa-
dastura.
`saqarTvelos eklesiis mokle istoria~-s Tavis droze di-
di gamoxmaureba moyva. imave wels cnobilma rusma revolucio-
ner-demokratma n. nekrasovma `Литературная газета~-Si gamoaqvey-
na am naSromis recenzia da pirveli Tavis sruli teqsti [24].
n. nekrasovis SefasebiT, `...amgvari naSromi imsaxurebs srul
mxardaWeras, miT ufro, rom is Seicavs axal mtkicebulebebs

37
berZnul-aRmosavluri eklesiis uZvelesi warmomavlobisa da
dasavluri religiebis samociqulo... eklesiis WeSmariti ka-
nonebisagan gandgomis Sesaxeb~ [24] .
XIX s-is 50-ian wlebSi m. broses mier `qarTlis cxovrebis~
frangul enaze gamoqveynebam, axali wyarosa da faqtologiu-
ri masalis Semotanam, erTgvari gadatrialeba moaxdina maSin-
del orientalistikaSi. Ggaizarda interesi saqarTvelos is-
toriuli warsulis, eklesiis istoriisa da kulturis mimarT.
Aamdenad, SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos, rom platon ioselianis am
naSromma, romelSic pirvelad gamoqveynda saqarTvelos ek-
lesiis istoriis ara erTi saintereso cnoba, ucxoeli mecnie-
rebis yuradRebac miiqcia. 1866 wels `saqarTvelos eklesiis
mokle istoria~, inglisur enaze Targmna, komentarebi daur-
To da gamosca samRvdelo pirma, warmoSobiT frangma, Sveica-
riaSi dabadebulma, SemdgomSi oqsfordis universitetis
cnobilma mecnierma, aRmosavleTmcodnem, poliglotma, so-
lomon sizar malanim (1812-1894 ww.) — History of the Georgian
Charch, translated and edited from the russian of the P. Ioseliani, by the rev.
S. C. Malan, M.A. Vicar of the Broadwindsor, 1866.
ingliseli mecnieriD d. langi, romelmac Seiswavla qar-
Tvelologiuri kvleva-Ziebani oqsfordis universitetSi
(`Georgian stadies in Oxford~ (Oxsford slavonic papers, vol.VI, 1955,
Oxsford, 1956, gv. 115-143 )), solomon sizar malanis inglisSi
qarTvelologiuri mecnierebis pionerad miiCnevs da Tavisi
drois yvelaze universalur lingvistad aRiarebs. misive
cnobiT, solomon sizar malanis qarTuli enac kargad scod-
nia da qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebis istoriiT yofila da-
interesebuli [1, 139-151].
malani anglikanuri eklesiis TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli
iyo da is 1845 wlidan e.w. `Broadwindsor~-is vikarad dainiSna. Aan-
glikanuri eklesia cnobilia Tavisi liberaluri damokidebu-
lebiT sxva qristianul aRmsareblobebTan. misi erT-erTi mi-
marTuleba, romelic farTo eklesiis (Broad Church) saxeliT
aris cnobili, mowodebulia gaaerTianos yvela qristianuli
mimdinareoba. cnobilia, romQ qristianobis es mimarTuleba
mogvianebiT (XX s-Si) aqtiurad CaerTo ekumenur moZraobaSi.
XIX s-is II naxevarSi evropasa da amerikaSi gansakuTrebulad ga-
aqtiurdnen samRvdelo pirebi, romlebic cdilobdnen warmoe-

38
CinaT anglikanuri da orTodoqsuli anu aRmosavlur-qristia-
nuli aRmsareblobis msgavseba. Bamdenad, aRmosavluri avtoke-
faluri eklesiebis istoriis Seswavlas dasavlur saRvTismet-
yvelo mecnierebaSi metad didi yuradReba daeTmo. vfiqrobT,
solomon sizar malanis daintereseba platon ioselianis naS-
romiT — `saqarTvelos eklesiis mokle istoria~, garda wminda
samecniero interesisa, anglikanuri eklesiis praqtikuli miz-
nebiTac iyo nakarnaxevi. niSandoblivia, rom solomon sizar ma-
lanis 1867 wels uTargmnia, agreTve,G gabriel episkoposis qada-
gebani (Sermons by Gabriel, bishop of Imereth, London, 1867), xolo 1872
wels Tavad umogzauria saqarTveloSi, piradad Sexvedria Ggab-
riel episkoposs da quTaisis sakaTedro taZarSi wirva da qada-
geba qarTulad Seusrulebia. [5, 43]
unda aRiniSnos isic, rom XIX-XX s-is mijnaze, rodesac
daisva saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis kvleva-Ziebis samecni-
ero donis gansazRvris, naklovanebebis gamovlenis, misi sis-
temuri, safuZvliani Seswavlisa da srulyofis sakiTxi, pla-
ton ioselianis am naSromis samecniero Rirebulebac kidev
erTxel Sefasda. episkoposma kiron saZagliSvilma, romelic
sagangebod Seexo qarTuli saeklesio istoriografiis mdgo-
mareobasa da misi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebs, platon iose-
lianis aRniSnuli naSromi ZiriTadad dadebiTad Seafasa,
Tumca aRniSna kidec misi xarvezebi: `...miuxedavad Tavisi
arasrulobisa, gaumarTaobisa, seriozuli samecniero xerxe-
bis uqonlobisa, rogorc saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis
Sedgenis pirveli cda, jer kidev, dasamuSavebel da kritiku-
lad Sesafasebel wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, es wigni, ra Tqma un-
da, darCeba avtoris Sromisa da erudiciis maradsaxsovar Zeg-
lad~.B[26, 2]
bunebrivia, dRes qarTuli saistorio mecniereba ver gai-
ziarebs platon ioselianis mier `saqarTvelos eklesiis mok-
le istoriaSi~ gamoTqmul zogierT Tvalsazriss. gansakuT-
rebiT ki, rusul saeklesio istoriografiaSi damkvidrebul
koncefciebs, romlebic ewinaaRmdegebian qarTul isto-
riografiaSi arsebul Sexedulebebs da aseve saeklesio tra-
diciebs. Uunda aRiniSnos, rom naSromma — `saqarTvelos ekle-
siis mokle istoria~ — gamoqveynebamde Semowmebis metad xan-
grZlivi da rTuli gza ganvlo. Pplaton ioselianisa da m. bro-

39
ses mimoweridan Cans, rom is ganuxilavT kievisa da peterbur-
gis sasuliero akademiebSi. Semdeg Sesamowmeblad gadaeca ru-
seTis uwmindesi sinodis specialur komisias, romelmac mii-
Ro gadawyvetileba avtori Tbilisidan peterburgSi gamoex-
mo, naSromis gadamuSavebisa da zogierTi Tvalsazrisis gada-
sasinjad [6]. Aes, faqtobrivad, iyo pirdapiri miTiTeba Tu
moTxovna, avtoriseuli Sexedulebebis Secvlis Taobaze.
platon ioselianma peterburgSi wignis `gamosacemad momza-
debas~ sakmao dro moandoma da mxolod amis Semdeg daumtki-
ces dasabeWdad. vfiqrobT, mis mier rusul istoriografiaSi
damkvidrebuli zogierTi saistorio Tvalsazrisis gaziare-
ba, zewolis Sedegi unda yofiliyo. platon ioselianis naSro-
mis araerTi xarvezi maSindeli saistorio kvlevebis da isto-
riografiis donemac ganapiroba; Tumca, isic unda aRiniSnos,
rom ucxour wyaroTa gamoyenebis, problemis wamoWris, masa-
lis gaazrebis da analizis kuTxiT, aRniSnuli wigni Tavisi
drois qarTuli saistorio azrovnebis inovaciur naSromad
SeiZleba CaiTvalos.
platon ioselianis am da sxva naSromebSi kargad Cans is-
toriuli procesebis gaazrebis miseuli xedva da msoflaR-
qma. is, rogorc Rrmad morwmune adamiani, istoriis Semecnebas
samyarosa da RmerTis Semecnebis gzad miiCnevs. istoriuli
movlenebis da procesebis gaazrebisas misi xedva qristia-
nul-providencialuria: istorias RvTiuri nebis gamovline-
bad, adamianebisa da erebis `xsnis~ RvTaebrivi gegmis ganxor-
cielebad miiCnevs.
Aplaton ioselianis saeklesio istoriis kvlevebSi kar-
gad warmoCnda, is ZiriTadi saistorio koncefciebi, romli-
Tac SeiZleba iTqvas, sazrdoobs misi Semoqmedeba: 1) is, ro-
gorc yvela saeklesio istorikosi, saqarTvelos istoriaSi
qristianobis gansakuTrebuli adgilisa da rolis saRvTis-
metyvelo koncefciis mimdevaria. Mmisi azriT, marTlmadideb-
lobam gansazRvra saqarTvelos istoriis araerTi mniSvnelo-
vani procesi, misi politikuri orientacia da qarTuli erTo-
bis Camoyalibebis saqmeSi umniSvnelovanesi roli Seasrula.
@2) pl. ioselianis SemoqmedebaSi kargad Cans saqarTvelos
RvTisrCeulobis koncefcia. is Tvlis, rom saqarTvelos
`xsna~ samyaros ganviTarebis RvTiuri gegmis nawilia. RvTis-
mSoblis wilxvedr qveynad saqarTvelos aRiareba, am koncef-
40
ciis erTgvari gamoxatulebaa. Tumca, aqve unda iTqvas, rom
mis naazrevSi naklebad Cans qarTuli mesianizmis idea, rome-
lic qarTul saekleso istoriografiaSi XX s-is dasawyisSi
sakmaod mkveTrad gaJRerda. is rusuli mesianizmis ideas uf-
ro iziarebs, rodesac ambobs: `...gangebaman RvTisa qmna ise,
romel rusTa ZaliTA damSviddnen... Temni TviT qarTvelTa sa-
mefosa daglejilni da danawevrebulni... gangeba RvTisa rus-
Tave ZaliTa moiyvans naTesaobiTsa erTobasa qobuleTsa, aWa-
rasa, livanasa TurqTagan pyrobilTa...~[4, 247-248] Tumca, aqve
unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTveloSi ruseTis saeklesio poli-
tikis Sefasebisas, platon ioseliani xSir SemTxvevaSi ukmayo-
filebas gamoTqvams saqarTvelos egzarqosebis damokidebu-
lebis Sesaxeb qarTuli siZveleebisa da eklesia-monastrebis
mimarT. Eegzarqos isidores dros sveticxovlis taZarSi Cata-
rebul aRdgeniT samuSaoebs platon ioseliani ase afasebda:
`mcxeTis ganmaaxlebelisa dasca sruliad eqsarqosad yofil-
man da aw peterburRisa mitropolitad isidoreman... movaxse-
ne 1858 welsa araeTgzis da merec SfoTiTaca mas, istoriisa
da qveynis siZveleTa umecarsa da ara miiRo Hhazri Cemi. iyo ka-
ci TviTneba da idumal ara moyvare qarTvelTa...~ [7, 86]
platon ioselianis, rogorc saeklesio istoriis mkvlev-
ris, metad sayuradRebo mxarea mis mier Sesrulebuli ara er-
Ti qarTuli taZrisa da eklesia-monastris aRwera. Tavdapir-
velad, saqarTvelo-imereTis sinodaluri kantoris korpusis
TanamSromels, mRvdels l. mixalovskis, romelic, rogorc
Cans, TanaugrZnobda saqarTveloSi SemorCenili qristianuli
siZveleebis patronobisa da zrunvis saqmes, platon ioselia-
nisaTvis originaluri arqiteqturiT gamorCeuli, Zveli qar-
Tuli taZrebis liTografiuli gamosaxulebebis Sesruleba
urCevia. pirvelad mecnierma kacxis taZris mokle aRwera da
am taZris fasadis liTografiuli gamosaxuleba gamoaqveyna.
[9, 16] SemdgomSi amas mohyva, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva eklesia-
monastrebis mosaxilad platon ioselianis mizanmimarTuli
mogzauroba. platon ioselianis m. brosesTan mimoweridan
Cans, rom mecnieri ar zogavda Tavis fizikur Tu materialur
SesaZleblobebs da saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi `mogzau-
robebis~ dros krebda iSviaT xelnawerebs, taZrebis kedlebi-
dan gadaRebul warwerebs da freskebis aslebs, uamrav eTnog-

41
rafiul da folklorul masalas. saTanado damuSavebis Sem-
deg peterburgSi agzavnida samefo akademiaSi [6, 149-201].
platon ioselianma aRwera sveticxovlis da nokornos
taZrebi, aseve SiomRvimis, gelaTis, kabenis, ikorTis monas-
trebi, iq daculi `siZveleebi~. Aam informacias statiebad pe-
riodulad aqveynebda Jurn. `Закавказский вестник~-Si, romelic
misi redaqtorobiTa da uSualo xelmZRvanelobiT gamodio-
da. masalebi ibeWdeboda sxvadasxva rusul solidur gamoce-
mebSic, zogierTi taZris aRwera calke wignadac gamoica. [5;
10; 11; 12; 14, 67-89; 16; 17, 49-59; 18; 19; 20; 22; 23]
es naSromebi SesaniSnav suraTs qmnian saqarTvelos ekle-
sia-monastrebis maSindeli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb, gvawvdian
saWiro cnobebs ama Tu im eklesiisa Tu monastris adgilmde-
bareobis, bunebrivi garemo pirobebis, Zeglis Seswavlis is-
toriis (romelma mecnierebma, mogzaurebma Seiswavles an aR-
weres), nagebobebis arqiteqturul stilze mkvlevarTa mosaz-
rebebis, moxatulobis, warwerebis, monasterSi daculi saek-
lesio saWurvlis, xatebis, biblioTekis, aqtebis da sigele-
bis, Semowirulobebis, monastrebis winamZRvrebis vinaobisa
da qronologiis, cnobili pirebis saflavebis Sesaxeb da a. S.
platon ioselianma aRwera zogierTi iseTi Zegli, romelic
ganadgurebis pirze iyo misuli (mag. nokornos eklesia, alevi-
sa da wm. mamebis samlocveloebi da a.S.), amiT Semogvinaxa cno-
bebi am eklesiebis pirvandeli arqiteqturuli stilisa da is-
toriis Taobaze [10; 22; 23].
saqarTvelos farglebs gareT daculi qarTuli saekle-
sio literaturisa da wyaroebis SeswavliT platon ioselia-
ni, jer kidev, 1838 wels dainteresebula. sazRvargareT arse-
bul qarTul monastrebSi daculi qarTuli siZveleebis Ses-
wavlis mizniT, ruseTis bibliuri sazogadoebis iniciativiT,
n. d. CubinaSvilis TaosnobiT, jer kidev 1820 wels, Sedga 6 ka-
ciani eqspedicia. Tumca is CaiSala, saberZneTSi momxdari
ajanyebis gamo. Mmoxda ise, rom pirveli qarTveli mkvlevari,
romelic aTonis mTas estumra, iyo platon ioseliani. mecni-
ers xelT hqonia, ilarion yanCiSvilis mier Sedgenili, aTonis
mTis qarTvelTa monastris qarTuli xelnawerebisa da wigne-
bis arasruli nusxa, romelsac m. brosec icnobda da frangu-
ladac uTargmnia. 1849 wels saqarTvelos mefisnacvlis m. vo-

42
roncovis daxmarebiT platon ioselians aTonis mTaze gam-
gzavrebis neba darTes. es mogzauroba 4 Tve da 21 dRe gag-
rZelda. Mmogzaurobis mizani aTonis qarTul monasterSi da-
culi qarTuli xelnawerebis Seswavla iyo [8, 116-118].
platon ioselians muSaoba mZime pirobebSi mouwia: por-
taitis monastris samreklos Senobis erT-erT oTaxSi, iatak-
ze da Taroebze uwesrigod daxvavebuli 4000-mde wignidan, mas
unda gamoerCia qarTuli xelnawerebi da wignebi. samwuxarod,
pl. ioselianis am mogzaurobis Sedegebsa da mniSvnelobaze
srulyofil warmodgenas ver SeviqmniT. am samecniero mivli-
nebis Sesaxeb detaluri angariSi, romelic mecniers Sedgeni-
li hqonia, platon ioselianis arqivis nawilTan, sxvadasxva
masalebTan erTad ganadgurda da DdRemde ver moaRwia. Semor-
Cenilia mxolod, mis mier Sesrulebuli aTonis iverTa monas-
tris aRwera, romelic xelnawerTa erovnul fondSia daculi,
Tumca aq dasaxelebul xelnawerTa nusxa ar aris sruli. aTo-
nis monasterSi dacul xelnawerebze nawyveti bibliografiu-
li cnobebi gafantulia platon ioselianis mier gamocemul
timoTesa da ionas wminda adgilTa mimoxilvaSi, agreTve ka-
Tolikos anton I-is `wyobilsityvaobaSi~.A aTonis mTaze mecni-
eris mogzaurobisa da aTonis qarTvelTa monasterSiM muSao-
bis Sedegebze garkveul cnobebs gvawvdian, agreTve, kores-
pondenciebi, romelTac pl. ioseliani drodadro `Закавказс-
кий вестник~-Si gamosaqveyneblad gzavnida. korespondenciebi-
dan irkveva, rom mecniers miukvlevia ramdenime mniSvnelova-
ni uZvelesi xelnawerisaTvis, esenia: 1) pergamentze Sesrule-
buli xelnaweri, romelSic gadmocemuli iyo monastris qti-
torebis cxovreba. xelnawers Tan erTvoda wm. ilarion qar-
Tvelis cxovreba da uZvelesi qarTuli diptiqebi; 2) sakmaod
Selaxul mdgomareobaSi myofi xelnaweri wm. giorgi mTawmin-
delis cxovrebis Sesaxeb; 3) wminda barTlomes cxovreba, ro-
melmac qristianoba kavkasiis mTis mosaxleobaSi iqadaga (mec-
nieri aRniSnavs, rom es aris axali jer kidev ucnobi wyaro sa-
qarTvelos istoriisaTvis); 4) V s-is moRvawis svimon mesvetis
Tanamedrove wmindanis anton qarTvelis cxovreba. [8, 132]
aTonis mTaze samecniero kvlevebis Sedegebze damatebiT
informacias iZleva, agreTve platon ioselianis SemorCenili
arqivis, xelnawerebisa da naSromebis bibliografia, romelic

43
XIX s-is 90-ian wlebSi aris Sedgenili, qarTuli saeklesio is-
toriisa da `siZveleebis~ SeswavliT dainteresebuli qarTve-
li inteligenciis mier [25]. bibliografiaSi Sesulia is wigne-
bi da xelnawerebi, romelic pl. ioselians droebiTi sargeb-
lobisaTvis Camoutania saqarTveloSi an Tavisi xeliT gadau-
weria. Eesenia: 1) wmindanTa sadidebeli kanonebis krebuli (per-
gamenti, uTariRo, wm. eqvTimes, ioanes, giorgis da gabrielis
cxovreba); 2) cxra Zma kolaelTa cxovreba (pl. ioselianis xe-
liT gadawerili); 3) wm. varlamis cxovreba da wm. marTas (svi-
mon mesvetes dedis) cxovreba erT wignad (pergamenti); 4) sa-
qarTvelos eklesiis wmindanTaA cxovreba (pl. ioselianis xe-
liT gadawerili); 5) berZnul enaze Sesrulebuli aRapebi 6
wignad, romelSic ixseniebian saqarTvelos eklesiis mamebi da
qarTveli Semomwirvelebi 6) wm. marTas (svimon mesvetes de-
dis) cxovreba, anton qarTvelis mier gadawerili da sxva.
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo platon ioselianis mi-
er saqarTveloSi droebiTi sargeblobisTvis Camotanili X
saukunis (978 w.) biblia, romelic oSkis lavraSi gadauweriaT
da Tornike erisTavs Seuwiravs aTonis monastrisTvis. XIX s-
is I naxevarSi sakmaod aqtualurad dadga `dabadebis~ teqstis
dadgenisa da gamocemis sakiTxi. aTonis mTaze daculi zemoT-
naxsenebi bibliis xelnaweri jer kidev 1818 wels droebiTi
sargeblobisaTvis gamoiTxova `ruseTis bibliurma sazoga-
doebam~, magram aTonis mamebisagan mtkice uari miiRo. aRniS-
nuli sazogadoebis mier Aam da sxva xelnawerTa gadasawerad da
Sesaswavlad aTonis mTaze gagzavnili eqspedicia n. CubinaSvi-
lis xelmZRvanelobiT warumateblad dasrulda, saberZneTSi
garTulebuli politikuri viTarebis Sedegad. Aamgvarad, rac
ver SeZlo `ruseTis bibliurma sazogadoebam~, imas warmate-
biT gaarTva Tavi pl. ioselianma. aRsaniSnavia, rom pirvelad
egzarqos isidores dros Seiqmna bibliis qarTuli Targmanis
Semsworebeli komiteti, romlis erT-erTi wevri swored pl.
ioseliani iyo. [8, 150-151]
aTonis mTaze mogzaurobis dros pl. ioselianma trapi-
zonSi moixila grigol niselis saxelobis eklesia da aRwera
aq mdebare imereTis mefis solomon II saflavi, aTonis mTaze
erT-erT monasterSi ki Sexvda mis yofil moZRvars — ilari-
ons. am Sexvedram da ber-monazonTan saubarma pl. ioselianze
sakmaod didi STabeWdileba moaxdina [8, 135]. aTonis mTaze
44
mogzaurobis dros is Sexvda, agreTve, msoflio patriarqs,
saberZneTis mefes otos da sxva cnobil pirovnebebs.
saeklesio istoriografiaSi PwmindanTa da sasuliero
pirTa cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis gadmocema, ZiriTadad,
qristianobis umTavresi debulebebis Semecnebas da qristes-
Tvis wamebulTa Tayvaniscemas gulisxmobs. CvenTvis sainte-
reso periodSi, qarTvel wmindanTa Tavdadebis Cvenebas, erov-
nuli meobis amaRlebis funqcia unda Seesrulebina. platon
ioselianma qarTul da ucxour wyaroebze dayrdnobiT gad-
mosca saqarTvelos eklesiis mier Seracxuli wmindanebis, —
wm. ninos, wm. raJdenis, wm. SuSanikis, wm. ioane zedaznelis, wm.
Sio mRvimelis, — cxovreba da moRvaweoba [13]. niSandoblivia,
rom es Txzuleba mas, sxvadasxva wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, Tbi-
lisis sasuliero seminariis aRsazrdelebisaTvis Seudgenia.
sayuradReboa, rom platon ioselianma Aam TxzulebaSi ga-
moaqveyna saqarTvelos eklesiaSi wmindanTa xsenebis saeklesio
kalendari. im dros, rodesac saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefa-
lia gauqmda, mkvidrdeba rusuli eklesiis wes-gangeba, aikrZa-
la manamade arsebuli qarTuli saeklesio dResaswaulebi,
wmindanTaA xsenebis dReebi — platon ioselianis amgvarma naS-
romebma Semogvinaxes cnobebi saqarTvelos eklesiaSi moqmedi
kalendris SEesaxeb. platon ioseliani Tavis naSromebSi xSirad
exeba qarTul eklesia-monastrebSi damkvidrebul saeklesio
dResaswaulebs, aRwers da xsnis maT etimologias [13].
amgvarad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom platon ioselianma qar-
Tul istoriografiaSi saTave daudo saqarTvelos eklesiis
istoriis macnierulad gaazrebasa da Seswavlas. saeklesio
istoriis kvlevis dargSi, mis damsaxurebad SeiZleba CaiTva-
los saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis gaazreba maxlobeli aR-
mosavleTis qristianuli eklesiis istoriuli fonis gaTva-
liswinebiT; qarTuli wyaroebis paralelurad, saqarTvelos
eklesiis istoriis Seswavlis mizniT, samecniero brunvaSi uc-
xouri (berZnuli, somxuri laTinuri da sxva) saistorio wya-
roebisa da monacemebis Semotana, maTi kritikuli gaazreba.
yovelive es maSindeli qarTuli saistorio azrovnebisaTvis
erTgvar siaxles warmoadgenda.

45
damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. d. langi, qarTvelologiuri kvleva-Zieba oqsfordSi,


Targmani al. gamyreliZisa, Jurnali `ciskari~, 1957, #4.
2. megreliZe, rusTvelologebi, Tb., 1970.
3. platon ioseliani, aRwera martyofis monastrisa, rusu-
lidan Targmna, gamokvleva, SeniSvnebi da komentari daur-
To xaTuna maruSaSvilma, Tb., 2009.
4. platon ioseliani, cxovreba mefisa giorgi mecametisa,
akaki gawerelias Sesavali werilebiT, redaqciiTa da Se-
niSvnebiT, Tb., 1936.
5. g. SaraZe, platon ioseliani, rusTvelologi, Tbilisi,
1980.
6. s. yubaneiSvili, platon ioselianis werilebi akad. mari
brosesadmi, baTumis saxelmwifo pedagogiuri institutis
samecniero Sromebis krebuli, wigni I, baTumi, 1941.
7. z. WiWinaZe, platon ioseliani (cxovreba da moRvaweoba),
tfilisi, 1893.
8. А. Барамидзе, Д. Ватеишвили, Платон Иоселиани, Очерк жизни и
научно-общественной деятельности, Тб., 1978.
9. `Закавказский вестник~ 1845, №16.
10. П. Иоселиани, Алевская святыня, Душети, 1870.
11. П. Иоселиани, Гелатский монастырь, Кавказский календарь,
Тифлис, 1852.
12. П. Иоселиани, Древние памятники Тифлиса, Журнал министерства
внутренных дел, 1844, № 6.
13. П. Иоселиани, Жизнеописание святых, прославляемых
православною грузинскою церковью, Тифлис, 1850.
14. П. Иоселиани, Икортский монастырь в Карталинии, Грузинский
духовный вестник, 1865, №11.
15. П. Иоселиани, История грузинской церкви, Тифлис, 1843.
16. П. Иоселиани, Кацхский храм в имеретии, Тифлис, 1845.
17. П. Иоселиани, Мцхетский храм в Грузии, Журнал министерства
народнаго просвещения, ч. XXXVI, Спб., 1842.
18. П. Иоселиани, Описание древностей города Тифлиса, Тифлис, 1866.
19. П. Иоселиани, Описание Кабенского монастыря, Кавказский кален-
дарь, Тифлис, 1854.

46
20. П. Иоселиани, Описание Шиомгвимской пустыни в Грузии,
`Закавказский вестник~, 1845, №12-14, №16.
21. П. Иоселиани, Святая Нина просветительница Грузии христианскою
верою, `Закавказский вестник~, 1845, №1.
22. П. Иоселиани, Святыня Мамеба, gaz.: `Кавказ~, 1871, №6.
23. П. Иоселиани, Храм в Нокорно Душети, 1870.
24. gaz.: `Литературная газета~, 1843, #35.
25. gaz.: `Новое обозрение~, 1894, №3521.
26. Г. Садзагелов-Ивериели, К вопросу о грузинской церковной исто-
риографии, `Пастырь~, 1886, № 20-21.

Khatuna Kokrashvili
Doctor of History, The Ivane Javakhishvili
Institute of History and Ethnology, Senior
research scientist of the Department of
Modern and Contemporary History

Platon Ioseliani – The Researcher of the Church History


(General review)

Summary

The Church history studies carried on by Platon Ioseliani is an


extremely interesting sphere of his creative activity. While studying in the
Theological Academy of Petersburg he compiled short history of Georgia in
Russian. After corresponding revision and improvement the book was edited
in 1843. This is the first work that studies the Church history of Georgia
monographically. The book was highly evaluated by author’s contemporaries.
It does not lose its significance even now.
Platon Ioseliani has described not a single Georgian church, monastery,
cathedral. Such as: Svetitskhoveli, Nokorno, Shiomghvime, Gelati, Kabeni,
Ikorta. These works give an obvious picture of the condition of those days
Georgian churches and monasteries; they give and provide us with important
data about the relics, manuscripts or books preserved there; they preserve an
information about the history of this or that church and monastery and about
their condition at that very time.
Platon Ioseliani‘s journey to Mount Athos is worth to be mentioned.
He described the current state of those days Monastery of Georgians on the

47
Holy Mountain; compiled a list of manuscripts that were available for him
among there preserved ones; brought in Georgia some of them for temporary
use. Among these manuscripts there was a Bible copped in Oshki Monastery
for the Monastery of Athos. Platon Ioseliani was a scientist who directed his
attention on the importance of Biblical studies. On the basis of available
sources he edited the `Lifes~ of Georgian Saints who were canonized by the
Church of Georgia.
The evaluation of the history of the Church of Georgia on the
background of the Near East Christian Church history, bringing foreign
historical sources and data into scientific circulation together with Georgian
ones and their critical comprehension is the merit of Palton Ioseliani. It really
was a kind of novelty for those days Georgian historical thinking. Thus, we
may say that scientific studies of the church history in Georgian
historiography originate from Platon Ioseliani’s works.

48


dodo WumburiZe
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane ja-
vaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis ins-
titutis axali da uaxlesi ganyofilebis
mTavari mecnier-TanamSromeli

rusuli kolonizacia afxazeTSi da


dasaxleba parnauTi

XIX saukunis II naxevridan daiwyo saqarTvelos istoriu-


li miwebis aTviseba-kolonizacia ruseTis imperiuli xeli-
suflebis mier. afxazi da rusi avtorebi am process sruliad
damaxinjebulad warmogvidgenen. maTi azriT, am dros ganxor-
cielda qarTvelebis mier afxazeTis `dapyroba~, maTi `SeWra~
da am regionSi demografiuli cvlilebebis safuZvelic es
gaxda (ZiZaria, lakoba, bRaJba). sinamdvileSi, afxazeTSi ru-
seTma 35 rusuli da sxva garusebuli erovnebebis soflebi da-
aarsa. qarTvelebs aqedan devnidnen da kolonizaciis proeq-
tis gareT acxadebdnen.
rusuli kolonizaciis namdvili, Sovinisturi miznebis
mkafio gamoxatulebas warmoadgens xelisuflebis damokide-
buleba afxazeTis sofel parnauTSi mcxovrebi qarTuli mo-
saxleobisadmi, maTi uflebebis darRveva da rusuli intere-
sebis gatareba saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTSi. parnauTis saq-
mem didi gamoxmaureba hpova amdrois ara marto qarTul, ara-
med rusul presaSic. aqedan Cans, Tu ramdenad arasamarTlia-
ni iyo mTavrobis gadawyvetileba parnauTeli glexebis mi-
marT.
parnauTis istoria ase ganviTarda: aq mcxovrebi mosax-
leoba XIX saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi muhajirobis saSinel
process Seewira. isini TurqeTSi gaasaxles da es adgili dau-
saxlebeli, TiTqmis gaveranda. sofeli soxumidan 11 kilomet-
ris daSorebiT mdebareobda, magram aRaravis izidavda Tavisi
veluri mdgomareobis gamo: niadagi yamirad qceuliyo, imdeni
Sroma da saxsrebi Wirdeboda am miwisTvis kulturuli same-

49
urneo saxis dabrunebas, rom amis saSualeba maSindel piro-
bebSi ar iyo. amitom Tqves uari parnauTSi dasaxlebaze rusma
kolonistma glexebma, ara marto maT, vinc imperiis Sida gu-
berniebidan iyvnen da ufasod SesTavazes aq dasaxleba, aramed
ukve afxazeTSi dasaxlebulma rusma glexebmac. soxumis sat-
yeo meurneobam ufleba misca qarTvel glexebs— zugdidisa
da senakis mazris mcxovrebT, rom arendiT aeRoT miwa, es
arenda, rogorc maT dahpirdnen, samudamo an xangrZlivi iqne-
boda. Tu rus glexebs ufasod sTavazobdnen aqaur miwas, qar-
Tvelebs desetinaSi 6 maneTi gadaaxdevines. fuls ixdidnen
msxvilfexa rqosani saqonlis yolazec: TiTo sulze 40 kapiks
weliwadSi. glexebma Seisyides miwis dasamuSavebeli iaraRebi,
rasac, sxvaTaSoris, Tavad aZlevdnen rus Camosaxlebulebs,
ufasod.
Zneli gza ganvles parnauTelebma velur bunebasTan
brZolaSi, didi nebisyofa da energia Seswires aqaurobas. ro-
gorc maSindeli presa erTxmad aRniSnavda, maTi damsaxureba
iyo, rom es dasaxleba, manamde sruliad unayofo, migdebuli
da gaveranebuli, ayvavebuli baRebiT, xexiliTa da venaxebiT
gamorCeul adgilad iqca. is adamianebi, romlebmac saijaro
xelSekruleba gaaformes parnauTelebTan, Cveulebriv, rusi
erovnebisa da rusuli xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi iyvnen,
rogorc Semdgom gairkva, maT moatyues arendatorebi, daamu-
Savebines, gaalamazebines veluri adgili, Semdeg ki rusuli
soflis Seqmna gadawyvites maT sakarmidamoebSi, metic, isini
aq Cumad Semoparul `zaxvatCikebad~ CaTvales. marTalia, iy-
vnen iseTebic, romlebic agarakze axali mosulebi iyvnen, mag-
ram ZiriTadi mosaxleoba ramdenime, zogjer ori, an sami aTe-
uli wlis dasaxlebuli iyo. mTavroba am moments iyenebda da
mosaxleTa ukanono qmedebas amiT asabuTebda. maTi danaSauli
mxolod erovnuli warmomavloba iyo. kavkasiaSi gadmosaxle-
bulTa sammarTvelos ufrosis Sedgenil dokumentSi isini mo-
Zaladeebad da ukanonod SemoWril adamianebad arian dasaxe-
lebulni. ai, nawyveti am dokumentidan: `gadasaxlebulTa sam-
marTvelos xelT arsebuli monacemebiT, parnauTis agarakis
zogierTi xelsayreli miwebi mTxovnelebs ijariT mxolod
ukanasknel periodSi gadaecaT. amasTan, ijaris vada mxolod
erTi wliT ganisazRvra, raTa, rogorc ki amas saWiroeba mo-
iTxovs, unda CamoerTvas isini moijareebs, radgan es zemoT
50
dasaxlebuli agaraki rusi gadmosaxlebulebis dasakmayofi-
leblad aris gankuTvnili. zemoT dasaxelebuli sammarTve-
los mier ijaris mTxovnelTaTvis uaris Tqmis mizezia parna-
uTis agarakis xelsayreli miwis nakveTebis sabolood gada-
cema rusi gadmosaxlebulebisaTvis. erT welze meti droiT
ijaris gacemaze uars imitom eubnebian megrel moijareebs,
rom isini TavianTi mravalricxovani naTesavebiT damagrdebi-
an am miwaze da faqtiurad TviTneburad moaxdenen am miwebis
miTvisebas da maTi aqedan gaZeveba Semdeg ufro gagviWirde-
ba...am adgilebSi mudmivad dasasaxlebelTa siaSi ijaris
mTxovnelTa CarTva SeuZlebelia, radganac sasoflo-sameur-
neo sargeblobisaTvis xelsayreli farTobi aq arc ise didia
da amasTan, es aris erTaderTi miwis fondi, romelsac metnak-
lebad SeuZlia myarad uzrunvelyos soxumis olqSi ukve Camo-
saxlebulTa moTxovna miwaze...~ dokumentSi saubaria afxa-
zeTSi rusuli dasaxlebebis—spasovkis, beloreCinskis, sta-
roCernigovskis da sxva, rus miwaTmoqmed da xelosan glexeb-
ze, amasTanav, xelisuflebisgan dagegmil, ruseTis Sida gu-
berniebidan Camoyvanili glexebis dasaxlebaze. am mizniT aris
Sedgenili mTavrobis moxeleTa mier parnauTis agarakis miwe-
bis gegmao,— askvnida moxele. parnauTSi bevr dasaxlebul
qarTvel glexs miwa kerZo mflobelidan hqonda aRebuli, rac
saqmes uZnelebda xelisuflebas, mijnebic kerZo da saxazino
mamulebs Soris mkveTrad ar iyo gavlebuli. proeqtis gan-
xorcieleba amitom yovndeboda, magram mTavrobas miaCnda,
rom aucileblad iyo saWiro qarTveli glexebis gasaxleba,
radgan es miwa rus Camosaxlebulebsac ar yofnida. maT Soris
sammarTvelos ufrosi asaxelebda parnauTSi pirvelad Camo-
sul qarTvel moijareebsac, romlebic iseve unda gaesaxlebi-
naT, rogorc axali moijareebi [1, 75].
rus moxeleebs kargad esmodaT, rom sakiTxi Zalze fa-
qizi da, xelisuflebis mxridan riskiani iyo, amitom misi gan-
xorcieleba politikurad xelsayrel, reaqciis dros, revo-
luciis sastikad CaxSobis Semdeg ganaxorciela. gadmosaxle-
bulTa sammarTvelos Tavmjdomare mefisnacvals imazec wer-
da, rom eSeris 95 afxazi komli miwis naklebobiT cud dReSi
iyo da Tu megrelebs daukanonebdnen parnauTs, maSin maTac
veRar daakmayofilebdnen. amas rusi moxele sxvaTaSoris imi-

51
zezebda, Torem sxvagan, yvela dokumentSi parnauTSi rusi Ca-
mosaxlebulebis dasaxlebaze saubrobda [2, 7].
1908 wlis oqtomberSi gadmosaxlebulTa sammarTvelos
moxeleebi— arxipovi da sapoJnikovi mefisnacvlis kancelari-
aSi gagzavnil mimarTvaSi gamoricxavdnen megreli arendato-
rebis Tavisi nebiT gasvlas parnauTidan, piriqiT, isini sxva
naTesavebsac iwveven, raTa agarakis miwebi Zaladobrivad mii-
tacono, Txovdnen mefisnacvals, yvelaferi gaekeTebina par-
nauTidan megrelebis saswrafod gasayrelad. arxipovi mefis-
nacvals parnauTis miwis fondsac uzustebda, agaraki am cno-
biT, 3250 desetina iyo, saidanac samosaxlod da sameurneod
920 desetina vargoda. mefisnacvlis kancelariidan male am
moxeleebma Txovnaze Tanxmoba miiRes [3, 14-15]. daiwyo megre-
li glexebis gayra, rasac satyeos revizori rodiSCevi anxor-
cielebda.
parnauTel glexebs ar egonaT ambis amgvarad dasru-
leba, rogorc maTi saqmidan Cans, isini imedovnebdnen, rom
fuliT mainc moaxerxebdnen dakavebuli da ganaSenianebuli
sakarmidamoebis dakanonebas. Tavdapirvelad TavianTi nebiT
arCeuli warmomadgenlebis saSulebiT werdnen Txovnebs, sa-
Civrebsa da axsna-ganmartebebs, imedovnebdnen samarTliano-
bis miRwevas, magram sabolood mwared motyuvdnen. vin aRar
Caries,ruseTis dumis qarTveli deputatebi, saxelmwifo sab-
Wo, adgilobrivi Tu peterburgis presa, yvela maT mxareze
iyo, magram koloniuri moxeleebisTvis es gadamwyveti ar
aRmoCnda, Tumca, mTlad gulgrilad rom ver uyurebdnen am
faqts, es iqidan Cans, rom gazeTis amonaWrebs, sadac dabeWdi-
li iyo parnauTel glexebze werilebi, gadasaxlebulTa sam-
marTvelos kancelaria punqtualurad ugzavnida mefisnac-
vals.
peterburgidan mefisnacvalTan gamogzavnil depeSaSi
dumis deputati prokofi ServaSiZe aprotestebda parnauTi-
dan 45 megreli glexis ukanono, Zaladobrivad gasaxlebas
da maT adgilze rusi Camosaxlebulebis soflis Seqmnas [3,
27].
mefisnacvlisadmi depeSaSi amave faqts akritikebda sa-
xelmwifo dumis social-demokrati deputati evgeni gegeWko-
ri. TbilisSi gamogzavnil depeSaSi is werda: `Cems wminda mo-
valeobad vTvli, Tqveni yuradReba mivapyro soxumis adminis-
52
raciis qmedebas, romelic saxlebs ungrevs gumisTis ubnis—
parnauTis mcxovreb glexebs, 400 sul adamians tovebs Ria
cisqveS, rac namdvili antisaxelmwifoebrivi qmedebaa. Tqveni
administracia mxars uWers da amarTlebs im gadawyvetilebas,
rom es dasaxleba momzaddes rusi gadmosaxlebulebisaTvis.
es saqcieli ara marto saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv in-
teresebs ewinaaRmdegeba, aramed policiursac ki. gTxovT mii-
RoT zomebi amgvari qmedebis asalagmavad da daicvaT asobiT
adamianis interesebi~ [3, 28].
ramdenime dReSi TbilisSi, mefisnacvlis kancelariaSi
sxva Sinaarsis depeSac movida peterburgidan. is senator va-
tacis ekuTvnoda, romelic gamoirCeoda Tavisi Sovinisturi
SexedulebebiT e. w. `inorodcebisa da tuzemcebis~ mimarT.
depeSaSi naTqvami iyo, rom megrelebi aq TviTneburad daesax-
len bolo or weliwadSi da maTi saswrafod gasaxleba auci-
lebelia, radgan es teritoria rusi CamosaxlebulebisTvis
aris gankuTvnilio.
parnauTelebma saqmis namdvili istoria vis aRar miwe-
res: mefisnacvals, saxelmwifo saTaTbiros, Sinagan saqmeTa
ministrs — stolipins, qarTul da rusul gazeTebs, Tavad ru-
seTis imperators, magram verafers miaRwies. simarTles ar
cnobda imperiis koloniuri miznebi, isinic danebdnen. soxu-
mis olqis ufrosi, polkovniki kropotCevi werda mefisnac-
vals, rom parnauTidan megrelebis gasaxleba mimdinareobda
raportis Sesabamisad, mSvidad, yovelgvari winaaRmdegobis
gareSe [3, 73].
rusuli Sovinizmi iqidanac gamosWvioda, rom arsad
parnauTelebs qarTvelad ar moixseniebdnen, maT megrelebs
uwodebdnen, rusuli biurokratia `dayavi da ibatones~ impe-
riul devizs amaSic gamoxatavda, qarTvel xalxs isini svane-
bad, imerlebad, megrelebad, TuSebad, xevsurebad, raWvele-
bad da a. S. yofdnen, rac Zneli asatani iyo qarTveli xalxi-
saTvis. parnauTelebi qarTvelebad mxolod erTaderT ru-
sul demokratiul gazeTs—`novaia reCs~ hyavda dasaxelebu-
li. gazeTSi gamoqveynebul statias erqva: `soxumis olqidan
qarTvelebis gasaxlebis mZime istoria~. statiis gamoqveyne-
bis mizezi gamxdara is, rom parnauTis mosaxleobis warmomad-
genlebi Tavad misulan redaqciaSi da gazeTis redaqtoris-
Tvis miumarTavT daxmarebis TxovniT. redaqcia garkveula
53
saqmis arsSi da glexebis simarTle aSkarad daunaxavs. statia-
Si naTqvamia, rom bevri parnauTeli saxazino miwebze daesax-
len saxelmwifo qonebis marTvis sammarTvelos agentebis
TanxmobiTa da SuamdgomlobiT. zogma kerZo mflobelebisa-
gan aiRo arendiT miwa, marTlac arnaxuli Sroma Cades am mTa-
RorRiani da tyiani adgilis gasawmendad, maTi wyalobiT iqca
es miwa nayofier da mosavlian adgilad [3, 43].
parnauTel glexebze werdnen rusuli presis sxva or-
ganoebic, eseni iyo:`golos kavkaza~ (#971 ,1909), `zakavkazie~
(# 242 ), `reCi~, `baku~, `kaspia~da sxv.
gansakuTrebul agresias rusul sazogadoebaSi iwvev-
dnen saxelmwifo dumis qarTveli deputatebi, romlebic, par-
tiulobis miuxedavad, mxars uWerdnen rusuli politikis ga-
mo Seviwroebul qarTvelebs, amxeldnen saqarTveloSi mimdi-
nare kolonizaciisa da rusifikaciis process. gazeTi `rus-
skoe znamia~, 1913 wlis 13 martis nomerSi gamoqveynebuli we-
riliT—`saxifaTo simSvide~— mTlianad gamoxatavda rusuli
oficiozis damokidebulebas saqarTvelos istoriul miwa-
wyalze mimdinare kolonizaciisadmi. redaqcias mizanSi hyav-
da amoRebuli saxelmwifo dumaSi baTumisa da soxumis olqis
warmomadgeneli— prokofi ServaSiZe. saTaTbiro organoSi sa-
gadasaxlebo sammarTvelos xarjTaRricxvis damtkicebisas
gamoTqmulma misma Tvalsazrisma, rogorc Cans, didi agresia
gamoiwvia carizmis mexotbe inteligenciaSi, rasac bevri an-
tiqarTuli da antikavkasiuri gamoxmaureba mohyva. erT-erT
werilSi redaqcia aRSfoTebas gamoTqvamda,— ServaSiZes sa-
TaTbiros memarjvene fraqciis mTavari wevrebidan sakadrisi
pasuxi aravin gasca, arada, misi gamosvla saZageli ciliswame-
ba iyo brwyinvale kavkasiuri rusuli armiisao. Tu ratom iyo
ServaSiZisadmi mkacri pasuxis gacema saWiro, amas werilis av-
tori ramdenime punqtad ayalibebda.
`pirvel rigSi vin aris Tavadi ServaSiZe?— kiTxulobda
statiis avtori. —igi oficialurad gadamdgari general- mai-
ori, yofili artileristi, erovnebiT afxazi, pirovnulad
yovelTvis naklebad cnobili adamiania. rodesac peterson-
junkovskis gawafulma xelma kavkasiis mTliani avtonomia
daWra saarCevno olqebad, qarTvel avtonomistTa gulis gasa-
xarad, soxumis olqi,romelzedac uflebebs acxadebdnen av-

54
tonomistebi, SeerTebuli iqna baTumis olqTan, romelTanac
mas saerTo araferi aqvs, Tu ar CavTvliT, ra Tqma unda, qar-
Tveli teroristebisa da avtonomistebis, aseve socialiste-
bisa da uTvalavi megreli TaRliTis saerTo sargebels. ase-
Tebi mravlad arian rogorc erT, ise meore olqSi. ServaSiZe,
romelic warmoSobiT afxazia, mietmasna qarTvel avtonomis-
tebs da amitom advilad gavida dumaSi xmis uflebiT. im dros
`gaerTianebul mTavrobas~ gansakuTrebulad uyvarda oqti-
abristebi da am partiaze did imedebsac amyarebda. masSi xe-
davda mZlavr dasayrdens warmomadgenlobiT organizaciebSi.
kavkasiis avtonomiis mmarTvelobac TanaugrZnobda am parti-
as, romlis warmomadgenlebic Tavs warmoaCendnen yvelaze
morCil elementebad. amitomac miiRo baTumis administraciam
brZaneba, mxari daeWira oqtiabristi tuzemcisaTvis. maSin Ta-
vadma ServaSiZemac sakuTar tansacmelze avtonomistis toga
Semoicva da am gaurkveveli feris samosSi saguldagulod Se-
farebulma Tavi monarqistad warmoaCina. administraciis
mxridan daxmareba imdenad didi iyo, rom rodesac erT-erTi
amomrCeveli ar movida, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom misi xma
ServaSiZes unda mieRo, masTan specialuri kurieri gaagzav-
nes, romelmac, TiTqmis ZaliT moiyvana keTilgonieri amom-
rCeveli, romelic cdilobda am saqmisagan Tavi aeridebina.
Sedga arCevnebi da baTumsa Tu TbilisSi administraciu-
li wreebi xarobdnen: Zalisxmeva warmatebiT dasrulda da
dumaSi gveyoleba erTi zedmeti oqtiabristio. aseTi saxiT
arCeuli Tavadi ServaSiZe SeiZleba CaiTvalos xelisuflebis
kandidatad. pirvel xanebSi am saxelmwifos kandidatma mar-
Tlac srulad gaamarla molodini da Tavisi awowili figura
kargad daasvena oqtiabristebis saZinebelSi. magram rolis
TamaSi didxans ver SeZlo da dumaSi Semoitana qarTveli av-
tonomistebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli uRrmesi siZulvilis
gancda ruseTisa da rusi xalxisadmi, zizRi da undobloba,
revoluciuri aRtyineba da xelisuflebis mZlavri mxardam-
Weris rolis TamaSis Semdeg iqca `progresistad~.
Tavisi oficialuri memarcxene azrebiTa da saSiSi lay-
bobiT umaRles SekrebaSi, am saxelisuflo kandidatma, bolos
Tavi gamoiCina xelisuflebisa da rusuli armiisadmi saziz-
Rari ciliswamebiT. vinaidan aravin ar aRSfoTda arc saxel-
mwifo dumis wevrebidan da arc umaRlesi xelisuflebis war-
55
momadgenlobidan, amitom Cven CavTvaleT saWirod da Cvens
movaleobad gagveca pasuxi am tyuilebSi gaxlarTuli kavka-
sielisaTvis.~
amis Semdeg sagazeTo statia arCevda deputatis gamos-
vlis Sinaarss da akritikebda mas. `erTi wlis Semdeg ( ?) kavka-
siis dapyrobidan, generalma kolubiakinma salaSqrod waiyva-
na gurulebisa da rusi jariskacebisagan Sedgenili druJina.
rodesac mividnen Setevis adgilas da mewyeris pirispir dad-
gnen, saldaTebi ar gauSva win, radgan maTze pasuxismgebloba
ekisrebodaA, DdruJinis ricxovaneba relaciaSi dazustebuli
ar yofila. gurulebi gaemarTnen sabrZolo adgilisaken da
raRac meoTxedi saaTis Semdeg 200 kacidan 114 iqna moklu-
li.~ruseTis siZulviliT dabrmavebuli ServaSiZe pirdapir
ityueba, —vkiTxulobT statiaSi,—kavkasiis omis dapyrobis
Semdeg iq kolubiakini aRar iyoo,meore, relaciaSi yovelTvis
moixseniebdnen guriis druJinis danakargsac da gamarjvebeb-
sac. mesamec, gancxadeba rusi saldaTebis sicocxleze pasu-
xismgeblobisa da upasuxismgebloba guruli milicionerebis
sicocxleze Tavisi velurobiTa da sibeciT samarcxvinoa im
adamianisaTvis, romelic jer kidev aqamde generlis mundirSi
iyo gamowkepili. rusul armiasa da rus meomrebs, `russkoe
znamias~ azriT, arasdros eSinoda Tavganwirvis, Cadioda iseT
gmirobebs, romlis winaSec sxva xalxebis gmiroba gafer-
mkrTaldeba. ar yofila SemTxveva, rom samxedro ufrosebi Se-
Sinebuliyvnen da saSiS adgilebSi gamgzavrebaze eTqvaT uari.
nu ityuebiT batono ServaSiZe, SesaZloa Taviseburi saxiT xe-
lisuflebis kandidatoo, — paTetikurad dasZens rusuli
presis flagmani.
meore tyuilad qarTvel deputats gazeTi uTvlis ru-
suli xelisuflebisagan TavadaznaurTa klasis xelovnuri
Seqmnis braldebas. iseTi elementebis gamocxadebas am klasis
warmomadgenlebad, romlebsac araferi hqonda masTan saer-
To. meti ekuTvnis Cvens xelisuflebaso, vkiTxulobT statia-
Si,—didsulovanma rusma monarqebma rusi Tavadaznaurobis
uflebebi rom mianiWeso, Tu vinme arasworad moxvda Tavadaz-
naurTa rigebSi, es Tavad qarTvelebis mier wardgenili sie-
biT gakeTda, ra SuaSia aq ruseTis xelisufleba da misi poli-
tikao. ise, qarTveli Tavadebi, romelTa wres ServaSiZe ekuT-

56
vnis, madlobeli unda darCeniliyvnen ruseTis TavadebTan ga-
Tanabrebis, magram amis nacvlad gvsayvedurobeno.
`gadavalT bolo gamoxdomaze am batonisa,— agrZelebs
statiis avtori,— romelic kavkasiaSi sagadasaxlebo politi-
kas exeba, igi am movlenas ruseTis xelisuflebis organize-
bulsa da antisaxelmwifoebrivs uwodebs. manam, sanam aq ru-
sebs Caasaxlebdnen, jer adgilobrivi mosaxleobis dasaxle-
baa saWiroo. Tqven anadgurebT adgilobriv mosaxleobas da iq
asaxlebT centraluri guberniebidan glexebs, romlebmac ar
ician es mxare, arc klimatis atana SeuZliaT da arc sameurneo
kulturas floben. amiT azaralebT qarTvelebsac da ruseb-
sac. vis arTmevT miwebs? qarTvelebs, romelTac am miwebze
igive ufleba aqvT, rogorc donel kazakebs(?).~ gazeTis mier
aq dasmuli kiTxvis niSani imas moaswavebda, rom rus Sovinist
avtors eeWveboda, rom qarTvelebs qarTul miwaze doneli ka-
zakebisodeni uflebebi hqonodaT, ServaSiZe ki amas uSvebda.
is marto ar iyo amgvar SefasebaSi. ilia WavWavaZe, arCil jor-
jaZe da sxva qarTveli patriotebi, doneli kazakebis raime
uflebas am miwaze verafriT warmoidgendnen, maTTvisac Ser-
vaSiZesaviT cxadi iyo rusuli kolonizaciis saSineleba mci-
remiwiani saqarTvelos mosaxleobisaTvis.
` Tavad ServaSiZis gancxadebaSi yvelaferi tyuilia, —
askvnida gazeTi. —tuzemcebma amierkavkasiaSi miiRes didZali
saxazino miwebi, rac saWiro iyo da axali miwebis micema maT-
Tvis sruliad dauSvebelia. Tu miwa ar hyofniT, Seisyidon is
kerZo mesakuTreebisagan.es SeuZliaT ganaxorcielon sagle-
xo bankis meSveobiT. magram qarTvel avtonomistebs undaT da-
itacon TavisTvis momavali avtonomiisaTvis mTeli amierkav-
kasiis miwebi, ukanasknel gojamde. qarTvel Tavadebs, amis
garda, surT, rom saxelmwifom maTac gamouyos saxazino miwe-
bi, raTa es miwebi miscen TavianT droebiTvaldebul glexebs
da Tavad gaTavisufldnen maTTvis miwebis micemis valdebu-
lebisagan, im miwebisa, romlebzec ukve 40 welia ukanonod ba-
tonoben. es iyo warmoudgeneli ukanonoba. ratom dauSves
qarTveli TavadebisTvis is, rac rus memamuleebs ekrZalebo-
daT? amaze unda gaecaT pasuxi xelisuflebis warmomadgen-
lebs da iqve gamovlindeboda, rom yvela saxazino miwa amier-
kavkasiaSi ekuTvniT rus gadasaxlebulebs da araviTari xelis
aRmarTva maTze tuzemcebs ar SeuZliaT.
57
magram, amis nacvlad, sagadasaxlebo sammarTvelos uf-
rosisagan Cven sul sxva ram movismineT. undoda ra aRSfoTe-
bul kavkasielTa damSvideba, man ganacxada, rom 1909 wels kav-
kasiaSi rusuli dasaxlebebisaTvis gamoyofili iqna 6 aTasi
samosaxlo nakveTi, romlidanac adgilobriv qarTul dasax-
lebebze gamoyenebuli iqna mxolod 35—io, amJamad miwis mTa-
vari fondi aris 12 aTasi nakveTi muRanisa da mulis stepebSi,
sadac qarTvelebis interesebsac gaviTvaliswinebTo. axali
araferi Tqmula sagadasaxlebo sammarTvelos ufrosis mie-
ro,—irwmuneboda gazeTi. rusebis gadasaxleba Sewyda `yofi-
li saqarTvelos~, erevnisa da yarsis guberniebSi, radgan aqa-
ur avtonomistebs es miwebi ar emetebaT rusebisTvis, marto
muRanis, mulisa da sxva uvargisi adgilebis gameteba SeuZlia-
To. samxreT-dasavleTi kavkasia, mxaris yvelaze saSiSi da ara-
saimedo nawili MmTlianad Seunaxes qarTvelebsa da somxebs,
ase rom qarTveli da somexi avtonomistebis yvelaze didi
survilic dakmayofilebuliao. Cans, rom rusul saqmes amier-
kavkasiaSi didi safrTxe emuqreba, axali mTavroba rom mova,
am saqmes veRaravin uSvelis, radgan yvela miwa ukve darigebu-
li iqneba, amitom, ramdenadac seriozulad mivudgebiT saga-
dasaxlebo sammarTvelos ufrosisa da qarTvel avtonomis-
tTa gamosvlas saTaTbiroSi, imdenad seriozul RonisZiebebs
miviRebT, SesaZloa jer kidev SeiZlebodes rusuli saqmis ga-
darCena amierkavkasiaSio.
aseT midgomas iCenda rusuli presa kavkasiis koloniza-
ciisadmi.
`moskovskia vedomosti~(1911, 1 maisi, #98) da `novoe vre-
mia~(1911, 17 ivnisi, #12665) vrclad exeboda gadasaxlebulTa
sameurneo pirobebs, adgilobriv kulturebs, morwyvis mecni-
eruli codnisa da sistemis Seqmnis aucileblobas, gidroteq-
nikuri da agronomiuli skolebis daarsebis sakiTxs amierkav-
kasiaSi. aseTi skolebi arsebobda TurqmeneTSi da taSkentSi,
rusi CasaxlebulebisaTvis.
Temas kidev ufro mwvaved exeboda qarTuli demokrati-
uli presa. miuxedavad saSineli sacenzuro mdgomareobisa,
romelic mohyva pirveli revoluciis periodsa da reaqciis
momdevno xanas, qarTveli publicistebi axerxebdnen ukanono-
basTan brZolas, amxeldnen carizmis Cinovnikebsa da koloni-

58
ur reJims. ixureboda gazeTebi, iWreboda Tamami statiebi,is-
jebodnen redaqtorebi da gabeduli publicistebi.
gazeTi `golos kavkaza~, kavkasiuri rusuli gazeTebisa-
gan gansxvavebiT, rusuli reaqciuli presis Tvalsazriss izi-
arebda da parnauTis saqmes mTavrobis poziciidan afasebda,
akritikebda parnauTelTa damcvel presasac da im qarTvel
glexebs, romelTac yvelaferi waarTves, damtaceblebs uwo-
debda. werilis saTauric ase iyo SerCeuli: `parnautski zax-
vat~.
am grZeli werilis mokle Sinaarsi aseTia: `amierkavkasia
kerZo pirebis mier saxelmwifo qonebis datacebaSi klasikur
qveyanas warmoadgens. samiwaTmoqmedo urTierTobebis momava-
li istorikosi-mkvlevari iZulebuli iqneba aRweros gansac-
vifrebeli suraTi im procesisa, gasuli saukunis II naxevarSi
Cveni saxelmwifo ganuwyvetliv rogor kargavda aq ramdenime
aseul aTas desetina savargul miwas, romelic sxvadasxva sa-
SualebebiT iqna datacebuli uTvalavi adgilobrivi miwebis
mtaceblebisagan.
es procesi axlac grZeldeba. misi Sewyveta sasamarTlos
ZaliT Znelia, radgan, rogorc ki sasamarTlo daiwyebs samar-
Tlianobis da saxelmwifos kanonieri interesebis dacvas mta-
cebeli yaCaRebisagan, maSinve ayvirdebian am YyaCaRebis damcve-
lebic, imwamsve gamoCndebian crumowme tuzemcebis gazeTe-
bic, sadac mTavrobis warmomadgenlebic ki iwyeben Tavisebu-
ri `simarTlis ~mtkicebas.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, sainteresoa is xmauri, rac Tbi-
lisurma gazeTebma atexes megreli damtaceblebis gandevnis
gamo parnauTidan. aqamde am sakiTxs ar vexebodiT, gvegona,
rom `novaia reCi~ da `zakavkazie~miudgomlad da sworad Sea-
fasebdnen am Temas.
ramdeni ar agines da ar afurTxes maT kavkasiis mTavar-
marTebels am yaCaRebis gasaxlebis gamo. ise gamovida, rom `sa-
zizRarma rusulma xelisuflebam~, romelsac Sromismoyvare
qarTvelebisaTvis gasufTavebuli da damuSavebuli miwis war-
Tmeva da rusi gadmosaxlebulebisTvis micema undoda, moi-
surva ganadgureba da gaanadgura kidec mTeli parnauTis da-
saxleba, daangria nagebobani, gamoyara iqidan mcxovrebni,
400suli adamiani dayara Ria cis qveS...

59
ra Tqma unda, umagaliTo faqtia, yvelaze SemaZrwunebe-
li, es rom sinamdvile yofiliyo, asec iqneboda, magram sabed-
nierod, sinamdvile sxvagvaria~.
gazeTis Semdegi msjeloba da movlenis miseuli Sefaseba
zustad emTxveva imperiuli azrovnebis CarCos, es `rusuli
simarTlea~, dRemde ukvdavi da gaucveTi. ai, ras wers `golos
kavkaza~ maSindeli parnauTis tragediaze, sadac qarTvelebi
(megrelebi) marTalia Casaxlebulebi iyvnen senakisa da zug-
didis mazrebidan, magram aq dasaxlebis meti ufleba da moti-
vi hqondaT, vidre ruseTis Sida guberniebidan Camosaxlebul
glexebs, radgan es qarTvelTa istoriuli samSoblo iyo da
miwa Tu haeri maTTvis margebeli, nacnobi da mSobliuri gax-
ldaT. rusebi ki, rogorc ar ecada xelisufleba, mainc ver
gaaSinaures, ver Seagues verc meurneobis adgilobriv wesebs,
verc haers da wyals, zogi avaddeboda, zogi garboda, vinc
rCeboda, maTgan umetesoba dezertirobda. Tavad rusi moxe-
leebis Sedgenili sabuTebidan Cans yovelive es...
rac Seexeba `golos kavkazas~ sabuTebs parnauTsa da iqi-
dan gaZevebul qarTvelebze, is aseTia: `parnauTis dasaxleba
soxumis olqSi saerTod ar arsebobs da is qarTuli gazeTebi,
romlebic aseT dasaxlebaze weren, tyuian. es satyeo daCaa,
romelic gaTvaliswinebuli iyo Camosaxlebuli rusi glexe-
bisaTvis jer kidev 90-ian wlebSi, romelic miitaces quTaisis
guberniidan soxumis okrugSi mosulma megrelebma, jer aren-
diT aiRes, Semdeg ki unebarTvod dasaxldnen zed.~ gazeTSi
saubaria megrelebisagan mkvidri afxazi mosaxleobis miwis
datacebaze, maSin, rodesac afxazebi arsad ar iyo gaTvalis-
winebuli saxelisuflo gegmebSi, naTqvami iyo aseTi fraza:
`rusuli xelisuflebis movaleobaSi Sedis daicvas afxazebi
megrelebis Semosevisagan, romelic SesaZloa Zalze arasasia-
movno SedegebiT dasruldes~ [3, 120]. ai, rusuli imperializ-
mis siTavxede, romelic yvela gziT axdenda da axdens afxaze-
Tis okupacias, `icavs~ afxazebs qarTvelebis `dapyrobisa-
gan~...
parnauTelTa saCivrebs da sasamarTlo saqmeebs saTave-
Si gabeduli da xelisuflebisagan arasaimedod miCneuli le-
van axalaia edga. koleqtiur saCivrebTan erTad, is persona-
lur saCivrebs, gancxadebebsa da axsna-ganmartebiT werileb-
sac werda xelisuflebisa da presis sxvadasxva organoebs.
60
momCivani qarTvelebis siebSi ZiriTadad es saxeli da gvarebia
Setanili: 1. stefane papava; 2. gidon papava; 3. andro papava; 4.
andro gogua; 5. anton Sonia; 6. zaxar beria; 7. nacil ubilava;
8. kiCo bebia; 9. Salva berulava; 10. stefan kaliCava; 11.Samkva
fifia; 12. nestor kvaracxelia; 13. miqel gogua; 14. gizo kva-
racxelia; 15. parmen kvaracxelia; 16. aleqsi kvaracxelia; 17.
estate kvaracxelia; 18. pavle qardva; 19. vasil qardava; 20.
gerasime gegeWkori; 21. gaxu miqava; 22. jaka Todua; 23. niko
kopaleiSvili; 24. ilia berulava; 25. maTe markozia; 26. goCa
gogoxia; 27. gersa fifia; 28. miqael salia; 29. kimo miqava;
30.grigol miqava; 31. pavle janaSia; 32. kalistrate Todua; 33.
anton kakubava; 34. kvati beria; 35. nestor beria; 36. rema kuxa-
leiSvili; 37. isidore fifia; 38. siko berulava; 39. kosta go-
gia; 40. levan axalaia [3, 120]. `saxelmwifo qonebis Tavxedi
damtaceblebi~, — ase naTlavda oCamCiris satyeos ufrosi n.
sokolovi parnauTelebs, mefisnacvals Txovda maT dasjas,
radgan uamisoba, misi azriT, gamoiwvevda `saxelmwifo miwebis
axal datacebebs~. sacxovreblebidan ayril parnauTelebs,
romlebmac mTeli imperia SeZres da mxardamWerebic blomad
ipoves, SesTavazes soxumis okrugis sxva adgilebi, kerZod,
iaStvica, Wadali, birja. maT `dvureCie~ airCies, risi winaaR-
mdegic wavida soxumis rusuli xelisufleba da satyeo meur-
neoba. mefisnacvlisadmi miweril raportSi soxumis okrugis
ufrosi, polkovniki kropotkini werda, rom parnauTelebi
daJinebiT iTxoven am adgils, me winaaRmdegi var, meamboxeebs
isev cnobili levan axalaia udgaT saTaveSio. raportSi Ca-
moTvlili iyo is mizezebi, ris gamoc parnauTelebma daiwunes
SeTavazebuli adgilebi: am adgilebis axlos ar iyo wyali, gan-
sakuTrebiT mdinare, romelzedac wisqvilebi gaimarTeboda;
icoda mkacri zamTari, radgan isini maRalmTian zolSi mdeba-
reobdnen: iaStvica 3000-5000 futze, Wadali da birja 2000-
dan 6000 fut simaRlemde;
iaStvicaSi Tovlis zvavebi da mewyrebi icoda, Wadalsa
da birjaSi ki saxnav-saTesad vargisi Zalian cota miwa iyo [3,
furc. 126]. kropotkini da satyeo meurneobis ufrosi rodiS-
Cevi damatebiT SetyobinebaSi werdnen, rom dvureCie, doula-
ki (igive rokoni) da cumkuri iyo yvelaze kargi adgilebi eSe-
ris, gumisTisa da kelasuris agarakebs Soris. aq aris unika-
luri tyeebi, romlebic winaprebma gadmogvces da ase xelux-
61
leblad unda gadavceT momaval Taobebso [11, 241]. saintere-
soa, kropotkinsa da rodiSCevs romelma winaprebma dautoves
afxazeTis tyeebi, anda, rodesac rusi CamosaxlebulebisaT-
vis Cexdnen am tyeebs, maSin ratom aRar axsovdaT es `winapre-
bi~?..
parnauTSi qarTvelebs rom ar aWaWanebdnen da rusebs
yvela kari hqondaT Ria, iqidanac Cans, rom aq sasoflo-same-
urneo interesiT iTxovda nakveTis arendiT gamoyofas soxu-
meli platon iakobis Ze gvazava, igi werda mefisnacvals: so-
xumeli var, aq vcxovrob bavSvobidan, myavs eqvsi Svili, vmuSa-
obdi qalaqis sanitarul meTvalyured, magram anazRaureba
mcire mqonda da ar myofnida ojaxis gamosakvebad, bavSvobi-
dan miyvars da vocnebob meurneobaze, mis kargad mowyobaze,
magram, samwuxarod, miwa ar maqvs. iTxovda arendiT parnauTis
dasaxlebaSi miwis nakveTis gamoyofas, raTa gamoekveba mra-
valricxovani ojaxi. mas mefisnacvalTan rekomendacias so-
xumis okrugis ufrosic ki aZlevda, magram masac uari uTxres.
am dros, msgavsi Txovna Seusrules dasaxleba vladimirskis
rus glexebs, da ara marto maT.
parnauTidan gasaxlebuli qarTvelebis nawili daasax-
les mdinare kodoris zemo welSi, xeobaSi 30 komli parnauTis
yofili mkvidri dasaxlda [4, 216].
parnauTis istoria afxazeTSi rusuli koloniuri poli-
tikis, afxazi da qarTveli mosaxleobis devnisa da mxaris ru-
sebiT dasaxlebis aSkara gamoxatulebaa. aqedan Cans, Tu ro-
gor cdilobda ruseTi afxazeTis denacionalizacias da asi-
milacias imperiul sivrceSi.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,


fondi 231, aRwera 1, saqme #417.
2. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,
fondi 242, aRwera 1, saqme #260.
3. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,
fondi 242, aRwera 1, saqme #266.
4. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,
fondi 242, aRwera 1, saqme #259.

62
Dodo Chumburidze
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Ivane Javakhishvili
Institute of History and Ethnology, Chief research
scientist of the Department of Modern and
Contemporary History

Russian Colonialization in Abkhazia and the Settlement Parnauti

Summary

From the second half of the 19th century the imperial government of
Russia started to colonize the historical territories of Georgia. Abkhazian and
Russian scientists evaluate this process totally distorted. According to their
viewpoint at that very period Abkhazia was captured by Georgia that caused
demographical changes in this region (Dzidzaria, Lakoba, Bghazhba). In fact
Russia founded 35 Russian and other Russified nations’ villages in Abkhazia.
Georgians were drawn out and were announced beyond the colonization
project.
The history of the village Parnauta reveals the real aims of the Russian
colonialization. Its extremely chauvinistic nature became even the subject of
the discussion of the Russian press. The Russian press was mentioning that
the Russian government was unfair to drive out the native Georgian
population from this village. The publication describes how the natives of the
village Parnauta were fighting to defend their rites. The publication also
shows the attitude of the Russian government towards the common process of
the colonialization of Abkhazia.

63
caca CxartiSvili
istoriis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvi-
lis istoriisa da eTnologiis insti-
tutis axali da uaxlesi istoriis
ganyofilebis mecnier-TanamSromeli

afxazeTis Teatraluri cxovreba XIX saukunis


80-90-ian wlebSi da istoriuli mexsiereba

Teatrma bevri sikeTe moutana Cven ers: xeli Seuwyo mis


gaTviTcnobierebas, mxatvrul-esTetikuri gemovnebis daxve-
was, sicocxle misca mSobliur enas.
saqarTvelos ganapira raionebSi Teatrs gansakuTrebu-
li mniSvneloba eniWeboda. ilias sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, is aq
icavda ra erovnul Rirsebas, marTlacda, nacionalobis mata-
rebeli erTaderTi niSanwyali iyo. carizmis rusifikatoru-
li politikis umZimes pirobebSi ki, is erT-erT mZlavr iara-
Rad iqca erovnuli Rirebulebebis SesanarCuneblad da pat-
riotuli suliskveTebis gasaZliereblad. am mxriv gansakuT-
rebuli gaxldaT qarTuli Teatris misia afxazeTSi.
qarTuli Teatris istoriisaTvis sakmarisi ar aris mxo-
lod dedaqalaqis Teatrebis istoriis Seswavla, saWiroa sa-
qarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis Teatraluri warsulisa da aw-
myos, maTi Taviseburebisa da erovnuli TviTmyofadobis Se-
narCunebisaTvis brZolaSi Setanili wvlilis kvlevac, wers
eTer qajaia naSromSi — `qarTuli Teatri afxazeTSi (1885-
1940 ww.)~. savsebiT veTanxmebi avtors da davamateb, aseve didi
interesiT unda xdebodes saxalxo Teatrebis da sasceno
TviTmoqmedebis Seswavla. dRevandeli gadasaxedidan, mxo-
lod presidan da SemorCenili samecniero Tu mxatvruli li-
teraturidan SegviZlia warsulis aRdgena da warmodgenis
Seqmna, Tu rogor viTardeboda qarTuli Teatri.
XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebidan afxazeTSi bevrgan (soxum-
Si, oCamCireSi, oqumSi, gudauTSi, galsa da sxv.) imarTeboda
scenismoyvareTa warmodgenebi. pirvel cnobas, afxazeTSi
scenismoyvareTa saqmianobis Sesaxeb, gvawvdis gazeTi `droe-
ba~ (#12, 17 ianvari, 1885 w.). kerZod, is gvauwyebs oCamCireSi
Catarebuli ori warmodgenis Sesaxeb. magram yvelaze mniSvne-

64
lovani iyo soxumel scenismoyvareTa moRvaweoba. maT saTave
daudes qarTul profesiul Teatrs.
afxazeTSi, carizmis umkacresi erovnuli politikis pi-
robebSi, rodesac wera-kiTxvac ki ikrZaleboda qarTul ena-
ze, advili warmosadgenia, Tu raodeni mniSvneloba hqonda Te-
atrs. man udidesi roli iTamaSa masis erovnuli TviTSegnebis
gaRrmavebasa da sulieri mxneobis SenarCunebaSi.
samwuxarod, dReisaTvis afxazeTSi datrialebuli ube-
durebis Sedegad, bevri dokumentacia damwvar-ganadgurebu-
lia, maT aRsadgenad ki fasdaudebel daxmarebas istoriis fo-
liantebSi Cakarguli gayviTlebuli furclebi, samecniero
naSromebi, literaturuli masala da SemorCenili saarqivo
dokumentebi gviwevs.
soxumSi qarTuli warmodgenebi 1889 wlidan scenismoyva-
reTa ZalebiT imarTeboda, 1911 wlidan Teatri naxevradpro-
fesiuli gaxda, xolo 1928 wlidan — profesiuli [1, 5].
XIX saukunis 80-90-iani wlebis afxazeTSi saxalxo gamos-
vlebiT damfrTxali mefis ruseTi dRiTidRe amkacrebda da
aZlierebda koloniur politikas, is devnida yovelive nacio-
nalurs, cdilobda Caekla adgilobriv mkvidrTa erovnuli
TviTSegneba, mzad iyo aeyara isini mSobliuri adgilebidan.
am gegmis umniSvnelovanesi nawili maT ganaxorcieles ki-
dec: `Savi zRvis ganapira xazze afxazuri mosaxleoba ganad-
gurebul iqna, misi mama-papeuli miwawyali daurigdaT rus
wvril da msxvil moxeleebs, qveynis Suagul TemebSic ki Seiq-
mna mniSvnelovani kompaqturi mosaxleoba ucxoeli kolonis-
tebisa~ [2,15].
analogiur pirobebSi iyo aq qarTuli mosaxleobac. am
mdgomareobiT SeSfoTebuli korespondenti, `wamsvlelis~
fsevdonimiT, gazeT `iveriaSi~ werda: `samwuxaroa, rom aqeT
qarTuli enis WaWaneba arsad ar ismis arcerT saswavlebelSi.
warmoidgineT aqauri qarTvelebis mdgomareoba: bevrs maT-
gans ise ar esmis rusuli ena, rogorc Tqvens umorCiles monas
Cinuri... am garemoebas ganmarteba aRar eWirveba, radgan cxa-
dia, ris momaswavebelic aris aseTi ambavi~[3].
am werilidan naTlad Cans ra kritikul mdgomareobaSi
iyo qarTveli da afxazi mosaxleobis ganaTlebisa da kultu-
ris ganviTarebis saqme.

65
dResac analogiuri situacia gvaqvs. ruseTis mier Zal-
momreobiTa da cbieri diplomatiiT dakavebuli teritorie-
bi, afxazeTidan devnilebi, anu, zusti termini rom vixmaroT,
afxazeTidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebi.
davubrundeT isev XIX saukunis bolo ocwleuls. ruse-
Tis koloniuri reJimis fonze, qarTuli warmodgenebis ga-
marTva namdvili gmiroba iyo. misi momwyobni, mamaci, WeSmari-
tad patrioti adamianebi iyvnen. xalxi sixaruliT egebeboda
am mamuliSvilur saqmes.
scenismoyvareTa muSaoba Zalian rTul pirobebSi mimdi-
nareobda. warmodgenis moTaveebs umZimesi winaaRmdegobebis
gadalaxva uxdebodaT. `1893 wlis 7 Tebervals scenismoyvare-
ebma, mariam SarvaSiZis TaosnobiT, qarTulad warmoadgines
avqsenti cagarelis ormoqmedebiani piesa `baiyuSi~, rusulad
ki vodevili `Wiqa Cai~. Semosavali, 153 maneTi, gadaeca Tbi-
lisSi mariam vaxtangis asul orbelianis mier sazogadoebis
xarjze daarsebul qalTa qarTul saswavlebels. arakeTilmo-
surneebma yovelgvari Rone ixmares saRamos CasaSlelad. amis
Sesaxeb gazeT `iveriis~ korespondenti, `abu-kixos~ fsevdoni-
miT werda: `manam es keTili azri ganxorcieldeboda, ramdeni
zneobrivi tanjva miayenes moxsenebul juris xalxma am pativ-
cemul kn. mariam SarvaSiZisas. ra oinebi ar gamarTes, ra Wore-
bi ar gaavrceles, rom es warmodgena CaeSalaT da xalxi nakle-
bi daswreboda. `nuTu fuli gadasayreli gaqvT, rom gnebavsT
im warmodgenas daeswroT?! Cven ra, TbilisSi rom saswavlebe-
li imarTeba da mere visTvis? qarTvelebisTvis... sjobs, mer-
wmuneT, eg fuli SeinaxeT da ai, eqvs am Tves warmodgenas mar-
Tavs Rarib-Rataki avadmyofi qali, romelsac es oTxi weliwa-
dia inaxavs soxumi da maSin wabrZandiT. samadlo saqmec aris
da warmodgenac ukeTesi iqnebao. aba jer TviT qarTvelebi ra
arian, rom maTi warmodgena ra iyos?! ara, ara, wasvla ar Rirs!
isev sjobs ori stoli gavaSlevinoT... Wkua-gonebis gamosaf-
xizlebeli sasmeli da seliotka davawyoT. ese suliTac da
xorciTac davstkbebiT~ [4].
`iveriaSi~ dabeWdili es statia imasac gvauwyebs, rom
warmodgenis dRes msurvelebs speqtaklze daswrebas uSlid-
nen, afiSebs glejdnen, xalxSi xmas avrcelebdnen, rom bile-
Tebi srulad gayidulia da tyuilad Tavs nu iwuxebT misi Sov-

66
nisTviso. miuxedavad amisa, speqtakls mainc bevri mayurebeli
daswrebia.
am statiidan naTlad Cans ruseTis moxeleTa da adgi-
lobriv mstovarTa roli, rogor Telavdnen qarTvelTa erov-
nul Rirsebas, enas da kulturas.
miuxedavad msgavsi siZneleebisa, keTilSobilur erov-
nul saqmeTa qomagni afxazeTSi cota rodi iyvnen. maTi wyalo-
biT SeinarCuna am kuTxem erovnuli saxe, romelic dRes iavar-
yofilia.
soxumSi pirveli qarTuli warmodgenis gamarTvis Tari-
Rad unda CavTvaloT 1889 wlis 12 aprili. am dRes warmodge-
nil iqna d. awyurelis mier frangulidan gadmokeTebuli er-
Tmoqmedebiani vodevili `mSivrebi~ (dantonis rols asruleb-
da s. franguliani). adgilebis simcirisa da bileTebis siZvi-
ris gamo, saRamos yvela msurveli ver daeswro. sazogadoeba
kmayofilebiT Sexvda am warmodgenas, magram, amave dros, ime-
di gamoTqva, rom SemdegisaTvis ufro Sinaarsiani piesa Seir-
Ceoda, wers gazeTi `iveria~ [5].
scenismoyvareTa muSaobas, keTilismsurvelebTan er-
Tad, bevri xelisSemSlelic hyavda. uTuod maTi `wyalobiT~
Sewyda warmodgenebi da ganaxlda mxolod 1892 wels. speqtak-
lis gamocxadebas adgilobrivi mcxovrebni didad gauocebia.
`vinc kargad icnobs soxums isini gakvirvebaSi movlen da it-
yvian `ra ambavia?! vin soxumi da vin qarTuli warmodgenao. di-
dad gakvirvebulebi Sehyurebdnen soxumelebi afiSasac ki~, —
wers gazeTi [3].
speqtaklebis ganaxlebam gamoacocxla scenismoyvareTa
muSaoba. gazeT `iveriis~ informaciiT, mas meti damajereblo-
ba da energiuloba Semata cnobili msaxiobis — lado aleqsi-
mesxiSvilis soxumis dramatul dasSi gamosvlebma. es iyo 1892
wlis ivnisis miwuruls. didma msaxiobma dadga valerian guni-
as `da-Zma~ da Tavad iTamaSa gaioz faRavas roli. ivnisis dam-
degs ki man monawileoba miiRo adgilobrivi ZalebiT gamar-
Tul or rusul warmodgenaSi. lado aleqsi-mesxiSvili xSi-
rad Camodioda stumrad ZmasTan, romelic soxumSi msaxurob-
da da yovelTvis Tavazianad monawileobda saqvelmoqmedo
speqtaklebSi.
`am SesaniSnavi msaxiobis adamianurma ubraloebam, ma-
Ralma ostatobam, niWierma TamaSma, adgilobriv sazogadoe-
67
bas qarTuli warmodgenebis sistematurad mowyobis survili
gauRviva. 1895 wlidan scenismoyvareTa saqmianobam organize-
buli xasiaTi miiRo. Semodgomaze Sedga wre `qarTuli scenis-
moyvareTa amxanagoba~. am wres gaaCnda scenismoyvareTa sia,
samuSao gegma, sadac momavali dadgmebi da miznebi iyo gaTva-
liswinebuli. es yovelive SeTanxmebuli da nebadarTuli iyo
soxumis olqis ufrosis — brakeris mier. yvela warmodgena
saqvelmoqmedo mizniT tardeboda. scenismoyvareTa saqmiano-
bis organizatori da xelmZRvaneli Tavidanve iyo anTimoz
juReli (1846-1925)~[1,1].
scenismoyvareTa muSaoba, ZiriTadad, vodevilebsa da
komediebs emyareboda. am JanrSi winsvlis SesaZleblobas kar-
gad grZnobda sazogadoeba da Tavidanve iCenda kritikul da-
mokidebulebas repertuaris mimarT. jer kidev pirveli war-
modgenisas, gamoTqves rwmena, rom SemdgomisaTvis scenismoy-
vareebi ufro Sinaarsian piesebs SearCevdnen dasadgmelad.
dro gadioda, repertuars ki gaumjobeseba ar etyoboda. Te-
atri ar unda gamxdariyo mxolod msubuqi sicilis kera, mas
sazogadoebriv problemebze unda Caefiqrebina mayurebeli.
repertuaris sakiTxi metad mtkivneulad idga saqarTve-
los yvela Teatris winaSe, radgan ar arsebobda Zlieri ori-
ginaluri dramaturgia. qarTuli Teatris aseTi mdgomareoba,
ra Tqma unda, imave mimarTebiT axdenda gavlenas scenismoyva-
reTa muSaobaze afxazeTSi. magram aq mas sxva xelisSemSleli
pirobebic erTvoda: dramatuli jgufi susti iyo, is mxolod
scenismoyvareTagan Sedgeboda, dabali iyo aqauri mayureb-
lis Teatraluri gemovneba, magram mTavri mainc is gaxldaT,
rom afxazeTSi Teatraluri saqme metad mZime politikur vi-
TarebaSi ikafavda gzas.
1877-1878 ruseT-osmaleTis omis Semdeg gansakuTrebiT
mizanswrafuli xdeba imperiis koloniuri politika afxazeT-
Si. am politikis umTavresi mizani iyo: saqarTvelos nawilis,
qarTvelTa gansaxlebis teritoriis nawilis — afxazeTis Camo-
cileba saqarTvelodan, adgilobrivi, mkvidri qarTuli mosax-
leobis maqsimaluri Seviwroveba, afxazeTis asimilacia. es yo-
velive SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda, Tu afxazeTidan ganidevneboda
qarTuli ena, qarTuli eklesia, qarTuli kultura, skola, Te-
atri, romelic is iyo fexs idgamda afxazeTSi, amiT afxazebi da
iqauri qarTvelebi moswydebodnen qarTul samyaros [10, 1].
68
caristuli ruseTis Sovinisturi politika aq gansakuT-
rebiT mkacri iyo. afxazeTis miwaze isini didi gulmodgine-
biT cdilobdnen fexis mokidebas. amisaTvis erovnul SuRls
aRvivebdnen mravalerovan mosaxleobaSi, krZalavdnen mSob-
liur enas. am kuTxis sruli rusificirebis politika tarde-
boda. amitom erovnuli sakiTxebis warmatebas (gansakuTrebiT
nacionaluri skolebis gaxsnas, mSobliuri enis, literaturi-
sa da xelovnebis ganviTarebas) gansakuTrebuli winaaRmdego-
bebi xvdeboda. soxumis olqis xelmZRvanelebi, romlebic ca-
rizmis erTguli moxeleebi iyvnen, qarTuli saRamoebis mow-
yobas yovelmxriv xels uSlidnen, magram politikuri uTan-
xmoebis SiSiT mas srulad ver krZalavdnen. samagierod, re-
pertuars mkacri cenzuris qveS atarebdnen. warmodgenebis
gamarTvis uflebis SesanarCuneblad dramatulma wrem xerxs
mimarTa da daiwyo qarTul-rusuli saRamoebis gamarTva, ro-
melzedac orive enaze sruldeboda Teatraluri dadgmebi.
sayuradReboa afxazuri Teatris pirveli warmodgenebis
Taviseburebani, romelic agebulia xalxuri musikalur-sa-
simRero masalebis fonze. Teatrs jer kidev ar hqonda raime
piesa, arsebobda mxolod Tema, romelic iSleboda musika-
lur-teqstur nawyvetebSi.
aseTi ram pirvel xanebSi damaxasiaTebeli iyo afxazeTis
dramatuli nimuSebis xelovnebisaTvis, romelic italiur sa-
xalxo sanaxaobas mogvagonebs, aRmavlobis epoqaSi, imdros,
roca aseT sanaxaobaTa erT-erTi saxeoba e.w. `moxetiale Te-
atri~ iyo. aseT TeatrSi ar arsebobda piesa garkveuli teq-
stiT, scenebiTa da sxva.
xalxuri sanaxaobis siRrmidan Jamidan Jamamdis mrav-
ldeboda masala, romelic idgmeboda axal TeatrSi, musika-
luri Semoqmedebis fonze.
primitiuli Teatraluri xelovneba da saxalxo garTo-
bani afxazi xalxisaTvis didi xnidan aris cnobili.
erT-erTi popularuli da uZlieresi saxe saxalxo xe-
lovnebisa iyo simRera. damkvrelebi da xalxuri simReris
mTqmelebi afxiarcaze da Congurze dakvriT xalxs mudam ar-
Tobdnen da amSvidebdnen. es simRerebi Seqmnili iyo rogorc
gmirebze, ise laCrebze, zogjer es simRerebi warmoadgenda
mware satiras arsebuli sinamdvilis uaryofiT mxareebze.

69
simRera da leqsi afxazeTis mematianea. simRera marad
Tan axlda afxazi xalxis moqmedebas — ojaxur yofa-cxovreba-
Si, saxalxo krebebze da yrilobebze, sixarulsa da mwuxareba-
Si. is egebeboda maT gaCenas, Tan axlda mTeli sicocxlis man-
Zilze, akvnidan samaremdis da gadascemda STamomavlobas maT
saqmeebsa da moqmedebas [1, 11].
wera-kiTxvis ucodinari musikosis Jana aCbas mdidari
memkvidreoba werilobiT ar SemorCenila, magram is, rac xal-
xma, qarTulma presam da samecniero naSromebma Semogvinaxa,
naTlad metyvelebs saxalxo mgosnis farTo SemoqmedebiT di-
apazonze, mis gamiznul maxvil satiraze. igi sofel-sofel
dadioda da interesiT usmenda xalxis gulisnadebs, mis Wir-
varams da Semdeg improvizebul formaSi originalurad amRe-
rebda afxiarcaze.
Jana aCba moRvaweobda afxazi xalxis cxovrebis yvelaze
mZime wlebSi, muhajirobis periodSi. es is dro iyo, rodesac
xalxs mama-papaTa miwa-wylidan asaxlebdnen, ris gamoc adgi-
lobriv mkvidrTa sami meoTxedi ganadgurda, xolo zogierTi
raioni sruliad dacarielda. soflad da qalaqad fexs iki-
debda mliqvneloba, Cin-medlebisadmi swrafva, aRviraxsni-
loba, ra Tqma unda, upirveles yovlisa, Tavadaznaurebs So-
ris. yovelive amas Seupovrad ebrZoda Jana. mas xSrad abez-
Rebda Tavadaznauroba. amitomac igi uvadod gadaasaxles sa-
megreloSi.
Jana aCba improvizaciis didi ostati iyo. misi epiTetebi,
cocxali Tqmebi axlac cocxlobs xalxSi.
`adamiani kvdeba — sityva rCeba~ — uTqvams mas da es sit-
yvebi zedgamoWrilia mis satirul, maxvilgonivrul Semoqme-
debaze.
Jana aCba daibada 1846 wels, gudauTis raionis sofel
aCandaraSi, gaRaribebuli Tavadis ojaxSi. dedamisma Tavi moik-
la, TviTon ki bavSvobaSi dabrmavda da usinaTlod gaatara Ta-
visi sicocxlis samoci weli. Tumca mas ar unaxavs bunebis um-
Svenieresi ferebi, magram SeigrZno garemoebidan yvelaze naTe-
li, cxadi ferebi, romlebsac is mTeli JiniT ayuradebda. Jana
aCbas Semoqmedeba, misi simRerebi mimarTulia Tavadebisa da
moxeleebis winaaRmdeg. xan satiruli simRerebiT, xan poemebiT,
xan ki SairiT, is Tanabari yuradRebiT exmaureboda Tavisi kuT-
xis rogorc did movlenebs, aseve yoveldRiur, wvrilman ambeb-
70
sac. mis SemoqmedebaSi naTladaa gamosaxuli xalxis yofa-cxov-
rebis yvelaze ufro sayuradRebo, damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi.
Jana aCbas Semoqmedeba organulad iyo dakavSirebuli afxazi
xalxis xelovnebasTan. man aiTvisa afxazi xalxis gasuli sauku-
neebis zepiri sityvierebis yvela Tavisebureba da misi naciona-
luri melodiebi. usinaTlo momRerali cdilobda es melodie-
bi momavali TaobebisaTvis gadaeca. aRsaniSnvia, rom Jana aCbas
repertuarSi Warbobda sagmiro simRerebi, is yuradRebas amax-
vilebda aseve socialur Tematikaze, saZirkvels uyrida xal-
xuri sanaxaobis Teatralur formas.
Jana aCbas yvela nawarmoebi, mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT
warmoadgens afxazuri xalxuri poeziis saukeTeso nimuSs, xo-
lo faqizi iumori, enis suraTovneba, mkveTri aforizmebi gax-
da amouwuravi wyaro afxazi xalxis Semoqmedebisa. is ganuyo-
feli nawilia afxazuri xalxuri Semoqmedebis, romlis ele-
mentebi Seesisxlxorca afxazeTis Teatrs, dRidan misi daar-
sebisa. misi simRerebi gamoirCeoda mxatvruli formiT da sa-
xeebis srulyofilebiT. isini xSirad fokloruli xasiaTisa
iyo. sagulisxmoa, rom Cauwereli simRerebi dResac Tavisi
pirvandeli redaqciiTaa Semonaxuli, rac maT xalxurobaze
da did Rirsebaze metyvelebs.
Jana aCbas SemoqmedebaSi afxazeTis cxovreba gadmocemu-
lia xan gaSarJebul simRerebSi, xan SairSi, xan improvizebul
dramatul moqmedebaSi, xSirad ki misi satiruli simRerebi
poemis saxiTaa warmodgenili. is Tanabari yuradRebiT exmau-
reba Tavisi kuTxis rogorc did movlenebs, ise yoveldRiur
wvrilmans, mis SemoqmedebaSi naTladaa gamosaxuli xalxis yo-
fa-cxovrebis yvelaze ufro aRsaniSnavi, damaxasiaTebeli
Tvisebebi. afxazi xalxi faqizad inaxavs usinaTlo poetis mi-
er Seqmnil leqsebsa da satirul moTxrobebs. Jana aCba iyo sa-
xalxo poeti da amasTan, mas momRerlis mxatvruli alRoc
hqonda. socialuri SinaarsiT ganmsWvaluli misi Semoqmedeba
afxazi xalxis cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela sferos aSuqebda.
Jana aCba mTel rig satirul moTxrobebSi da SairebSi ara
marto qmnida saxeebs, aramed anviTarebda aqtioruli Sesru-
lebis Cvevebs, romelmac Tavi iCina afxazuri nacionaluri sa-
naxaobis sxvadasxva formasa da saxalxo warmodgenebSi.
afxazurma folklorma, romelic saukuneTa manZilze ya-
libdeboda simRerebTan erTad, musikaluri sakravebic war-
71
moSva. es instrumentebi ukve TavisTavad metyveleben, rom af-
xazur musikalur folklors uZvelesi tradiciebi da mtkice
safuZveli gaaCnia.
afxazuri musikaluri sakravebi farTodaa gamoyenebuli
musikalursa da sagundo ansamblebSi.
`aviuma~ — uZvelesi sakravi, mogvagonebs arfas.
`aCarpani~ — es sakravi salamurs hgavs, keTdeba balaxis
Rerosgan, romelsac aCarpani hqvia.
`aConguri~ — gitaris msgavsi musikaluri sakravi, ber-
Znuli warmoSobis, oTxsimiania, iTvleba qalTa sakravad [1,17].
sainteresoa aRiniSnos, rom Jana aCba cdilobda afxiar-
cis musikaluri SesaZlebobebis gaZlierebas. man didad gaaum-
jobesa afxazuri violino, romelic xalxuri Semoqmedebis
mudmivi Tanamgzavria. Janas Semoqmedeba afxazuri kulturis
ganuyofeli nawilia, romlis elementebi Seisisxlxorca afxa-
zurma Teatrma misi Casaxvis droidan.
mefis moxeleTagan devnili da damcirebuli, Raribi da
uTvistomo moxuci Jana aCba 1918 wels gardaicvala, 72 wlis
asakSi. igi dausaflavebiaT sofel aWandarSi, mis ganuyrel
musikalur sakravTan, afxiarcisTan erTad [1,14].
afxazuri simRera, romelic uxsovari droidan Tan ax-
lda afxazis cxovrebas, pirveli Sevida scenaze da xalxis Se-
moqmedebis sxvadasxva saxeobis warmosaxviT gza gauxsna afxa-
zur Teatralur xelovnebas.
sayuradReboa, afxazeTis kulturuli cxovreba, pirve-
li warmodgenebi, romlebmac saTave daudes afxazur Teatrs.
maT Sesaxeb saintereso informacias gvawvdis XIX saukunis
qarTuli presa.
pirveli qarTuli warmodgena OoCamCireSi 1885 wels Sem-
dgara, romelic aqauri skolis sasargeblod gamarTula [2, 2].
warmodgenebi, ZiriTadad saqvelmoqmedo xasiaTisa iyo, mag-
ram mas sxva daniSnulebac hqonda,— gamoevlina mamulis siyva-
ruli. maSindeli presa saTanadod asaxavda yvela kulturul
wamowyebas, miaCnda is erovnul saqmed, patriotizmis amaRle-
bis, afxazi da qarTveli xalxebis SemakavSirebel saSualebad,
ganaTlebisa da kulturis macned. presa mkiTxvels acnobda
warmodgenis organizatorebs, scenismoyvareT, aqebda da aqe-
zebda maT saqmianobas.

72
didi rezonansi gamouwvevia meored gamarTul warmod-
genas, romelic gaumarTavT 1899 wels soxumSi. amis Sesaxeb ga-
zeTi `iveria~ wers: `aqauri axalgazrdebis meTaurobiT gamar-
Tuli iqna qarTuli warmodgena. iTamaSes frangulidan gad-
mokeTebuli erTmoqmedebiani vodevili `mSivrebi~. gazeTi
msjelobs warmodgenis av-kargze, imaze, Tu vin rogor asru-
lebda rols, vin moikoWlebda, vin kargad TamaSobda. iqvea
sxva informaciac: `am mokle xans kidev apireben warmodgenas.
unda iTamaSon b-n ilia WavWavaZis `deda da Svili~ [23,1].
gazeT `iveriaSi~ dabeWdili AanTimoz juRelis korespon-
denciidan vgebulobT, rom `warmodgenebi ZiriTadad saqvel-
moqmedo mizans isaxavda, imarTeba warmodgena warmodgenaze: es
tusaRTa sasargeblod, es Raribi studentebisaTvis xelis ga-
samarTavado, es saswavleblis sasargeblodo... ai, Tund, 3 Te-
bervlis warmodgenaze mogaxsenebT. b-nma n. iak. aleqsi-mesxiS-
vilma, kn. g. SaraSiZis TaosnobiT gahmarTa momaval dedaTa sas-
wavleblis sasargeblod qarTul-rusuli warmodgena. warmo-
adgines `baiyuSi~ a. cagarelisa~ [4, 3]. iqve CamoTvlilia monawi-
lenic, naTqvamia, rom ubileTod bevri darCa; Seqebulia msaxi-
obTa TamaSi, saubaria imaze, rom aleqsi-mesxiSvilma gamoaRvi-
Za miZinebuli sazogadoeba, rom kvlavac apireben am gziT sia-
ruls da fulis Segrovebas, raTa yrmaTa imgvari skola gamar-
Ton, sadac qarTuli Seiswavleba. `iveriis~ cnobiTve, gudauTa-
Si warmoudgeniaT Targmnili piesa `wuTis sacole~, a. cagare-
lis `rac ginaxavs, veRar naxav~, xolo gazeTi `kvali~ ityobine-
ba, rom 1895 wlis 15 noembers soxumSi gamarTuli warmodgenis
Semosavali gadaeca soxumis samrevlo skolas [5, 3].
Teatralur warmodgenebTn erTad, imarTeboda litera-
turuli saRamoebic. gazeTi `droeba~ wers: `iqauri skolis
didi zala savse iyo xalxiT. waikiTxes ori Tavi `kacia-adamia-
ni?!~-dan, poema `mese dimitri Tavdadebuli~ WavWavaZisa, `ube-
duri~, poema Waladidelisa da oriode wvrili leqsi~ [6, 3] .
sayuradReboa is faqti, rom mravalerovan afxazeTSi
warmodgenebs marTavdnen qarTul da rusul enebze. es xdeba
farTo masebis mosazidad. garda amisa, ar ifarglebian qar-
Tveli mwerlebiT, dgamen rus, somex da ucxoel avtorTa na-
warmoebebs. magaliTad, 1892 wels daudgamT somexi sundukia-
nis popularuli piesa `pepo~ [7, 2].

73
rogorc informaciidan Cans, amgvari warmodgenebiT sak-
mao saqvelmoqmedo Tanxa grovdeboda. `cnobis furclis~ pub-
likaciis mixedviT, `samis saqvelmoqmedo warmodgenisa da er-
Tis seirnobisagan, romlebic pativcemulma kn. wereTlisam
gamarTa, wleul Semovida 2000 maneTi [8, 4]. es im droisaTvis
uzarmazari Tanxa iyo, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom pedagogis
xelfasi saSualod wliurad iyo 150-200 maneTi.
warmodgenebi, Teatraluri dadgmebi, saxelovnebo dase-
bi ukve aRar iyo ucxo xili afxazeTis mosaxleobisaTvis. mar-
Tlac, 1895-1900 wlebSi warmodgenili iqna al. yazbegis `arse-
na~, g. erisTavis `Zunwi~, rafiel erisTavis `monadire~, akaki
wereTlis `butiaoba~, a. cagarelis `prikaSCiki~, v. nasiZis, v.
abaSiZis, g. Ciqovanis, k. yifianis da sxvaTa piesebi. magram mxo-
lod adgilobriv scenismoyvareTa imedad ar miutovebia af-
xazeTi, aq Camodiodnen Tbilisisa da quTaisis saxelovani da-
sebi. kerZod, `1894 wels soxumSi quTaiselebs orjer gaumar-
TavT warmodgena da ise moswonebiaT aqaurebs es gamosvlebi,
stumrebi vaxSamzec miuwveviaT~ [4, 2].
yovelive es xels uwyobda da ganapirobebda sakuTriv af-
xazuri Teatris momwifebasa da Camoyalibebas. eWvi araa, am saq-
mes saTanado niadagi qarTulma warmodgenebma moumzada. amas
aRniSnavs afxazuri erovnuli Teatris istoriis mkvlevari m.
lakerbaia: `qarTuli Teatri da misi gamoCenili Teatraluri
moRvaweebi... didi xnidan cdilobdnen daxmarebodnen afxazebs,
rom SeeqmnaT sakuTari Teatraluri kultura~ [1, 31].
qarTuli presa afxazeTis Sesaxeb yovelgvar masalas aq-
veynebda, magram arcerTi sakiTxi ise farTod ar gaSuqebula,
rogorc kultura da ganaTleba. Cveni presis mesveurebi mar-
Talni iyvnen. k. gamsaxurdia miuTiTebs, roca qveyana politi-
kur damoukideblobas kargavs, man kulturuli diqtatura un-
da daamyaroso. amis saWiroebas, rogorc Cans, kargad xedavdnen
iliaseuli `iveria~, sergei mesxis `droeba~, sxva Jurnal-gaze-
Tebi da maTi xelmZRvanelebi. amitomac Tu iyo, rom gamudmebiT
ibeWdeboda informaciebi, statiebi Tu recenziebi afxazur an-
bansa da damwerlobaze, aq gamarTul samrevlo, saerobo da sxva
tipis skolebze, afxazi xalxis folklorze, literaturul sa-
Ramoebsa da Teatralur dadgmebze, qarTuli Teatris saxelo-
vani muSakebis gamosvlebze afxazeTSi [9, 147].

74
es yovelive, erTi mxriv, emsaxureboda afxazeTSi kul-
turisa da ganaTlebis gavrcelebas, xolo meore mxriv, fes-
vebs unarCunebda istorias, tradicias, urTierTobebs.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. qajaia eTer, qarTuli Teatri afxazeTSi (1885-1940 ww.),


Tbilisi, 2006.
2. janaSia simon, giorgi ServaSiZe, soxumi, 1946.
3. gazeTi `iveria~, 1892, #85.
4. gazeTi `iveria~, 1893, #52.
5. gazeTi `iveria~, 1892, #82.
6. lakerbaia m., afxazuri Teatris istoriidan, Tbilisi,
1957.
7. abuTiZe, aswlovanTa ansambli, Tbilisi, 1977.
8. gazeTi `iveria~, 1885, #12.
9. gazeTi `iveria~, 1889, #18.
10. gazeTi `iveria~, 1893, #38.
11. Jurnali `kvali~, 1851, #51.
12. gazeTi `droeba~, 1884, #81.
13. gazeTi `iveria~, 1892, #85.
14. gazeTi `cnobis furceli~, 1897, #341.
15. naWyebia n., afxazeTis problematika XIX saukunis qarTul
presaSi, Tbilisi, 2006.
16. silagaZe a., guruli v., saqarTvelos ganuyoflobisaTvis
brZolis istoriidan, nakveTi II, Tbilisi, 1999.

75
Tsatsa Chkhartishvili
Doctor of History, Ivane Javakhishvili
Institute of History and Ethnology, Research
scientist of the Department of Modern and
Contemporary History

Theatrical Life in Abkhazia in the 80-90es of the 19th Century and


Historical Memory

Summary

In the 80-90es of the 19th century in Abkhazia, when Tsarism was


carrying out the strictest policy, when even writing and reading in Georgian
language was forbidden, it is easy to imagine the importance of theater.
Theatre played the greatest role in deepening the national mentality of masses
and preserving spiritual strength. Since the 80-90es of the 19th century in
many places in Abkhazia (Sokhumi, Ochamchire, Okumi, Gudauta, Gali etc)
the performances of the amateur theater lovers’ were held.
Since 1911 the theater became half professional and in 1928
professional. Abkhazian song, which from time immemorial was
concommited the life of Abkhazian, was the first that set foot on the stage and
with the help of performing different types of folk art gave the theatre of
Abkhazia the perspective of development, the outstanding representative of
which was Jana Achba.

76
oTar gogoliSvili
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, baTu-
mis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo uni-
versitetis sruli profesori

aWara ucxoeli istorikosis TvaliT


(XIX s-is 80-iani wlebi)

evgeni veidenbaums sapatio adgili uWiravs im istoriko-


sebs Soris, romlebic kavkasias ikvlevdnen. igi Targmnida
Sromebs, monawileobda cnobili mecnieris petre uslaris
wignis, `Zveli Tqmuleba kavkasiaze~, redaqtirebaSi. manve ga-
mosacemad moamzada krebuli, romelSic Sesulia ingliseli
moRvawis — palgrevis angariSebi aWaraze. e. veidenbaumis Ta-
osnobiT gamoqveynda, agreTve, frangi l. granJes da sxvaTa ma-
salebi, romlebic aWaras exeba.
veidenbaumma araerTi gamokvleva uZRvna saqarTvelos.
zogierTi maTgani Seitana krebulSi `kavkasiis etiudebi~. sa-
yuradReboa mogzauruli Canawerebi `baTumidan arTvinamde~,
romelic pirvelad 1878 wels gazeT `kavkazSi~ gamoqveynda.
aWaris Sesaxeb saintereso cnobebia mocemuli, aseve, mis uaR-
resad sayuradRebo naSromSi _ `kavkasiis gzamkvlevi 1888 wli-
saTvis~. 1878 wlis 31 oqtombers gem `rioniT~ veidenbaumi ba-
Tums ewvia. navsadgurSi daxvda ruseTis xomaldebi `kocebu~,
`redut-kale~, `CixaCevi~ da sxva, agreTve uamravi feluga,
romlebic simindiT, yurZniTa da Tixis WurWeliT daetvir-
TaT.
baTumi warmoSva mdinare Woroxma, romelmac droTa gan-
mavlobaSi mozida qva-RorRi, sila da amoavso napiri, _ SeniS-
navs veidenbaumi. es gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevi gaxda mas Sem-
deg, rac navsadguris talRebisagan dasacavad wyalSi specia-
luri kedeli gaiyvanes. aman ufro Seakava xreSi da sila, ris
gamo bulvari maSin Tu zed zRvaze iyo, 1902 wlisaTvis zRva
asi saJeniT daSorda napirs da baTumelebs saSualeba miecaT
bulvarisaTvis kidev ori xeivani miematebinaT. baTumis kon-
cxi Woroxis naleqebiT Seiqmna — wers g. wereTeli. [1, 141]
baTumi gamoirCeoda swori da sicocxliT saves quCebiT.
zRvispira quCas amSvenebda erT-orsarTuliani qvis saxlebi

77
maRaziebiT, agreTve sastumroebi da yavaxanebi. gamoirCeoda
sastumro `moskovi~. paraleluri quCebi bazars ekava, aqa-iq
qvafenilic daegoT. qalaqSi antisanitaria ar yofila, radgan
sila da qviSa wyals advilad atarebda. sasmeli wyali urexis
mTidan moedineboda. wyalsadenis mosawyobad samebis taZari
daeSalaT. baTums icavda zRvispiras agebuli sami saartile-
rio batarea qvis yazarmebiT. maT SesaniRbavad uamravi mcena-
re daergoT.
yvelaze didi problema maSin sacxovrebeli binis nakle-
boba iyo. amis miuxedavad mSenebloba mainc mimdinareobda,
Tumca nela. aguri da kramiti adgilze SeiZleba damzadebu-
liyo, magram saSeni xis masala Zalian cota iyo. mizezi amisa ki
is gaxldaT, rom tye adre gaCexes da evropaSi gazides. amitom
xe-tye xersonidan da qerCidan SemoaqvT, — aRniSnavs istorik-
osi. [2, 110]
mSeneblobis dabali tempis mizezi iyo agreTve meryevi
politikuri viTarebac. 1879 wlis gazafxulisaTvis gavrcel-
da xmebi imis Sesaxeb, rom TurqeTi axal oms iwyebs ruseTis
winaaRmdego. amis gamo Semcirda vaWroba. gaCerda mrewvelo-
ba. baTumi erT did samxedro banakad aris gadaqceuli da Tu
axali omi isev daiwyeba, maSin azri ara aqvs saqmis keTebas —
acxadebdnen baTumSi moRvawe vaWar-mrewvelebi. es iqneba ka-
pitalis wyalSi gadayrao. aseve, amis garda baTumSi Zalian
cudi quCebi iyo. wvimis dros, romelic xSiri iyo, qalaqi TiT-
qmis paralizebuli gaxldaT.
veidenbaumi obieqturad aSuqebs porto-frankos sa-
kiTxs, romelic baTumSi 1878 wels SemoiRes berlinis kon-
gresze ingliselebis daJinebiT da man 1886 wlamde iarseba.
portos-frankos — Tavisufali navsadguris SemoRebiT, bevrs
egona iaf evropul saqonels miiRebdnen, amotomac aqeTken
gamoswies, magram adgilobrivi produqtebisa da marselis li-
qioris meti araferi daxvdaT. ukeTesi xarisxis saqoneli imi-
tomac ar SemohqondaT, rom myidveli cota iyo. axlo sofle-
bidan Tu modiodnen glexebi. amasTan liqioris, romisa da
asanTis garda, sxva saqonlis gatana SeuZlebeli yofila. por-
to-franko emsaxureba ara vaWrobis ganviTarebas, aramed ad-
gilobriv mcxovrebTa Seviwroebas. maT marTlac moaqvT pro-
duqtebi gasayidad, iZenen qsovils. magram sakordono dacva,

78
ar vici instruqciis safuZvelze, Tu gaugebrobiT, SeiZleba
romeliRac sxva mizezis gamo, xSirad maT akavebs da baJis ga-
daxdas iTxovs imis gamo, rom qalaqidan saWiro saqoneli ga-
aqvT. glexebs rom saqoneli gasayidad gahqondeT, maSin SeiZ-
leba gagvemarTlebina kordonis moqmedeba, magram piradi mo-
xmarebisaTvis SeZenil saqonelze ar SeiZleba moviTxovoT ba-
Ji, da saerTod, gana Rirs baJis gamo mosaxleobis ukmayofi-
leba gamoviwvioT, ambobs veidenbaumi. Semdeg igi kvlav ub-
rundeba porto-frankos sakiTxs da ambobs, rom maWaxlelebs
evropuli saqoneli winaTac baTumidan gahqondaT, magram baJs
ar ixdidnen, rogorc es porto-frankos SemoRebis Semdeg xd-
ebao. igi gabedulad amxels imaT, vinc yovelmxriv aviwroveb-
da xalxs, vinc ara Tu aziara isini axali xelisuflebis sike-
Tes, aramed aiZula osmaleTSi gadaxvewiliyo.
veidenbaumma cixisZiric moinaxula. man aRniSna, rom ci-
xisZirs gamagrebuli pozicia uWiravs da amitomac iyo, rom
misi aReba gauWirda rusis jars, rogorc 1829 wels, aseve 1877
wlis 11 ivnisso. veidenbaumi is pirovnebaa, romelmac cixisZi-
ri Zvel simagre petrad miiCnia. cixisZiris teritoriaze mas
eklesiis nangrevebic unaxavs. axlos moCuxCuxebda wyaros
wyali. 1883 wels rkinigzis gayvanasTan dakavSirebiT aqauro-
ba gadaTxares, aafeTqes, qvebi ki jebirebis mSeneblobaze ga-
moiyenes, ris gamoc cixe-simagrem dakarga pirvandeli saxe,
aremare gauval tyeebs daefara. [3, 303-305]
1878 wlis 4 noembers mogzaurma Tanmxleb osebTan er-
Tad arTvinisaken aiRo gezi. kaxabris dablobi ialanuzis mTe-
bidan (TurqeTSia) mosul qurTebsa da 1886 wels gadmoxvewil
afxazebsac ekavaT. aq mcire siRrmeze daesaflavebinaT 1877-
1878 wlebis ruseT-TurqeTis omSi daRupuli 12 aTasi Turqi
jariskaci, ris gamoc uamravi tura moyriliyo. aq xelisufl-
ebas gaeyvana gzatkecili, romlis kideebze qvebi daewyo, aego
xidebi. yvelgan simindi eTesa. veidenbaumi da misi Tanmxlebi
pirebi male miadgnen sadgur kapandids, anu im adgils, sadac
axla maxos xidia. aq iwyeboda gza mdinare Woroxis ayolebiT.
saamisod iyenebdnen navebs — kaiukebs. isini baTums arTvinTan
akavSirebdnen. sami-oTxi menave ostaturad marTavda maT. Ti-
Toeuli mgzavri aT maneTs ixdida. yovel kaiuks asi fuTi tvi-
rTi gadahqonda. aqve minda aRvniSno, rom am gziT 1876 wels

79
imogzaura istorikosma luka isarlovma. 1909 wels ki rusma
profesorma aleqsi kiselma.
kapandidSi veidenbaumma simindiTa da Tixis WurWleu-
liT savse kaiukebi naxa. aq gacvliTi vaWroba gaeCaRebinaT.
mdinareebisa da gzebis SesayarSi gaekeTebinaT qvis xelovnu-
ri sadinarebi, rom wyals ar Caerecxa gzebi. iq, sadac aWaris-
wyali Woroxs erTvis, orive mxareze unaxavs qvis xidis maRa-
li sayrdenebi. qviTkiriT nagebi xidi am cota xnis win waule-
kia mdinareso, — aRniSnavs veidenbaumi. Semdeg mas gauvlia so-
feli mirvana, romelic Woroxis marjvena napirzea Sefenili.
isic minda aRvniSno, rom am sofels mirvanas saxeliT ixseni-
ebs isarlovi da sxva mogzaurebic. rukaze ki es sofeli aRniS-
nulia simorisis saxeliT. maradidis ubnis ufross axmed
efendis ganumartavs veidenbaumisaTvis, rom am sofels simo-
neTi hqviao. Semdeg veidenbaumi misula sofel maWaxelaSi, sa-
dac mas daxvedria soflis mejlisis Tavmjdomare da sxva war-
Cinebuli pirni. veidenbaumi ambobs, rom aq laparakoben qar-
Tuli enis im kiloTi, rogoriTac aWaris sxva kuTxeSio. vei-
denbaumi civad ixseniebs maWaxlis ubnis ufross — wereTels
(akakis Zmas). ubnis ufrosi ganawyenebuli yofila imiT, rom
glexebi masTan misvlamde TavianT begebs eTaTbirebodnen. ve-
idenbaumi aqve SeniSnavs: `aba ra qnas xalxma. Turqebi maT um-
tkicebs, rom sazRvari male aWariswyalze gava, e. i. Tqven isev
Cvens xelSi moxvdebiT da maSin naxeT moRalateebs ras gizam-
To~. mosaxleobis meryeoba aseT pirobebSi, ra Tqma unda, da-
sagmobi araa. mTavari mainc isaa, rom isini qarTulad lapara-
koben da dadebiTad miiRes axali xelisufleba. amitomac iyo,
rom veidenbaumi wereTels ar ewvia ojaxSi. aqve SevniSnav, rom
ubnis ufros wereTels arc Tu ise Tbilad ixseniebs zaqaria
WiWinaZec. igi ambobs, rom: `am batoni Tavadis gamgeobis peri-
odSi, fexi moikida muhajirobamo~. [4, 199-200]
veidenbaums maWaxelasa da Woroxis SesarTavSi dauTva-
lierebia qvis xidis nangrevebi. qveda maradidSi naxa Tu ro-
gor ostaturad agebdnen kaiukebs. es sofeli gemTmSeneblo-
bis Zveli centria, SeniSnavs igi. aq mas daxvda ubnis ufrosi
axmed efendi, romelic veidenbaumis TqmiT gamoirCeoda `ti-
piuri qarTuli cxviriT, qarTuli laparakiT, oxunjobiTa da
stumar-maspinZlobiT. miuxedavad Turqulis didi zegavleni-

80
sa, masSi ar CaxSobiloyo qarTuli sisxli~. axmed efendim
stumrebi ojaxSi miipatiJa, magram drois uqonlobis gamo ver
ewvivnen mas. axmed efendi daexmara maT toponimebis dadgena-
Si. man kelasuris wyalTan cixisa da eklesiis nangrevebi uCve-
na, rac rukaze aRniSnuli ar yofila. Woroxis qvemo welis er-
Ti sofeli veidenbaumma kamurenis saxeliT moixsenia, amaze
ubnis ufross uTqvams, rom misi namdvili saxeli wiTureTiao.
axmedis gvars veidenbaumi ar asaxelebs, magram varaudoben,
rom es pirovneba axmed xalvaSi unda iyos. am varaudis Sesaxeb
isev minda moviyvano zaqaria WiWinaZis sityvebi. igi 1892 wlis
Semodgomaze axmedis stumari iyo. ai, ras wers zaqaria WiWina-
Ze: `didma moWirnaxulem, saqarTvelos siyvaruliT damwvarma
axmed xalvaSma jer kidev 1875 wels, Tbilisidan gamoiwera
qarTuli wignebi...…1878 wels maradidis xoja qadagebda aWar-
lebis TurqeTSi gadasaxlebas, ris gamoc axmedma kinaRam cim-
birSi gadaasaxlebina igi. Tavis xarjze aago skolis Senoba,
magram moxda ise, rom skolaSi gamogzavnes qarTulis ar
mcodne maswavlebeli, razec uari ganacxades — qarTulis
mcodne maswavlebeli gvWirdebao. asec moxda.~ skolis gaxsnas
SemdegSic apirebdnen, moxele andRulaZis daxmarebiT. es
mcdeloba warmatebiT dagvirgvinda. am moxelem SeZlo yvela
problemis mogvareba da skolis gaxsna.
veidenbaumi aWaris mosaxleobis Sesaxeb ambobs: `aWar-
lebi fexmardni arian. erT xelSi kalaTa da inglisuri warmo-
ebis iaraRi, meoreSi — qolga uWiravT...Turqebma omis win 14
aTasi cali iaraRi daariges, rom mosaxleoba ruseTis winaaR-
mdeg aemxedrebinaT, magram amaod~. [5, 128]
ruseTis moxele mefisaSvils, romelic aWaris mmarTvel
ximSiaSvilebs TanamemamuleebTan da rus generlebTan akavSi-
rebda, mogzaurisaTvis ucnobebia, rom aWarlebs dRemde Cve-
ulebad aqvT, mividnen TavianTi winaprebis eklesia-taZrebis
nangrevebTan da aanTon sanTeli. Semdeg veidenbaumi ambobs:
`aWarlebi qarTvelebi arian, qarTulad laparakoben, mSobli-
uri ena Turqebis mier mitacebuli qarTuli kuTxeebidan,
sufTad mxolod aq Semoinaxa.~ Semdeg veidenbaumi rusuli So-
vinisturi xilisuflebisagan gansxvavebiT akeTebs im droi-
saTvis metad Tamam da progresul daskvnebs. kerZod is am-
bobs, rom: `aWarlebisaTvis oficialuri ena qarTuli unda

81
gaxdes. mSobliuri ena daaxloebs maT TanamemamuleebTan, sa-
Sualebas miscems zneobrivad iltvodnen erTiani samSoblo-
saken, riTac dairRveva kavSiri muslimanur ideasTan. xelisu-
flebam ki am xalxs qarTulad unda mimarTos~. Semdeg veiden-
baumi ruseTis xelisuflebas mimarTavs da Tanac afrTxi-
lebs, rom: `ise ar mogvivides, rogorc 1829 wels axalcixis
SemoerTebisas. maSin mosaxleobas udierad moveqeciT, riTac
sul davaviwyeT mSobliuri ena, xeli avaRebineT qarTveloba-
ze. ase rom ar moxdes aucileblad saWiroa aWaraSi gavxsnaT
mxolod qarTuli skolebi... aq xoja-molebi cotani arian,
amasTan bavSvebs TiTqmis ar aswavlian yurans~.
1888 wels TbilisSi gamocemuli veidenbaumis meore wig-
ni `kavkasiis gzamkvlevi~ Seicavs cnobebs imis Sesaxeb, rom ba-
Tumis olqis mosaxleoba 1887 wels 117 873 kacamde aRwevda.
1886 wels gautaniaT 14,5 milioni maneTis marcvleuli da nav-
Tobi. SemoutaniaT mxolod 4 milioni maneTis saqoneli. maSin
baTumSi 1088 gemi mosula, aqedan 473 sakabotaJo.
veidenbaumi aRniSnavs, rom: `adgilobrivi mosaxleobis
gadmocemiT, ivlis-agvistoSi, aWaris zRvispireTSi mZvinva-
rebda cieb-cxeleba. amas isic ganapirobebda, rom wvimebisas
mTebidan momdinare wyali zRvas ver aRwevda, radgan ar iyo
arxebi. amitom warmoiqmneboda Waobebi, tborebi. sinestes
xels uwyobda agreTve gauvali mcenareuli safarveli, xe-
lovnuri sagubarebi, romlebic brinjis nakveTebis mosarwya-
vad moewyoT~.
veidenbaumi wers: `ara ugvianes orasi wlisa e.i. me-17 sa-
ukuneSi, qarTuli ena batonobda mTeli Woroxis xeobaSi, axla
ki mxolod aWaraSi SemorCa. yovelTvis unda gvaxsovdes, rom
aWarlebi qarTvelebi arian, saerTo aqvT ena, zogierTebi ki
ucodinarobis gamo cdebian~. [6,120-125]. aseTi mosazrebebi ki,
namdvilad, cxadyofs veidenbaumis progresulobasa da mis ke-
Tilganwyobil damokidebulebas adgilobrivi mosaxleobis
mimarT.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. g. wereTeli, publicistika, Tbilisi, 1974.


2. Е. Вейденбаум, Кавказоведение, Т. I, Тифлиc, 1901.
3. Е. Вейденбаум, Путеводитель по Кавказу, Тифлиc, 1888.
82
4. z. WiWinaZe, muslimani qarTveloba da maTi soflebi sa-
qarTveloSi, Tbilisi, 1914.

Otar Gogolishvili
Doctor of Historical Sciences, the Full
Professor of the Batumi Shota Rustaveli
State University

Historian Evgeni Veidenbaum’s writings about Adjara

Summary

Some of the scientific researches of Evgeni Veidenbaum are dedicated to


adjara. Some of these researches are included into the book `essays about
Caucasus~. It is worth mentioning the essay `from Batumi to Artvin~. This
essay was publishes in 1878 in the newspaper `Caucasus~. Very interesting
information about Adjara was published in a very important scientific
research `the guideline to Caucasus for the 1888 year~. On October 31, 1878
Evgeni Veidenbaum returned to the town of Batumi by the ship `Rioni~.

83
ilia vadaWkoria
soxumis universitetis magis-
tranti

gazeTi `iveria~ saqarTvelos istoriis


wyaroebisa da gamoqveynebuli
mecnieruli literaturis Sesaxeb
(1886-1889 ww.)

gazeTi `iveria~ mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi iyo qarTu-


li Jurnalistikis flagmani, erovnul-demokratiuli inte-
lignciis miswrafebaTa mTavari gamomxatveli. i.WavWavaZem
Tavis `pirmSos,~ miznad Tavidanve dausaxa qarTveli xalxis
erovnuli da kulturuli TviTmyofadobisaTvis brZola.
erovnuli TviTSemecnebis erT-erT saukeTeso saSualebad
eris warsulis mecnierul-kritikuli Seswavla, axlad gamov-
lenili xelnawerebisa da istoriuli dokumentebis gamomzeu-
reba-popularizacia iqna miCneuli. dasaxuli miznis gansa-
xorcieleblad, gazeTsa da mis redaqtors, Tanadgoma qar-
Tvelma istorikosebma da kulturis istoriis mkvlevarebma
aRmouCines. amas xeli imanac Seuwyo, rom XIX saukunis meore
naxevris qarTuli istoriografia aRmasvlas ganicdida da mi-
si warmomadgenlebi pirvelwyaroebisadmi gansakuTrebul
kritikul damokidebulebas iCendnen. movlenaTa axsnis prag-
matulma midgomam da mizez-Sedegobrivi meTodis gamoyenebam,
saqarTvelos istoriis (kulturuli, ekonomikuri, politi-
kuri da eTnikuri) sakiTxebis axleburad gaSuqebis SesaZleb-
lobis pirobebi Seamzada [1, 6]. aRniSnul problematikaze Seq-
mnili produqcia, gazeT `iverias~ furclebze qveyndeboda da
eris erTianobis ideiis ganmtkicebas emsaxureboda.
gazeT `iveria~-Si gamoqveynebuli masalebi, Tematuri
TvalsazrisiT ramdenime jgufaT SeiZleba daiyos. erT-erT
maTgans, saqarTvelos istoriis pirvelwyaroebi warmoadgens.
marTalia, gazeT `iveria~-s 1886-1889 wlebSi TiTqmis arcerTi
matiane ar gamouqveynebia, magram `bibliografiis~ rubrikiT
dabeWdil werilebSi iZleoda, axladaRmoCenili matianis mok-
le Sinaarssa da daxasiaTebas. qarTuli saistorio wyaroebis
Sesaxeb aseTi bibliografiuli rubrika gazeTma 1887 wlidan

84
SemoiRo. gansakuTrebul yuradRebas T.Jordanias werili `ax-
lad aRmoCenili gelaTis matiane~ iqcevs. igi sazogadoebas
amcnobs, rom am mniSvnelovani xelnaweris aRmoCena (1829 we-
li) da litografiuli wesiT misi pirveli gamocema, m.broses
saxels ukavSirdeboda. T.Jordanias azriT, es matiane vaxuSti
batoniSvils gamouyenebia Tavis TxzulebaSi. amis damadastu-
reblad igi erTmaneTs udarebs `gelaTis matiane~-sa da vaxuS-
ti batoniSvilis `aRwera samefosa saqarTveloisasa~-s im
gverdebs, sadac misi msgavseba aSkarad dasturdeba. T.Jorda-
nias mtkicebiT, matiane genaTeli beris mier unda yofiliyo
Sedgenili, romelic droTa ganmavlobaSi sxva pirebs gaug-
rZelebiaT [2].
aRniSnuli matianesadmi `gelaTis matianis~ saxelwode-
bis mikuTvneba, gaumarTlebeli unda iyos, Tundac im moti-
viT, rom igi mxolod genaTeli beris mier ki ar aris Sedgeni-
li, aramed sxvadasxva pirebis mieraa `ganvrcobili.~[3, 18] aR-
niSnuli Txzulebis parizSi daculi xelnaweri e. TayaiSvilma
`parizis qronika~-s saxelwodebiT gamosca. saqarTvelos is-
toriis mkvlevarTa azriT, `parizis qronika~-s ZiriTadi wya-
roebia: 1) gelaTuri qronikoni, 2) mesxuri matiane, 3) ioseb
Tbilelis istoriuli poema `didmouraviani,~ 4) rostom me-
fis 1648 wlis gujari, 5) grigol dodorqelis `cxovreba da
wameba qeTevan dedoflisa,~ 6) farsadan gorgijaniZis Txzu-
lebis ukanaskneli nawili.[3, 18] yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan
gamomdinare Tuki mivudgebiT sakiTxs, im daskvnamde mivalT,
rom `parizis qronika,~ anu T.Jordanias sityvebiT rom vTqvaT
`gelaTis matiane~ sxvadasxva Txzulebebze damyarebul naS-
roms warmoadgens da pirobiTad XVIII saukunis 30-iani wlebiT
TariRdeba [3, 35].
saqarTvelos istoriis wyaroebisadmi, kerZod, `qar-
Tlis cxovrebisadmi~ XIX saukunis meore naxevris qarTveli
istorikosebi gansakuTrebul interess iCendnen. yoveli axa-
li xelnaweris aRmoCenas didi sixaruliT xvdebodnen da amis
Sesaxeb Sesabamis informacias gazeT `iverias~ furclebze aq-
veynebdnen. T. Jordania gazeT `iveriaSi~ dabeWdil werilSi
`axali wyaro saqarTvelos istoriisa,~[4] sazogadoebas mes-
xiSvilis mier 1888 wels werakiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazoga-
doebisadmi gadacemul xelnawerebSi tyavze daweril `moqce-
vai qarTlisai~-s d.baqraZis mier gamovlenili xelnaweris Se-
85
saxeb auwyebda. am umniSvnelovanesi istoriuli wyarosadmi
T.Jordanias Tvalsazrisidan, yuradRebas, wminda ninos Rvaw-
lisa da cxovrebis sruli aRweris ori redaqciis arsebobis
mtkicebis faqti iqcevs. igi orive redaqciis mokle daxasia-
Tebas iZleva. misi azriT, `moqcevai qarTlisais~ aRniSnuli
redaqcia, manamde cnobil redaqciaTa Soris yvelaze Zveli
iyo, ris gamoc, T.Jordanias sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `ufro Se-
saniSnavi da Zvirfasia.~ rogorc werilidan irkveva, T.Jorda-
nia, aRniSnuli redaqciebidan gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas
pirvels aniWebda, radgan igi Seicavda `didZal friad saWiro
masalas Cveni uZvelesi istoriisas.~[4] amis dasasabuTeblad
`moqcevai qarTlisais~ is adgilebi moyavda, sadac qarTvel
mefeTa sia iyo CamoTvlili. imave matianeze dayrdnobiT, ga-
erTianebuli saqarTvelos pirvel mefed azos asaxelebs. misi
mtkicebiT, aleqsandre makedonels saqarTvelos dapyrobis
Semdeg mefed dausvams. am SemTxvevaSi mkvlevarma ukritikod
miiRo da sarwmunod miiCnia `moqcevai qarTlisaiSi~ aRniSnul
sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi moTxrobili ambebi. qarTul istori-
ografiaSi dRes garkveulia, rom `moqcevai qarTlisaiSi~ da-
culi cnoba, aleqsandre makedonelisgan qarTlis dalaSqvris
Sesaxeb, legendarulia da wyaroebiT ar dasturdeba.[5, 314]
Tu aleqsandre makedonels qarTlSi ar ulaSqria da igi ar
daupyria, bunebrivia, gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos mefed
azos ver dasvamda.
xelnaweris aRwerisas T. Jordania dasZens, rom `moqce-
vai qarTlisai~-s xelnaweri daviT reqtoris—mesxiSvilis bib-
lioTekis ganZs warmoadgenda da #1141 ricxobrivi maCveneb-
liT iyo danomrili. iqve gulistkiviliT SeniSnavda, rom da-
viT reqtoris xelnawerebis es biblioTeka, misi gardacvale-
bidan 60 wlis Semdeg ganadgurebula da misgan mxolod 60
xelnaweri wigni darCenila. aseTive bedi ergo mcxeTis xelna-
werTa biblioTekas. (7000 xelnaweri wignidan, 6800 ganadgur-
da). am faqtebis winwamoweviT, T.Jordanias qarTveli sazoga-
doebis yuradRebis, erovnuli xelnawerebis movla-patrono-
bis aucileblobisken gadatana surda. werilis avtoris mier
`moqcevaÁ qarTlisaÁ~-dan saqarTvelos warsulis Sesaxeb mo-
tanili cnobebi da misi analizi iTvaliswinebda: 1) saqarTve-
los uZvelesi istoriisadmi sazogadoebis yuradRebis mip-

86
yrobas da arsebuli wyaros gacnobas, 2) Cveni eris warsulis,
misi kulturis istoriis SeswavlisaTvis uZvelesi xelnawere-
bis mniSvnelobis winwamowevas.
XIX saukunis meore naxevris qarTuli istoriografia,
saqarTvelos istoriis Seswavlisas, ZiriTadad `qarTlis
cxovrebis~ ama Tu im xelnawerebs eyrdnoboda, magram, para-
lelurad ucxouri wyaroebis moZiebasa da mis gamomzeureba-
sac cdilobda. am did saSviliSvilo saqmeSi qarTvel istori-
kosebs mxarSi gazeTi `iveria~ edga. igi periodulad im axlad
aRmoCenili wyaroebis mokle anotirebul monacemebs aqvey-
nebda, romlebic saqarTvelos warsulis Sesaxeb cnobebs Sei-
cavda. amis erT-erT nimuSs, gazeTi `iveria~-Si 1886 wels `ax-
li ambvis~ rubrikiT dabeWdili vrceli informacia warmoad-
gens. masSi somexi istorikosis malaqia beris Txzulebaza sau-
bari. gazeTi mkiTxvel sazogadoebas auwyebda, rom aRniSnuli
naSromi, monRolTa periodis saqarTvelos istoriis Sesaxeb
sayuradRebo cnobebs Seicavda da motanili faqtebis umete-
soba `qarTlis cxovrebis~—aTvis ucnobi iyo. aseTi preambu-
lis Semdeg, qarTveli istorikosebis misamarTiT dasZenda:
`saintereso iqneba, Tuki vinme xels mokidebs misi qarTulad
gadmoTargmnas.~[6] aseTi saxis imformaciis miuxedavad, Txzu-
lebis saxelwodeba gaurkveveli rCeboda, radgan zemoaRniS-
nul rubrikaSi amis Sesaxeb araferi iyo naTqvami. dReisaTvis
cnobilia, rom malaqia beri, igive grigol akanelia, avtori
`moisarTa tomis istoriisa.~ misi qarTuli Targmani mxolod
XX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi gaxda SesaZlebeli.[7]
gazeTma `iveria~-m 1886 wels, mkiTxvel sazogadoebas
romaeli istorikosis tacitusis (56-117 w.w.) Sesaxeb miawoda
cnoba.[8] Cveni eris pirveli — meore saukuneebis istoriis
SeswavlisaTvis aRniSnuli istorikosis naSromis mniSvneloba
srulad rom warmoeCina, gazeTma mokled, magram sainteresod
warmoadgina saqarTvelo-somxeTisa da romis urTierTobis
istoriis amsaxveli masalebi. miuxedavad amisa, tacitusis
`analebis` da `istoriebis` qarTuli Targmani im etapze ver
moxerxda. igi mxolod 1973 wels iqna ganxorcielebuli [9].
wminda istoriuli wyaroebis farTo propagandasTan erTad,
gazeTi `iveria~ sazRvargareT gamoqveynebuli samecniero
Sromebidan, saqarTvelos istoriasTan dakavSirebuli ucno-
bi masalebis amokrefas, ukidures SemTxvevaSi masze miTiTe-
87
bas axdenda. amis nimuSad, peterburgis arqeologiuri sazo-
gadoebis aRmosavleTmcodneobis ganyofilebis sxdomaze,
s.veselevskis mier wakiTxuli moxsenebis (1889 w. 23 marti) Se-
saxeb dabeWdili informaciuli xasiaTis cnoba gamodgeba.
imave gazeTidan irkveva, rom am moxsenebas, iranSi myofi rusi
elCebis 1597-1599 wlebis aRweriloba dadebia safuZvlad. ga-
zeTisave cnobiT, momxsenebels dawvrilebiT ganuxilavs qar-
Tveli mefis aleqsandres mier sparseTSi gagzavnili elCebisa
da misi Svilebis, qalaq yazvinSi rus elCebTan Sexvedris faq-
tebi. misive monacemebiT, qarTvel elCs Sah-abasisaTvis mSve-
nieri qarTveli qali mihyavda, romelic Sahma colad SeirTo,
xolo mefis vaJiSvili daasaCuqra. igive gazeTi mkiTxvels au-
wyebda, rom n.veselevskis moxseneba aRmosavleTmcodneobis
Sromebis 21-e tomSi daibeWdeboda [10]. gazeTi arafers ambob-
da, Tu romel aleqsandresTan gvqonda saqme da ra qvioda Sa-
hisadmi gagzavnil Svilebs. arc imis Sesaxebaa miniSnebuli,
romeli Sahi iyo iranis mmarTveli. sakiTxis gasarkvevad, imave
gazeTis mier saelCo aRwerilobis daTariReba (1598-599 wle-
bi) gamodgeba. am monacemebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rusi elCebi,
kaxeTis mefe aleqsandre meoris (1474-1506 w.w.) mier wargzav-
nil qarTvel elCebs Sexvedria, romelsac Sah-abas pirvelTan
(1487-1529 w.w.) aleqsandre meoris qaliSvili (saxeli ucnobia)
da vaJi konstantine (igi im dros 12 wlis iyo) miyavda.
aRniSnuli masalebis safuZvelze SeiZleba davasknaT,
rom 1886-1889 wlebSi, gazeTi `iveria~ saqarTvelos istoriis
werilobiTi wyaroebis zogadi monacemebis gamoqveynebiTac
ki, sasargeblo saqmes akeTebda. igi saqarTvelos istoriis
mkvlevarT, dasaxelebuli wyaroebis arsebobaze mianiSnebda
da misi mecnierul mimoqcevaSi Semotanis SesaZleblobas qmni-
da. gazeT `iveriaSi~ gamoqveynebuli masalebis Seswavlam gviC-
vena, rom qarTvel da ucxoel mematianeTa Txzulebebis popu-
larizaciis paralelurad, igi qarTuli saistorio sabuTebis
gamoqveynebas, mis propagandas gansakuTrebul yuradRebas
uTmobda. amis magaliTs, saqarTvelos mefis bagrat didis mi-
er SergilaZeTa saxelze gacemuli sasisxlo sigeli warmoad-
gens.[11] am dokumentis teqstTan erTad, gazeTma TviT sige-
lis aRwerilobac dabeWda. gazeTis monacemebiT, sigeli tyav-
ze iyo dawerili. misi sigrZe `alab naxevari,~ xolo sigane `me-
samedi alabi~ iyo. sigelis Tavze mefe bagratis suraTi yofi-
88
la gamosaxuli warweriT `mefeT-mefe bagrat didi.~ sigelis
boloSi mefis xelmowera iyo darTuli. aseTi saxis aRwerilo-
bis Semdeg, TviT sigelis sruli teqsti iyo dabeWdili. aRniS-
nuli dokumentidan irkveva: 1) sigeli gaucia bagrat mefes
didaT erTguli aznauris jakva da misi Svilis maTe Sergila-
Zeebis saxelze, maTive Txovnis Semdeg. `dagveajnes da vismi-
neT aja da moxseneba maTni: SeviwyaleT da uboZeT sasisxlo
sigeli.~ 2) sigelSi mocemulia SergilaZeTa ojaxisadmi xel-
Seuxebloba. Tuki vinme Seecdeboda SergilaZeTa ojaxis wev-
rebisadmi odnavi Seuracyofa mieyenebina, Seuracmyofeli Se-
sabamisi gadasaxadiT isjeboda. iqve, CamoTvlili iyo sxvadas-
xva danaSaulebebTan dakavSirebiT dawesebuli gadasaxadTa
raodenoba. 3) sigeli garkveul warmodgenas gviqmnis im perio-
dis saqarTveloSi aznaurTa wodebis uflebebsa da movaleo-
bebze. 4) sigelidan vgebulobT, rom misi gacemis momentisaT-
vis bagrati mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos mefe yofila. amis
Sesaxeb dokumentSi vkiTxulobT: `daudeviT ese Cvengan boZe-
buli sigeli da misi wesiTa da rigiTa gasinjeT da daaurveb-
diT aw qristes mier kurTxeulo episkoposno qarTlisa da af-
xazeTisa, kaTalikosno samcxes mawyverelno da aTormetno me-
udabnoeno, Wyondidelo, caiSelo, moqvelo da bedielo
Tqvenca asre daumtkiceT, sxvani karisa Cvenisa Tavadno eris-
TavTa erisTavo da svanTa erisTavo da mandaturTuxuceso,
dadiano, amir spasalaro, gurielo Tqvenc asre daumtkiceT
sxvano karisa Cvenisa vezirno amiraT amirao, amilaxoro cixi-
saTa karisa Cvenisasa.~[11]
rac Seexeba sigelis gacemis konkretul dros, imave do-
kumentis boloSi vkiTxulobT: `daiwera boZeba da sigeli ese
xeliTa karisa Cvenisa divnisaTa Tvesa martsa ocdacxrasa da
mTvaresa moqcevasa ocdaxuTsa indiqtonsa. mefobisa Cvenisa-
sa qronikonsa oras ormocdaorsa.~[11] e. i. 1554 wels. Tu ga-
viTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, rom imerTa mefe bagrat mesame
1510-1565 wlebSi mefobda, maSin aRniSnuli sigeli, romelsac
bagrati didis saxeliTaa moxseniebuli, bagrat mesamis mier
unda iyos gacemuli. rogorc gazeTidan irkveva, es sigeli
sof. obujSi (zugdidis mazra) Sengelaiebis ojaxSi aRmouCe-
niaT. ojaxis wevrebs gazeTis redaqciisaTvis miuwodebiaT as-
li da ara dedani. amasTan dakavSirebiT, gazeTi `iveria~ das-
Zenda: `kargi iqneba bb-nma Sengelaiebma es sigeli gaasinjinon
89
Cveni istoriisa da arxeologiis mcodne kacebs an droebiT ma-
inc gamougzavnon werakiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoe-
bas.~[11] ramdenadac, sigeli araspecialistis mier iqna gada-
werili, gamoricxuli araa, saqme gvqondes gadaweris dros
daSvebul SecdomebTan. rac Seexeba TviT sigelis beds, igi ga-
urkvevelia. yovel SemTxvevaSi gazeTi `iveria~—s Semdeg, misi
publikacia sigelgujrebis arcerT gamocemaSi ar moxvedri-
la.
gazeT `iverias~ furclebze gamoqveynebuli saistorio
sabuTebidan, Cveni yuradReba `JurulianT gvaris gujarma~
miiqcia.[11] aRniSnul dokuments win uZRvis redaqciis mier
gakeTebuli mokle mimoxilviTi xasiaTis werili, romlidanac
vgebulobT, rom es gujari pergamentze iyo dawerili. sigane
sam goj naxevari, xolo sigrZe ori arSini qonda. gujaris Tav-
ze macxovari iyo gamosaxuli, xolo mis qvemoT taxtze fex-
morTxmiT mjdomi giorgi mefe. imave werilidan irkveva, rom
es gujari 1848 wels frangulad gamucia m.broses. xolo
d.baqraZes, vaxuSti batoniSvilis `istoriis~ SeniSvnebSi ga-
mouyenebia.
dokumentis teqstidan irkveva, rom aRniSnul gujars
mefe giorgi aZlevs winamZRvars Juruls, mis Zmebs avgarozs
da ratis. JurulianT STamomavlebs am dokuments uaxlebs gi-
orgis Zmiswuli mefe bagrati. giorgi mefis mier gacemul gu-
jars 1463 weli azis, xolo bagratis mier ganaxlebuls 1472
weli. es saSualebas gvaZlevs gavarkvioT Tu romeli giorgis
da bagratis mier aris igi gacemuli da ganaxlebuli [12, 733].
Cvens mier motanili daTariRebiT Tuki vimsjelebT, gujari
giorgi mervis (1446-1466 w.w.) mier unda iyos gacemuli, xolo
bagrat meeqvsis (1466-1478) mier ganaxlebuli [12, 733]. imave sa-
redaqcio werilSi, gvaris Jurulis warmomavlobis garkvevis
mcdelobacaa. gazeTis azriT, `Jurulni unda iyvnen qsnis
erisTavni Salvasa da largviselis erT-tomni da erT sis-
xlni~ [13]. rogorc samecniero literaturidan irkveva, amJa-
mad gvari Juruli mxolod axalgoris raionis sofel lar-
gvisSi gvxvdeba.[14, 136] saqarTvelos istoriis Sesaxeb gazeT
`iveria~-Si dabeWdili masalebidan, gansakuTrebul yuradRe-
bas ori dokumenti iqcevs: 1) `mziTvis wigni anuka batoniSvi-
lisa da misi ganmarteba~ [15], da 2) mgalobliSvilTa saxelze
erekle meoris mier gacemuli wyalobis wigni [16]. aRniSnuli
90
dokumentis publikacia saTanado gamokvleviT m.janaSvils
ekuTvnis. misi istoriul-eTnografiuli mniSvnelobis gar-
kvevis paralelurad, igi im ganmapirobebel mizezebsac Seexo,
ramac am saintereso dokumentis Seqmnas Seuwyo xeli. am fon-
ze, man vaxtang meeqvsis droindeli saqarTvelos socialur-
ekonomikuri da politikuri istoriis suraTi sainteresod
warmoaCina. rac Seexeba meore dokuments, sofel WalaSi vinme
xucess erT—erT ojaxSi karze gakruli unaxavs, gauwmendia da
teqsti sruli saxiT gadauweria. mas boloSi darTuli qonda
TariRi k welsa CRJz. rac 1797 wlis aprils niSnavs. igi erek-
le meorisa da anton kaTalikozis xelmoweriT da beWdiTaa
dadasturebuli. Cven ar SevudgebiT am dokumentebis daxasia-
Tebas da misi mniSvnelobis garkvevas, radgan amis Sesaxeb ga-
zeT `iveriaSi~ sakmaod vrcladaa saubari. mxolod avRniS-
navT, rom aseTi pirveladi wyaroebis gamoqveynebam, erovnuli
istoriografiis winsvlaSi garkveuli roli Seasrula. marTa-
lia, am masalebis umetesobis publikaciis done mecnierebis
maSindel moTxovnebs srulad ver pasuxobda, magram, saqar-
Tvelos istoriis ukeT Seswavlisa da qarTvel xalxSi erov-
nuli cnobierebis amaRlebis TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebul
rols asrulebda [17, 201- 202].
gazeTi `iveria~-s yuradRebis centrSi, mecxramete sau-
kunis meore naxevris qarTveli da ucxoeli istorikosebis
Sromebi moeqca. rubrikaSi `saistorio da sabibliografio we-
rilebi,~ gazeTi xSirad aqveynebda recenziebs. ama Tu im naS-
romis mecnierul SefasebasTan erTad, mis popularizaciasac
axdenda. am mxriv, yuradRebas m. janaSvilis vrceli recenzia
iqcevs. igi d. baqraZis naSromis — `werilebi saqarTvelos is-
toriisa da siZveleTa Sesaxeb,~ Sefasebas isaxavda miznad. es
naSromi oTx samecniero werils Seicavs. 1) sad da vin daiwyo
saqarTvelos werilobiTi naSTebis Seswavla, 2) axlad napovni
Zveli qarTuli matiane, 3) sigeli XI saukunisa, 4) saqarTvelos
naSTebi ganxilulni akademiis mindobilobiT. `yvela es weri-
lebi — wers m.janaSvili — Tavisi SinaarsiT friad saintere-
soa...naTels hfens saqarTvelos istoriasa da matianes.~[18]
aRniSnul recenziaSi, m. janaSvili dawvrilebiT exeba saz-
RvargareT qarTvelologiis ganviTarebas da mis sawyis saTa-
veebs sen- martenis mier parizSi 1822 wels daarsebul aziur
sazogadoebas ukavSirebs. rogorc cnobilia, es sazogadoeba,
91
aRmosavleTis qveynebis istoriisa da kulturis Seswavlas
isaxavda miznad. m. janaSvili, mkiTxvels dawvrilebiT acnobs
im titanur Sromas, romelic sen-martenma, Sulcma, rotiesma,
klaprotma da brosem gaswies sazRvargareT qarTvelologiis
ganviTarebisaTvis. iqve sinanuliT dasZens, rom `im xanebSi, ra
xanasac Cven vexebiT, saqarTvelos Semswavlelni erTimeores
Semdeg gardaicvalnen da cocxali daSTa mxolod brose, ami-
tom urigo ar iqneba am moRvawezed ramdenime vrceli cnobebi
moviyvanoT~ [18]. recenziis meore nawilSi [19] dawvrilebiTaa
saubari mari broses (1802-1880) cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis
mniSvnelovan momentebze. kerZod, mari brosesadmi Teimuraz
batoniSvilis daxmarebaze, ramac m. broses qarTvelologiis
did mkvlevarad CamoyalibebaSi gansakuTrebuli roli Seas-
rula [20]. es garemoeba qonda mxedvelobaSi m.broses, roca
ruseTis saimperatoro akademiis erT-erT krebaze warmoT-
qmul sityvaSi (1838 weli) acxadebda: `ganucvifreblad ar Se-
miZlian movixsenio mefis Ze Teimurazi, romelsac maRal zne-
obasTan erTad, mohmadlebia ganviTarebuli Wkua da vrceli
codna, igi mwerlobiTs SromaSi hpovebs keTilSobilur sit-
kboebas da siamovnebas. imisi sagania SromiT ukvdavhyos saxe-
li Tavisis erisa. gavtydebi da vityvi, rom misi morCili mowa-
fe var me~ [19].
m. janaSvili imave recenziaSi d. baqraZis meore werils
exeba, sadac `qarTlis cxovrebis~ SedgenasTan dakavSirebiT,
mecnierTa erT jgufSi Seqmnil gaugebrobazea saubari. mas
d.baqraZis werilidan, moaqvs Sesabamisi amonaweri, sadac am
gaugebrobis Seqmnis ZiriTadi mizezia axsnili. `zogierTi
xelnaweri `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ — vkiTxulobT recenziaSi —
iwyeba imiT, rom vaxtang VI-m Sehyara swavlulni da imaT Semwe-
obiT Seaswora qarTuli matiane da Seavso somxuri da sparsu-
li matianeebis cnobebiT... am garemoebam zogierT mecnierSi
eWvi warmoSva, TiTqos qarTlis cxovreba Sedgenili yofili-
yos vaxtang V1-isagan da igi ar SeiZleboda mieCniaT sandoT.~
am Sexedulebis erT-erTi avtorTagani patkanovi iyo. m. ja-
naSvilis recenzia, sazogadoebas auwyebda, rom aRniSnul sa-
kiTxs d. baqraZem sagangebod daweril gamokvlevaSi, `qarTlis
cxovrebis~ nusxebze dayrdnobiT, `qarTlis cxovrebisadmi~
skeptikurad ganwyobil mecnierebs daudastura, rom qar-
Tvel ers, `qarTlis cxovreba~ vaxtang VI-mde qonda da igi sa-
92
qarTvelos istorias XIV saukunemde aRwerda [19]. Tanamedro-
ve qarTul istoriografiaSi garkveulia vaxtang meeqvsis
swavlul kacTa komisiis mier Catarebuli samuSaoebi. `vaxtan-
gis swavlul kacTa komisiam — wers prof. s. yauxCiSvili — er-
Ti mxriT Zveli `qarTlis cxovrebis~ damaxinjebuli adgile-
bi gaaswora (`ganmarTes~), xolo meore mxriT, bolo saukunee-
bis istoria dawera (`aRweres~), radgan Zvel `qarTlis cxov-
rebaSi~ Txroba wydeboda giorgi brwyinvalis mefobaze (XIV s.
dasawyisi). axlad dasaweri iyo XIV-XVII saukuneebis istoria.
es orive davaleba mecnier kacTa komisias pirnaTlad Seusru-
lebia~ [21, 024- 025].
m. janaSvilma vrceli mimoxilviTi recenzia miuZRvna
`saero ganaTlebis saministros JurnalSi~ #7, gamoqveynebul
mari broses naSroms: `mosazrebebi saqarTvelos istoriisa da
literaturis Sesaxeb~ (rusul enaze) [22]. rogorc m. janaSvi-
li SeniSnavs, m.brose, qarTvelTa eTnogenezis sakiTxebs le-
onti mrovelis cnobebze dayrdnobiT ganixilavda. `qarTlis
cxovrebis~ uZvelesi nawilis avtoris mier gamoyenebul ze-
pir gadmocemebs, sando Rirebulebis matereblad miiCnevda.
aqedan gamomdinare, qarTlosis, misi Svilebisa da Targamosis
istoriulobas aRiarebda. am ukanasknelis STamomavlobaSi
calkeul qarTvel tomTa jgufebs gamoyofda. m. broses amo-
saval safuZvels bibliuri genialogiuri principi warmoad-
genda [1, 55]. aRniSnuli Tvalsazrisis safuZvlianad Seswavli-
dan gamomdinare, mkvlevari arCil baramiZe samarTlin das-
kvnas akeTebda, rom `m.broses eTnologiuri koncefcia arse-
biTad patriarqalur-genealogiuria da arafers axals ar Se-
icavs, rac mas ganasxvavebda mis winamorbed qarTvel istori-
kosTagan~ [1, 54-55]. saqarTvelos istoriis kvlevisas, m.bro-
sem qarTuli wyaroebis ucxourTan Sedarebis meTodis gamo-
yenebis aucileblobis sakiTxi daayena [22]. aRniSnul recenzi-
aSi, m. janaSvili mxolod m. broses ZiriTadi debulebebis gad-
mocemiT dakmayofilda da Tavisi pozicia ar daufiqsirebia.
es garemoeba gvafiqrebinebs, rom igi m.broseseul Sexedule-
bebs iziarebda da farTo sazogadoebaSi mis popularizacias
uwyobda xels.
rogorc cnobilia, m. broses samecniero kvlevis sfero-
Si, erT-erTi gansakuTrebuli adgili qarTuli literaturis

93
istoriis sakiTxebs eWira. igi qarTul literaturidan sam Zi-
riTad dargs (RvTismetyveleba, poezia, istoria) gamoyofda
[23]. am principiT ganixila man qarTuli literaturis isto-
riis sakvanZo sakiTxebi Zveli droidan XVIII saukunis CaT-
vliT. vefxistyaosans, besikis da guramiSvilis Semoqmedebas
maRali Sefaseba misca [24]. imavdroulad, qarTvelolog
mkvlevarTa sayuradRebod ganacxada: `saqarTvelos siZvele-
ni elian bejiT gamokvlevas, rom saqarTvelos moepoveba TiT-
qmis yovelgvari saukeTeso Txzulebani, rom saqarTvelo Ta-
visi geografiuli mdebareobiT da istoriuli cxovrebiT, ax-
lo dgas da urTierTobaSi iyo aziis yvela udides erebTan.
Tu miviRebT yvela amas mxedvelobaSi, unda vaRiaroT, rom sa-
qarTvelo iseTi asparezi iyo, rom gasinjvas da gamokvlevas
unda mivmarTod, Tu gvinda avxsnaT bevri sayuradRebo sagani
aRmosavleTis istoriis Sesaxeb~ [24]. rogorc vxedavT, aq gar-
kveviTaa dasmuli sakiTxi, maxlobeli aRmosavleTis xalxTa
istoriis gaTvaliswinebis fonze, saqarTvelos istoriis
kvlevis warmarTvis aucileblobis Sesaxeb. sakiTxis am for-
miT dasma, SemTxveviTobidan ar gamomdinareobda. mecnierul
alRosTan erTad, mas qarTveli eris warsulis yovelmxrivi
Seswavla edo safuZvlad. mTeli misi sicocxlis manZilze,
m.brose am kuTxiT ikvlevda saqarTvelos warsuls, riTac
fasdaudebeli amagi dasdo qarTvel ers. exeboda ra am sa-
kiTxs, m.janaSvili gazeTi `iveria~-Si gamoqveynebul werilSi
`Sesavali, `qarTlis cxovreba~ m.broses moRvaweoba saqarTve-
los istoriis Sesaswavlad da Semdgom istorikosebisaTvis~—
miuTiTebda: `Tuki vinme mogvepoveba, romelic sindisierad
ikvlevs qarTveli eris istorias, maT Soris erTi maTgani mari
brosea, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qarTvelTa ers man daudga sau-
kuno Zegli. man frangul enaze gadaiRo qarTuli matianis na-
wili, agreTve mravali sxva qronikebi. amas ar dasjerda da fe-
xiT moiara mTeli saqarTvelo da adgilebze gamoikvlia si-
gel-gujarni, taZar monasterTa warwerebi, cixeni, nangreve-
bi, gamoqvabulni. Seagrova zogierTi zepiri Tqmulebani da am
gziT mopovebuli cnobani—istoriulni Tu qronologiurni
Seadara, SeuTanaswora qarTvel mematianeTa TqmulebaTa da
cnobaTa... ucxo tomTa qronologiani Seadara mTel am masa-
las da amnairaT uaryo mravalTa mcdari, ukuRmarTi azri sa-
qarTvelos istoriis Sesaxeb~ [25]. marTalia, es daxasiaTeba
94
srulad ver asaxavs qarTvelologiis ganviTarebaSi m.broses
damsaxurebas, magram aRniSnulidanac naTeli xdeba, Tu rao-
den didad iyo dafasebuli igi jer kidev XIX saukunis 80—iani
wlebis qarTveli moRvaweebis mier.
saqarTvelos istoriis SeswavlaSi wingadadgmul nabijs
a.cagarelis (1844-1929 w.w.) mier rusul enaze dawerili gamok-
vleva `Zveli qarTuli Zeglebi wminda miwaze da sinaize~ war-
moadgenda [26]. igi 1888 wels, `palestinis marTlmadidebeli
sazogadoebis~ IV tomis pirvel nawilSi daibeWda. misi gamoq-
veynebisTanave, gazeTma `iveria~-m m. janaSvilis vrceli re-
cenziiT gamoexmaura [27]. recenzentma a. cagarelis qarTve-
lologiuri saqmianoba m. broses damsaxurebis fonze ganixi-
la da mkiTxvel sazogadoebas dasaxelebuli naSromis arqi-
teqtonika SesTavaza. a) winasityvaoba, b) mogzauroba wminda
qveyanasa da sinaize g) istoriuli mimoxilva saqarTvelos mi-
mosvlisa da urTierTobisa wminda qveyanasa da sinaisTan, d)
aRwera qarTulis naSTebisa wminda qveyanasa da sinaize, e) qar-
Tveli moaxalSeneni palestinas. wignis damatebaSi, rogorc
recenzenti wers, CarTuli iyo: 1) ierusalimis jvrisa da sinas
monasterTa qarTuli wignebis katalogebi, 2) palestinis qar-
Tuli warwerebi, 3) erekle meoris werili. sarecenzio wignze
dayrdnobiT, m. janaSvili Tanmimdevrulad gadmoscems siria-
Si, palestinasa da sinas mTaze qarTvelTa moRvaweobis TxuT-
met saukunovan istorias. a. cagarelis aRniSnul naSroms, sa-
gangebo recenzia miuZRvna st. WrelaSvilma saTauriT `saqar-
Tvelos naSTni palestinaSi da sinas mTaze~ [28]. avtorma, m.ja-
naSvilis mier yuradRebis miRma datovebuli sakiTxebi wamos-
wia wina planze, sazogadoebas a. cagarelis naSromze darTu-
li, ierusalimisa da palestinis monastrebis 946 cali qarTu-
li xelnawerebis katalogi gaacno. a. cagarelis naSromidan
motanil masalebze dayrdnobiT, st. WrelaSvili daskvnis sa-
xiT dasZenda: `es mcireodeni cnobebi am werilisa sakmarisia
dainaxos kacma, Tu ra mdidari yofila Zveli mwerloba saqar-
Tvelosi~ [19].
amrigad, 1) axlad gamovlenili saqarTvelos istoriis
wyaroebisa da samecniero literaturis Sesaxeb gazeT `ive-
ria~-Si gamoqveynebuli mimoxilviTi xasiaTis publikaciebi,
pirvel rigSi, aRniSnuli faqtisadmi saqarTvelos istoriis
mkvlevarTa da mkiTxveli sazogadoebis yuradRebis miapyro-
95
bas iTvaliswinebda. 2) warsulis RirsSesanisnavi faqtebisa da
movlenebis fonze, istoriuli pirovnebebis naRvawis popula-
rizaciiT, gazeTi `iveria~ qarTveli xalxis erovnuli TviT-
Segnebis amaRlebas da warsulisadmi pativiscemis gacocxle-
bas isaxavda miznad.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. ar.baramiZe, narkvevebi XIX saukunis qarTuli istoriogra-


fiidan, Tbilisi, 1979.
2. gaz. `iveria,~ 1887, #193.
3. cxovreba saqarTveloisa (parizis qronika), teqsti gamosa-
cemad moamzada Sesavali, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo gi-
uli alasaniam, Tbilisi, 1980.
4. gaz. `iveria,~ 1889, #4.
5. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. 1, Tbilisi, 1970.
6. gaz. `iveria,~ 1888, #12.
7. grigol akaneli, `moisarTa tomis istoria,~ somxuri teqsti
qarTuli TargmaniT da komentarebiT gamosca nodar SoSiaS-
vilma, Tbilisi, 1961.
8. gaz. `iveria,~ 1888, #204.
9. tacitusis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, laTinuri teqsti
qarTuli TargmaniT, Sesavali narkveviTa da komentarebiT ga-
mosca aleqsandre gamyreliZem, Tbilisi, 1973.
10. gaz. `iveria,~ 1889, #70.
11. gaz. `iveria,~ 1889, #197.
12. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. 3, Tbilisi, 1979.
13. gaz. `iveria,~ 1886, #124.
14. i. maisuraZe, qarTuli gvarsaxelebi, Tbilisi, 1981,
15. gaz. `iveria,~ 1889, #234.
16. gaz. `iveria,~ 1888, #175.
17. a. ioseliani, saqarTvelos istoriis problemebi da Ter-
gdaleulni, Tbilisi, 1972.
18. gaz. `iveria,~ 1888, #68.
19. gaz. `iveria,~ 1888, #69.
20. r. dodaSvili, mari brose— qarTuli mwerlobis mkvlevari,
Tb, 1962, S.xanTaZe, mari brose, Tbilisi, 1966.

96
21. qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xel-
naweris mixedviT s.yauxCiSvilis mier, t. 1, Tbilisi, 1955.
22. gaz. `iveria,~ 1887, #61.
23. gaz. `iveria,~ 1887, #66.
24. gaz. `iveria,~ 1887, #82, #83.
25. gaz. `iveria,~ 1887, #93.
26. k. kinwuraSvili, aleqsandre cagareli, Tbilisi, 1974.
27. gaz. `iveria,~ 1888, #274.
28. gaz. `iveria,~ #129, #130.

Ilia Vadachkoria
Magistrant of Sokhumi State
University

The Newspaper “Iveria” About the Sources of the History of Georgia


and Published Scientific Literature (1886 - 1889)

Summary

The study of the newspaper “Iveria” from the point of view of the
history of Georgia and published scientific literature showed that: 1) The
newly revealed sources of the history of Georgia and scientific literature
published in the newspaper “Iveria” are the publications heaving a character
of a review. They served to draw an attention of the readers and the
researchers of the history of Georgia to the mentioned items. 2) On the
background of the significant facts and events the newspaper “Iveria” aimed
the popularization of the deeds of the prominent historical figures to
strengthen the national identity and the revival of the honor towards the past.

97
qeTevan mania
istoriis doqtori, soxumis saxel-
mwifo universitetis asistent-pro-
fesori

qarTuli nacionaluri identobis wrTobis


procesi `iveriis~ (1887) mixedviT

qarTuli nacionaluri erTianobis procesebis Seswavli-


sadmi miZRvnili araerTi naSromi gvxvdeba specialur lite-
raturaSi, sadac upiratesoba eniWeboda obieqtur faqto-
rebs, xolo subieqturi faqtorebi, m. CxartiSvilis marTebu-
li dakvirvebiT, uyuradRebod iyo datovebuli. me ar Sevud-
gebi sakiTxis istoriografias statiis SezRuduli formatis
gamo. mxolod erTs aRvniSnav, rom qarTul istoriografiaSi
Seqmnilma meTodologiurma krizisma XX s-is ukanasknel oc-
wleulSi piks miaRwia da dRis wesrigSi dadga Teoriuli Car-
Coebis axleburad gansazRvris sakiTxi. qarTul samecniero
literaturaSi vrceldeba dasavluri meTodologiuri Sexe-
dulebebi, rac iwyeba axleburi Tvalsazrisebis qarTveli
mkiTxvelisadmi miwodebiT — erTi mxriv, Targmnil iqmna bri-
taneli mecnieris e. smiTis Sromebi nacionalizmis [20], nacio-
naluri identobis [21] Teoriis Sesaxeb, sadac naciis axsna
warmodgenilia eTnosimbolistur CarCoebSi; meore mxriv, m.
CxartiSvilma SemogvTavaza qarTuli werilobiTi wyaroebis
eTnosimbolisturi paradigmis CarCoebSi ganxilva hagiogra-
fiuli Zeglebis magaliTze [22, 32-48; 23, 87-99; 24, 122-151]. sa-
kiTxis axleburad gadawyvetaa mocemuli mkvlevris monogra-
fiul naSromSi `qarTuli eTnie religiuri moqcevis epoqaSi~
[25]. aseve, specialuri naSromi mieZRvna IV-VIII ss. qarTul er-
TobaSi politikuri da kulturuli identobebis kvlevas
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT [19].
winamdebare naSromis mizans warmoadgens `iveriis~ deta-
luri analizi da qarTuli sazogadoebis mier identobis Sem-
sWvalvis procesis aRqmis gamorkveva 1887 wlis ramdenime
nomris publikaciebis magaliTze.
gansaxilvel wyaroSi cxovelmyofeli suraTebiT aris
warmodgenili problemebi, romlebic qarTuli identobis yo-

98
veldRiur cxovrebas asaxavs. korespondenciebi Seexeba kul-
turul, socialur, eTnikur, politikur, ekonomikur, gende-
rul sakiTxebs.
gazeTs ramdenime mudmivi rubrika aqvs. esenia:
meTauri werili anu sayovelTaod cnobili redaqtoris
msjeloba sazogado cxovrebis Sesaxeb CvenSi da ucxo qveyne-
bis magaliTiT sasargeblo rCevebi.
feletoni — warmodgenilia xalxis cxovrebidan aRebuli
sxvadasxva sakiTxebis ganxilva (sikeTis, codnis madlianobis
Tema; socialuri usamarTlobis sakiTxi), eTnografiuli we-
rilebi, qarTuli da ucxouri mxatvruli literaturis pub-
likacia.
axali ambavi — aq mocemulia informacia amindze, uamin-
dobaze, Sedegad miyenebul zaralze, kriminalze, gamsesxebe-
li `kasebi~-saTvis Tval-yuris devnebaze, warmodgenebis ga-
marTvaze, arqeologiur aRmoCenebze, sameurneo sazogadoe-
bis krebaze, qarTuli wignebis gamocemaze, sxvadasxva Ronis-
Ziebis Catarebis Sesaxeb ganaTlebis, Teatris sasargeblod da
sxva.
narkvevebi Jurnal-gazeTebidan da ucxoeTi — Seexeba
ucxour presaSi gamoqveynebuli CvenTvis saintereso masalis
mimoxilvas. rubrikaSi gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria msjeloba
evropaSi mSvidobianobis SesaZlo darRvevis Sesaxeb.
damakvirdi — aq mowodebulia amonaridebi qarTveli Tu
ucxoeli mwerlebis naazrevebidan — zneobis magaliTebiT
jansaRi sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis mizniT.
saintereso masalebia gamoqveynebuli rubrikiT: saxel-
daxelo (ybad-asaRebi — wyal-wasaRebi ambavi) da daba da sofe-
li.
daba da sofeli — am rubrikiT warmodgenilia saqarTve-
los sxvadasxva kuTxeebidan dabebisa da soflebis sazogado
cxovrebis suraTebi mokle istoriul-geografiuli Sesav-
liT.
yovel nomers axlavs gancxadebebi saadgil-mamulo ban-
kis mier gamarTuli sazogado vaWrobis Taobaze, warmodgenis
gamarTvis da wignebis gamocemis Sesaxeb; depeSebi sxvadasxva
qveynebidan; sakalendro da gamosadegi cnobebi.

99
qarTuli sazogadoebis mier am masalebis aRqmis gamor-
kveviT saSualeba gveZleva davadginoT Tu rogoria `iveriis~
mkiTxvelebis gancda qarTuli erTobis Sesaxeb.
XIX s-is II naxevarSi `iveria~ qarTuli identobis makonso-
lidirebel beWdur media-saSualebad gvevlineba. mis damaar-
sebelsa da redaqtors i. WavWavaZes, sazogadoebrivi cnobie-
rebis ganviTarebis mxriv CvenSi arsebuli viTarebis gaTva-
liswinebiT, pirvelive nomerSi aqvs Camoyalibebuli `Jurnal-
gazeTobis~ daniSnuleba — `samecniero cnobaTa gadmotana da
gavrceleba sazogadoebaSi, Cvenisa da ucxo xalxis cxovrebis
dakvirveba da ganmarteba~, e. i. misi SexedulebiT, qarTuli
identobis gamTlianebis sakiTxSi, mediis roli sazogadoeb-
rivi cnobierebis amaRlebasa da xalxis yoveldRiuri cxovre-
bis amsaxveli suraTebis gadmocemaSi mdgomareobda. xolo Tu
ra mdgomareoba iyo sajaro kulturis ganviTarebis mxriv
CvenSi, amaze metyvelebs mesame nomerSi iakob svimoniZis av-
torobiT gamoqveynebuli publikacia. saTauri — `Cveni sisus-
te~ migvaniSnebs, rom saqarTveloSi aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT
arc Tu saxarbielo mdgomareoba yofila. korespondenti See-
cada daedgina Tu ramdeni mkiTxveli hyavda `iverias~ saqar-
Tvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi. gamoirkva rom sxvadasxva kuTxeSi
moTxovnileba sxvadasxvagvari iyo. es monacemebi avtoris az-
riT sainteresoa, erTis mxriv, Cveni qveynis gonebis moZrao-
bis xarisxis warmosaCenad; meore mxriv, gviCvenebs, romeli
kuTxe CamorCenilia ganaTlebis TvalsazrisiT. yvelaze mci-
re mkiTxveli `iverias~ redaqtoris mSobliur kuTxeSi, kaxeT-
Si hyolia. aseTi Sedegis mizezad dasaxelebulia Sinagani
moTxovnilebis nakleboba, vinaidan kaxeTSi aseve naklebi yo-
fila saskolo wignebze moTxovnileba. aseve mcire mkiTxveli
hyolia quTaisis guberniaSi, zugdidSi, baTumSi. SeniSnulia,
rom amaTgan qarTul wignebze didZali moTxovnileba iyo
zugdidSi. aq didi da patara gonebriv sazrdos etanebao — aR-
frTovanebiT aRniSnavs svimoniZe da dasZens, kargi iqneboda
quTaissa da baTums zugdididan aeRoT magaliTi. yvelaze me-
ti daintereseba `iveriiT~ gamovlinda qarTlSi, aseve, gamo-
irCeva qarTuli literaturis moTxovniTac da Tavad-aznaur-
Ta mondomebiTac, romelTac swavla-ganaTlebis SemweobisaT-
vis 20000 Tumani gauRiaT, maSin roca am TvalsazrisiT lixTi-
meri laparaksac ver bedavs, xolo kaxeTi 2000 Tumans Tu ime-
100
tebs. sayuradReboa, rom am droisaTvis ruseTis universite-
tebSi Svidi qarTvelia profesorad — TiTqmis yvela qarTle-
li.
Tumca qarTli gamorCeuli yofila xelismomwerlebiT
da literaturis moTxovnilebiTac, magram saerTo suraTis
gamorkveviT TvalsaCino gaxda qarTvelTa gonebrivi moZrao-
bis savalalo mdgomareoba. korespondenti gulistkiviliT
aRniSnavs — ras gaawyobs ramdenime asi cvari wylisa udaburs
saxaraSi? ra sulis Cadgma SeuZlia literaturisaTvis am pa-
wia gunds mkiTxvelebisao [2, 2-4].
zemoT ganxiluli korespondenciidan aSkaraa, rom qvey-
nis umTavres problemas mas-kulturis ganviTareba warmoad-
genda. aseT viTarebaSi gansakuTrebuli pasuxismgebloba
ekisreba beWdur medias, romelmac mkiTxveli sazogadoebis
interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT unda izrunos korespondencie-
bis xarisxze. qarTuli identobis konsolidatori i. WavWavaZe
beWduri mediis Rirsebis damcvelad gvevlineba. vinaidan
`Jurnal-gazeTobaSi~ gaparulma xarvezma SeiZleba uaryofi-
Ti Sedegi moutanos dasaxul mizans — sazogadoebis `Jurnal-
gazeTobisadmi~ gulacrueba gamoiwvios da eWvqveS daayenos
ganaTlebuli mkiTxveli erTobis Seqmna. amitomac, ilaSqrebs
`iveria~ `droebaSi~ gamoqveynebuli masalis winaaRmdeg. iu-
mornarevi ironiiT aris gadmocemuli MmTeli istoria. `cis-
karma~ `iveriis~ udavidarabo SeniSvna «Нашатирь»-i qafuri ar
aris, «Купорось»-i kviparosi da qari — xolerao, Surianobad
monaTla — ai, qarTvelebi sul aseTebi varT! Cven ra eSmaki
gagvasworebs! erTmaneTs ormos vuTxriTo — sayvedurobs
`ciskari~. korespondenciaSi mTeli simZafriT aris warmoCe-
nili qarTul sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebuli uzneoba. gulis-
tkiviliT aris SeniSnuli, rom Cveni ubedurebis mizezi Cveni-
ve ukeTurebaa. maSin, rodesac irgvliv aseTi uqonloba da
uRonobaa, Teatri, skolebi Semweobas iTxoven, Tavs aravin
iwuxebs qveynis keTildReobisaTvis. da Tu vinme iwuxebs ima-
sac dascinian [1, 1-2].
media-saSualebebTan erTad, sajaro ganaTlebis amaRle-
baSi mniSvnelovani roli saswavlo-saganmanaTleblo cen-
trebs unda SeesrulebinaT. `iveriaSi~ gansakuTrebuli yu-
radReba eqceva swavla-ganaTlebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebul

101
problemebs. rogorc gamoqveynebuli masalebidan vgebu-
lobT, bevri xelisSemwyobi hyavda am mimarTulebiT gaSlil
saqmianobas, ixsneboda axali saswavleblebi, sazogadoeba swi-
ravda Tanxas swavla-ganaTlebas. SeZlebuli qarTvelebi
Tvlidnen, rom maT sazogado movaleobac ekisrebodaT. xaz-
gasmulia, rom `eri maSin aris bednieri, rodesac mis samudamo
saqmeebs bevri TanamgrZnobi hyavs~. saubaria imereTis episko-
posis yovlad samRvdelo gabrielis, winamZRvriSvilis, sameg-
relos Tavadis nikolozis, giorgi qarTveliSvilis, iulia ka-
latoziSvilis keTil, sxvaTaTvis samagaliTo saqmeebze [3, 3].
didi moZraoba iyo gaCaRebuli xalxSi codnis amaRlebis
TvalsazrisiT. `yvelani sixaruliT gaiZaxodnen Cqara davuax-
lovdebiT ganaTlebul ersao~ — aRniSnavs meeqvse nomerSi ko-
respondenti anT. juReli q. soxumidan. magram ar gasula didi
xani, rom es dawesebulebebi sazogadoebis gulSematkivrobas
moklebulni, cud mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndnen. beWdurma medi-
am Tavis Tavze aiRo saswavleblebis xelSewyobisaTvis propa-
ganda. `iveria~ isev qarTvelTa sifxizlis sadarajoze dgas —
`Cveneburad qarTvelurad~ miZinebis uflebas ar aZlevs qar-
Tvel sazogadoebas — mouwodebs sruliad ers, visac swavla-
ganaTlebaze guli Sestkiva, skolebis gansakargeblad mimar-
Ton Sesabamis RonisZiebebs [5, 3-4]. gazeTi Tavis daniSnulebas
zedmiwevniT asrulebs. gonebrivma CamorCenilobam daafiqra
da aRaSfoTa sazogadoeba. nel-nela imata saqveyno saqmeebi-
saTvis daxmarebis survilma. Semdeg nomerSi vxvdebiT saswav-
leblebis SemweobisaTvis gamarTuli warmodgenebis Sesaxeb
masalas. magaliTad, merve nomerSi gamoqveynebuli werili
`xma provinciidan~ gvatyobinebs winamZRvrianTkaris sameur-
neo skolis SewevnisaTvis gorSi gamarTuli warmodgenis Sesa-
xeb. avtori `provincialuri meTvalyure~ amavdroulad fri-
ad saintereso sakiTxsac exeba. statiaSi, erTi mxriv, madlie-
rebaa gamoTqmuli swavla-ganaTlebis SemweobisaTvis gamar-
Tuli warmodgenebis Sesaxeb, es TavisTavad sayuradRebo faq-
tia; magram meores mxriv, avtori aRSfoTebas gamoTqvams imis
gamo, rom aseTi warmodgenebis gamarTvam SeiZleba ziani mou-
tanos sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis ganviTarebas, radgan war-
modgenebma Tavisi maRali daniSnuleba unda Seasrulos — es-
Tetikuri grZnobaTa aRzrdis roli unda ikisros. avtoris
gakicxvis sagania gorSi warmodgenili vodevilebi, romlebic
102
mxolod sazogadoebis Tvalis da yuris garTobis funqcias
asrulebs da saboloo jamSi zians ayenebs amave sazogadoebas
— iwvevs azris da gonebis umoZraobas da miZinebas, mouwodebs
Teatris warmomadgenlobas, rom Cveni xalxis cxovrebidan
aRebuli scenebi warmoudginon sazogadoebas [7, 3-4]. aseve,
vxvdebiT wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis mier ga-
weuli saqmianobis Sesaxeb informacias saqarTvelos sxvadas-
xva kuTxeSi qarTul wignebis gavrcelebis Taobaze.A am faq-
tTan dakavSirebiT aRfrTovanebas ver faravs baTumeli ko-
respondenti, radgan moZraobis mizani qveyanaSi arsebuli
uwignurobis mospoba iyo [19, 3-4].
codnis madlianobis Tema grZeldeba rubrikaSi `fele-
toni~ werilebis seriiT `Zmuri sityva~ meaTe, meTormete, me-
camete, meTeqvsmete, meTvramete nomerSi. rubrikaSi gatare-
bulia azri, rom ucodinroba iyo yovelgvari ukeTurebis sa-
Tave. umecrebis msxverplad ki ZiriTadad glexobaa dasaxele-
buli, romlebSic saTanado codnis uqonlobis gamo aTasgvari
sicrue iyo gavrcelebuli. mas atyuebda yvela ganurCevlad
socialuri mdgomareobisa — vaWari, moxele, aznauri Tu
mRvdeli. garda amisa, sxva saSineli senic iyo gavrcelebuli
glexobaSi — isini advilad moeqceodnen mkiTxavis gavlenis
qveS, cru-rwmenebi arsebobda sxvadasxva avadmyofobis — ba-
tonebi, muxlis qari, aseve, subsarqisis marxvis wesis Sesaxeb
[9, 1-3; 10, 1-3; 11, 1-3; 14, 1-3; 15, 1-3]. zemoT aRniSnuli masala,
ara marto miuTiTebs xalxSi ganaTlebis gavrcelebisaTvis
mimarTuli aqtiuri muSaobis aucileblobaze, aramed erTgva-
ri nabijia gadadgmuli am TvalsazrisiT, avtori cdilobs
mkiTxvel sazogadoebas daanaxos Tu ra mdgomareobaSi SeiZ-
leba aRmoCndes umecrebis gamo adamiani.
`iveriaSi~ intensiurad aris gaSuqebuli saxelmwifo mo-
xeleebis saqmianobis amsaxveli masala. amjerad, gansjis sa-
gans warmoadgenen sasamarTlo moxeleebi. avtori aRtacebiT
gviyveba meTaur werilSi saxelmwifo moxelis misabaZi moRva-
weobis Sesaxeb. Tavadi iase andronikaSvilis sazogado saqmi-
sadmi patiosani da keTilsindisieri, dauzareli da uangaro
samsaxuri sxvaTaTvis magaliTi unda yofiliyo [6, 1-2]. miT
umetes `iveriisave~ monacemebiT dasturdeba, rom irgvliv sa-
Sineli socialuri usamarTloba iyo gamefebuli. imave nomer-
Si Cveuli sarkazmiT aris aRwerili sasamarTlo saqmianoba
103
korespondenciaSi `werili kudianeTidan~, xels awers `safam-
fsofonifi~. sasamarTlo uwyebis moRvaweoba warmodgenilia
kudianeTSi gurjeTidan mobrZanebuli sulebis aRsarebiT.
cxovelmyofeli suraTebiT aris moTxrobili gurji advoka-
tis aRsareba — Tu rogor iqca kuWis monad, rogor daiviwya
naTesavi, mezobeli, eri, sazogadoeba, sanacvlod rogor da-
iwyo RmerTis gmoba da aTi mcnebis pirveli striqonis Sebru-
nebulad — `yovelTvis guli giTqmodes colisaTvis moyvasisa
Senisa~ — Sesruleba [6, 1-3].
qarTuli erTobis SemsWvalvis procesebis gasagebad sa-
yuradRebo istoriuli werilebia gamoqveynebuli `iveriaSi~.
qarTuli erTobis istoriuli fesvebis kvlevis Tvalsazri-
siT aRsaniSnavia, mecxre nomerSi gamoqveynebuli s. baraTaS-
vilis werili `istoriuli SeniSvna~, romelic `Сборник газ.
Кавказь~-Si iyo dabeWdili. werilSi aRniSnulia, rom saqarTve-
lo odiTganve mdidari qveyana iyo, gamorCeulia, rogorc ad-
gil-mdebareobiT, aseve, mdidari bunebiT. saqarTveloSi xvna-
Tesva iyo gavrcelebuli, amitomac am qveyanas ucxoelebma
`giorgia~ daarqves da qarTvels `giorgieli~ (miwis mxvneli)
uwodes. mkvlevari aRniSnavs, rom bunebis da havis araerTgva-
rovnebam ver SeZlo qarTlosianTa modgmis daSoreba-dacal-
kaveba. qarTlosianTa modgmas emCneva erTnairi bunebrivi sa-
xe, Seunaxavs erTi da igive Cveuleba, wadili, midrekileba. aq-
vea saubari farnavazis droindel wodebaze. avtoris Tval-
sazrisiT didi sxvaoba ar yofila wodebaTa Soris. qarTvelTa
yoveli wodebis SemaerTebeli Zala iyo: erTgvari zne-Cveule-
bani, rjuli da ena [8, 4].
amgvari naSromebis gamoqveynebas gansakuTrebuli mniS-
vneloba hqonda, radgan saqarTvelos ruseTis mfarvelobaSi
Sesvlam uaryofiTad imoqmeda istoriis weris gangrZobado-
bis TvalsazrisiT — Sewyda `qarTlis cxovrebis~ gagrZeleba.
es movlena `iveriaSi~ axsnilia im mizeziT, rom saqarTvelos
istoria ruseTis istorias SeuerTda da saqarTvelos memati-
anis movaleoba ruseTis mematianeze gadavida. saqarTvelos
istorias rusi mematianeni TavianT istoriebSi mcire adgils
uTmoben, rac rasakvirvelia, ar akmayofilebda qarTul inte-
ligencias. amitomac `iveria~ iwyebs saistorio Txzulebebis
gamoqveynebas saqarTvelos Sesaxeb `saistorio sabibliogra-

104
fio werilebis~ seriiT. seriis avtori gaxlavs m. janaSvili.
meTvramete nomerSi mocemulia ganxilva d. baqraZis `arqeo-
logiuri mogzauroba guria-aWaraSi~. m. janaSvili SeniSnavs,
rom xazgasmiT aris saubari saqarTvelos teritoriul Semad-
genlobaze — saqarTvelod iwodeboda: albania, iveria, kolxi-
da, mesxeTi da taos-kari. odiTganve saqarTvelo garSemor-
tymuli iyo barbarosebiT. miuxedavad amisa daicva Tavisi
wyobileba — hyavda sakuTari mTavroba, hqonda sakuTari mmar-
Tveloba, sakuTari samarTali, Tavisi wodebrivad mowyobili
agebuleba, Tavisi saero da ekonomikuri yofa-cxovreba, sko-
la-saswavleblebi. imis gamo, rom eri saocrad cxoveli iyo,
qarTvelni itandnen yovelgvar ubedurebas da didi xalisiT
ekidebodnen ganaTlebas [15, 4].
saxeldaxelo — ybad-asaRebi — wyal-wasaRebi ambavi qal-
Ta sakiTxs exeba. meore nomerSi qveyndeba `iveriis~ mefele-
tonis mier gakicxuli qalebis sapasuxo werili. Cveuli iumo-
riTaa aRniSnuli, rom maS, ra qnas dedakacma Tu mTeli Tavisi
yuradReba Tavis garegnobas ar miaqcios, rodesac cxadad
hxedavs, rom marto imis Tvalebsa da fefeebzea kacebis yu-
radReba miqceuli. aqvea CarTuli amerikeli qalebis dabade-
bis axali Targmanis iniciativis Sesaxeb. werili mTavrdeba
niSnismigebiTi SekiTxviT: sakvirvelia am moZRvrebas (qarTve-
li qalebisas) rogor gaqcevian amerikis qalebi da marTla
adamianuri saqmisTvis rogor moukidniaT xeli [1, 3]?! qalebi
gakritikebulia meTvramete nomerSic — werilSi `Zmuri sit-
yva~, sadac qalebis garToba-mxiarulebisken miswrafeba axsni-
lia ucodinrobis mizeziT [15, 1-3]. vinaidan qali ojaxis
burjs warmoadgens da maszea metwilad damokidebuli ojaxis
winsvla da warmateba, aqedan gamomdinare, aRniSnuli werilis
dedaazri mdgomareobs imaSi, rom qalTa ganaTlebis sakiTxi
sazogadoebis dafiqrebis da gansjis sagnad unda qceuliyo.
rubrikaSi feletoni — `eTnografiuli werilebi~, war-
modgenilia saqarTvelos kuTxeebis mimoxilva. merve, meToT-
xmete, meTxuTmete nomerSi rubrika eZRvneba xevsureTs, aq
gavrcelebul Cveulebebs, tradiciebs. werilidan irkveva,
rom am kuTxis mcxovrebTa SemakavSirebel Zalas Temoba war-
moadgenda da sarwmunoebrivi mimarTuleba axasiaTebda, rom-
lis gadmonaSTebi sakmaod Zlieri yofila am droisaTvisac.
radgan saTemo kavSirs didi gavlena aqvs xevsuris cxovrebaze
105
da mis ojaxobaze, yuradReba gamaxvilebulia saojaxo rjul-
Cveulebaze. SeniSnulia, rom xevsuris ojaxi ufro ekonomiku-
ri kavSiria, vidre zneobrivi, eklesiuri. werili sainteresoa,
Temis qalisadmi damokidebulebis TvalsazrisiTac. xevsu-
reTSi Temi qalis mfarvelia, did pativs scems qalis mandils.
or Tems Soris SuRlis dros TviT Zlieri Temic ki muxls id-
reks mandilis win. aqve mocemulia xevsuri qalis saxe — xasia-
Ti — mamaci, Zu loms aris Sedarebuli, mis yovel moZraobaSi
ampartavneba, Tavis-Tavze msasoebloba ixateba. is iseTive
mrisxanea, rogorc buneba, romelic mas garSemo artyia. ga-
regnoba fSavlis qalisa, axovneba, gmiruli saxismetyveleba
uTuod iqcevs yuradRebas. mas umizezod veras gaubedavT, qa-
lis Seuracxyofa advili saqme rodia. TviTon qali gagcemT
pasuxs. yuradReba gamaxvilebulia xevsurul samarTalzec.
aqac CveulebiTi samarTlis dominantobaa xazgasmuli. Amis mi-
zezad dasaxelebulia xalxis iuridiuli azris ganuviTareb-
loba [7, 1-2; 12, 1-3; 13, 1-3].
erT-erT saintereso rubrikas warmoadgens daba da so-
feli, sadac mkiTxvels miewodeba informacia saqarTvelos
sxvadasxva soflebis yofiT cxovrebaSi arsebuli probleme-
bis Sesaxeb. korespondenciebSi mocemulia msjeloba imis Ta-
obaze, Tu ram ganapiroba ama Tu im soflis cxovrebis donis
dacema da SemoTavazebulia wamoWrili problemebis gadawyve-
tis gzebis Ziebis sakiTxi. magaliTad daba suramSi amgvar
problemad dasaxelebulia skolis ar arseboba. imisaTvis,
rom cxovrebis done amaRldes aucilebelia garkveuli cod-
nis arseboba — sajaro ganaTlebis amaRleba. amisaTvis mniS-
vnelovani iyo codnis sargeblianobis Sesaxeb propagandis ga-
weva xalxSi [3, 1]. momdevno nomerSi warmodgenilia leCxumis
mazraSi arsebuli problemebi. saubaria svanebSi gavrcelebu-
li barbarosuli qcevis sisxlis aRebis tradiciis moSlis au-
cileblobaze, sasoflo gamsesxebel-Semnaxveli amxanagobis
gaxsnis saWiroebaze, romlis iniciatorad dasaxelebulia b-n
aliSbaia [4, 1-2]. siRnaRis mazris magaliTze ki naCvenebia qar-
Tul istoriul sinamdvileSi arsebuli movlenis — ojaxebis
gayris uaryofiT Sedegebze. gayra dasaxelebulia qarTuli
ojaxebis cxovrebis donis dacemis umTavres mizezad. moyva-
nilia zemo maCxaanSi mcxovrebi gogiSvilebis gauyofeli oja-
xis siZliere. rogorc Cans, am movlenam imdenad cudad imoq-
106
meda glexkacTa yofa-cxovrebaze, rom mTavrobam akrZala
soflis yrilobis neba daurTvelad ojaxebis gayra [18, 1-2].
Tumca aucilebeli iyo maTi realurad gatareba. amitomac
`iveriam~ gangaSi atexa sazogadoebisTvis am mavne senis gav-
rcelebis Sesaxeb da mouwoda mTavrobas droulad iqnes amoq-
medebuli gayris Taobaze miRebuli dadgenileba, rom sabo-
lood mosaxleobis yofa-cxovrebis gaumjobesebaSi aisaxos.
cxovelmyofeli suraTebiT aris warmodgenili saqveyno
saqmeebze zrunvas moklebuli sazogadoebis wevrebi. meTvra-
mete nomerSi gamoqveynebuli werili `ra var me~ naTlad aris
warmoCenili individi `me~, romelic yovelgvar sazogado
zrunvas moklebulia, simdidris gazrdiT aris dainteresebu-
li [15, 1-2]. sakuTari `me~-Ti gaborotebuli adamianis Tema
grZeldeba mecxramete, meoce nomerSi rubrikaSi feletoni —
s. mgalobliSvilis weriliT `Tavadi ieronime~. gakicxulia
adamiani, romelic simdidris dagrovebaze zrunvam pirsis-
xlian arsebad aqcia. Tavadi ieronime ise iyo daxelovnebuli,
rom adamianTa kvnesa misTvis sulis Sveba iyo, xolo adamianTa
sulis Sveba misTvis kvnesa. mistiroda batonymobas. saxlSi is
suraTi hqonda Camokidebuli, sadac aRbeWdili iyo Tu rogor
aZroben tyavs monas. ixsenebs Tu rogor cema axalgazrdobaSi
nadirobisas Sexvedrili glexi cxenidan Camousvlelad mi-
salmebisaTvis. erTxel ieronime yrilobaze moxvda, sadac
swavlis saWiroebis ganxilva mimdinareobda. yrilobis mona-
wileebi miesalmnen warmodgenil sakiTxs da uxvad gaiRes Sem-
weobisaTvis Tanxebi. swavlam daRupa qveynierebao — gaiZaxoda
ieronime. sabolood krebidan gaipara, radgan mxardamWerebi
ver hpova, Sercxvenili ieronime xalxma Semdegi sityvebiT ga-
acila darbazidan `da iltvodnen sircxviliT uriani igi~ [16,
1-2; 17, 1-3]. es masala Cveni dakvirvebisaTvis Zalian gamorCeu-
lia. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac garkveuli kulturuli erTo-
baa Sekruli, romelmac erTxmad gamoutana ganaCeni orgul
adamians. sazogadoebam uRirsi wevri TviTon mokveTa Tavisi
rigebidan da sazogado gansjis sagnadac aqcia — gazeTis fur-
clebze iqna dabeWdili misi saqveyno saqmisadmi orgulobis
Sesaxeb.
erT-erTi ZiriTadi rubrika aris meTauri werili, riTac
ixsneba TiTqmis yvela nomeri. am rubrikaSi redaqtoris gan-
sjis sagans warmoadgens qveynis sazogado cxovreba da ucxo
107
qveynis magaliTiT sasargeblo rCevebs sTavazobs sazogadoe-
bas. Mmocemulia Tvalsazrisi Tu rogor SeiZleba Tavi daaRwi-
os saqarTvelom ukidures gaWirvebas, ram SeiZleba win waswi-
os saqarTvelos ekonomikuri mdgomareoba. ase magaliTad, me-
oTxe, mexuTe da meeqvse nomerSi warmodgenilia samiwaTmoqme-
do kulturis, kerZod, puris mosavlis Sesaxeb msjeloba. sau-
baria am TvalsazrisiT sxvadasxva qveynebis dawinaurebis Se-
saxeb, rac ganpirobebuli iyo sameurneo manqanebis, codnis,
transportirebis sakiTxis mogvarebiT. aqve ganxilulia vaW-
robis sakiTxic. aRniSnulia, rom warmatebul qveynebSi mosa-
valic didia da aReb-micemobaSic patiosneba did saqonlad
miaCniaT, samermisod saqmes ar ifuWeben. gansxvavebulia qar-
Tveli xalxis vaWrobisadmi damokidebuleba. CvenSi vaWroba
motyuebazea damyarebuli da ara saqonlis sikeTiT da iefo-
biT mudmivi muStris gaCenis zrunvaze, rac kidev erT xelis-
SemSlel momentad aris dasaxelebuli Cveni puris msoflio
bazarze gasatanad. sayuradReboa, rom marto is ar aris mTa-
vari miaRwevs Tu ara warmatebebs ama Tu im dargSi qveyana, ama-
ve dros mniSvnelovania, rom zneoba da patiosneba ar dakar-
gos qarTulma sazogadoebam, mxolod zneobis da patiosnebis
ZlierebiT SeZlebs qveyana winsvlas. avtori am yvelafris
gaTvaliswinebiT urCevs qarTvelobas ufro sasargeblo saq-
mes mohkidos xeli, awarmoon iseTi produqcia, romlis gamo-
devnasac ver SeZleben warmatebuli qveynebi. magaliTad, da-
saxelebulia Rvino, bamba, ramac SeiZleba mniSvnelovani war-
mateba moupovos qveyanas, qarTvel xalxs amosunTqvis saSua-
leba misces [3, 1; 4, 1-2; 5, 1]. amave rubrikis meTormete, mecame-
te, meToTxmete nomrebSi grZeldeba qveynis ekonomikuri ga-
Wirvebidan gamoyvanis gzebze msjeloba. bunebrivi resurse-
biT imdenad mdidaria Cveni qveyana, romlis xeiriani gamoyene-
biT xalxi gaWirvebas Tavs daaRwevda. amjerad navTobis sar-
geblobazea saubari ara marto saqarTvelosTvis, aramed sa-
zogadod, kavkasiisTvis. aRmoCnda, rom saqarTvelosa (kaxeT-
Si) da azerbaijanSi (baqoSi) navTi didi raodenobiT moipove-
ba. magram ucodinrobis, mouxmareblobis, navTis bazarSi ga-
tanis saxsris uqonlobis gamo, CvenSi saerTod ver moikida
fexi navTis mrewvelobam, RvTiT boZebuli simdidris aTvise-
ba ver SeZlo qarTvelobam. `verc ruseTma SeZloo, aRniSnavs
avtori, navTis naxadi im mravalgvarobiT moixmaros, rogorc
108
amerika, rom TviTonve sargebeli naxos Tavisi sakuTari sim-
didriT. sanam rames moifiqreben navTis aTvisebis Tvalsazri-
siT mwarmoeblebi, suli exuTebaT da simdidris tbebSi mcu-
ravT lamis SimSilisagan suli amouvideTo~ [10, 1-2; 11, 1; 12,
1]. es werili, rogorc Cans, mravalmxriv sainteresoa. SeniSnu-
lia, rom qarTulma sazogadoebam droa izrunos simdidris
rigian gamoyenebaze. aseve sayuradReboa ruseTTan mimarTe-
bis TvalsazrisiT. wina aTwleulis ganxilvisas gamoikveTa
politikuri erTobis sentimentebi. aq ki kavkasiis simdidre
moazrebulia ruseTis simdidred.
rubrikiT `narkvevi~ mkiTxvel sazogadoebas miewodeba
ucxour Jurnal-gazeTebSi gamoqveynebuli sxvadasxva cnobe-
bis mimoxilva. rasakvirvelia, yvela informacia Tanabrad aq-
tualuri ver iqneba Cveni miznebisTvis, magram sayovelTao
mniSvnelobis problemebis analizis dros vxvdebiT Zalian sa-
intereso informacias imasTan dakavSirebiT Tu ra ganapiro-
bebs eris siZlieres. magaliTad, mesame nomerSi vgebulobT
germanuli gazeTis `Kreuz Zeitung~- is msjelobas evropis mSvi-
dobianobis Taobaze. aRniSnulia, rom evropis saxelmwifoebi
saubroben mSvidobianobaze, Tan amavdroulad, omisaTvis gac-
xarebul mzadebaSi arian. germania mSvidobis momxrea, magram
ramdenad Seesabameba simarTles gaurkvevelia. radgan moxuci
imperatori moxalised ewereba samxedro samsaxurSi da mama-
curad ivlebs xels xmalze. mzad aris uSiSrad Seebas yvelas,
vinc mSvidobianobis darRvevas moindomebs. `gana moipoveba
iseTi eri, rom aRtacebaSi ar movides, rodesac Tvalwin udga
aseTi samagaliTo gmiri, gmiri, romelic ase wmindad asru-
lebs Tavis movaleobas~ [2, 2].
rogorc vxedavT, mkiTxvelis yuradReba miiqceva nacio-
naluri erTobisaTvis umniSvnelovanes elementze — mamuli
da misdami siyvarulze da Tavdadebaze. masalidan moxmobili
aRmafrTovanebeli frazebi emsaxureba eris gamofxizlebas
da mamulisadmi siyvarulis gaZlierebas.
meaTe nomeris imave rubrikaSi yuradReba gamaxvilebu-
lia ruseTis mTavrobis moTxovnaze — sasamarTloSi saqmeebis
sajaro ganxilvis mospobis Sesaxeb. im mizeziT, rom sasamar-
TloSi Tavmoyrili xalxi xels uSlis msajulebs samarTliani
ganaCenis gamotanaSi. gazeTi aRuSfoTebia am faqts. vinaidan

109
samarTali yovelTvis ukeT iwarmoebs, roca sazogadoeba
Tvals adevnebs. magram Tu sajaro ganxilva moispoba sasamar-
TloSi, maSin aRarc Jurnal-gazeTobas eqneba SesaZlebloba
iqonios msajuloba sasamarTloSi gasarCev saqmeebze. aman sa-
gonebelSi Caagdo `iveria~ im garemoebis gamo, rom momravle-
bul usamarTlobas, daxurul kars miRma saerTod sazRvari
ar eqneboda [9, 3].
xSirad vxvdebiT madlierebis werilebs konkretuli pire-
bis mier keTili saqmisaTvis gadmogzavnili fulis Sesaxeb. ro-
gorc Cans, keTil saqmes CvenSi bevri momxre hyavs xeiriani gzis
maCvenebelTan erTad. gaxSirebuli Semweobis Sesaxeb informa-
cia es TviTon faqtia, erTis mxriv, Tu ramdeni mkiTxveli hyavs
gazeTs da vgebulobT Tu ramdenad Zlieria sazogadoebis go-
nebrivi moZraoba; meore mxriv, marTalia qarTuli erToba an-
Tebulia qarTuli kulturis aRorZinebisa da warmatebisaT-
vis, magram ufro meti Semweobis gaRebisaken mouwodebs xalxs,
raTa daiZlios qveyanas modebuli ucodinrobis seni.
publikaciebis analiziT ikveTeba nacionaluri konso-
lidaciis procesisaTvis mniSvnelovani ramdenime sakiTxi: sa-
jaro kulturis ganviTarebis aucilebloba, rogorc mosax-
leobaSi swavla-ganaTlebis gavrcelebis mxriv, aseve erTobis
Sinagani impulsebis gaZlierebisaTvis; saerTo ekonomikis
Seqmna, rogorc aucilebeli piroba erTobis arsebobisaTvis;
qveynis istoriis da tradiciebis gadarCenaze zrunva, qarTu-
li erTobis istoriuli rolis da mniSvnelobis Cveneba Ta-
nadrouli sazogadoebisaTvis. am sakiTxebis gadaWrisaken mi-
marTuli aqtivoba, romlis umTavres asparezad beWduri me-
dia `iveriis~ saxiT gvevlineba, TvalsaCinoa, rom qarTuli er-
Tobis Sidajgufuri sentimentebis gaZliereba-ganmtkicebis
funqcias asrulebda.
amrigad, zemoT ganxiluli masalebis safuZvelze SeiZle-
ba aRiniSnos, rom nacionaluri konsolidacia kulturuli,
ekonomikuri, socialuri erTobebis SeqmniT aRiniSneboda.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:


1. gaz. iveria, 1887, #2.
2. gaz. iveria, 1887, #3.
3. gaz. iveria, 1887, #4.

110
4. gaz. iveria, 1887, #5.
5. gaz. iveria, 1887, #6.
6. gaz. iveria, 1887, #7.
7. gaz. iveria, 1887, #8.
8. gaz. iveria, 1887, #9.
9. gaz. iveria, 1887, #10.
10. gaz. iveria, 1887, #12.
11. gaz. iveria, 1887, #13.
12. gaz. iveria, 1887, #14.
13. gaz. iveria, 1887, #15.
14. gaz. iveria, 1887, #16.
15. gaz. iveria, 1887, #18.
16. gaz. iveria, 1887, #19.
17. gaz. iveria, 1887, #20.
18. gaz. iveria, 1887, #21.
19. l. patariZe, politikuri da kulturuli identobani IV-VIII
ss. qarTul erTobaSi: `qarTlis cxovrebis~ samyaro, Tbi-
lisi, 2009.
20. e. d. smiTi, nacionalizmi, Teoria, ideologia, istoria,
Targmani inglisuridan mariam CxartiSvilisa, qarTuli
teqstis redaqtori rusudan amirejibi-maleni, Tbilisi,
2004.
21. e. d. smiTi, nacionaluri identoba, Targmna lela patari-
Zem, Tbilisi, 2008.
22. m. CxartiSvili, qarTlis moqcevis istoria eTnikurobis
kvlevis problematikis TvalTaxedviT, eTnikuroba da na-
cionalizmi, I, red: d. musxeliSvili da m. CxartiSvili,
Tbilisi, 2002.
23. m. CxartiSvili, wminda mama giorgi mTawmindeli da qarTu-
li identobis samanebi XI saukuneSi, qarTuli wyaroT-
mcodneoba, XI, Tbilisi, 2006.
24. m. CxartiSvili, qarTuli erToba religiuri moqcevis epo-
qaSi (hierotopiuli proeqti `mcxeTa — axali ierusali-
mi~), saqarTvelos Sua saukuneebis istoriis sakiTxebi, IX,
2008.
25. m. CxartiSvili, qarTuli erToba religiuri moqcevis
epoqaSi, Tbilisi, 2009.

111
Ketevan Mania
Doctor of History, Sokhumi State Univer-
sity Assistant-Professor

The Process of National Identity Hardening According to


`Iveria~ (1887)

Summary

The study of the national identity development based on the example of


the detailed analysis of some issues of `Iveria~ published in1887 is given in
the research.
There are many works dedicated to the research of Georgian unity and
consolidation processes in scientific literature. The prior subjects of
discussions in these researches were the objective factors. Subjective factors
were beyond the frames of the scientific interest before. The analysis of the
historical sources from the mentioned point of view occurred on the example
of hagiographic sources only in resent studies (M. Chkhartishvili).
The given work is an attempt to fill up somehow the blanks. The work
is focused on analyzing the subjective factors of the national consolidation
process. With the help of elucidating how the publications of `Iveria~ were
perceived by readers we can state how they experience the Georgian unity
from one side and from the other, what is the role of press from the point of
view of unity of Georgian identity.
After the analysis of the publications it becomes clear that there are
some important items for the process of national consolidation: the necessity
of development of public culture, from the point of view of spreading
education among the population, as well as strengthening the inner impulses
of the unity; creation of common economics as an obligatory and inevitable
condition for unity existence; taking care of preserving and saving national
history and traditions, showing the historical role and importance of the
Georgian unity to the current society. The activities towards solving these
problems, the main field for which was `Iveria~ as a press media, had
obviously the function of strengthening and stabilizing the sentiments within
the inner groups of Georgian unity.
Thus, on the basis of above discussed materials it can be designated that the
national consolidation was marked with the creation of cultural, economics
and social unity.

112
nato sonRulaSvili
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbi-
lisis saxelmwifo universitetis
doqtoranti

identobrivi avtonomiurobis ideali:


Tavisuflebis idea da misi kultivacia
beWduri mediis saSualebiT XX saukunis
10-iani wlebis qarTul erTobaSi

XIX saukunis damdegs ruseTis imperiis mier qarTuli sa-


mefo-samTavroebis dapyrobam, mefobis institutis da bagra-
tionTa samefo dinastiis uflebebis gauqmebam, Zlieri dar-
tyma miayena qarTul, erovnul-saxelmwifoebriv cnobierebas.
qarTuli realobidan gamomdinare mefobis institutis legi-
timuroba RvTisgan momdinareobda da ara Tavad Cven-jgufis
wevrebisagan, amitom qarTuli erTobis loialobis mTavari
obieqti iyo mefe. aRniSnuli movlenis radikalurad Secvlam,
bunebrivia, didi gardatexa Seitana qarTul cnobierebaSi. am
problemis gadaWras emsaxureboda qarTuli kulturuli eli-
tis mier saerTo nacionaluri ideologiis SemuSaveba, rom-
lis gamoxatulebas warmoadgenda standartizebuli saswav-
lo-saganmanaTleblo sistemis saSualebiT erTobis wevrebis
cnobierebaSi qarTuli enis, qristianobis, istoriuli maxsov-
robis, tradiciebis wina planze wamoweva Sidajgufuri soli-
darobis sentimentebis ganmtkicebisaTvis, rac iqneboda sa-
fuZveli Tavisuflebisa da saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblo-
bis aRdgenisaTvis brZolaSi.
aRniSnul RonisZiebebs seriozuli safrTxe Seeqmna XIX
saukunis 90-ian wlebSi. rodesac ruseTSi gaZlierda reaqcia
saqarTvelo uares mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda. am periodSi daiw-
yo saerTod dapyrobil qveynebSi da, kerZod, saqarTveloSi,
reaqciis axali talRa. Tu ruseTSi reaqciam inteligencias
da mSromel xalxs miayena ziani, saqarTveloSi devna da ganad-
gureba mTel ers Seexo. mefis moadgileebis da sxvaTa mizani
gaxda Zirfesvianad aRmoefxvraT erovnuli kultura da gaeZ-
lierebinaT gamarusebeli politika [6, 68]. mefis mTavrobam
mTavari dartyma erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis wi-

113
naaRmdeg mimarTa. ruseTis xelisuflebam yvela Rone ixmara,
raTa gaenadgurebina erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZrao-
ba, rogorc erT-erTi Zlieri nakadi revoluciisa, romlis ga-
marjvebas Sedegad unda mohyoloda carizmis damxoba da de-
mokratiuli mmarTvelobis damyareba. swored amitom srulia-
dac ar iyo SemTxveviTi, rom QqarTuli kulturuli da poli-
tikuri elitis mier warmodgenili erovnuli programa yvela-
ze srulyofilad damuSavebuli sabrZolo gegma iyo [5, 115].
zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare XX saukunis dasawyisSi
saqarTvelos istoriaSi iwyeba axali etapi. ganmaTavisufle-
beli moZraoba axal stadiaze gadadis. marTalia, erovnulma
moZraobam garkveuli formireba ganicada, magram idea uc-
vleli darCa. rogorc XIX saukunis II naxevarSi, ise XX sauku-
nis I meoTxedSi qarTuli kulturuli da politikuri elita
mTlianad orientirebulia nacionaluri Rirebulebebis, sim-
boloebis aRorZineba-propagandaze sazogadoebis yvela fe-
naSi, mniSvnelovanwilad socialurad dabali fenis warmomad-
genlebSi. am moqmedebebs erTi mizani gaaCnda: erTobis wev-
rebs Soris Sidajgufuri solidarobis gancdis gamZafreba.
aRniSnuli problemis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT erT-er-
Ti saintereso monakveTia 1918-1921 wlebi, saqarTvelos de-
mokratiuli respublikis xana. drois am monakveTSi qarTuli
erToba nacionaluri konsolidaciis ganviTarebis axal faza-
Si Sedis da mTavari orientiri koleqtiuri kulturuli
identobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi elementi — Tavisuflebis ide-
ali xdeba. saqme isaa, rom Sidajgufuri solidarobis mTavar
orientirebs Soris, rogoricaa ena, religia, istoriuli mex-
siereba, Tavisuflebis ideals mTavari adgili ukavia: `Tavi-
suflebis idealma dasabami misca nacionalur TviTgamorkve-
vas da erTobliv brZolas nacionaluri nebis realizaciisaT-
vis. mxolod aseT SemTxvevaSi SeZlebda sazogadoeba sakuTari
`Sinagani ritmis~ ayolas, Tavisi `Sinagani xmis~ gagonebas da
wminda da pirvandeli mdgomareobis dabrunebas. avTenturi
sazogadoeba da avTenturi gamocdileba aris sruli avtono-
miis winapiroba, radgan mxolod avtonomias SeuZlia saSuale-
ba misces nacias da mis wevrebs, Tavisi Tavi avTenturi saxiT
ganaxorcielon. aucilebelia, rom yovel nacias sruli TviT-
gamoxatvis saSualeba da avtonomiuroba hqondes. avtonomiis
nacionalur ideals aqvs ramdenime aspeqti. zogadad, etimo-
114
logiurad avtonomiuroba niSnavs TviTmmarTvelobas, Sida
kanonebis an ritmebis qonas, sakuTari Sinagani xmisTvis yuris
migdebas, garedan raime Seviwroebis ararsebobas. amas mivya-
varT koleqtiuri nebis da individualobis realizebis maZie-
beli, sakuTari koleqtiuri `me~-s cnebasTan~ (20, 51).
swored amitom kacobriobis mTeli istoriis manZilze
yvela eris mTavar mizans TavisuflebisaTvis brZola warmo-
adgenda. `jer kidev kacobriobis arsebobis simwifis xanaSi
ocnebobdnen Tavisuflebaze RmerTis mfarvelobiT. am Tavi-
suflebis sawindari ki mudam suverenuli saxelmwifo iyo~ [1,
5]. saukuneebis manZilze sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis ganvi-
Tarebis pirobebSi Tavisuflebis idealisken swrafvam gar-
kveuli cvlilebebi ganicada. Tavisuflebis idealis erov-
nulma percefciam Camoyalibebuli saxe miiRo 1789 wlis saf-
rangeTis burJuaziul-demokratiuli revoluciis Semdeg.
amis Sedegad Tavisuflebis idealma dasabami misca naciona-
lur TviTgamorkvevas da erTobliv brZolas avTenturi naci-
onaluri nebis realizaciisaTvis [20, 25].
qarTul sinamdvileSi Tavisuflebis idealis percefci-
am axali datvirTva SeiZina ruseTis mier saqarTvelos mier
dapyrobis Semdeg. qarTuli kulturuli elita Tavisuflebi-
saTvis brZolisken yovelTvis mouwodebda pirdapir Tu iri-
bad qarTvel sazogadoebas. XIX saukunis I naxevarSi erovnuli
ajanyebis kraxiT dasrulebis Semdeg, XIX saukunis II naxevri-
dan erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba ganviTarebis
axal fazaSi Sedis. es dakavSirebulia saswavlo-saganmanaT-
leblo procesis srulyofasa da sazogadoebis yvela fenaSi
gavrceleba-damkvidrebasTan. qarTuli kulturuli elita
orientirebulia qarTuli erTobis nacionalur konsolida-
ciaze, rac saerTo, erovnuli programiT unda ganxorciele-
buliyo. amavdroulad, inteligenciis progresuli nawili
Tavisuflebis idealis farTo propagandas iwyebs. aRniSnul
movlenas ukavSirdeba erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZrao-
bis mTavari lideris ilia WavWavaZis fraza `Cveni Tavi Cvenad-
ve gveyudnes~.
XX saukunis pirvel ocwleulSi Tavisuflebis idealis
percefciam gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZina. 1917 wlidan
qarTuli erTobis konsolidaciis axali periodi iwyeba. Tavi-
suflebis idealis propagandas pirveli msoflio omisa (1914-
115
1918) da 1917 wlis ruseTis Tebervlis revoluciis Semdeg mi-
eca gasaqani.
pirveli msoflio omis periodSi da aseve misi dasrule-
bis Semdeg qarTul beWdur mediaSi gaCnda mowodebebi erovnu-
li erTianobis aucileblobaze: `saerTaSoriso omma wamoayena
bevri iseTi sakiTxi, romlis gadawyveta uqadis kacobriobas
momavalSi srul mSvidobianobas. erTi am sakiTxTagani gax-
lavT patara erebis interesebis win wamoyeneba [3, 2].
`Cveni Zala kulturul SemoqmedebaSia da imis Segnebis
moaxloebaSi, rac pirdapir gvianderZa dRevandelma omma.
erovnuli TviTSegneba da erovnuli erTianoba unda gaxdes
Cveni moqmedebis qvakuTxedad, romelzedac unda aSendes mTa-
vari kedlebi mTliani erovnuli cxovrebisa. amas gveubneva
Cveni dRevandeli omi. amas aswavlis gansakuTrebiT wvrili
erebis dRevandeli saSineli sisxlisRvra ganaTlebul da
kulturul kacobriobisa~ [4, 2].
beWduri media, romelmac erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel
moZraobaSi mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana, did adgils uT-
mobs mowodebebs Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis brZo-
lisaTvis. am sakiTxis gasaSuqeblad Cveni kvlevis obieqtad
avirCieT erovnul-demokratiuli mimarTulebis gazeTi `sa-
qarTvelo~, romelic gamodioda 1915-1921 wlebSi. 1917 wlis
ivnisSi ki erovnul-demokratiuli partiis organo gaxda. ga-
zeTi scdeba viwro partiul interesebs da saerTo erovnuli
programis SemuSaveba-ganxorcielebas did adgils uTmobs.
beWduri mediis saSualebiT qarTuli kulturuli da po-
litikuri elitis mier Tavisuflebis idealis propaganda
SemTxveviTi ar iyo. 117 wlis manZilze rusul gavlenaSi myofi
qarTveli xalxis cnobiereba garkveulwilad Seicvala, amav-
droulad saqarTveloSi arsebul Yyvela socialur fenas gaaC-
nda gansxvavebuli fsiqologia. glexobaSi dabali iyo patri-
otuli, moqalaqeobrivi SemarTeba, Sesabamisad dabali iyo sa-
xelmwifoebrivi azrovnebis done. mis SegnebaSi miwa da Tavi-
sufleba SeduRabebuli iyo. glexi Tavisuflebas miwis mosa-
poveblad iyenebda [22, 72]. rac Seexeba muSebs, maTi didi nawi-
li klasobrivi cnobierebiT iyo Sepyrobili da erovnul cno-
bierebas warsulis mavne gadmonaSTad Tvlida. muSebis umrav-
lesobas glexebis msgavsad ar gaaCnda patriotuli, moqalaqe-
obrivi Segneba. muSebi Tavis misias klasobrivi cnobierebiT
116
Sepyrobili politikuri elitis mxardaWeraSi xedavdnen da
ara saxelmwifos erTgulebaSi [2, 26].
saglexo reformisa da burJuaziuli reformebis gata-
rebis Semdeg saqarTveloSi XIX saukunis II naxevarSi Cndeba
axali socialuri fena — burJuazia, romelic ZiriTadad ara-
qarTvelebiT iyo warmodgenili. sazogadod burJuazias Tavi-
si ekonomikuri interesebi gaaCnda da erovnuli sakiTxiT nak-
lebad iyo dainteresebuli. am SemTxvevaSic burJuazia saxel-
mwifoebrivi Segnebis ganmtkicebisaTvis brZolaSi ar monawi-
leobs. `burJuazias ar esmis erovnuli Tavisufleba, rogorc
Tanabrad saWiro yvelasTvis. burJuazias unda erovnuli Ta-
visufleba mxolod TavisTvis, rogorc iaraRi sxvis dasaCag-
ravad da dasamoneblad~ [21, 5].
erTaderTi nawili qarTuli sazogadoebisa, romelic mi-
zanmimarTulad moqmedebda saqarTvelos ganTavisuflebi-
saTvis da gacnobierebuli hqonda problemis arsi iyo sam-
Rvdeloeba da kulturuli da politikuri elita. swored
isini Seecadnen saerTo nacionaluri ideologiis safuZvel-
ze Cven-jgufis wevrebs Soris erTianobis gancda CaenergaT.
rac arc ise advili iyo. rogorc mixako wereTeli aRniSnavda:
`oriod kacis garda, Zvelebsa da axlebs ver warmoudgeniaT
urusod qarTuli Tavisufleba~ [23, 21]. noe Jordania Tavis
memuarebSi wers: `roca wamovayene debuleba saqarTvelos Ta-
visuflebis SesaZleblobisa, erTi glexi adga da momaxala —
awi Cven tyves syidvas ver davubrundebiTo! ~ [8, 15].
sazogadoebis umetes nawilSi, gansakuTrebiT socialu-
rad dabali fenis warmomadgenlebSi ruseTTan kavSiri maT
usafrTxoebas niSnavda da amitom arsebuli viTarebis Sec-
vliT da saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgeniT maTi mdgo-
mareoba uaresobisken Seicvleboda. iakob mansvetaSvili Ta-
vis memuarebSi igonebs iliasa da glexebis saubars. es ukanas-
knelni swored rusuli xelisuflebis mxardaWeras gamoxa-
tavdnen. `adre gareT ver gamovdiodiT. sofels rom gavcile-
buliyaviT, an leki dagvixvdeboda an Sinauri avi kaci. sisxli
iRvreboda. mosveneba ara gvqonda, Svela arsaidam iyo. dalo-
ca RmerTma rusis xelmwife: exla ra gviSavs, ai, qalaqSic Ca-
movdivarT samuSaod. Tu ram gasayidi an sasyideli gvaqvs
xels vimarTavT. gzaSi xels veravin gvaxlebs~ [7, 125].

117
qarTvelebSi jer kidev ar arsebobda erTianobis gancda.
`gurulebisaTvis saqarTvelo niSnavda — qarTlels, xandaxan
— kaxelsac. erTi mTliani qarTveli eri, erTi mTliani saqar-
Tvelo mis warmodgenaSi srulebiT ar arsebobda. is mudam
fiqrobda Tavis dacvaze TaTrebisagan~ [8, 15].
zemoT moyvanil mosazrebebTan erTad qarTul sazoga-
doebaSi sawinaaRmdego Tvalsazrisebi arsebobda. rogorc sa-
qarTvelos damoukideblobisaTvis erT-erTi aqtiuri meb-
rZoli Salva qarumiZe werda: `saqarTveloSi iyo xalxi, ro-
melTaTvisac ruseTis erTguleba samSoblos Ralati iyo da
romelTa azriT samSoblos bedniereba da momavali mxolod
ruseTis nangrevebze aSendeboda... am xalxis TvalSi ruseTi
da saqarTvelo erTad ver Tavsdeboda da qarTveli kacis wi-
naSe sakiTxi amnairad ismeboda — an samsaxuri ruseTs da Ra-
lati saqarTvelos, anda Ralati ruseTs da ganwirva mSobeli
erisaTvis~ [24, 226].
rusuli mmarTvelobis winaaRmdeg qarTvelebis erTi na-
wilis protesti bunebrivia im nacionaluri ideologiis Se-
degi iyo, romelic kulturulma elitam SeimuSava. qarTuli
politikuri elitis erT-erTi TvalsaCino warmomadgenlis
arCil jorjaZis azriT: `qarTveli eri yovelTvis ebrZoda
xolme yvelas, visac ki misi politikuri damonaveba surda.
riT aixsneba amgvari garemoeba? xalxi Seviwroebuli da Sexu-
Tulia, xolo moadgeboda ra mas gareSe mteri, igi iviwyebda
Tavis varams, xels aZlevda Tavis mCagvrels (feodals — n. s. )
da masTan erTad mters ebrZoda. etyoba is gareSe mteri mas
ufro mavnebel mtrad miaCnda, vidre Sinauri batoni, rom miu-
xedavad nivTieri uTanasworobisa, qarTveli glexi raRaciT
dakavSirebuli iyo sxva wodebebTan da mas Tavisi Sinauri mo-
noba erCivna, gareSe Zalis monobas. es `raRac~ iyo — ena, zne-
Cveuleba, sarwmunoeba, istoriuli tradicia. maSasadame, qar-
Tvelebi icavdnen Tavis miwas, enas da sarwmunoebas. yvela ami-
si dacva mas Tavisuflebis dacvad miaCnda da gareSe mters ise
uyurebda, rogorc imis sicocxlis da Tavisuflebis damamxo-
bels~ [25, 315].
1917 wels saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis av-
tokefaliis aRdgenis Semdeg beWduri media sul ufro da uf-
ro xSirad saubrobs damoukideblobis aRdgenis saWiroebaze.
`avtonomia — ai is mkveTri sityva, romelic exla elvasaviT
118
gadadis mTel saqarTveloze da aucileblad moaqcevs Tavis
cecxlis rkalSi yvela mamuliSvils, mas win, vnaxoT Tu vinme
aRudgeba~ [9, 2].
revoluciis Semdeg inteligencia warsulis idealize-
biT qarTuli erTobis wevrebSi brZolis Jinis gaRvivebas cdi-
lobs. `ifeTqa revoluciam, daemxvnen Zirs porfirmosilni
mtarvalni da jalaTebi. wamebul xalxs moevlina sanatreli
Tavisufleba. dRes dahkra qarTveli erisTvis sabediswero
Jamma, dRes eWirveba mas Wkua-fxizeli, maRal-niWieri, Zlieri
nebis, mamaci da samSoblos siyvaruliT aRgznebuli beladebi,
romlebmac unda aRZran eris suli, aamoqmedon da aqcion uZ-
level lomad. gvwams, rom aseTi gmirebi male gamoCndebian~
[13, 2]. saqarTvelos istoriuli warsulidan gamomdinare, sa-
xelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis dakargvisa Tu teritori-
uli Seviwroebis dros qveynis Zliereba `didebul gmirebs~
gadaurCeniaT: `Tavis xangrZliv istoriul cxovrebaSi saqar-
Tvelos bevrjer ganucdia saSineli wamebi, xSirad yofila mis
win aRmarTuli yofna-aryofnis sabediswero sakiTxi, magram
eris genialobas warmouSvia am dros didebuli gmirebi da ma-
Ti meoxebiT qveyana gadarCenia daRupvas. mesxeTi, kolxeTi da
iveria kvlav Sesdgomia Tavis kulturul moRvaweobas. aseTi
tragikuli wamebi Cveni eris warsulSi iyo xSiri~ [13, 2].
1918 wlidan beWdur mediaSi Tavisuflebis idealis aqti-
uri propaganda iwyeba. `bevrjer miuyvania ulmobel istori-
ul qartexils Cveni xalxi Savi jurRmulis pirad, bevrjer,
bevrjer dausvams mis cvalebad cxovrebas misTvis samkvdro-
sasicocxlo sakiTxi, magram, sabednierod, survili sicoc-
xlis SenarCunebisa yovelTvis TvalsaCino yofila am eris
cxovrebaSi. sagani — Tavisufleba, risTvisac es erTi muWa
xalxi ebrZoda yovelgvar dabrkolebas. risTvisac is vaJka-
curad umklavdeboda karze momdgar ubedurebas — yovelTvis
xatad da jvarad hqonia qarTvel ers da amiT unda aixsnas is
garemoeba, rom yofna-aryofnis sakiTxic am eris sasargeblod
iWreboda~ [13, 4].
1900-1917 wlebSi qarTuli erTobis identobis mTavari
ganmsazRvreli iyo istoriuli mexsiereba, tradiciebi, ena,
qristianoba. 1918 wlidan aRniSnul nacionalur simboloebs
emateba Tavisuflebis ideali. `bazaleTis tbas Tavisuflebis
niavqarma dahbera da misi aqamde uZravi, Setborebuli zedapi-
119
ri aamoZrava, dahqrola, xavsi ahyara da yovelis qarTvelis
WeSmarit gulSi imis movlinebis Suqmfeni imedi da sasoeba ga-
mohkvanZa~, ilias Tqmis ar iyos:
`visic ar iTqmis saxeli,
visac dRe da Ram natrulobs
Cumis natvriTa qarTvli~ [10, 2].
qarTuli progresuli sazogadoeba damoukideblobis
aRdgenas miiCnevda axali epoqis dawyebad saqarTvelos isto-
riaSi da amitom saqarTvelos sruluflebian qveynad damkvid-
rebisaTvis saerTaSoriso sarbielze saWirod Tvlida im re-
formebis da RonisZiebebis gatarebas, rac am miznisaken mima-
val gzaze arsebiTi da gadamwyveti iqneboda: `aRiarebuli da-
moukidebloba saqarTvelosi aris pirveli gverdi saqarTve-
los axali istoriisa. Tu es aris dasawyisi saqarTvelos
aRorZinebisa, amave dros es iqneba qarTvelTa ekonomikur da
politikur damoukidebeli cxovrebis unaris maCvenebeli mo-
mavalSi. damoukideblobis SenarCuneba da Cveni gaZliereba
Cvens xelT aris, Cvens muSaobazed aris damokidebuli. Tu
gvinda SevinarCunoT sapatio adgili kulturul saxelmwifo-
Ta Soris, Cven unda SevqmnaT sakuTari mrewveloba, sakuTari
jari~ [15, 4].
saxelmwifoebrivi institutebis gaZlierebasTan erTad
rogorc kulturuli, aseve politikuri elita mTeli Zalis-
xmeviT cdilobs sazogadoebis umravlesobaSi im damaxinjebu-
li cnobierebis Secvlas, risi kvalic rusulma gavlenam da-
atyo. saqarTvelo, rogorc damoukidebeli saxelmwifo, axa-
li gamowvevebis winaSe aRmoCnda. amitom saWiro iyo Tanmim-
devruli RonisZiebebi sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sfe-
roSi. es procesi arc ise advili iyo. qarTuli erTobis wevre-
bis umravlesobas ar hqonda gacnobierebuli Tavisuflebis
arsi. beWdurma mediam da saswavlo-saganmanaTleblo sistemam
ver SeZlo problemis sabolood gadaWra. `ara marto mopove-
buli Tavisufleba, saqarTvelos miwa-wyali da dovlaTi, ara-
med TviT eris arseboba, misi fizikuri arseboba ganicdis gan-
sacdels da moiTxovs dacvas. saWiroa qarTveli eris yvela
Zal-Ronis Semokreba da mobilizacia~ [13, 1]. amasTan dakavSi-
rebiT sainteresoa giorgi gvazavas werili `eri da Tavisuf-
leba~, sadac qarTveli eris aseT mdgomareobas rusuli gav-
lenidan gamomdinare xsnida. `asi wlis monobam moaduna qar-
120
Tveli eris sxeuli da SexuTa kunTebi, ukiduresma klasobriv
brZolis moZRvrebam mis gonebas gadaubnia iseTi burusi, rom
am burusSi kinaRam Caimarxa uaRresi Rirebuleba — erovnuli
Tavisufleba~ [13, 2]. saqarTveloSi Seqmnil mdgomareobas igi
ara marto rusuli gavleniT xsnida, aramed qarTvelebis moq-
medebiTac. `sibneles miCveuli Tvali sinaTles ver itans, mo-
nobas miCveul adamians erTxans rCeba monuri midrekileba,
igi batons eZebs, imas ubatonod cxovreba ver warmoudgenia.
igi darwmunebulia, rom batoni usaTuod mova, mxolod ar
icis vin iqneba is batoni: rusi, Turqi, germaneli Tu inglise-
li. am samarcxvino fsiqologiis SeqmnaSi Cvenc didi brali
migviZRvis. Tu yvela ara, erTi nawili Cveni moRvaweebis sul
imis qadagebaSi iyo, rom samSoblo ar aris, rom igi mogonilia
mxolod burJuaziis da aznaurebis mier. Cven amovfxikeT xal-
xis gulidan mamulis siyvaruli da gmirebis qveyana gadavaq-
cieT monebis qveynad~ [13, 3].
1919 wlidan gazeT `saqarTvelos~ furclebze ukve Sei-
niSneba nacioneluri konsolidaciis gaZliereba socialurad
dabali fenis warmomadgenlebSi: `xalxSi didi sulieri garda-
texa xdeba, revoluciuri psixoziT Sepyrobili, ngreva-daq-
cevis ideologiiT gatacebuli, is bunebriv gamomTelebis
gzas daadga. es xdeba bunebrivad, TavisTavad. es procesi sa-
erTo movlenaa saqarTveloSi, xolo zogan ufro gamoaSkara-
vebulia da TvalsaCino~ [14, 1]. gazeTis piblicistebi am mov-
lenas imediT uyurebdnen da damoukideblobis SenarCunebas
aucilebel pirobad miiCnevdnen. `Tu erovnuli saxelmwifos
Seqmnis nebisyofa qarTvel xalxSi gaizarda iseTi proporci-
iT, rogorc amden xans, maSin araviTari eWvi ar aris imaSi, rom
saqarTvelos damoukidebloba mkvidr niadagze dadgeba da
rac unda partiuli Semadgenlobis ar iyos mTavroba, amas an-
gariSs gauwevs da WkuaSi Caxvdeba~ [15,1]. gazeTi erovnuli Ta-
visuflebis mopovebis da SenarCunebis mTavar obieqtad inte-
ligencias miiCnevs. `inteligenciam ar dazoga arc sakuTari
sisxli, arc Tavisi arseboba da SeiZleba iTqvas, rom man miiy-
vana saqarTvelo dRevandel Tavisuflebamde. is dResac aseT
rols TamaSobs da albaT yovelTvis iTamaSebs~ [17, 2]. miuxe-
davad imisa, rom saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis
mTavroba marTlmadidebel eklesias Tavisufali moqmedebis
saSualebas ar aZlevda da misi uflebebi Sekvecili iyo, erov-
121
nul-demokratebi eklesiis rolis wina planze wamowevas cdi-
loben da marTlmadidebeli eklesiis problemebis gaSuqebas
did adgils uTmoben. `Cveni eklesia friad damsaxurebuli,
mxcovani dawesebulebaa Cvens samSobloSi. is asazrdoebda
qarTvel ers sulierad, zneobrivad, gonebrivad da wvrTnida
mis mamuliSvilur Semecnebasac. Cveni eklesia saqarTveloSi
asrulebda did kulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmes, afxiz-
lebda ers istoriuli gansacdelis xanaSi, icavda mas gadar-
julebisagan. mravaljer politikurad ufleba-ayrili da da-
monebuli saqarTvelo arsebobda eklesiurad, sarwmunoebri-
vad SekavSirebuli mtkice safuZvliT~ [18, 4].
damoukideblobis xanaSic, saqarTvelos sinamdvilidan
gamomdinare nacionaluri simboloebis propagandas isev aq-
tualuri mniSvneloba eniWeboda, radgan saerTaSoriso sarbi-
elze damkvidrebas saerTo erovnuli faseulobebiT homoge-
nizirebuli qarTuli erToba Tu SeZlebda. nacionalur kon-
solidaciaSi ki qristianobas didi roli eniWeboda. `Cven vxe-
davT, rom kulturul kacobriobas da Tundac ara kulturul
kacobriobas imdenad ainteresebs rusis xalxi, ramdenadac
igi fizikur safrTxes warmoadgens Zvelsa da axal kulturi-
saTvis, xolo axlad ganTavisuflebuli erebi imdenad Seadge-
nen interess kacobriobisas, ramdenadac am erebs axali moti-
vi da axali gamarTleba SeaqvT kacobriobis istoriaSi.
am TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelo yvelaze ufro privilegi-
ur mdgomareobaSi imyofeba, radganac igi xidia evropasa da
azias Soris, mtkice iqneba qarTveli xalxi nacionalurad,
miT ufro yuradRebiT moepyrobian mas mezobel da Soreul
saxelmwifoebi — Tanac saqarTvelo jer kidev ar gamagrebula
erovnulad da saxelmwifoebrivad, rom SeiZlebodes erov-
nul brZolaze xelis aReba~ [19, 2].
gazeTi `saqarTvelo~ 1921 wlamde am suliskveTebiT ag-
rZelebda saqmianobas da Tavisuflebis idealis qarTul er-
TobaSi formirebas da danergvas cdilobda.
amdenad, Tavisuflebis idealisTvis brZola qarTuli
erTobis cnobierebaSi istoriuli warsulidan gamomdinare
qarTuli enis, qristianobis, tradiciis SenarCunebasTan igiv-
deboda. Tavisuflebis idealis am saxiT propagandis mTavari
mesveuri iyo kulturuli da politikuri elita.

122
damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. b. andersoni, warmosaxviTi sazogadoebebi, Tbilisi, 2003.


2. v. guruli, erovnuli cnobiereba-saxelmwifoebrioba, po-
litikuri orientacia, Tbilisi, 2008.
3. gazeTi `Temi~, 1914, #187.
4. gazeTi `Temi~, 1915, #203.
5. j. kaSia, gvelis-mWameli, gagebis cda, parizi, 1989.
6. g. lasxiSvili, memuarebi, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo, 1966.
7. i. mansvetaSvili, mogonebebi, Tbilisi, sabWoTa saqarTve-
lo, 1985.
8. n. Jordania, Cemi warsuli, Tbilisi, sarangi, 1990.
9. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1917, #64.
10. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1918, #3.
11. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1918, #7.
12. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1918, #43.
13. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1918, #232.
14. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1919, #233.
15. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1920, #1.
16. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1920, #40.
17. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1920, #49.
18. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1920, #62.
19. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1921, #19.
20. e. smiTi, nacionaluri identoba (inglisuridan Targmna
lela patariZem), Tbilisi, 2008.
21. socializmi da erovnuli sakiTxi, Tbilisi, 1905.
22. g. qiqoZe, erovnuli energia, Tbilisi, 1919.
23. m. wereTeli, eri da kacobrioba, Tbilisi, Tbilisis uni-
versitetis gamomcemloba, 1990.
24. o. janeliZe, narkvevebi saqarTvelos erovnul-demokra-
tiuli partiis istoriidan, Tbilisi, mecniereba, 2002.
25. a. jorjaZe, samSoblo da mamuliSviloba, Tbilisi, Tbili-
sis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1990.

123
Nato Songulashvili
The Doctoral Student of Ivane Javakhishvili
Tbilisi State University

Identical autonumous ideal: the idea of freedom and its


cultivation on the basis of printing media in the 10-years
Georgian unity of XX century.

Summary

The ideal of freedom is one of the main parts of collectiv cultural


identity. In the research workthere is studied the Georgian identical
autonomous ideal, the idea of freedom and its cultivation in Georgian unity in
1918-1921, on the basis of publications newspaper, „Georgia.`
among the Georgian we-group members the ring-leader for
propaganda-actualization of freedom ideal was cultural and politikal elite.

124
irina arabiZe
istoriis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvi-
lis istoriisa da eTnologiis insti-
tutis axali da uaxlesi istoriis
ganyofilebis mecnier-TanamSromeli

damatebiTi cnobebi eqvTime TayaiSvilis


1917 wlis eqspediciasTan dakavSirebiT

saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliisaTvis brZolaSi eq-


vTime TayaiSvili 1905 wlidanve iyo Cabmuli. brZolis warma-
tebiT dagvirgvinebis (1917 w. 12 marti) pirvelive dReebidan
is aqtiurad Cadga saqarTvelos eklesiis uflebaTa realu-
rad ganxorcielebis samsaxurSi. iyo rus-qarTvelTa saekle-
sio interesebis SemTanxmebeli komisiis wevri. saqarTvelos
eklesiis droebiTi mmarTvelobis sxdomebSi did mecniers mo-
nawileoba ar miuRia, magram sxdomis oqmebidan Cans, rom misi
profesionalizmis imedi mmarTvelobis wevrebs yovelTvis
hqondaT. arc Tu iSviaTad mimarTavdnen daxmarebisaTvis: sa-
qarTvelos sakaTolikosos Zveli sazRvrebis dadgenasTan Tu
qarTuli Zeglebis movla-patronobasTan dakavSirebiT.
1917 wlis 4 ivlisis sxdomaze saqarTvelos eklesiis
droebiTma mmarTvelobam moismina poruCik n. Sugurovis we-
rilobiTi moxseneba xaxulis RvTismSoblis monastris mdgo-
mareobis Sesaxeb. Sugurovs, rogorc moxsenebaSi iyo aRniSnu-
li, taZari 1916 w. mounaxulebia da SekeTebac ki ucdia. saqar-
TveloSi dabrunebuls qarTuli sazogadoeba taZris savala-
lo mdgomareobis Sesaxeb saqmis kursSi Cauyenebia, magram Se-
degi jer kidev ar iyo miRweuli [1, 215; 2, 3].
Sugurovi amjerad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis
mosaydres episkopos leonids (oqropiriZe) sTxovda daxmare-
bas Tavisi xelnaweri broSuris — Грузинский Хахульский
монастырь dabeWdvaSi, rac istorikos Tedo Jordanias gar-
dacvalebis gamo Seferxebula. Sugurovi agreTve ayenebda wi-
nadadebas xaxulis monasterSi eqspediciis gagzavnis Sesaxeb
da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi gamoTqvamda masSi monawileobis mi-
Rebis (xelmZRvanelobisac ki) survils [1, 215].
saqarTvelos is nawili — TorTumis olqi, sadac xaxulis
monateri mdebareobda, I msoflio omis msvlelobaSi (1914-
125
1918 ww.) 1917 w. zafxulisaTvis gaTavisuflebuli iyo osmale-
Tis batonobisagan. amis gamo qarTul sazogadoebas eZleoda
saSualeba miexeda Tavisi Zveli kulturul-saganmanaTleblo
centrebisaTvis. Tumca, am mxareSi eqspediciis mowyoba omis
periodis saSiSroebasTan iyo dakavSirebuli.
droebiTi mmarTvelobis wevrebma monastris saWiroeba-
Ta gasacnobad eqspediciis mowyobis aucilebloba erTsulo-
vnad aRiares. kamaTi gamoiwvia sakiTxma, sasuliero wodebis
mxridan gagzavnili piri beri unda yofiliyo Tu eriskaci. sa-
bolood eqspediciasTan erTad maswavlebeli-beris gagzavna
saxifaTo saqmed miiCnies, raTa iqauri muslimanebis gaRizia-
neba ar gamoewviaT. umjobesad CaiTvala iseTi berebis mivli-
neba, romlebsac TavianTi monazvnuri cxovrebiT SeeZloT
iqaurTa ndobisa da pativiscemis damsaxureba.
droebiTi mmarTvelobis wevrebma eqspediciis wevrTa
SerCeva da misi xelmZRvaneloba eqvTime TayaiSvils miandes.
mas eqspediciis Sedegebi droebiTi mmarTvelobisaTvis unda
gaecno, miewodebina monastris mdgomareobis Sesaxeb saWiro
cnobebi. eklesiis mmarTvelma organom Tavisi mxridan eqspe-
diciis wevrebad daasaxela parTen goTua, rogorc gamocdili
organizatori da erTi beri, romlis SerCevac Tavis Tavze ka-
Tolikos-patriarqis mosaydrem — episkoposma leonidma (oq-
ropiriZe) aiRo.
eqspediciis gagzavnisaTvis saWiro saxsrebi droebiT
mmarTvelobas ar gaaCnda. daadgines: daearsebinaT safinanso
komisia, romelic izrunebda eqspediciisa da droebiTi mmar-
Tvelobis sxva saWiroebaTaTvis Tanxebis mopovebaze.
komisiis wevrebad erTxmad airCies: generali vasil ga-
baSvili, giorgi Juruli, mixeil maCabeli, petre baraTaSvili,
aleqsandre ZegveliSvili da ioseb merkvilaZe [1, 215].
saqarTvelos eklesiis droebiT mmarTvelobas am saSuri
saqmis meTaurobasTan dakavSirebiT 7 ivliss ukve hqonda eq-
vTime TayaiSvilis Tanxmoba. am mcire periodis ganmavlobaSi
(4-7 ivlisi) dauRalavma mecnierma eqspediciisaTvis saWiro
Tanxis daangariSebac moaxerxa da TavadaznaurTa sakrebulo-
dan am Tanxis umTavresi nawilis gadaxdaze dapirebac miiRo.
misi varaudiT, sul saWiro iqneboda 7 aTasi man. aqedan Tava-
daznaurTa sakrebulo 4 aTass hpirdeboda. danarCeni 3 aTasi
droebiT mmarTvelobas unda gaeRo. eqvTime TayaiSvilis az-
126
riT, erTi beris mivlineba sakmarisi ar iyo da eqspediciasTan
erTad ori-sami beri mainc unda gamgzavrebuliyo, romelTa
SerCevac man yovladsamRvdelo leonids sTxova [1, 222].
TavadaznaurTa sakrebulom, garda eqvTime TayaiSvili-
saTvis Sepirebuli Tanxisa, uSualod saqarTvelos eklesiis
droebiTi mmarTvelobas 7500 man. Sewira. piradad al. n. WavWa-
vaZem ki xaxulis taZrisaTvis 200 maneTi gaiRo [1, 222]. ase, rom
eklesiis mmarTvelma organom 3 aTasi man. eqspediciis saWiro-
ebisaTvis dauyovneblad gadado.
eqspediciaSi gamgzavrebis mosamzadebel samuSaoebTan
dakavSirebiT cnobebi moipoveba eqvTime TayaiSvilis pirad
werilebSi. 1917 w. 9 ivliss igi petrogradSi myof niko mars
wers, rom saWiro gaxda TorTumSi gamgzavreba. am saqmesTan
dakavSirebiT igi pirvel rigSi xuroTmoZRvrisa da fotogra-
fis SerCevis sirTules aRniSnavda [3, 283]. gamgzavreba Tavda-
pirvelad 25 ivlisisaTvis an Tvis bolosaTvis iyo dagegmili.
magram 8 agvistosTvis gadaido.
eqvTime TayaiSvili mTeli sisruliT grZnobda im saSiS-
roebas, rac frontis sazRvarTan axlos, naomar, dangreul da
damSeul olqebSi mogzaurobasTan iyo dakavSirebuli, amitom
niko mars sTxovda, Tu cocxali ver dabrundeboda, gamoeca
misi svaneTsa da yarsSi mogzaurobaTa Sedegebi [3, 284-285].
rogorc giorgi lomTaTiZe aRniSnavs samxreT saqarTve-
loSi gamgzavrebis win anderZi eqvTime TayaiSvils Tavisi me-
uRlis — nino poltarackaiasTvisac daubarebia: Tu cocxali
ver davbrunde, mokrZalebiT dammarxeT, aravin SeawuxoT, qo-
neba saistorio-saeTnografio sazogadoebas darCeso [4, 39-
40].
samxreT saqarTveloSi eqvTime TayaiSvilis xelmZRvane-
lobiT mowyobili eqspedicia 1917 w. 8 agvistodan 18 seqtem-
bramde grZeldeboda. mogzaurobis Sedegebi didi dagviane-
biT, 1952 wels — rusulad da 1960 wels — qarTulad gamoica.
iq eqspediciis dawyebis TariRad 8 ivlisia dasaxelebuli [5,
19; 6, 3], rasac faqtobrivad ewinaaRmdegeba rogorc droebiTi
mmarTvelobis sxdomebze aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli
msjelobis TariRebi, aseve TviTon eqvTime TayaiSvilis weri-
lebi niko marisadmi [1, 213-217, 219-222; 3, 283-285].
AaRniSnul gamocemaTa mixedviT eqspedicia mowyobili
iyo saqarTvelos saistorio da saeTnografio sazogadoebis
127
mier da iq eklesiis droebiTi mmarTvelobis mier eqspediciis
mowyobis iniciativa aRniSnuli ar aris. mxolod miTiTebu-
lia, rom eqspediciis mowyobisaTvis Tanxebi gaiRes qarTvel-
ma Tavadaznaurebma da samRvdeloebam. im dros, roca 1917
wlis eqspediciis Sedegebi gamoica (1952 da 1960 ww.), sabWoTa
saqarTveloSi gamomaval wignebSi saqveyno saqmeebSi sasulie-
ro wodebis wvlilis mkveTrad warmoCena dauSvebeli iyo.
eqvTime TayaiSvili xazs usvams im garemoebas, rom fu-
liT im dros omiT ganadgurebul mxareSi arafris yidva SeiZ-
leboda. dauRalavma mecnierma eqspediciisaTvis aucilebeli
daxmareba ruseTis saerobo kavSiris gamgeobis sawyobidan mi-
iRo. erobaTa gamgeobisagan aRniSnuli daxmarebis gamoyofa
eqvTime TayaiSvilis yofil moswavles aleqsandre daviTis Ze
ciciSvils hqonda davalebuli, rasac man Tavi warmatebiT ga-
arTva [6, 3].
droebiTi mmarTvelobis sxdomis oqmebSi miTiTebuli
araa eqspediciis Semadgenloba. amis Sesaxeb informacias eq-
vTime TayaiSvili gvawvdis. man SeZlo Seekriba: xuroTmoZRva-
ri anatoli nikolozis Ze kalgini, mxatvari dimitri Sevar-
dnaZe, moxalise xuroTmoZRvari, alpinisti da poeti ilia
zdaneviCi, mxatvari lado gudiaSvili, mxatvari-msaxiobi mi-
xeil Wiaureli. sasuliero wodebis mxridan, piradad episko-
pos leonidis rCeviT eqspedicias SeuerTda varZiis monas-
tris winamZRvari mRvdel-monazoni ilarioni. eqspediciis
xelmZRvanelma mxolod profesionali fotografis SerCeva
ver SeZlo. ramdenime kandidaturas, romelic samxedro uwye-
bas man warudgina, gamgzavrebis neba ar daerTo. fotografo-
bas eqspediciis ramdenime wevri iTavsebda [6, 3].
miuxedavad amisa, eqspediciis SedegebiT eqvTime TayaiS-
vili kmayofilebas gamoTqvamda. imogzaures da Seiswavles xa-
xulis, oSkis, iSxnis monastrebi da maTi Semogarenis sasulie-
ro da saero Zeglebi.
eqspediciis xelmZRvanelma windaxeduleba gamoiCina da
eqspediciis 2 wevri oTxTa eklesiasa da parxalSi miavlina mo-
mavali eqspediciisaTvis winaswari kvlevebis Casatareblad.
SemdgomSi eqvTime TayaiSvili am nabijis kmayofilic iyo,
radgan TurqTa mier xelaxla okupirebul teritoriebis Ses-
wavla Zalian didi xniT miuwvdomeli gaxda [6, 4].

128
eqspediciis mier TbilisSi Camotanili gegmebi da naxa-
zebi daamuSava xuroTmoZRvarTa jgufma: m. kerni, b. riabovi,
n. severovi. maT kalgini xelmZRvanelobda. teqnikur sakiT-
xebSi ki exmarebodnen kubera da meliqiSvili [6, 4].
eqspediciis periodSi moinaxules da aRweres Semdegi ek-
lesia-monastrebi: iSxani, oSki, xaxuli, eqeqi, soxToroTa, isi,
suxbeCi, oTxTa eklesia, muxlajiRilisi, parxali da maT ir-
gvliv mdebare patara nagebobebi Tu maTi nangrevebi. ZeglTa
Seswavlis saqmeSi ganxorcielebul siaxles warmoadgenda
mravali bareliefis gadmoReba mulaJiT. xeliT gadmoweres
an fotoze daafiqsires mravali warwera. Seitanes cvlilebe-
bi maT wakiTxvaSi. gaarkvies zogi taZris saxeli, romelic ma-
namde istoriul literaturaSi cnobili ar iyo. gamoavlines
taZarTa ucnobi tipebic. Tumca, rogorc eqvTime TayaiSvili
aRniSnavda, maT mier Seswavlili Zeglebi kidev wlobiT moiT-
xovda kvlevas, qarTuli kulturisaTvis maTi mniSvnelobis
Sesaxeb saboloo sityva naTqvami ar iyo [6, 4].
eqspediciis Sedegebi droebiTi mmarTvelobis sxdomaze
ganxilvis sagani veRar gaxdeboda im ubralo mizezis gamo,
rom roca eqvTime TayaiSvili TbilisSi dabrunda (18 seqtem-
beri), saqarTvelos eklesias ukve ara droebiTi organo, ara-
med kaTolikos-patriarqi da sakaTolikoso sabWo ganageb-
dnen. saeklesio kreba, romelmac saWeTmpyrobeli da mmarT-
velobis umaRlesi organo airCia, 1917 w. 8-17 seqtembers mim-
dinareobda.
eqspediciaSi droebiTi mmarTvelobis warmomadgenel
mRvdel-monazon ilarionTan dakavSirebiTac eqvTime TayaiS-
vilisa da sxvaTa mogonebebidan gaxda cnobili. is eqspediciis
Sedegebis mosaxseneblad TbilisSi unda dabrunebuliyo da
Semdeg sanovagis maragiT isev xaxulis, oSkisa da iSxnis monas-
terTaTvis Tvalyuris sadevneblad gamgzavrebuliyo. magram
misi meore mgzavroba Sedegianad ver dasrulda: fronti dai-
Sala da TurqTagan gaTavisuflebuli saqarTvelos miwa-wya-
li isev mahmadian dampyrobTa tyveobaSi aRmoCnda. amitom mama
ilarioni gzidan ukan dabrunda [6, 3].
droebiTi mmarTvelobis sxdomis oqmebi arc poruCik Su-
gurovis Sesaxeb gvawvdis cnobebs. eqvTime TayaiSvili aRniS-
navs, rom xaxulis komendant n. Sugurovs 1916 w. 29 maiss xaxu-

129
lis mTavari taZris gumbaTze TuTis xisagan gaTlili jvari
aRumarTavs.
didi mecnieri xSirad axsenebs Sugurovis broSurasac,
romelic eqspediciaSi hqonia waRebuli, imowmebs mas xaxulis
monastris aRwerisas. xelnawer wignakSi moTavsebuli yofila
zogi warwera da aseve iqaur mosaxleobaSi Sekrebili Tqmule-
bani, xaxulis monasterisadmi TorTumSi mosaxle mahmadian
gurjTa mowiwebiT damokidebulebas rom gamoxatavda [6, 63,
66].
giorgi lomTaTiZe eqvTime TayaiSvilis moRvaweobaSi
umniSvnelovanes damsaxurebad Tvlis 1917 w. zafxulSi tao-
TorTum-ispirSi mowyobil eqspedicias, romelmac `sulze mi-
uswro~ iqaur Zeglebs. ramdenime TveSi es mxare isev Turqebma
igdes xelT da iq mogzaurobaze ocnebac ki SeuZlebeli gaxda
[4, 40].
ase, rom saqarTvelos eklesiis droebiTi mmarTvelobis
sxdomis oqmebSi dafiqsirebuli masala azustebs ramdenime
detals eqvTime TayaiSvilis mier 1917 w. zafxulSi tao-Tor-
Tum-ispirSi mowyobili metad mniSvnelovani eqspediciis is-
toriaSi. naTelyofs am mogzaurobaSi ruseTis tyveobisagan
axladgaTavisuflebuli saqarTvelos eklesiis rols.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. sruliad saqarTvelos sapatriarqos arqivi, aRw. 1, saqme


6421.
2. gazeTi `saqarTvelo~, 1917 w., 2.VII, # 142.
3. niko marisa da eqvTime TayaiSvilis mimowera (1888-1931),
mec-ba, 1991, gamosacemad moamzada... r. kavilaZem, m. mama-
caSvilma.
4. g. lomTaTiZe, qarTuli kulturis mematiane eqvTime Taya-
iSvili, `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi, 1990.
5. Е. Такаишвили, Археологическая экспедиция 1917-го года в южные
провинции Грузии, издательство Академии Наук Грузинской ССР,
Тбилиси, 1952.
6. eq. TayaiSvili, 1917 wlis arqeologiuri eqspedicia sam-
xreT saqarTveloSi, saq. mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcem-
loba, Tbilisi, 1960.

130
Irina Arabidze
Doctor of History, Ivane Javakhishvili
Institute of History and Ethnology,
research scientist of the Department of
Modern and Contemporary History

Additional Information About Ekvtime Takaishvili’s Expedition in 1917

Summary

In 1917 under the guidance of Ekvtime Takaishvili and on behalf of


The Historical and Ethnographical Society of Georgia the expedition in Tao-
Tortum-Ispir was held. During the World War I (1914-1918), in summer
1917, this territory was liberated from Osmans’ rule. It was a chance for
Georgian society to take care and restore old church centres.
The contribution of The Provisional Government of The Church of
Georgia in organizing the expedition was not mentioned in the scientific
literature. Only the information about donation of the expedition by Georgian
clergy was known.
From the records of proceedings of The Georgian Church Provisional
Government it becomes clear that planning of the expedition was on the
initiative of the ruling organ of The Church of Georgia. In July 4, at the
session of the provisional government the letter – report of Khakhuli
commandant lieutenant N. Shugurov about the state of Kakhuli monastery
was discussed. The session passed a resolution to send an expedition to
become aware and learn the needs of the monastery.
The members of the provisional government with one voice asked the
great Georgian scientist-archeologist Ekvtime Takaishvili to organize and
choose the members for the expedition.
From the records of the proceeding and letters of Ekvtime Takaishvili
and Niko Mari it can be stated that the expedition started in August 8. The
mentioned date is wrongly indicated in the publications (E. Takaishvili, The
Archeological Expedition in 1917 in the South Provinces of Georgia,
publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of Georgian SSR, Tbilisi, 1952,
in Russian and in its Georgian translation published in Tbilisi, 1960 by the
same publishing house) about the expedition.
The results of the expedition had not become the subject of discussion
at the sessions of the provisional government. When the expedition was
ended, in September 18, the Church of Georgia was ruled not by provisional
organ but by the Catholicos-Patriarch and the council of catholicos.

131
lela saraliZe
istoriis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvilis
istoriis da eTnologiis institutis
axali da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofile-
bis ufrosi mecnier-TanamSromeli

e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ avtonomiuri olqis


Seqmnis istoriidan (1917-1922 ww.)

e.w. `samxreT oseTis~ avtonomiuri olqis Seqmnis isto-


ria sabWoTa istoriografiaSi sakmaod tendenciurad aris ga-
Suqebuli. aRniSnuli periodis naSromebSi, saqarTveloSi
erovnuli sakiTxis gadawyveta oqtombris revoluciis mona-
povrad iyo miCneuli da sabWoTa saxelmwifos leninuri erov-
nuli politikis damsaxurebas miewereboda. e. w. `samxreT ose-
Tis~ avtonomiuri olqis Seqmnis realuri istoria, ZiriTa-
dad, gadmocemuli aris saqarTvelos damoukideblobis wleb-
Si Seqmnil, calkeul gamokvlevebsa da samecniero statiebSi.
termini `samxreT oseTi~ sruliad arabunebrivia isto-
riuli TvalsazrisiT da Sesabamisad miuRebelia, radgan aR-
niSnuli terminis qveS moiazreba osebiT dasaxlebuli saqar-
Tvelos istoriuli Sida qarTlis teritoria. saxelwodeba
savsebiT usamarTlod, saerTaSoriso samarTlis normebis
gverdis avliT ewoda qarTul miwa-wyals, romelic Crdiloe-
Tidan gadmosulma osebma TandaTanobiT daikaves. osebis sa-
qarTvelos teritoriaze Camosaxlebis faqts adasturebs
araerTi qarTveli da ucxoeli avtori. germanelma mecnierma
august haqsthauzenma (1792-1866), romelic 1843 wels imyofe-
boda saqarTveloSi, moinaxula osebiT dasaxlebuli aRniSnu-
li teritoria. 1847 wels man berlinSi gamosca ortomeuli
saxelwodebiT: `gamokvlevebi ruseTis xalxTa cxovrebis sa-
Sinao mdgomareobis da gansakuTrebiT sasoflo mowyobis Se-
saxeb~. naSromis pirveli wignis XII TavSi gadmocemulia metad
saintereso cnobebi osebis Sesaxeb, sadac aRniSnulia Semdegi:
`osebi Tavis Tavs uwodeben ir-s da iron-s, qveyanas ki ironis-
ten-s. Cerqezebi maT uwodeben kasha-s, TaTrebi os-s, aseve ta-
uli-s; lekebi-oc, oce-s; qarTvelebi-osi da ovs-is; micjegu-
ri xalxebi ki eZaxian ilheri-s. osi xalxis warmomavlobis, mi-
132
graciisa da istoriis Sesaxeb im osebSi, vinc me vnaxe, Zalze
mwiri cnobebi miviRe. miTxres, rom osebs adre sxva adgil-
samyofeli hqondaT; rom isini CrdiloeTidan mTebiT gadmo-
vidnen; rom Tavdapirvelad Cerqezebis amJamindel qveyanaSi
ucxovriaT, xolo sxva xalxebis mowolis Sedegad dRevandel
samosaxloSi gadmovidnen. Aam arasando da bnel gadmocemas, ra
Tqma unda, aqvs istoriuli gamoZaxili. qarTuli analebic am-
boben, rom osebi gadmosaxlebulan donis midamoebidan. jer
kidev ptolemaiosi icnobda donis SesarTavebTan osiliebs...~
[1, 381].
sainteresoa eTnogenetikurad vin arian osebi. miCneu-
lia, rom osebi, (saxelwodeba `iron~, `digoron~, aqedan qvey-
nis saxelwodeba `irisTon~) indoevropuli xalxebis Crdilo-
iranul jgufs miekuTvnebian. eTnogenetikurad isini sarma-
tul-alanur tomebTan arian dakavSirebulni, maTi uaxlesi
winaprebi ki alanebi iyvnen [2, 30]. Crdilo kavkasiidan saqar-
TveloSi gadmosvlisas osebi umTavresad saxldebodnen didi
da patara liaxvis da qsnis xeobebSi. osuri mosaxleobis didi
nawili dasaxlda aseve, gorisa da duSeTis mazrebSi, xolo Se-
darebiT mcire ricxvi raWisa da Sorapnis mazrebSi. oseTi
Crdilo kavkasiis erT-erTi kuTxea, romelTanac saqarTve-
los saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mWidro urTierToba akavSi-
rebda. amJamad, osebs kavkasionis centraluri nawili ukaviaT
da gansaxlebulni arian kavkasionis qedis CrdiloeT ferdob-
ze. es aris axlandeli ruseTis federaciaSi Semavali Crdi-
loeT oseTis avtonomiuri respublika, romlis teritoria 8
aTasi kv. kilometria. aRmosavleTiT mas esazRvreba CeCneT-
inguSeTi, samxreTiT- saqarTvelo, dasavleTiT- yabardo-
balyareTi, CrdiloeTiT- stavropolis mxare. bunebrivia,
arc erTi mosazRvre respublika imis gamo, rom Tavis droze
iq osebi Casaxldnen, sakuTar teritoriaze axal saxelmwifo-
ebriv warmonaqmns ar dauSvebs. osi xalxis mTeli istoria
aris —uwyveti da Tanmimdevruli mitaceba mezobeli xalxebis
teritoriebisa. kavkasiaSi ar aris arcerTi mezobeli xalxi,
romelTa teritoriebis mniSvnelovani nawili maT ar mieTvi-
sebinoT [26, 3].
pirvel oficialur dokumentad, sadac Sida qarTlis
mTianeTi `oseTad~ moixsenieba, qarTul istoriografiaSi
miCneulia, saqarTveloSi rusuli administraciis meTauris-
133
mTavarmmarTvel knoringis 1802 wlis 26 martis Ppataki [3, 587].
rus istorikos p. butkovs ki mohyavs general-leitenant kno-
ringis 1802 wlis 15 TebervliT daTariRebuli pataki, sadac
knoringi wers: `oseTSi warmoqmnili sxvadasxva ganukiTxaobi-
sa da saqarTvelos sazRvarze osebis mier ganxorcielebuli
Tavdasxmebisa da Zarcvis gamo, goridan maTi winaaRmdegobis
CasaxSobad gaigzavna podpolkovniki simonoviCi. Tovlian qe-
debze sakmaod rTuli gadasvlis ganxorcielebis Sedegad, is
Tavisi razmiT oseTSi Sevida. osebi iZulebulni gaxdnen dae-
doT fici erTgulebaze da qarTul xelisuflebas damorCi-
lebodnen...~ [4, 349].
termini `samxreT oseTi~ da `CrdiloeT oseTi~, oficia-
lurad fexs ikidebs 1830 wlidan. gazeT `Тифлисские ведомости~-
Si (1830w. #72) dabeWdili anonimi avtoris publikaciaSi e. w.
`samxreT oseTad~ saxeldebulia didi da patara liaxvis, qsni-
sa da mejudas xeobebis mTianeTis teritoria. iqve CamoTvli-
lia e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ Svidi mTavari xeoba: maRrandvale-
Tis, qeSelTis, javis, patara liaxvis, mejudis, WurTisa da Ja-
muris [5, 33].
1830 wlis 24 maiss, general-feldmarSal paskeviCis mier
Tbilisis samxedro gubernatoris, general-adiutant streka-
lovisadmi gagzavnil werilSic `oseTis zemo nawilTan~ anu
`zemo oseTTan~ SepirispirebaSi moxsenebulia `oseTis qvemo
nawili~ anu `samxreT oseTi~. osi istorikosi i. cxovrebovi
Tavis dokumentebis krebulSi #209-e dokumentad gadmog-
vcems 1830 wlis 24 maisiT daTariRebul `kavkasiis calkeuli
korpusis sardlis general-feldmarSal paskeviCis miweri-
lobas, Tbilisis samxedro gubernator general-adiutant
strekalovisadmi, `samxreT oseTSi~ glexTa ajanyebis Casax-
Sobad samxedro eqspediciis daniSvnis Sesaxeb~. rogorc do-
kumentis Sinaarsidan Cans, paskeviCi mimarTavs strekalovs:
`...oseTi, romelic qarTls esazRvreba Cveni mmarTvelobis
qveS myofi provinciis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis, amdenad misi
xalxis mdgomareoba TqvenTvis ufro cnobilia. dagegmili
gankargulebis ufro ukeT axsnisaTvis saWirod vTvli mok-
led Camovayalibo oseTis mdgomareoba saerTod da gansakuT-
rebiT misi im nawilisa, romelic qarTls esazRvreba... `sam-
xreT oseTis~ soflebSi saxlebi mimobneulia da patara baRe-

134
biTaa garSemokruli, xolo zemo oseTSi — TiTqmis Citis bu-
deebiviT, kldeebze da mTebzea mikruli... Crdiloeli osebi
adre xarks yabardoelebs uxdidnen, magram axla roca yabar-
doeli didgvarovnebis yubans iqiT gaqcevis Semdeg, osebi
xarkisgan ganTavisufldnen, isini sruliad damoukideblebi
gaxdnen...~ [6, 3].
Tavdapirvelad qarTvelTa da osTa saukuneobrivi Ta-
nacxovreba mniSvnelovnad 1918-1920 wlebSi Seilaxa, maSin ro-
desac saqarTvelom Seqmnili saerTaSoriso viTarebidan ga-
momdinare, 1918 wlis 26 maiss, damoukidebloba gamoacxada,
risTvisac qarTveli patriotebi didi xnis ganmavlobaSi emza-
debodnen, vinaidan qarTveli xalxisaTvis miuRebeli iyo ru-
seTis carizmis koloniuri reJimi. swored, saqarTvelos da-
moukidebloba gaxda is realuri mizezi, raTa mesame Zala- ru-
seTi aqtiurad CarTuliyo konfliqtis gaRvivebaSi. samwuxa-
rod, ruseTi kvlavac ar Ralatobs sakuTar tradiciebs da
dResac uxeSad ereva damoukidebeli saqarTvelos Sinaur saq-
meebSi. ufro metic, qarTul-osuri konfliqtis sababiT, uka-
nonod aqvs dapyrobili saqarTvelos istoriuli teritorie-
bi. 1921 wels damoukidebeli saqarTvelos okupaciis Semdeg,
72 wlis ganmavlobaSi, istoria sabWouri tendenciurobiT
iwereboda. qveynis damoukideblobis aRdgenis mizniT, ucxo-
eTSi iZulebiT gaxiznuli saqarTvelos demokratiuli res-
publikis mTavroba sakuTar marTal xmas ver awvdenda mSob-
liur qveyanas, radgan ruseTma rkinis farda aRmarTa danar-
Cen msofliosTan. sakmaod didi xnis manZilze, istoria rea-
luri faqtebis uxeSi gayalbebiT iwereboda. aseTi naSromebis
avtorebs sabWoTa reJimi axalisebda da maT avtorebs sxva-
dasxva premiebiT ajildovebda, samagierod am wignebs, sadac
absoluturad aris Secvlili istoriuli realoba, ruseTi
dResac warmatebiT iyenebs. sabWoTa saqarTvelos mosaxleoba
damoukideblobis dRis — 26 maisis nacvlad, saqarTvelos dap-
yrobis da gasabWoebis dRes — 25 Tebervals aRniSnavda. aseTi
iyo sabWoTa realoba. rusebi yovelmxriv ebrZodnen saR azrs,
risTvisac ar zogavdnen sakuTar politikosebs da diploma-
tebsac ki [7, 155].
Sida qarTlSi mcxovrebi osebis erT politikur-adminis-
traciul erTeulad gaerTianebis mcdelobas, jer kidev 1917
wlis Tebervlis revoluciis Semdeg mieca gasaqani. pirvelad
135
sakiTxi osebis TviTgamorkvevis Sesaxeb daisva 1917 wlis iv-
nisSi amierkavkasiis osTa javis yrilobaze. yrilobis mier mi-
Rebul rezoluciaSi aRniSnulia: `im olqebSi, romlebic xasi-
aTdebian Sereuli mosaxleobiT da sadac mosaxleobis raode-
nobis mixedviT SeuZlebelia erovnul-teritoriuli TviT-
mmarTvelobis Seqmna, Seiqmnas erovnul-teritoriuli TviT-
mmarTvelobebi kulturul-saganmanaTleblo mizniT. Tuki
kavkasiis xalxebi miiReben erovnul-teritoriul avtonomi-
as, maSin osebs, romlebic gaerTiandebian erT erovnul erTe-
ulad, unda mieceT Tavisufali TviTgamorkvevis ufleba~
[8, 41]. Tavdapirvelad osebi calke samazro administraciuli
erTeulis Seqmnas moiTxovdnen. swored, aseT moTxovnas aye-
nebda amierkavkasiis gansakuTrebuli komitetis Tavmjdoma-
risadmi, 1917 wlis 10 aprils, gagzavnil werilSi nikoloz zu-
rabis Ze jioevi, amierkavkasiis mTian zolSi mcxovrebi osebis
saxeliT [8, 13]. 1917 wlis 15-17 dekembers q. cxinvalSi e.w.
`samxreT oseTis~ delegatTa meore yriloba gaimarTa, ro-
melmac oseTis erovnuli sabWo airCia. yrilobis mier miRe-
bul rezoluciaSi vkiTxulobT: `...damfuZnebel krebaze na-
cionaluri sakiTxis gadawyveta saerTo rusul orientacias
daemyaros; mxardaWeril iqnas samxareo xelisufleba kavkasi-
aSi. sabWo srul kontaqtSi unda muSaobdes mezobeli erebis
demokratiebTan. yriloba gadaudeblad Tvlis skolebis, ad-
ministraciebis, sasamarTloebis, jaris nacionalizaciis sa-
kiTxis cxovrebaSi gatarebas, `samxreT-oseTis~ erT terito-
riul-administraciul erTeulad gamoyofas. nacionaluri
programis sabooloo saxiT Camoyalibeba da misi cxovrebaSi
gatareba daevalos zemoT naxseneb erovnul sabWos~ [8, 15-16].
axladSeqmnilma e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ erovnulma sabWom,
1918 wlis 4 ianvars oficialurad mimarTa saqarTvelos erov-
nul sabWos, rom ukve Seudga muSaobas da amieridan yvela sa-
kiTxze, romelic os ers exeboda miemarTaT erovnuli sabWos-
Tvis, romelic maTi cnobiT, e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ saqmeTa
umaRles xelmZRvanel centrs warmoadgenda. 1918 wlis 10
ianvars e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ erovnulma sabWom amierkavka-
siis komisariats warudgina proeqti, romelSic naCvenebi
iyo, Tu ra formiT da ra sazRvrebSi unda Camoyalibebuli-
yo e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ eroba. proeqtSi aRniSnuli iyo:
`samxreT oseTis~ xalxis naTlad da garkveviT gamoxatul ne-
136
baze dayrdnobiT, Cven vTvliT, rom amierkavkasiaSi miwis sa-
kiTxis samarTliani ganxorcieleba warmoudgenelia gansa-
kuTrebuli samazro administraciuli zewolis Camoyalibe-
bis gareSe raWis, gorisa da duSeTis mazrebis im mTiani nawi-
lebis mxridan, romlebic `samxreT oseTis~ mosaxleobiTaa
dasaxlebuli... gasagebi xdeba osebis bunebrivi swrafva, yo-
vel SemTxvevaSi im zolSi, sadac isini kompaqtur masad cxov-
roben, Seqmnan erTi administraciuli erTeuli, specialurad
maTTvis Seqmnili marTvis organoebiT. vinaidan es zoli siv-
rculad ... da mosaxleobis raodenobis mixedviT, srulad ak-
mayofilebs axali mazris Camoyalibebis aucilebel normas,
amitom yvelaze ufro mizanSewonili iqneboda osebiT dasax-
lebuli mTeli es teritoria gansakuTrebul samazro organi-
zaciad gamoyofiliyo... warmoSobis, enisa da kulturuli gan-
viTarebis mixedviT, `samxreT oseTis~ mosaxleobis am erTgva-
rovani masis, nacionaluri administraciis mqone, mxolod
erT mTian mazrad an olqad gaerTianebiTaa SesaZlebeli mSob-
liuri osuri enis gamoyenebis daweseba organizaciebsa da da-
wesebulebebSi... amierkavkasiaSi rusebis TviTmpyrobelobis
dasawyisSi, CvenTvis saintereso mTeli mTiani zoli Seadgen-
da `samxreT oseTis~ erT samxedro-administraciul olqs,
amasTan am olqis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda naris xeoba, rome-
lic SemdgomSi Tergis olqs iqna mikuTvnebuli. am debulebe-
bis logikuri daskvnaa mTa-osuri raionis damoukidebel sa-
mazro teritoriul erTeulad gamoyofis sruli aucileblo-
ba... es iqneba xelSewyoba osebis swraf da amasTan, SesaZloa,
umtkivneulo gadasvlaze patriarqalur-gvarovnuli wyobi-
dan da Cveulebrivi samarTlis ierarqiuli gadmonaSTebidan
Cveni epoqis kulturuli monapovrebis aTvisebisaken. Tu ami-
erkavkasiis demokratia dainteresebulia mTa-oseTis ekono-
miuri ganviTarebiT, is yovelmxriv unda uwyobdes xels am ra-
ionis gamoyofas gansakuTrebul samazro teritoriul erTe-
ulad. bolos, damoukidebeli samazro erTeulis aseTi war-
moqmna aadvilebs `samxreT-oseTis~ xalxisaTvis erovnuli
TviTgamorkvevis problemas... `samxreT-oseTis~ samazro ad-
ministraciuli erTeulis Camoyalibeba cxovrebiseuli auci-
leblobiTaa nakarnaxevi, radganac aseTi erTeulis arsebobis
SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia: 1) osi xalxis fsiqologiaze misa-
dagebuli administaciuli marTvis sistemis ageba, 2) osuri
137
enis Tanmimdevruli gamoyeneba yvela dawesebulebaSi, 3) myari
safuZvlis Cayra mTa-oseTis raionis kulturul-ekonomiuri
ganviTarebisaTvis, 4) nacionaluri sakiTxis gadawyvetis
mkveTrad gamartiveba `samxreT-oseTis~ sinamdvileSi. cxinva-
lis gareSe mTa oseTis mosaxleoba dakargavs bunebriv gasas-
vlels barSi da mniSvnelovanwilad waagebs kulturul-eko-
nomikuri TvalsazrisiT~ [8, 16-18].
Oosi separatistebis mTxovnebi mkacrad gaakritika saqar-
Tvelos demokratiuli respublikis miwaTmoqmedebis saminis-
trosa da glexTa centris rwmunebulma a. farnievma. gazeT
`erToba~-Si man statiac ki gamoaqveyna, sadac brali dasdo is-
torikos n. jioevs da sxva os separatistebs, romlebic saqar-
Tvelosagan gamoyofas moiTxovdnen. a. farnievi werda: `...Sar-
San amierkavkasiis warmomadgenlebis pirvel krebaze, 5 ivniss,
javaSi n. jioevma gaubedavad aRZra osebis calke gamoyofis —
damoukideblobis sakiTxi, krebam uari uTxra. maS, frTxilad,
awon dawone, nu ayvebiT upasuxismgeblo politikanebs, nu da-
iviwyebT, rom osebi erT adgilze ara xarT dasaxlebuli da
arc ise advilia calke saxelmwifos Seqmna da misi xarjebis
gaweva... erTaderT miuval simagred miaCniaT Cvens naciona-
listebs javis xeoba. Aam xeobaSi cxovroben osebi daaxloebiT:
javis sazogadoebaSi — 700 komli, rokis xeobaSi — 400 komli.
TiToeul komlze rom viangariSoT saSualod 10 suli mcxov-
rebi, sul iqnebian 16.000 suli. Tbilisis da quTaisis guberni-
ebSi ki cxovroben ara nakleb 1000.000 sulisa. maS, danarCeni
84.000 osis interesebs vis vandobT, isini vis miekedlon, Tu
ara da, vTqvaT, javis xeobam ar miuSva Tavadaznauroba. mere
TviTon imaT iq cxovreba ar undaT, ra unda Wamon? is imedi,
rom CrdiloeT kavkasiidan moizidaven yovelTvis saWiro
sursaTs, es ar gamarTldeba imitom, rom TviTon CrdiloeTis
osebi naxevrad damSeuli xalxia da garda amisa, maTi arseboba
damokidebulia iqaur mahmadianebTan ganwyobilebaze. TviT
iqauri osebi or nawilad arian gayofilni: erTi nawili mahma-
dianebis mxarezea, meore ki cecxlis alSia gaxveuli. Ggarda
amisa unda vicodeT, rom iqaur osebsa da mahmadianebs Soris
swored, miwis siviwrovis gamoa ase gamwvavebuli damokidebu-
leba da Tu iqaur osebs ise uxvad moepovebaT sursaTi, rom
TviTonac eyoT da aqaurebsac gadmougzavnon, iqve gverdze
mcxovrebi mahmadianebi ras ityvian, isinic moiTxoven Tu ara
138
sursaTs? Aan ara da vTqvaT, javis xeoba gamoeyo saqarTvelos,
mere an fuli ar undaT, an sxva rame? ra modis javis xeobaSi? —
araferi. xalxi damSeulia. erTad erTi tyea, romliTac irCe-
nen Tavs da Tu am tyeSi moWril masalas ar Camoitanen, cxin-
valSi an ufro qvemoT, saiT unda waiRon, mTebze xom ar gadai-
tanen CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi an ara da CrdiloeT kavkasias ro-
dis sWirdeboda iqauri xe-tye, da Tu am tyiTac aRar isargeb-
lebs javis xeobis mcxovrebni, maS sxva raRa gaaCniaT, an ara da
sad unda moewyos saxelmwifos mTavroba, romel qalaqSi an
sofelSi, romel yazarmebSi unda iyos moTavsebuli jari da
sxva dawesebulebani? me vfiqrob isini, vinc osebis damouki-
debeli saxelmwifos Seqmnaze ocneboben, maT an araferi gae-
gebaT qveynierebis av-kargisa an da gangeb surT Seatakon qar-
Tveli da osis demokratia erTmaneTs da daRupon is, rac moi-
pova xalxma~ [9, 4].
1918 wlis dasawyisSi osebi gamodiodnen samazro sae-
robo administraciuli erTeulis Seqmnis moTxovniT. mar-
Talia, osebi farTo avtonomiis sakiTxs maSin ar ayenebdnen,
Tumca cxinvals Tavidanve e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ administra-
ciul erTeulad moiazrebdnen. Eew. `samxreT oseTis~ adminis-
traciuli erTeuli oficialurad, mxolod, saqarTveloSi
sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Semdeg gaCnda, miuxedavad
amisa, manamdec Cveulebriv saubarsa Tu oficialur dokumen-
tebSi osebiT dasaxlebuli Sida qarTlis teritoria pirobi-
Tad e. w. `samxreT oseTad~ moixsenieboda. am termins vxvdebiT
ara marto e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ erovnuli sabWos saxelwode-
baSi, mis oficialur dokumentebSi (blanki, mimowera da a. S.),
aramed TviT saqarTvelos erovnuli sabWos mimarTvebSic,
aseve presaSic, rac TavisTavad xels uwyobda SemdgomSi am
terminis, TandaTanobiT, usamarTlod, damkvidrebas.
e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ erovnulma sabWom SeiZleba iTqvas
saqmiani, keTili urTierToba daamyara saqarTvelos erovnul
sabWosTan, romelic Tavis mxriv, miesalma kidec e. w. `samxreT
oseTis~ erovnuli sabWos Seqmnas da Tavis warmomadgenelsac
ki agzavnida osTa yrilobebze, Tumca es demokratiuli nabi-
ji SemdegSi Zvirad daujda axalgazrda saqarTvelos mTavro-
bas. e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ erovnuli sabWo axali Semadgenlo-
biT sul 6-jer iqna arCeuli [10, 37]. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSna-
via IV mowvevis erovnuli sabWos saqmianoba, romelic 1918
139
wlis dekemberSi airCia e.w. `samxreT oseTis~ delegatTa VI
yrilobam. igi Tavisi SemadgenlobiT umTavresad bolSevuku-
ri iyo. aRniSnuli sabWo ar cnobda saqarTvelos demokratiu-
li respublikis mTavrobas da moqmedebda, rogorc erTader-
Ti damoukidebeli politikuri Zalaufleba, e. w. `samxreT
oseTSi~. 1919 wlis ianvarSi, pirvelsave sesiaze, sabWom gadaw-
yvetileba miiRo, e. w. `samxreT oseTSi~ droebiTi sagangebo
sasamarTloebis SemoRebis Sesaxeb da SeimuSava saTanado pro-
eqtic. sabWom, aseve, uari Tqva, rogorc goris mazris erobis,
ise saqarTvelos damfuZnebeli krebis arCevnebSi monawileo-
baze. politikuri partiebis warmomadgenelTa monawileobiT,
sabWos prezidiumma daadgina moewvia e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ sa-
xalxo sabWo, 1919 wlis 1 maisidan 1 ivnisamde, sayovelTao,
pirdapiri, Tanabari da faruli kenWisyris safuZvelze, ro-
melsac unda ganexila `oseTis gansakuTrebul administra-
ciul olqad gamoyofa da misi marTva-gamgeobis SemuSave-
ba~ [10, 38]. e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ IV erovnulma sabWom, poli-
tikur partiaTa monawileobiT, SeimuSava avtonomiuri `sam-
xreT oseTis~ konstituciis proeqti, romelic, 1919 wlis 16
ivniss, saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis damfuZne-
beli krebis adgilobrivi mmarTvelobisa da TviTmmarTvelo-
bis komisias warudgina. dokuments ewodeboda `samxreT ose-
Tis~ kantonis konstituciis proeqti~ da Sedgeboda 5 Tavi-
sa da 47 muxlisagan. proeqtis Tanaxmad, `samxreT oseTis~
kantoni saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis avtono-
miur nawilad cxaddeboda. kantons ekrZaleboda saxelSek-
rulebo urTierTobaSi Sesuliyo ucxo saxelmwifoebTan.
kantons eniWeboda Tavisi teritoriis farglebSi tyeebis, sa-
Zovrebis, wiaRiseulisa da sxva bunebrivi simdidreebis eq-
sploataciis gansakuTrebuli ufleba [11, 99]. sagadasaxado
sistemis mxriv, kantoni uTanabrdeboda saqarTvelos demok-
ratiuli respublikis sxva TviTmmarTvel erTeulebs da maT
msgavsad unda esargebla saxelmwifos finansuri mxardaWe-
riT. konstituciis proeqtis Tanaxmad, kantonis yvela moqa-
laqes samxedro valdebuleba unda moexada kantonis terito-
riaze. proeqtSi saubari iyo aseve, kantonis xelisuflebisa
da mmarTvelobis centraluri da adgilobrivi organoebis
(saxalxo sabWo, saxalxo komisariatebi, komunebi) Seqmnis wes-
ze, kantonis moqalaqeTa uflebebze da a. S. konstituciis
140
proeqti gansazRvravda, agreTve, sasamarTlo xelisuflebis
organizacias kantonSi, maTi iurisdiqciis farglebs, Seexe-
boda sakanonmdeblo iniciativisa da referendumis sakiTxebs
[10, 51-52]. 1919 wlis oqtomberSi saqarTvelos demokratiuli
respublikis damfuZnebeli krebis adgilobrivi mmarTvelo-
bisa da TviTmmarTvelobis komisiam, aRniSnuli proeqti gada-
ugzavna damfuZnebeli krebis sakonstitucio komisias, rome-
lic im periodSi, swored, saqarTvelos teritoriaze mcxov-
reb erovnul umciresobaTa uflebebis uzrunvelyofis sa-
kiTxs ganixilavda. komisiam proeqtis naklovan mxareebze im-
sjela. kerZod, ar moiwona sakiTxebi imasTan dakavSirebiT,
rom e.w. `samxreT oseTis~ kantonis centrad proeqti Tvlida
cxinvals, aseve kantonis mier tyeebiT sargeblobis gansakuT-
rebul uflebebze, kantonis moqalaqeTa mier samxedro bega-
ris moxdaze da a. S. damfuZnebeli krebis sakonstitucio ko-
misiam Tavis erT-erT wevrs daavala presaSi saTanado argu-
mentebiT dasabuTebuli informacia gamoeqveynebina. mar-
Tlac, gazeT `erToba~-Si gamoqveynda statia, sadac ewera:
`samxreT oseTma~ warmoadgina iseTi proeqti, romelic Sors
cildeba erovnuli teritoriuli avtonomiis farglebs da
awesebs saqarTvelos teritoriis nawilze calke saxelmwi-
fos, saqarTvelos respublikasTan odnav, ufro sityvierad
dakavSirebuls, romlis pirvel muxlSic sityva — `avtonomiu-
ri~ gaugebrobiTaa Cawerili ... oseTis erovnuli sabWos mier
warmodgenili proeqti gulisxmobs daarsebas `samxreT ose-
Tis~ calke saxelmwifosi, romelic saqarTvelos respubli-
kasTan cxovrebis ramodenime dargSi iqneba sustad dakavSire-
buli~ [12].
saqarTvelos demokratiuli saxelmwifos mTavroba
erovnuli umciresobebis sakiTxis gadawyvetas saqarTvelos
erovnuli interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT axorcielebda. aR-
niSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa sakonstitucio
komisiis maSindeli Tavmjdomaris pavle sayvareliZis azri.
sakonstitucio komisiis erT-erT sxdomaze man ganacxada:
`...dRes Cveni movaleoba aris SevqmnaT mTliani, mtkice erov-
nuli organizmi da avicdinoT is mizezebi, romlis gamo sus-
tdeba da irRveva igi. amitom Cven unda ganvacxadoT: sxva ers
Cven aq veRar SevqmniT, saxelmwifoSi axal saxelmwifos veRar
davaarsebT, Cven ver davuSvebT verc kuriebs, verc avtonomi-
141
as da sazogadod sajaro uflebrivi xasiaTis organizacias...
Cven viRebT saqarTvelos da vambobT, rom igi erovnuli sa-
xelmwifoa, 95% da ufro metic aq qarTvelobaa. amitom Cven
vdgevarT erovnuli saxelmwifos niadagze da misi interese-
bis TvalsazrisiT vsinjavT erovnul umciresobaTa sakiTxs...
Cven yvelafers davuSvebT, magram ver SevqmniT sajaro-uf-
lebriv organizaciebs~ [10, 55]. aRsaniSnavia, rom sakonstitu-
cio komisiaSi osebis proeqtis garda wardgenili iyo agreT-
ve, saqarTvelos teritoriaze mcxovreb sxva erovnul umci-
resobaTa (rusebis, somxebis, musulmanebis, berZnebis, ebrae-
lebis, germanelebis da sxvaTa) proeqtebi. yvela proeqti iT-
valiswinebda kulturul, anu eqsteritoriul avtonomias,
mxolod osebis proeqti Seicavda erovnul-teritoriuli
avtonomiis moTxovnas. 1920 wlis 17 marts, saqarTvelos de-
mokratiuli respublikis damfuZnebeli krebis sakonstitu-
cio komisiam moismina TviT erovnul umciresobaTa warmomad-
genlebis azri aRniSnul proeqtebTan dakavSirebiT. maT So-
ris mosmenil iqna e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ erovnuli sabWos de-
legaciis azric, romelTac sakonstitucio komisias ganucxa-
des, rom maTi proeqti Seexeboda goris, duSeTis, raWisa da
Sorapnis mazrebSi mcxovreb osebs da TviTonve aRiares, rom
proeqts hqonda naklovanebebi da saWiroebda ramdenadme Sec-
vla-Sesworebas.
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis damfuZnebeli
krebis sakonstitucio komisiam savsebiT samarTlianad uaryo
e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ erovnuli sabWos mier warmodgenili
`samxreT oseTis~ kantonis konstituciis proeqti~, radgan
igi savsebiT ukanonod moiTxovda avtonomiur warmonaqmns
ara marto Sida qarTlis, aramed saqarTvelos sxva miwa-wyal-
zec (duSeTi, raWa, Sorapani). osTa delegaciis ukanono moT-
xovnebiT aRSfoTebuli akaki Cxenkeli aRniSnavda: `umcireso-
baTa warmomadgenlebis moxsenebebma Cemze cudi STabeWdile-
ba moaxdina. me davinaxe maTi sruli undobloba Cvendami. es
metad damafiqrebeli da saSiSi garemoebaa~ 10, 57]. sakonsti-
tucio komisiis morig sxdomaze pavle sayvareliZem ganacxa-
da: `dRes gansaxilvelad gvaqvs proeqtebi erovnul umcire-
sobaTa uflebebis Sesaxeb. miuxedavad warmodgenili proeq-
tebisa, miuxedavad imisa, rom aq bevri ram iTqva, me mainc ar
Semicvlia Cemi azri: dResac darwmunebuli var da gadaWriT
142
vambob, rom sajaro uflebebs Cven veravis ver mivcemT. ar Se-
miZlia davuSva is azri, rom Cven axali saxelmwifoebi Sev-
qmnaT saxelmwifoSi. Cven vwerT konstitucias unitaruli sa-
xelmwifosaTvis. osebs ki, magaliTad, surT dagviweron kon-
federaciuli an federaciuli saxelmwifosaTvis. CemTvis es
sruliad miuRebeli garemoebaa~ [10, 57].
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobis mi-
er oseTSi agraruli sakiTxis gadaWrasTan dakavSirebiT
erovnul-demokratiuli partiis wevri aleqsandre asaTiani
werda: `cxinvalis CrdiloeTiT, liaxvis saTaveebSi mdebare
mTian adgilas 130-mde patar-patara osuri soflebia, mcxov-
reblebis ricxvi daaxloebiT 1500 komlamde iqneba. yvelaze
didi da mniSvnelovani sofeli aris java, sadac imyofeba rai-
onis komisaris kancelaria. mTel am ubans eZaxian samTo ose-
Tis ubans. yvela aq mcxovrebi osni glexebi arian. am alagas
erTad erTi Tavadebi maCablebi arian, romelTa sakuTrebas
Seadgenda mTeli es alagi, daaxloebiT 70 000 desetina. Zve-
lad maCablebi Ciodnen, rom viTom osebi maTi ymebi yofiliy-
vnen, magram osebi magarni gamodgnen TavianTi uflebebis dac-
vaSi. amoirCies kacebi, romlebic dauRalavad da medgrad
hkrefdnen sabuTebs da yvela dawesebulebaSi amtkicebdnen
Tavis uflebebs. TviT peterburgis senatic ki ar darCaT maT
mouvleli. amasTan erTad mTavrobam kargad icoda, rom im mi-
uval adgilebSi, sadac es osebi cxovrobdnen, Znelia carieli
ZaliT amisTana kerpi xalxis damorCileba da amitom daadgina:
osebi cnobil iyvnen Tavisufal glexebad, maCablebs mieces
saSviliSvilod pensia 5 000 maneTi weliwadSi. im pirobiT, rom
maT mospon yovelive Tavisi saCivrebi osebis ymebad cnobis
Sesaxeb. maCablebs ara aqvT ufleba ahyaron osebi am adgile-
bidan, osebi ki valdebulni arian gadauxadon maCablebs yo-
velwliurad meaTedi yoveli mosavlisa. es meaTedi maT unda
Caabaron adgilobriv da ar arian valdebulni miutanon Tavad
maCablebs maT saxlSi. am ukanasknel muxls hqonda Zalian di-
di mniSvneloba. im mTiani adgilebidan Tavadebs ar SeeZloT,
ugzoobis gamo, CamoetanaT Rala sofel TamaraSenSi, sadac
TviTon maCablebi cxovrobdnen. amitom umetes SemTxvevaSi
urigdebodnen osebs fuliT, isic Zalian patara fasebSi. ase
magaliTad, sofeli javisTavi ixdida 97 maneTs weliwadSi.
bevrjer sruliad verafer Ralas ver iRebdnen Tavadebi... da
143
ai exla swored es (samaCablos —l.s.) miwebi ianvris 24-s (1919
w) kanoniT gamocxadebulia maTze mosaxle osebis srul sa-
kuTrebad da sruliad usasyidlod. es miwebi CamorTmeulia
Tavad maCablebisagan demianovis, Jirnovis da sxva memamule-
Tagan, romelnic ukve meaTeds ki ara, erT groSsac ki ver mos-
Txoven mSromel osebs maTi naSromidan. am miwebidan erTi
mtkaveli miwac ar etovebaT am memamuleebs, glex osebs ki mie-
cemaT am miwebze aqtebi, rogorc maT sakuTar miwebze. mere vin
Seadgina es kanoni? —social-demokratma ministrma xomerikma;
vin daamtkica?-saqarTvelos parlamentma, sadac umravleso-
ba social-demokratebi arian. es kargad unda daixsomon sama-
Cablos osebma... ~ [13, 3]. qvemoT davinaxavT, rogor `daafases~
osebma saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobis
es loialuri politika, romelTac manamde peterburgeli bo-
bolebis-demianovis da Jirnovis (maT maCablebisagan Seisyi-
des qarTuli mamulebi-l.s.) mier daqiravebuli mouravebi-
pavlovski da svetnakovi, aseve pristavi areneci, maTraxebiT,
saqonlis warTmeviT da sikvdilis SiSiT aiZulebdnen osebs
gadasaxadebis gadaxdas [13, 4].
miuxedavad saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis
mTavrobis mxridan aseTi daTmobisa, osebi kidev ufro mets
moiTxovdnen da kvlav agrZelebdnen brZolas. osebis mier sa-
qarTvelos kuTvnil miwa-wyalze avtonomiuri erTeulis
moTxovna SeiaraRebuli ajanyebis fonze mimdinareobda. cxin-
valisa da javis raionebSi mcxovrebi osebi iaraRiT xelSi ga-
movidnen damoukidebeli saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg. ajanyeba
daiwyo 1918 wlis 14 marts sofel eredvSi [14, 109]. 18 marts
ajanyebulebma daba cxinvali aiRes da iq sabWoTa xelisufle-
ba gamoacxades. maTs mizans Seadgenda sabWoTa xelisufle-
bis damyareba, ararsebuli `samxreT oseTis~ gamoyofa sa-
qarTvelodan da sabWoTa ruseTTan SeerTeba. osTa 1918
wlis martis ajanyeba qarTulma saxalxo gvardiam Caaqro.
mdgomareoba metad daZabuli iyo. 1918 wlis 30 ivliss, javaSi
osi bolSevikebis pirveli organizaciuli kreba gaimarTa l.
sanakoevis TavmjdomareobiT. krebam airCia rkp(b) `samxreT
oseTis~ organizaciuli biuro l. sanakoevis (Tavmjdomare), s.
gagloevis (mdivani) da a. plievis SemadgenlobiT. 1919 wlis 18
ivniss, javaSi Seikriba e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ partiuli orga-
nizaciebis pirveli aralegaluri konferencia, romelmac
144
airCia saolqo komiteti vl. sanakoevis (Tavmjdomare), s. gag-
loevis (moadgile), a. jatievis (mdivani), p. plievis da al. aba-
evis SemadgenlobiT. saolqo komitetma rkp(b) samxareo komi-
tetis direqtivis safuZvelze miiRo gadawyvetileba `sam-
xreT oseTis~ SeiaraRebuli ajanyebis mowyobis Sesaxeb. ajan-
yeba daiwyo 1919 wlis 23 oqtombers, rokis raionSi da male
gavrcelda atenis, mejvrisxevis, oqonisa da sxva raionebze.
osebi iaraRiT xelSi gamovidnen saqarTvelos demokratiuli
respublikis winaaRmdeg. ajanyebulebi gaTavisuflebul sof-
lebSi acxadebdnen sabWoTa xelisuflebas da qmnidnen glexTa
deputatebis sabWoebs. 1919 wlis ajanyeba CaxSobili iqna. 1920
wlis gazafxulze kvlav ifeTqa osebis ajanyebam, romelic
erovnuli TviTgamorkvevisa da sabWoTa xelisuflebisaTvis
brZolis moTxovniT daiwyo. ajanyebas xelmZRvanelobda
rkp(b) kavkasiis samxareo komiteti, Seiqmna e. w. `samxreT ose-
Tis~ revoluciuri komiteti (revkomi) s. gagloevis, a. jatie-
visa da l. sanakoevis SemadgenlobiT. 1920 wlis 6 maiss sofel
rokSi gaimarTa samxedro-revoluciuri sabWosa da adgilob-
riv pasuxismgebel muSakTa sxdoma, romelmac miiRo gadawyve-
tileba daemyarebina sabWoTa xelisufleba, SeerTebodnen
sabWoTa ruseTs da ecnobebinaT es, rogorc moskovisaTvis,
aseve saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobisaT-
vis. sxdomas eswrebodnen: n. gadievi, a. jatievi, gaioz devda-
riani, gramiton mowoneliZe, cicka abaevi, vasCe jatievi, ima-
il gabaraevi, Tebrol sarbievi da sxvebi. 1920 wlis 8 maiss,
sofel rokSi osebma sabWoTa xelisufleba gamoacxades,
xolo sabWoTa oseTi rsfsr Semadgenel nawilad aRiares.
ajanyebulTa dasaxmareblad CrdiloeT oseTidan dasaxmareb-
lad gadmovidnen is razmebi, romlebic iq Sida qarTlSi, ose-
bis 1919 wlis ajanyebis damarcxebis Semdeg gadavidnen. saqar-
Tvelos demokratiuli respublikis SeiaraRebulma Zalebma,
romlis saTaveSi valiko juReli iyo aRkveTa osebis gamos-
vlebi. os ajanyebulebTan pirveli Setakeba moxda 1920 wlis
15 maiss sofel koSkTan. amasTan dakavSirebiT, e. w. `samxreT
oseTis~ revkom-is wevri a. jatievi Tavissave uwyebas acnobeb-
da: `sofel koSkis maxloblad menSevikebis sami razmi daesxa
Cvens saguSago posts... saqarTvelos mTavroba amiT xelyofs
ruseTis nawils. gTxovT, acnoboT es ambavi xelisuflebas,
rom dReidan Cven saomar mdgomareobaSi varT~ [10, 69]. ruse-
145
Tis uxeSi Careva saqarTvelos saSinao saqmeebSi TvalnaTliv
gamoikveTa 1920 wlis 17 maisis notiT, romelic rsfsr sagareo
saqmeTa saxalxo komisarma CiCerinma gamougzavna saqarTvelos
demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobas. notis Sinaarsi aseTi
iyo: `...Cven SeSfoTebiT gavigeT, rom `samxreT oseTSi~, sadac
gamocxadebulia sabWoTa respublika, aseTi xelisuflebis
mospobisaTvis gagzavnilia qveiTi jarebi. Tu es sworia, Cven
mtkiced moviTxovT gaiwvioT Tqveni jarebi oseTidan, vinaidan
migvaCnia, rom oseTs iseTi xelisufleba unda hyavdes, rogo-
ric surs. saqarTvelos Careva oseTis saqmeebSi iqneboda sru-
liad gaumarTlebeli Careva ucxo saqmeebSi~ [10, 69].
maSin rodesac saqarTvelos kanonier mTavrobas, imje-
rad pirveli demokratiuli respublikis xelmZRvanelobas,
gareSe, mesame Zalad wodebuli rsfsr-s mTavroba ase uyeneb-
da sakiTxs, vfiqrobT komentari zedmetia. moviyvanT mxolod,
saqarTvelos mTavrobis 1920 wlis 20 maisis sapasuxo notas.
misi Sinaarsi aseTia: `saqarTvelos mTavroba uaRresad Secbu-
nebulia Tqveni notis im nawiliT, romelSic laparakia saqar-
Tvelos mTavrobis ganzraxvaze iaraRis ZaliT CaaxSos `sam-
xreT oseTis~ sabWoTa respublika. Cems movaleobad mimaCnia
mivaqcio Tqveni yuradReba im garemoebas, rom saqarTvelos
farglebSi `samxreT oseTi~ ar arsebobs, aramed saqarTvelos
farglebSi arseboben osuri soflebi, romlebic mdebareoben
Tbilisis guberniis goris mazraSi, es soflebi Seadgenen sa-
qarTvelos udavo teritorias... es teritoria xelSekrule-
biT Sedis saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi da iq sxva xelisufleba,
garda saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis xelisufle-
bisa dauSvebelia~ [10, 70]. ruseTis xelisuflebis notiT waqe-
zebulma osebma 1920 wlis 7 ivniss cxinvali aiRes. meore dRes
xalxmraval mitingze wakiTxul iqna `samxreT oseTis~ revko-
mis Semdegi Sinaarsis brZaneba: `ajanyebulma glexebma `sam-
xreT oseTidan~ gandevnes saqarTvelos menSevikuri jarebi
da gamoacxades sabWoTa xelisufleba, teritoriaze onidan
duSeTamde~ [10, 70]. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis
mTavroba yovelTvis axerxebda osi separatistebis damorCi-
lebas, rac SemdgomSi, maTi kritikis sagani gaxda.
1921 wlis 25 Tebervals, sabWoTa ruseTis wiTelma armiam
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublika ZaliT daipyro, ris
gamoc saqarTvelom saxelmwifoebrioba dakarga. imave 25 Te-
146
bervals, q. vladikavkazSi, e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ partiis saol-
qo komitetma ganixila osebis TviTgamorkvevisa da iq xeli-
suflebis organizaciis sakiTxebi. saolqo komitetma maSin mi-
zanSewonilad miiCnia e. w. `samxreT oseTi~ gamoyofiliyo gan-
sakuTrebul administraciul erTeulad, avtonomiur olqad,
centriT q. cxinvalSi.
1921 wlis Teberval-martSi, saqarTvelo damoukidebel
sabWoTa socialistur respublikad gamocxadda, formalu-
rad qarTuli mTavrobiT saTaveSi. sabWoTa saqarTvelo, ro-
gorc iuridiuli statusis mqone qveyana, saerTaSoriso aspa-
rezze ruseTis centraluri komitetis kontrolis meSveobiT
gadioda. 1921 wlis 20 maiss saqarTvelos ssr revoluciuri
komitetis gankargulebiT gamoica dekreti #36, romlis Za-
liT, gauqmebulad gamocxadda saqarTvelos pirveli demok-
ratiuli respublikis samferovani erovnuli droSa da mis
nacvlad komunisturi wiTeli droSa SemoiRes [15, 1].
sabWoTa ruseTis mier saqarTvelos okupaciisa da Zal-
datanebiT gasabWoebis Semdeg, saqarTvelos teritoriaze sa-
mi avtonomiuri erTeuli Camoyalibda: afxazeTis ssr, aWaris
assr da e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ avtonomiuri olqi.
sabWoTa saokupacio reJimis pirvel wels saqarTveloSi
xelisuflebis umaRles organos revoluciuri komiteti
(revkomi) warmoadgenda, romelic jer kidev 1921 wlis 16 Te-
bervals Seiqmna da saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis
winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli [16]. igi kavkasiis biuros mier iyo
Seqmnili da ara qarTveli xalxis mier arCeuli. 1921 wlis 8
marts saqarTvelos socialisturi sabWoTa respublikis re-
voluciuri komitetis mier gamoica brZaneba #9, saxalxo ko-
misarTa sabWos droebiTi Semadgenlobis Sesaxeb, romelsac
xels awerdnen saqarTvelos ssr revoluciuri komitetis
Tavmjdomare filipe maxaraZe da revoluciuri komitetis
mdivani S. gabriCiZe. masSi naTqvami iyo: `saqarTvelos socia-
listuri sabWoTa respublikis revoluciuri komitetis 1921
wlis 6 martis dadgenilebiT, damtkicebulia saqarTvelos
respublikis saxalxo komisarTa sabWos droebiTi Semadgen-
loba: 1) saxalxo komisarTa sabWos Tavmjdomare da miwaTmoq-
medebis saxalxo komisari-filipe maxaraZe (igi saqarTveloSi
1921 wlis 6 marts dabrunda, manamade saqarTvelos revkomis

147
Tavmjdomaris movaleobas mamia oraxelaSvili asrulebda —
l.s.) 2) saxalxo komisarTa sabWos Tavmjdomaris moadgile da
sagareo saqmeTa saxalxo komisari mamia oraxelaSvili (igi
Tavdapirvelad aseve ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatsac xel-
mZRvanelobda- l. s.) 3) samxedro-sazRvao saqmeTa da sagareo
vaWrobis (droebiTi) saxalxo komisari—Salva eliava. 4) Sina-
gan saqmeTa saxalxo komisari—besarion kvirkvelia. 5) Sromis
da socialuri uzrunvelyofis saxalxo komisari-lado dum-
baZe. 6) muSaTa da glexTa inspeqciis (saxelmwifo kontrolis)
saxalxo komisari- giorgi elisabedaSvili. 7) iusticiis da
finansTa saxalxo komisari-amaiak nazaretiani. 8) janmrTelo-
bis saxalxo komisari— kuCaiZe (mis moadgiled eqimi kikaleiS-
vili) 9) ganaTlebis saxalxo komisari-al. svaniZe (misi aq ar-
yofnis gamo, movaleobis aRsruleba evaleba amxanag oraxe-
laSvils). 10) saxalxo meurneobis sabWos Tavmjdomaris mova-
leobis droebiTi aRmsrulebeli-ad. duntau~ [17, 2].
saqarTvelos ZaliT gasabWoebis da sabWoTa xelisufle-
bis damyarebis pirvel dReebSi sabWoTa mTavroba saerTod ar
iyenebda termins- `samxreT oseTi~, rasac adasturebs 1921
wlis 9 agvistos Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisariatis dadge-
nileba, sadac naxsenebia, mxolod goris mazris cxinvalis
raioni. dadgenilebaSi vkiTxulobT: `ocdaxuTi soflis rev-
komis warmomadgenelTa yrilobis Suamdgomlobis Tanaxmad,
Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisariatma, miiRo ra mxedvelobaSi
sabWoTa xelisuflebis marTva-gamgeobis da adgilobrivi mo-
saxleobis interesebi, daadgina: goris mazris cxinvalis ra-
ionSi dawesdes xuTi saTemo revkomi Semdeg qvemoT dasaxele-
bul soflebSi: a) qvemo aCabeTSi, b) zemo aCabeTSi, g) dicSi, d)
ZarwemSi, e) vanaTSi. qvemo aCabeTis Tems Seadgens soflebi:
dgvrisi, TamaraSeni, zemo aCabeTi, qurTa, kexvi, kverneTi da
monasteri. zemo niqozis Tems: qvemo niqozi, zemo xviTi, dva-
ni, avnevi da nuli. dicis Tems Seadgens soflebi: kodi, arbo,
eredvi, bJoleTi, tirZnisi, meRvrekisi da ergneTi. Zarwemis
Tems-soflebi: qemerti, xeiTi, sveri. vanaTis Tems-soflebi:
sacxeneTi, beloTi da awris xevi. am dadgenilebis asli gaeg-
zavnos goris mazris revkoms da agreTve, respublikis mTavar
miliciis sammarTvelos saTanado gankargulebis mosaxdenad~
[18, 14]. dadgenilebas xels awerdnen Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo

148
komisari besarion kvirkvelia da administraciul erTeulTa
ganyofilebis gamge gr. gvelesiani.
Tavis mxriv, e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ revkomma saqarTve-
los centraluri partiuli da sabWoTa organoebis winaSe, sa-
kuTari iniciativiT, oficialurad daayena sakiTxi e. w. `sam-
xreT oseTis~ TviTgamorkvevis Sesaxeb. 1921 wlis 6-8 seqtem-
bers, e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ revoluciuri komitetisa da par-
tiuli komitetis gaerTianebuli sxdoma gaimarTa, romelmac
`samxreT oseTis~ TviTgamorkvevisa da politikuri mowyobis
sakiTxi ganixila. sxdomam daadgina saqarTvelos teritoria-
ze e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ socialisturi sabWoTa respubli-
ka Seqmniliyo, romlis centri cxinvali iqneboda. e. w. `sam-
xreT oseTis~ socialisturi sabWoTa respublika nebayoflo-
biT federaciul kavSirSi unda Sesuliyo saqarTvelos sabWo-
Ta socialistur respublikasTan. aRniSnuli moTxovna arare-
aluri iyo, radgan aseTi respublika maSin Crdilo kavkasiaSi
mdebare Crdilo oseTSic ar Seqmnila, sadac imJamad arc cal-
ke avtonomiuri respublika da arc calke olqi ar arsebobda.
e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ revkomisa da partkomis gadawyvetile-
biT, 6-8 seqtembris dadgenilebas Tan daurTes `mokle ganmar-
tebiTi baraTi~, romliTac cdilobdnen daesabuTebinaT e. w.
`samxreT oseTis~ sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis Seqmnis
aucilebloba. sxdomam daamtkica, agreTve, `samxreT oseTis~
sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis konstituciis proeqti~
da `samxreT oseTis~ socialisturi sabWoTa respublikis saz-
Rvrebis proeqti~, romelSic saTiTaod iyo CamoTvlili is
soflebi, romlebic osebis azriT, e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ res-
publikaSi unda gaerTianebuliyvnen. maT Soris iyo bevri qar-
Tuli sofeli goris, duSeTis, raWis da Sorapnis mazrebidan.
e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis
konstituciis proeqti~ sul 15 muxlisagan Sedgeboda, sadac
CamoTvlili iyo saxalxo komisariatebi, romlebic respubli-
kaSi unda Seqmniliyo, aseve gansazRvruli iyo maTi kompeten-
ciis sferoebi; zogi maTgani saqarTvelos ssr saTanado sa-
xalxo komisariatebs eqvemdebareboda, zogic damoukidebeli
rCeboda. e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ sabWoTa socialisturi res-
publikis Seqmnis sakiTxi unda gadaewyvita saqarTvelos kom-
partiis centralur komitets, saqarTvelos ssr revoluci-

149
ur komitetsa da rkp (b) centraluri komitetis kavbiuros,
romlis sityva gadamwyveti iyo.
1921 wlis seqtemberSi, Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisari-
atis mier, Seiqmna specialuri komisia, romelsac cxinvalis
regionSi adgilze unda Seeswavla viTareba, Tu ramdenad Se-
saZlebeli iyo avtonomiuri olqis Seqmna aRniSnul terito-
riaze. komisias uSualod saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saxal-
xo komisari besarion melqisedekis Ze kvirkvelia (1885-1937
ww.) xelmZRvanelobda. mas umaRlesi ganaTleba hqonda miRebu-
li peterburgis universitetSi da profesiiT iuristi iyo.
moxsenebiTi baraTi daiwera im periodSi, rodesac e. w. `sam-
xreT oseTis~ revkomi da partkomi e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ sab-
WoTa socialisturi respublikis Seqmnis sakiTxs ayenebdnen.
aRsaniSnavia, rom besarion kvirkveliam, Tavis moxsenebiT ba-
raTSi, uaryofiTi pozicia daikava e. w. `samxreT oseTis~, ro-
gorc calke avtonomiuri erTeulis Seqmnis sakiTxSi. saqar-
Tvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisarma, sakiTxis siRrmise-
uli Seswavlis Semdeg, SeuZleblad miiCnia araTu e. w. `sam-
xreT oseTis~ ss respublikis, an avtonomiuri respublikis,
aramed avtonomiuri olqis Seqmnac ki.
1921 wlis 27 seqtembers, saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa
saxalxo komisariatma, besarion kvirkvelias davalebiT, mox-
senebiTi baraTi- e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ calke administraci-
ul erTeulad gamoyofis Sesaxeb, gansaxilvelad saqarTve-
los sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis revoluciuri komi-
tetis saqmeTa mmarTvels gaugzavna, TxovniT, raTa igi revko-
mis sxdomaze gansaxilvelad gaetanaT, sadac besarion kvir-
kvelias daskvna uaryofili iqna, piradad is CamoaqveiTes sam-
xedro-sazRvao komisris Tanamdebobaze, raTa Camoecilebi-
naT am procesebisagan. erT-erTi saarqivo dokumentis Tanax-
mad, igi 1922 wels saqarTvelodanac gaasaxles [19, 305], xolo
mogvianebiT 1937 wlis represiebis dros b. kvirkvelia dax-
vrites. saqme imaSi iyo, rom man waradgina savsebiT obieqturi
daskvna, rac bunebrivia, xels ar aZlevda maSindel xelisuf-
lebas. moxsenebaSi, romelSic detalurad aris aRwerili sa-
qarTveloSi osebis gansaxlebis areali, Tavidanve garkvevi-
Taa xazgasmuli: `samxreT oseTis~ calke administraciul er-
Teulad gamoyofa samazro erTeulis uflebebiT geografiu-
li da ekonomikuri mosazrebebiT, sakiTxis detalurad Ses-
150
wavlis Semdeg, Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisariats SeuZleb-
lad miaCnia. `samxreT oseTi~, rogorc mTliani geografiuli
erTeuli ar arsebobs. aris mxolod osebiT dasaxlebuli
calke raionebi, romelTac urTierTSoris araviTari damoki-
debuleba ara aqvT- arc geografiulad da arc ekonomikurad.
TiToeuli am raionTagani warmoadgens ganuyofel organul
nawils sxva da sxva geografiul da sameurneo provinciebisa.
es raionebi erTi meorisagan daSorebulni arian gadauvali
xeobiT da amasTanave TiToeul maTgans aqvs sruliad Tavisu-
fali gamosavali mxolod barSi. igini erTi meores mowyve-
tilni arian wlis ganmavlobaSi ramdenime TviT da TviToeuli
maTgani ekonomikurad damokidebulia im velTan, romelTanac
dakavSirebulia geografiulad. saqarTveloSi osebi mosax-
leoben Semdeg raionebSi: 1) goris mazraSi-didi liaxvis xeo-
baSi sofel kexvamdis, xolo am soflidan dawyebuli samxre-
TiT marto qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli soflebia, sadac ose-
bis ricxvi mcxovrebTa 15%-s ar aRemateba. 2) patara liaxvis
xeobaSi, sofel vanaTamdis, vanaTs zeviTac CrdiloeTiT mde-
bareobs ramdenime qarTuli sofeli: beloTi, ori xowura,
sacxene, awrisxevi da sxva. 3) mdinare frones saTaveze yorni-
sis da wunaris raionebSi, sadac osTa mosaxleoba mcxovrebTa
88%-s ar aRemateba. 4) duSeTis mazraSi- mdinare aragvis da
qsnis saTaveze. 5) raWis mazraSi mdinare jejoris saTaveze.
TiToeul am raions erTimeorisagan hyofs gardauvali mTebi
da maTi dakavSireba geografiul-topografiuli mizezebiT
SeuZlebelia: 1) daviwyoT raWis mazridan. am mazraSi osebi mo-
saxleoben Casavlis raionebSi, romelic Tavisi aRmosavleTis
sazRvriT ekvris goris mazras. am adgilSi, goris mazra raWis
mazridan gayofilia gardauvali mTebiT, romelTa simaRle
aRwevs 9000 futamde (1 futi udris 30,48 santimetrs- l.s.),
yvelaze dabali maTgan am adgilSi simaRliT 6440 futia. maSa-
sadame, misi dakavSireba geografiulad goris mazris osobas-
Tan SeuZlebelia, radgan erTimeores mTeli zamTris ganmav-
lobaSi sruliad mowyvetilni arian da kavSiri maT Soris Se-
uZlebelia. ekonomikurad Casavlis raions saerTo araferi
aqvs goris mazris osobasTan erTis mxriv, imave geografiuli
pirobebis gamo da meores mxriv, ekonomikuri da administra-
ciuli centri mTeli raWis mazrisa oni, imdenad axloa maTgan
(sul 10-7 versia), rom sxva centrTan ekonomikuri kavSiris
151
daWera am raionis mcxovrebTaTvis sasurvelic ar iqneba. am-
gvarad, Casavlis raionis miwebeba goris mazris osobasTan iq-
neba sruliad xelovnuri, bunebis da ekonomikuri urTierTo-
bis sawinaaRmdego kavSiri. 2) amave mosazrebiT SeuZlebelia
davukavSiroT goris mazris oseTs duSeTis mazrisa. am raions
yofs Tovliani mTebi, romelTa simaRle 11 333 futamde adis
da arsad 7 5000 futze dabla ar aris da es mTebi wlis ganmav-
lobaSi 7-8 Tve sruliad gadauvalia. amave bunebriv-geogra-
fiuli mizezebis gamo, araviTari sameurneo kavSiri am or rai-
ons Soris ar arsebobs. kobis raioni, e. i. duSeTis mazris ze-
moTaRniSnuli Crdilo-dasavleTis seqtori, sadac osebis mo-
saxleoba 60%-s ar aRemateba, dakavSirebulia ekonomikurad
duSeTTan samxedro gziT, romelic 30-40 versiT daSorebu-
lia am raions. goris mazris osobasTan kavSirisaTvis kobis
raionis osoba iZulebuli iqneba iaros weliwadSi rva Tve ma-
inc duSeTze-mcxeTaze-gorze-cxinvalze da Semdeg oseTSi,
risTvisac daaxloebiT 150 versis gavla dasWirdebaT. am rai-
onis erTad erTi gamosavali mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi aris
mxolod samxedro gza, romelic mas, rogorc geografiulad,
ise ekonomikurad akavSirebs mxolod duSeTTan. maSasadame, am
raionis miwebebac goris mazrasTan bunebis da ekonomikis sa-
winaaRmdego iqneba. 3) darCa goris mazris is nawilebi, sadac
osebi mosaxleoben, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT am mazraSi osebi
mosaxleoben didi da patara liaxvis da frones saTavis xeoba-
Si. upirveles yovlisa unda aRiniSnos, rom am samTave raionSi
mcxovrebTa ricxvi imdenad mcirea (sul 32.000 suli), rom ma-
Ti calke mazraT gamoyofa SeuZlebelia. am SemTxvevaSi es sa-
mi raioni ekonomikurad da topografiulad dakavSirebulic
rom iyvnen, mainc calke samazro aparatis Seqmnas samazro mas-
StabiT sameurneo muSaobis warmoebas ver SesZleben; magram
garda amisa, am sami raionis dakavSireba adgilobrivi pirobe-
bis gamo SeuZlebelia. yornis-wunaris raioni, e. i. fronis sa-
Tave, am mdinaris xeobiT dakavSirebulia qarTlis velTan da
didi liaxvis xeobisagan yofs rusTav-zarikojaxis qedi, rom-
lis simaRle 6 230—5 684 futze dabla ar aris da warmoadgens
bunebriv sazRvars mTasa da vels Soris. gzebis sruli uqon-
lobis da bunebrivi sazRvris ararsebobis gamo, rusTav-zari-
kojaxis qedi meurneobis mxriv, yornis-wunaris raions akavSi-
rebs qarTlis velTan-tirifonasTan da saerTo mas araferi
152
aqvs liaxvis xeobis osobasTan. am raionis erT-erTi gamosava-
li aris, mxolod TiRva-oqona-fca-gomi da araviTar SemTxve-
vaSi liaxvis xeobis osobasTan mas kavSiri ara aqvs. amis gamo,
yornis-wunaris raionis dakavSireba didi liaxvis seqtorTan
SeuZlebelia da ewinaaRmdegeba mis bunebriv-ekonomiur denas
velisaken, romelTanac is dakavSirebulia kargi gzebiT da
romlis ganuyrel nawils Seadgens orTografiulad da hid-
rografiulad. rac Seexeba didi da patara liaxvis xeobebs,
aqac igive geografiuli pirobebi SeuZlebels xdis am ori ra-
ionis dakavSirebas. aqac mTeli xeobis sigrZeze gadaWimulia
mTebis grexili, romelTa simaRle 11000-6000 futze dabla ar
aris da zamTris TveebSi gadauvali simaRleebi arian. amasTa-
nave TviToeul maTgans aqvs sakuTari gamosavali velisaken
da ekonomikurad dakavSirebulni arian im velTan, romliske-
nac geografiulad gasavali aqvT da romlis ekonomikurad ga-
nuyrel nawilebs warmoadgenen TiToeuli am xeobaTagani. ase-
Tia adgilobrivi topografiuli da sameurneo pirobebi, ro-
melnic SeuZleblad xdian qarTlis da raWis osuri mosaxleo-
bidan erTi mazris gamokveTas, radgan osebis mier dasaxlebu-
li raionebi moklebulni arian geografiul mTlianobas da
Seadgenen geografiulad da ekonomikurad sruliad sxvadas-
xva provinciebis nawilebs. aseTi CamonaWrebidan xelovnurad
Semdgari administraciuli erTeulis Seqmna ganuxorcieleb-
lad unda CaiTvalos topografiuli pirobebis gamo da sru-
liad ewinaaRmdegeba am raionebis sameurneo mdgomareobas. am
pirobebis gamo, Cven vfiqrobT, rom qarTlis da raWis osuri
mosaxleobis administraciuli marTva-gamgeoba unda moewyos
ise, rogorc es Seefereba TviT oseTis adgilobriv pirobebs.
zemoT naTqvamidan cxadia, rom xelovnuri gamokveTa samazro
erTeulis oseTisaTvis goris, duSeTis da raWis mazrebidan
SeuZlebelia; maSasadame, osebis mosaxleoba TviToeuli am
mazrisa unda darCes im mazraSi, romelSic aqamde iyo. amasTa-
nave, TiToeul am raionSi garda wvrili administraciuli er-
Teulisa—Temisa, unda Seiqmnas saraiono erTeuli. aseTebi iq-
mneba Casavlis-raWis mazraSi, kobisa-duSeTis mazraSi, yor-
nis-wunarisa, didi liaxvis xeobisa da patara liaxvis xeobisa-
goris mazraSi. amave dros, TviToeuli am mazris revkomSi
osur mosaxleobas eyoleba warmomadgeneli, romelic dai-
cavs osTa interesebs mTeli mazris masStabSi. am ukanasknels,
153
e. i. osuri mosaxleobis warmomadgenels samazro revkomSi
ufleba unda mieces revkomis dadgenileba, Tu igi ewinaaR-
mdegeba osuri mosaxleobis interesebs, gaasaCivros saqar-
Tvelos revkomSi, romelic sadavo sakiTxis Sesaxeb gamoitans
saboloo gadawyvetilebas. amgvarad, sakiTxis gadawyvetas
gvikarnaxebs osuri mosaxleobis geografiuli pirobebi da
maTi ekonomikuri interesebi~ [20, 121]. moxsenebiT baraTs
xels aweren Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisari besarion kvir-
kvelia da Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisariatis saqmeTa mmar-
Tveli v. xaxanaSvili. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, werili dawu-
nebuli iqna saqarTvelos revkomis mier, radgan moxsenebiT
baraTSi sakiTxis detaluri analizis safuZvelze aRniSnu-
lia, rom osebis raodenoba qarTul soflebSi imdenad mcire
iyo, maTi calke mazrad gamoyofac ki SeuZlebeli xdeboda. mi-
uxedavad uaryofisa, saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo
komisris daskvnam, mainc erTgvari gavlena moaxdina rkp (b)
centraluri komitetis kavbiuros 1921 wlis 31 oqtombris ga-
dawyvetilebaze. kavbiurom garkveulwilad kompromisuli
dadgenileba miiRo, roca e. w. `samxreT oseTs~, revoluciuri
komitetis mier moTxovnili sabWoTa socialisturi respub-
likis nacvlad, avtonomiuri olqis statusi mianiWa.
qarTvel da os mosaxleobas Soris urTierToba dRiTid-
Re iZabeboda. rogorc zemoT ukve aRvniSneT, jer kidev, sa-
qarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobis winaSe osi
mosaxleoba politikuri avtonimiis sakiTxs ayenebda, ris ga-
moc maSin saTanado rezoluciebi gamohqondaT javaSi da
cxinvalSi gamarTul osTa yrilobebze. im periodSi maT mier
Sedgenili proeqtis mixedviT, avtonomiis farglebSi unda Se-
suliyo: raWis mazris—Casavlis sazogadoeba, Sorapnis mazris
Cixis sazogadoebis 3 sofeli: TedeleTi, julabeTi da xaxeTi,
goris mazris: rokis, yemuleTis, javis, orTevis, yornisis, wu-
naris, andoreTis, beloTis da vanaTis sazogadoebebi da du-
SeTis mazris: rexulis, zemoxevis da monastris sazogadoebe-
bi. garda amisa, e. w. avtonomiis teritoriaze unda Sesuliyo,
agreTve, mTeli rigi Sereul sazogadoebaTa nawilebi, ker-
Zod, goris mazraSi-oqonis, mereTis, xelTubnis da qvemo Wa-
lis sazogadoebaTa nawilebi da duSeTis mazraSi myofi gudis
xeoba mTiuleTis sazogadoebaSi da axalgoris sazogadoebis
nawili. aRniSnuli proeqtiT, romelsac osTa delegaciebi aq-
154
tiurad icavdnen saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis
mTavrobis winaSe, teritoriul-avtonomiur erTeulSi Sedi-
oda 13 soflis sazogadoeba, 3 sofeli da mTeli rigi Sereuli
(qarTul-osuri) sazogadoebis nawilebi. maT mier maSin moT-
xovnili saqarTvelos teritoria moicavda 3000 kv. verss, xo-
lo iq mcxovrebTa ricxvi 70 000-ss udrida. proeqtis Semdge-
neli osi separatistebis mixedviT, mTel saqarTveloSi osi
mosaxleobis ricxvi, daaxloebiT, 100 000 suls udrida. maT
mxedvelobaSi hyavdaT is osebic, romlebic borjomis raion-
Si, siRnaRis, Telavis, TianeTis mazrebSi da Tbilisis mazris
manglisis raionebSi cxovrobdnen. saqarTveloSi im dros ar-
sebuli samazro erTeulebis Sedarebisas, mTeli es terito-
ria Tavisi sivrciT TiTqmis mTeli duSeTis odena mazras
(3411,84 kv. versi) udrida, xolo raWis (2476,58) da Sorapnis
mazraze (2619,35) bevrad meti iyo. avtonomiuri olqis admi-
nistraciul centrad, osuri proeqti cxinvals acxadebda. sa-
qarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobam jer kidev
1919 wlis ivlisSi daayena sakiTxi osebisaTvis farTo saero-
bo TviTmmarTvelobis miniWebis Sesaxeb, calke administra-
ciuli erTeulis-axali mazris dawesebiT. osebis kulturuli
ganviTarebisaTvis da adgilze maTi cxovrebis mowesrigebi-
saTvis farTo TviTmmarTvelobis miniWeba arasodes iwvevda
eWvs, maT Soris arc saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis
periodSi, Tumca osebi yovelTvis mets moiTxovdnen. Tavda-
pirvelad verc sabWoTa saqarTvelos pirobebSi gadawyda ose-
bis moTxovnis dakmayofileba avtonomiuri olqis sakiTxze,
radgan qarTul miwa-wyalze avtonomiis xelovnurad Sekowi-
weba qarTvelebis did guliswyromas gamoiwvevda, es kargad
icodnen komunistebma da amitom dasawyisSi amaze bevrs fiq-
robdnen. sabWoTa saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komi-
sariatis administraciul erTeulTa ganyofilebis proeq-
tiT, osebiT dasaxlebul teritoriaze sxvadasxva mazris so-
flis sazogadoebebis da soflebis SeerTebis safuZvelze un-
da daarsebuliyo sruliad axali, e. w. javis mazra, samazro
administraciuli dawesebulebiT, romlis SemadgenlobaSi
unda Sesuliyo: 1. raWis mazridan Casavlis soflis sazogado-
eba, 2. Sorapnis mazridan Cixis sazogadoebis soflebi: Tede-
leTi, julabeTi da xaxeTi. 3. goris mazridan samTo oseTis
raionis-rokis, yemuleTis da javis sazogadoebani da cxinva-
155
lis raionis-orTevis, yornisis da wunaris soflis sazogado-
ebebi [21, 15-16]. aRniSnul sazogadoebebs an calke soflebs,
axali mazridan gamoyofis Sesaxeb, Suamdgomlobis aRZvris
ufleba unda miscemodaT, xolo mosazRvre soflebis sazoga-
doebebs axal mazraSi Caricxvis ufleba. es Caricxva da gamo-
yofa unda momxdariyo erTi pirobis dacviT. kerZod, Suam-
dgomlobaTa dakmayofilebiT teritoriis mTlianoba ar unda
yofiliyo darRveuli. mazraSi Sesvla-gamosvlis ufleba wi-
naswar iyo gansazRvruli proeqtis avtorebis mier, radgan
qarTvelTa da osTa Soris mravali sadavo punqti arsebobda,
romlis gaTvaliswineba aucilebeli iyo, Tu romelime dain-
teresebuli mxare, romelime kuTxis mosaxleoba momavalSi ar
moisurvebda ama Tu im administraciul erTeulSi darCenas.
1921 wlis maisSi e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ revoluciuri komi-
tetis (arsebobda avtonomiuri olqis Seqmnamde -l.s) wevrebma
moxsenebiTi baraTi gaugzavnes saqarTvelos kompartiis cen-
tralur komitets da revoluciur komitets, romelSic gada-
Warbebulad iyo Sefasebuli 1920 wels saqarTvelos demokra-
tiuli respublikis xelmZRvanelTa mier osebis ajanyebis Cax-
Sobis faqti. masSi naTqvami iyo: `1920 wlis zafxulSi, menSeviki
damqaSebisagan ukidures uimedobamde miyvanili `samxreT ose-
Tis~ mTieli mosaxleobis uRaribesma nawilma revoluciuri
ajanyebis droSa aRmarTa. misi lozungebi iyo `gaumarjos sab-
WoTa xelisuflebas saqarTveloSi, Zirs burJuaziul-menSevi-
kuri tirania~, magram mTieli Raribebis gabeduli revoluciu-
ri gamosvla damarcxebul iqna ufro organizebuli, teqnikis
ukanaskneli sityviT, iaraRiT aRWurvili, didgvarovan-vaWar-
Ta mravalricxovani bandisagan. rigiT mexuTe ajanyeba warmo-
udgeneli sisastikiT iqna CaxSobili. ajanyebul raionSi cec-
xliTa da maxviliT mosuli mSromelTa klasobrivi mteri, asa-
kisa da sqesis ganurCevlad, anadgurebda adgilobriv mosaxle-
obas. rva sasoflo sazogadoebisagan Semdgari, 40 aTasi suli
mcxovrebiT (daaxloebiT 4 000 komli), uRaribesi mSromeli mo-
saxleobis Tavdauzogavi SromiT naloliavebi, ayvavebuli qve-
yana nangrevebad gadaiqca. jer kidev ucnobia Jordaniasa da mi-
si kompaniis dampyrobeli damqaSebis mier gancdili danakarge-
bisa da zaralis raodenoba. moyvanili ricxvebi miaxloebiTia.
cecxlisagan sruliad ganadgurda 2500-mde sacxovrebeli sax-
li da sameurneo nageboba. gamarjvebulebis mier gatacebul
156
iqna asi aTasobiT rqosani da wvrilfexa Sinauri saqoneli. na-
Tesi puri nawilobriv gaTibuli da nawilobriv ganadgurebul
iqna. cecxlisagan gadarCenili nagebobebisagan mxolod kedle-
bi iyo darCenili. Tumca revolucioneri ltolvilebis tanjva
amiT ar damTavrebula. teris olqSi ukan daxeuli ltolvile-
bi (25 000-dan 30 000-mde suli), anarqiisa da kazakebis sxvadas-
xva saxis kontrrevoluciuri gamosvlebis dros, kvlav mZime
pirobebSi Cavardnen da sruliad daucvelebi, abragebis mxri-
dan Tavdasxmebisa da Zarcvis msxverplad gadaiqcnen. sxvadas-
xva saxis Seviwrovebis gamo, ltolvilebi, dakarges ra sulis
Zliereba, sabolood Cavardnen sasowarkveTilebaSi. SimSilis,
autaneli antisanitariuli pirobebisa da damTrgunveli fsi-
qologiuri mdgomareobis Sedegad, isini saSineli epidemiis
msxverplni gaxdnen. erTi kviris manZilze (agvistos Sua ric-
xvebSi) qolerisagan 1500-ze meti ltolvili daiRupa. Znelia
imis dadgena Tu ramdeni daiRupa mTeli wlis manZilze, magram
aSkaraa, rom daixoca ara erTi aTasobiT adamiani... saqarTve-
los gasabWoebis Semdeg, roca misi mSromelebi ganTavisuf-
ldnen menSevikebis brWyalebisagan, ltolvilebi stiqiurad
daubrundnen TavianT sacxovrebel adgilebs. `samxreT oseTi-
sa~ da saqarTvelos revoluciuri komitetebis winaSe dadga
zogierTi sakiTxi, romlebic gadaudebel gadaWras moiTxov-
dnen, kerZod, ar daeSvaT oseTisa da mimdebare raionebis mSro-
melebis Setakeba. amisi saSiSroeba eWvs ar iwvevda, nawilobriv
imis gamo, rom TavdasxmebSi monawileobas Rebulobda bneli da
gauTviTcnobierebeli elementebi qarTveli glexebisa... mSie-
ri ltolvilebi, gaWirvebis gamo, dadiodnen soflebSi, iTxov-
dnen purs da im saqonlisa da inventaris dabrunebas, romleb-
sac isini qarTul soflebSi poulobdnen. mdgomareoba imiTac
mZimdeboda, rom fizikurad da sulierad gamofitul ltolvi-
lebs Tan mohqondaT tifi da Savi Wiri. revkomi yoveldRiurad
ivseboda sasowarkveTilebamde misuli, mSieri da CamoZonZili
usaxlkaroebisagan. Tu saqarTvelos revkomi da kompartiis ck
ar miiRebda saswrafo zomebs, maSin ueWvelad daiwyeboda far-
To masStabiani banditizmi. oseTis revkomis mier SemoTavaze-
buli zomebi Semdegia: 1. dauyovnebliv iqnas miwodebuli cxin-
valisaTvis sasursaTo produqtebi im xarjTaRricxvis Sesaba-
misad, romelic `samxreT oseTis~ revkomis mier miwodebul iq-
na saqarTvelos vaWrobis saxalxo komisariatisaTvis; 2. mosax-
157
leobas mieces rogorc cocxali saqoneli, aseve inventari; 3.
miRebul iqnas saswrafo zomebi epidemiebTan sabrZolvelad; 4.
gamoices Sesabamisi brZanebuleba datacebuli qonebis, gansa-
kuTrebiT pirutyvis, dasabruneblad, risTvisac Seiqmnas sru-
luflebiani komisia, romlis gankargulebaSic gaicema fuladi
saxsrebi dajildovebis da, zog SemTxvevaSi, qonebis dabrune-
bis sanacvlod; 5. aqtiuri kontrrevolucionerebis winaaR-
mdeg, romlebic danaSaulebriv agitacias awarmoeben, gamoyene-
bul iqnas represiuli zomebi; 6. gaigzavnos specialuri parti-
uli kadri oseTTan mimdebare saqarTvelos raionebSi samuSa-
od, samuSaos warmatebiT warmarTvisaTvis, amuSavdes sabeWdi
Carxi rusuli, qarTuli da osuri SriftebiT; 7. cxinvalSi
dadges rusuli kavaleriis erTi eskadra; 8. gaices gankargu-
leba, raTa moxdes brZolisaTvis uvargisi cxenebis gayvana, sa-
ZovrebiT mdidar oseTSi, saZovrebze gamosakvebad im mizniT,
rom 6 Tvis Semdeg, isini kvlav samuSaod vargisni gaxdnen; 9.
garkveuli droiT mobilizaciisagan gaTavisufldes gaZarcvu-
li raionebis gasawvevi asakis mozardebi; 10. aRdgenil iqnas yo-
fili `samxreT oseTis~ brigada... Seqmnili mdgomareobis gan-
xilvisas, `samxreT oseTis~ revkomi, imisaTvis, rom ar Cavardes
calkeuli dawesebulebebisa da Cinovnikebis boroti sabotaJis
mkvdar yulfSi, `samxreT oseTis~ aRdgenis mizniT, saWirod
Tvlis zogierTi praqtikuli RonisZiebebis gatarebas. revko-
mis azriT, aseTi RonisZiebebs warmoadgens: 1. gaZarcvuli `sam-
xreT oseTis~ aRsadgenad saWiro yvela saSualeba mTlianad ga-
daces revkoms an maT mierve Seqmnil specialur organos; 2. yve-
la aRdgeniTi samuSao warmoebuli iqnas damkvreluri wesiT; 3.
yvela sauwyebo dawesebulebas mieces brZaneba, raTa maT biu-
rokratiuli gziTa da aSkara sabotaJiT, xeli ar SeuSalon aR-
dgenis saqmes; 4. saswrafod gayvanil iqnas zogierTi saurme
gza, rogorebicaa: a) cxinvali-roki, b) cxinvali-kudaro, g)
cxinvali-beloTi, d) cxinvali-yornisi. `samxreT oseTis~ rev-
komi sruliad darwmunebulia, rom saqarTvelos revkomi da sa-
qarTvelos kompartiis ck yovelmxriv daexmarebian zemoTaR-
niSnuli amocanebis gadasaWrelad, bolos da bolos isini Se-
moqmedebiTi arsebobis realur niadagze dadgebian~ [22, 12-13].
dokumentidan naTlad Cans Tu rogor izrdeba osebis
moTxovnebi ruseTis wiTeli armiis mier saqarTvelos demok-
ratiuli respublikis dapyrobis da ZaliT gasabWoebis Sem-
158
deg. isini aSkara kontrSetevaze gadadian. osebis revoluciu-
ri komitetis moxsenebiT baraTSi, bunebrivia gadaWarbebu-
lad aris Sefasebuli saqarTvelos demokratiuli respubli-
kis mTavrobis mier miRebuli zomebi osebis ajanyebis Caqro-
bis Sesaxeb. zemoT ukve aRvniSneT, rom saqarTvelos mTavro-
bam radikalur zomebs mxolod mas Semdeg mimarTa, roca oseb-
ma savsebiT ukanonod moiTxoves saqarTvelos teritoriaze
calke respublikis Seqmna da iaraRiT xelSi gamovidnen qar-
Tuli saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg, rasac nebismieri qveynis mTav-
roba win aRudgeboda. gazviadebulia, aseve saqarTvelos Seia-
raRebuli Zalebis ise warmoCena, TiTqos qarTuli armia kbi-
lebamde iyo SeiaraRebuli, sinamdvileSi es, rom ase yofili-
yo wiTeli armia, 1921 wels, ZaliT ver daamxobda saqarTve-
los damoukidebel respublikas. saqarTvelos yovelTvis
Seswevda Zala sakuTari ZalebiT gamklaveboda yovelgvar
aseT separatistul gamosvlebs, Tu iq mesame Zala ar Caereo-
da. ase moxda saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis dro-
sac, sanam ruseTi saqarTvelos ZaliT daipyrobda. saqarTve-
los xangrZlivma istoriam ar icis arc erTi SemTxveva ara
mxolod eTnikuri konfliqtisa, aramed raime eTnikuri dapi-
rispirebisa. saqarTveloSi eTnosTa Soris dapirispireba,
mxolod, ruseTis imperiis mizanmimarTuli politikis Sede-
gad gaCnda da man Tavi mxolod XX saukuneSi iCina [23, 100].
osebisaTvis avtonomiis miniWebis sakiTxi imdenad poli-
tizebuli gaxda, rom sabWoTa saqarTvelos revoluciurma
komitetma, kontrrevoluciasTan, SpionaJTan, spekulacias-
Tan, msaxur pirTa borot moqmedebasTan da banditizmTan sab-
rZolvelad sagangebo komisiac ki Seqmna. 1921 wlis 6 oqtom-
briT daTariRebul erT-erT dokumentSi sabWoTa saqarTve-
los sagangebo komitetis Tavmjdomare centralur komitets
ugzavnis Semdegi Sinaarsis werils: `Cems mier mopovebuli mo-
nacemebis mixedviT, cxinvalis raionSi urTierTdamokidebu-
leba osur da qarTul soflebs Soris jer kidev ar aris dare-
gulirebuli. adgili aqvs nebismier provokacias. orive mxare
daZabul mdgomareobaSi imyofeba. gansakuTrebiT gaurkveve-
lia urTierTobebi qalaqis mazrasa da cxinvalis revkomebs
Soris, Sesabamisi raionebi ar aris gamijnuli. xSirad xdeba
gaurkvevlobebi imis safuZvelze, Tu vin unda marTos esa Tu
is raioni, nebismieri moqalaqis yoveli dapatimreba am ori xe-
159
lisuflebis ganxeTqilebis vaSli xdeba. igive xdeba saqarTve-
los samxedro gzaze, kobis raionSi. Setakebebis safuZveli
xSirad aris is, rom Tavdasxmebis dros, osi menSevikebi arTme-
ven qarTvelebs TiTqosda moparul Sinaur pirutyvs. am sakiT-
xSi tyuis rogorc erTi, ise meore mxare. saWiroa miRebul iq-
nas raime zomebi aseTi mdgomareobis likvidaciisaTvis. me Se-
mogTavazebdiT Seqmniliyo Sereuli komisia, Tundac ori kar-
dinaluri sakiTxis dasaregulireblad: 1) xelisuflebis gav-
lenis sferoebis gamijnva da 2) Sinauri pirutyvis warTmevas-
Tan dakavSirebuli problemebis mosagvareblad, Tu ck isur-
vebs gavakeTeb ufro dawvrilebiT moxsenebas~. werils xels
awers saqarTvelos sagangebo komisiis Tavmjdomare [24, 123].
saqarTveloSi sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis momen-
tisaTvis ori administraciuli erTeuli Temi da mazra arse-
bobda. Tavdapirvelad, garTulebebis Tavidan acilebis miz-
niT, es administraciuli dayofa ZalaSi rCeboda, mxolod zo-
gierT mazrebSi damatebiT daarsda raionuli erTeulebi sa-
raiono revkomebiT, romlis daniSnulebas warmoadgenda
Tvalyuris devneba im saTemo revkomebisaTvis, romlebic
uSualod maT farglebSi Sediodnen. imis gamo, rom zogierTi
Temi metad daSorebuli iyo samazro centrs, isini dauqvemde-
bares saraiono revkomebs, raTa ar yofiliyo moklebuli er-
Tgvar kontrolsa da xelmZRvanelobas. revkomebis adgili
momavalSi sabWoebma daikava, Tavisi aRmasrulebeli organoe-
biT. saraiono erTeulebi, SemdegSi gauqmebuli iqna Sinagan
saqmeTa saxalxo komisris dekretiT. saqarTveloSi komunis-
turi xelisuflebis damyarebisTanave, goris mazris far-
glebSi, adgilobrivi xelisuflebis organos dawesebiT, faq-
tiurad ukanonod daarsda calke administraciuli erTeuli,
e.w. `samxreT oseTis~ olqis saxiT. saqarTvelos revkomma am
organos Tavisi dadgenilebis safuZvelze mazris revkomis
uflebebi mianiWa da amasTanave saTanado movaleobebic daa-
kisra. vinaidan am ukanono erTeulis sazRvrebi ar iyo garkve-
uli, saqarTvelos revkomis dadgenilebiT sakiTxis garkveva
Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisariats kerZod, mis administra-
ciul ganyofilebas daevala. sirTules qmnida ori garemoeba:
1) sakiTxis gadawyvetisaTvis saWiro winaswari argumentebis
uqonloba, 2) e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ revkomis moqmedeba, ro-
melmac goris mazris farglebSi wminda administraciuli ga-
160
mijvnis sakiTxi gadaaqcia osTa erovnul-teritoriul prob-
lemad. revkomma sabWoTa saqarTvelos mTavrobis winaSe osi
mosaxleobisaTvis politikuri avtonomiis miniWebis Suam-
dgomloba aRZra, riTac, sruliad ukanonod, faqtiurad av-
tonomiuri oseTis Seqmnis sakiTxi daayena. amrigad, kvlav sim-
wvaviT wamoiWra is problema, romlis Sesaxeb ara erTxel ga-
moitana dadgenilebani javasa da cxinvalSi gamarTulma osTa
erovnulma yrilobebma. raki sakiTxis sirTulis gamo, mosa-
lodneli iyo, rom misi ase Tu ise gadaWra sakmaod daigvianeb-
da, saWiro gaxda komisariats saxelmZRvanelod raime droebi-
Ti savaldebulo dadgenileba mieRo, raTa am gziT mainc moes-
po is konfliqtebi, romelsac e.w. `samxreT oseTis~ revkomeb-
sa da sxva adgilobrivi xelisuflebis organoebs Soris, saz-
Rvrebis gaurkvevlobis gamo, mudmivi xasiaTi hqonda. e.w. `sam-
xreT oseTis~ revkomis daarsebis dRidan, mraval gaugebro-
bas da arasasurvel eqscesebs hqonda adgili. komisariati
xSirad Rebulobda saCivrebs, sadac Canda e. w. `samxreT ose-
Tis~ revkomis mxridan Zalauflebis aSkara gadameteba. ker-
Zod, 1) oqonisa da mejvrisxevis raionSi gaCnda ori parale-
lurad moqmedi milicia-goris mazrisa da e. w. `samxreT ose-
Tis~ revkomis miliciis saxiT, 2) e.w. `samxreT oseTis~ revkom-
ma daiqvemdebara iseTi raionebi, romlebic an sul ar Sedioda
goris mazris farglebSi (magaliTad, zemo xevis, monastris,
rexulis sazogadoebebi duSeTis mazraSi da Casavlis sasof-
lo sazogadoeba raWaSi), anda maT mier ZaliT dakavebul raio-
nebSi osi erovnebis mosaxleoba, saerTod ar cxovrobda (ro-
goricaa soflebi: satixari, Warebi, anekvi da xelCua), 3) daba
cxinvalis, qarTuli qalaqis, romelic, aseve, qarTuli sof-
lebiT iyo garSemortymuli, e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ rezidenci-
ad gamocxadeba, 4) e.w. `samxreT oseTis~ revkomis calmxrivi
gankargulebis safuZvelze, zogierT adgilSi qarTuli rev-
komebis gauqmeba, maT nacvlad ki osuri revkomebis daweseba
(magaliTad sofel nulSi, avnevSi, dvanSi da sxva), 5) oseTis
revkomis mier sakuTari xelisuflebis TviTneburad gavrce-
leba mTels cxinvalis regionze, maT Soris cxra iseT sofel-
ze, romlebic Tavisi eTnografiuli SemadgenlobiT wminda
qarTuli soflebi iyvnen. am faqtTan dakavSirebiT Sinagan
saqmeTa saxalxo komisariatis yovelkvireuli organo `moam-
be~, 1922 wlis TebervalSi werda: `yvela am ukanono moqmedeba-
161
Ta dasabami da mizani erTia — teritorialuri gafarToveba
osTa mudmivi binadrobisa. am tendenciam osebSi kai xania Tavi
iCina da nametur 1905 wlidan, rodesac maT Soris erovnuli
moZraoba gaCnda, romelic dasawyisSi sastikad gansazRvrul
saxes moklebuli iyo, xolo 1917 wlidan ukve sakmaod garkve-
ul formebSi Camoyalibda. javis da cxinvalis erovnuli yri-
lobebi am moZraobis erTi TvalsaCino asaxvaa. cda osuri an-
banis, literaturis Seqmnisa da bolos erovnuli teritoriis
mopovebisa, Tundac sxvis xarjze—es daisaxa miznad osTa in-
teligenciam da ramdenimeT kidec miaRwia am mizans. gaiCines
anbani, romelsac safuZvlad daedo rusuli an ufro swori iq-
neba vTqvaT, originaluri, Taviseburi-osuri TiTqmis arafe-
ri acxia-metad uxeSad gadmoRebuli variantia rusuli anba-
nis... rac Seexeba teritorias, osTa moZraoba am sferoSi me-
tad TvalsaCinoa. am moZraobis gacxovelebas, garda erovnu-
li motivebisa, xels uwyobda maTi metad Seviwrovebuli eko-
nomikuri mdgomareoba. Caketili mTebSi, viwrobSi, osoba kai
xania ganicdis ukidures miwis SimSils da amitomac igi eZebda
yovel marjve dros Tavis adgilebidan daZruliyo, mTebidan
barSi Camosuliyo. Cven vfiqrobT, rom osTa ajanyebebi 1919
da 1920 wlebis ufro ekonomikurs, vidre erovnuls niadagzea
aRmocenebuli. lozungi erovnulad ganwyobil osuri inte-
ligenciisa erTis mxriT, `goramdi~, meores mxriT, `mcxeTam-
di~-osTa masebisaTvis, romelnic mwir, mTian adgilebSia moq-
ceuli da maSasadame, saxnav-saTes adgilebs moklebulia, me-
tad momxiblavi iyo, rom isini amoZravebuliyvnen da aki am
moZraobam miwa-wylis gafarTovebis niadagze stiqiuri xasia-
Ti miiRo menSevikebis reJimis dros. moZraoba am mimarTule-
biT dRemde grZeldeba. konfliqtebic mravalia osTa cxovre-
bis xelmZRvanel xelisuflebasa da sxva adgilobriv xelisu-
falTa Soris~ [25, 22-24]. TiTqos es striqonebi axlaxans dai-
wera, imdenad exmianeba osebis dRevandel moqmedebas. dRes
isini kidev ufro Sors wavidnen, imave mesame Zalis-ruseTis
daxmarebiT, maT ukanonod aqvT dapyrobili ZirZveli qarTu-
li miwebi da gakvirvebuli kiTxuloben: `rogor Cven stumrebi
varT am miwaze?~, albaT saWiroa maT xSirad SevaxsenoT, rom
Tavdapirvelad isini namdvilad stumrebi iyvnen qarTul mi-
wa-wyalze, Tumca, istoriuli WeSmaritebis gayalbebiT, ukve
maspinZlebadac gvevlinebian.
162
1922 wlis 2 martis konstitucia iyo pirveli sakanon-
mdeblo aqti, romliTac oficialurad iqna aRiarebuli da
dadasturebuli saqarTvelos sabWoTa socialisturi res-
publikis SemadgenlobaSi e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ avtonomiuri
erTeulis Seqmna. amasTanave, saWiro gaxda iseTi sakanonmdeb-
lo aqtis miReba, romelic ufro vrclad gansazRvravda e. w.
`samxreT oseTis~ avtonomiuri olqis samarTlebriv mdgoma-
reobas saqarTvelos respublikis SemadgenlobaSi da deta-
lurad daamtkicebda am axali erTeulis teritoriul saz-
Rvrebs. 1922 wlis 20 aprilis dekretiT #2, e.w. `samxreT ose-
Ti~ gamocxadebuli iqna saqarTvelos ssr Semadgenel nawilad
centriT q. cxinvalSi. dekretis meore muxliT, ganisazRvra
sruliad xelovnuri avtonomiuri erTeulis teritoriuli
sazRvrebi, romlis mmarTvelobis organoebad aRiarebuli iq-
na e. w. `samxreT oseTis~ centraluri aRmasrulebeli komite-
ti da adgilobrivi sabWoebi.
Aamrigad, osebis separatistuli gamosvlebi saTaves
iRebs, jer kidev, 1905 wlidan, rodesac osurma inteligenciam
kavkasiis mefisnacvlis winaSe, osuri sajariso SenaerTebis
formirebis sakiTxi, oficialurad daayena. separatistulma
moZraobam mkveTrad gamoxatuli xasiaTi 1917 wlidan miiRo
da 1922 wlis 20 aprils e. w. `samxreT-oseTis~ avtonomiuri
olqis SeqmniT dagvirgvinda. Oosebis pretenziebi qarTuli sa-
xelmwifos mimarT, samwuxarod, dResac grZeldeba. saintere-
soa ra moxdeboda britaneTSi, birmingemSi mcxovreb indusebs,
romlebic raodenobrivad gacilebiT metni arian birmingemSi,
vidre samaCabloSi eTnikuri osebi, damoukidebloba rom mo-
eTxovaT da eTnikur umciresobaSi myof indielebs inglise-
lebi gamoeyaraT sakuTari miwa-wylidan. saWiroa saerTaSori-
so sazogadoebis meti Zalisxmeva, raTa ar moxdes ukanonobis
dakanoneba.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. gelaSvili gia, haqsthauzenis cnobebi osebis Sesaxeb, kre-


bulSi: axali da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi, 1 (5), gamomc.,
`universali~, Tbilisi, 2009.

163
2. gamyreliZe baxva, osTa migraciuli da eTnoistoriuli
procesebi kavkasiaSi, krebulSi: saqarTvelo evropa-ame-
rika, II, gamocemloba `irmisa~, Tbilisi, 1997.
3. Всеподданеиший рапорт ген.-л. Кнорринга от 26 марта 1802 г., Акты
Кавказской археографической комиссии, Т. I, Тифлис, 1866, lomi-
naZe r. vin da rodis daarqva Sida qarTlis mTianeTs `sam-
xreT oseTi~, gaz., `ganaTleba~, 1991, X.
4. Всеподданнейшее донесение ген.-лейт. Кнорринга, 1802, 15 февр.,
П. Г. Бутков, Материалы для новой истории Кавказа, сь 1722 по
1803 год, часть третья, хронологический и альфавитный указатели
составленные Л. Броссе, Санктпетербург, 1869.
5. iToniSvili vaxtang, qarTul-osur urTierTobaTa isto-
riidan, gamomc., `legia~, Tbilisi, 1995.
6. Док. №209, 1830 г. мая 24- Предписание командующего отдельным
Кавказским корпусом генерал-фельдмаршала Паскевича тифлисско-
му военному губернатору генерал-адъютанту Стрекалову о назначе-
нии военной экспедиции в Юго-Осетию для подавления восстания
крестьян, История Юго-Осетии в документах и материалах (1800-
1864 гг.), Составитель И. Н. Цховребов, Том II, Госиздат Юго-
Осетии, Сталинир-1960.
7. saraliZe lela, saqarTvelos pirveli respublika (1918-
1921 ww) da oseTis sakiTxi, krebulSi: axali da uaxlesi is-
toriis sakiTxebi, II, gamomc., `universali~, Tbilisi, 2007.
8. ToiZe levan, rogor Seiqmna samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri
olqi, gamomc., `mecniereba~, Tbilisi, 1991.
9. a. farnievi, osebi saqarTveloSi (SesaZlebelia Tu ara
osebis damoukidebloba saqarTveloSi da vin moiTxovs
mas?), gaz., `erToba~, #119, 11 ivnisi, 1918.
10. baxtaZe uSangi, samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri olqis Seqmna
da misi samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba, gamomc.: `sabWoTa sa-
qarTvelo~, Tbilisi, 1968.
11. sonRulaSvili avTandil, samxreT oseTi saqarTveloSi?!,
gamomc., `universali~, Tbilisi, 2009.
12. gazeTi erToba, #4, 1920.
13. asaTiani al., agraruli reforma oseTSi, gaz., erToba,
#32, 9 Tebervali, 1919.
14. vadaWkoria SoTa, osebis 1918 wlis ajanyebebis Tavisebu-
rebebi da osi separatistebis ganiaraRebis mcdelobis

164
asaxva qarTul politikur azrovnebaSi, krebulSi: axali
da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi, 2 (6), 2009.
15. dekreti #36 saq. ssr revoluciuri komitetisa, Jurnali
moambe, (Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisariatis yovelkvire-
uli organo), #7, 28 maisi, 1921.
16. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi (suicsa), fondi 284 (saqarTvelos mSromelTa depu-
tatebis sabWoebis centraluri aRmasrulebeli komite-
ti), aRw. 1, t. I.
17. brZaneba #9 saqarTvelos socialisturi sabWoTa revo-
luciuri komitetisa saxalxo komisarTa sabWos droebiTi
Semadgenlobis Sesaxeb, Jurnali moambe (Sinagan saqmeTa sa-
xalxo komisariatis yovelkvireuli organo), #2, 27 apri-
li, 1921.
18. dadgenileba #30, Jurnali moambe (Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo
komisariatis yovelkvireuli organo), #15, 10 seqtemberi,
1921.
19. ToiZe levan, saqarTvelos politikuri istoria (1921-1923
wlebi), Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi,
1999.
20. kvirkvelia besarion (Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisari), v.
xaxanaSvili (Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisariatis saqmeTa
mmarTveli), moxsenebiTi baraTi samxreT oseTis calke ad-
ministraciul erTeulad gamoyofis Sesaxeb (1921 w), Sina-
gan saqmeTa saministros arqivi, (yofili mlisfpa), f. 14,
aRw., 1, saq., 10, furc 121.
21. administraciul erTeulTa ganyofilebaSi, Jurnali mo-
ambe, #20, 19 noemberi, 1921.
22. Sinagan saqmeTa saministros arqivi, (yof. mlisfpa), f. 14
aRw., 1, saq., 48 furc., 12-13.
23. TofCiSvili roland, osTa saqarTveloSi gansaxlebisa da
qarTul-osuri urTierTobebis problemebi, kr., kavkasiis
eTnologiuri krebuli, XI, gamomc., `universali~, Tb.,
2009.
24. Sinagan saqmeTa saministros arqivi, (yof. mlisfpa), f. 14
aRw., 1, saq., 10 furc., 123.
25. administraciul erTeulTa ganyofilebaSi, Jurnali mo-
ambe, #27, 4 Tebervali, 1922.

165
26. Султан Хамчиев, Осетинская Аннексия на Кавказе и Закавказье
(Аннексия осетинами грузинских, кабардинских, казачьих, ингушс-
ких, чеченских земель), г. Назрань, 2006.

LLela Saralidze
Doctor of History, Ivane Javakhishvili Institute
of History and Ethnology, Senior researcher
scientist of the Department of Modern and
Contemporary History

From the History of So Called `South Osetia~ Autonomous Oblast For-


mation in 1917 – 1922

Summary

On the basis of the scientific analysis of the archive materials the his-
tory of so called `South Osetia~ formation on the ancient territory of Georgia
is shown in the work. On the basis of the historical documents it is also shown
that the separative movement of Osetians in Georgia started already in 1905
and became active in 1917. The demands of Osetians that were gradually ris-
ing and their pretensions on different stages are also shown in the work.
It is underscored that the term `South Osetia~ is completely artificial
from the historical viewpoint and thus unacceptable, because the term means
that the historical Georgian territory - `Shida Kartli~ (inner Kartli) is popu-
lated with Osetians. On the basis of the public commissariat conclusion of the
Soviet Georgia Ministry of Internal Affairs, that was kept in strict secret by
those days Communist regime, the groundlessness of so called `South Osetia~
formation is shown as well. After thorough investigation the lawyer, public
commissioner of those days internal affairs, Besarion Kvirkvelia in conclu-
sion says that it is impossible to give Osetians rite to have not only autonomy,
but even the administrative unit of okrug. In September 27, 1921 the public
commissariat of the Soviet Georgia Ministry of Internal Affairs after Besarion
Kvirkvelia’s instruction sent a memorandum report about separation of so
called `South Osetia~ as independent administrative unit to the business man-
ager of the Revolutionary Committee of the Soviet Georgia. Besarion Kvirk-
velia was asking him to put the memorandum report forward for discussion at
the meeting of the Revolutionary Committee. The report was rejected and

166
Besarion Kvirkvelia was demoted. He was appointed as the military marine
commissioner to deliver him from mentioned processes. According to one
archive document he even was deported from Georgia in 1922 and lately, in
1937, in the period of repressions, was shot. The fact that according to the
decree № 2 of the Soviet Georgia Central Executive Committee and Public
Commissars Committee signed by Filipe Makharadze and Sergo Kavtaradze
dated to April 20, 1922 the formation of so called `South Osetia~ oblast
within the boarders of the Soviet Georgia was illegal. This was an illegal de-
cision which was totally dining the interests of the native inhabitants-
Georgian population.

167
SoTa vadaWkoria
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ivane
javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologi-
is institutis axali da uaxlesi isto-
riis ganyofilebis ufrosi mecnier-
TanamSromeli

Sida qarTlis mTis osebis sagadasaxlebo


politika da qarTuli politikuri azri
(XX saukunis 20-iani wlebi)

saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi osebis mier sabWoTa ruseTis


xelisufalTa dakveTis — qarTuli saxelmwifos damxobis miz-
niT, qveynis saomar mdgomareobaSi Segnebulad Cayenebam, qar-
Tuli politikuri speqtris winaSe saxelmwifoebrivi damou-
kideblobisa da qarTveli eris fizikurad gadarCenis sakiTxi
principulad daayena. miTumetes, im etapze saqarTveloSi sa-
moqalaqo omis gaCaRebisa da misTvis permanentuli msvlelo-
bis micemis realuri saSiSroeba arsebobda. osebis mxridan
qveynisTvis Tavsmoxveul aRniSnul safrTxes Tu ramdenad
aRiqvamda maSindeli qarTuli politikuri speqtri, es kargad
Cans im periodis presis furclebze gamoqveynebuli publika-
ciebidan. am mxriv, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas g. gollendis
fsevdonimiT gamoqveynebuli statia `agraruli anarqia~ iq-
cevs. `yoveli qarTveli — vkiTxulobT werilSi — unda cdi-
lobdes saqarTvelos fizikurad dacvas. Tu samoqalaqo omSi
erTmaneTis xocva daviwyeT, maSin raRad gvinda an erovnuli
Tavisufleba, an romelime socialuri idealis ganxorciele-
ba. erTi- meoris Sinagan brZolaSi gaJletil ers, arc pirveli
esaWiroeba da arc meore... eri romlis bedi `bewvze hkidia,~
jer Tavi unda daimkvidros da ganimtkicos, xolo amis Semdeg
eqneba SemoqmedebiTi Senebis SesaZlebloba... Tu eri socia-
lur winaaRmdegobaTa gaRrmavebas gahyva, misi daRupva gar-
duvali iqneba, igi am gaRrmavebis process Tan gadahyveba.~ aR-
niSnuli amonaweris mixedviT, qarTveli eris im etapze gadar-
Cenis erT- erT ZiriTad saSualebad, qveynis SigniT arsebuli
Sidadapirispirebis aRmofxvraa miCneuli. am Tvalsazriss, ma-
Sindeli qarTuli politikuri speqtris umravlesoba izia-
rebda. amitom, gakvirvebas ar unda iwvevdes, roca damoukide-
168
beli saqarTvelos xelisuflebam separatizmisa da samoqala-
qo omis gamCaRebelTa winaaRmdeg ukompromiso brZola rom
daiwyo. am fonze qarTvel politikur moRvaweTa winaSe pir-
vel rigSi osebisdmi damokidebulebis gadaxedvis sakiTxi
principulad dasva. qveyanaSi Seqmnili urTulesi politiku-
ri situaciidan gamomdinare, isini dilemis winaSe aRmoCndnen
im TvalsazrisiT, rom im etapze jer kidev garkveuli ar qon-
daT Tu ra saSualebebiT SeiZleboda osuri wylulisgan sa-
qarTvelos sxeulis gankurneba. es urTulesi sakiTxi qarTu-
li politikuri speqtris msjelobis erT-erT ZiriTad sagans
warmoadgenda. am mimarTulebiT, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba
imanac ganapiroba, rom osebi antisaxelmwifoebriv saqmiano-
bas isev agrZelebdnen da kritikul momentSi qarTvel ers
zurgSi galesil maxvils scemdnen. am realobidan gamomdina-
re, iseTi gonivruli gadawyvetileba unda mieRoT, romelic
saqarTvelos saxelmwifos SidausafrTxoebis garantias Seuq-
mnida. am TvalsazrisiT Tuki mivudgebiT sakiTxs, nebismieri
politikuri moRvawe problemis gadawyvetisas udidesi sir-
Tulis winaSe aRmoCndeboda. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi Sida
qarTlSi soliviT SemoWrili osebis dasaxlebebis ganlageba.
aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebidan gamomdinare, erovnul-demok-
ratebis erT-erTi lideris S. qarumiZis mier erovnuli sab-
Wos 1918 wlis agvistos sxdomaze gakeTebulma gancxadebam —
`osebi sabediswero muwukia Cvens tanze da igi rogorc aseTi
aucileblad unda moviSoroT,~ socialist-revolucioneris
m.faCuaSvilis gaRizianeba gamoiwvia. misi mtkicebiT, S.qaru-
miZis mier SemoTavazebuli winadadebis ganxorcieleba, qar-
Tvelebsa da osebs Soris SuRlis gaRrmavebis safuZveli gax-
deboda. xolo i.farnievis mtkicebiT, erovnul-demokratebs
osebisaTvis saqarTvelos mTavrobis SeZuleba surda [1]. am
SemTxvevaSi m. faCuaSvili da i. farnievi aSkarad tyuodnen,
radgan osebma TavianTi praqtikuli saqmianobiTa da oficia-
luri gancxadebebiT, saqarTvelos mTavrobisa da qarTveli
erisadmi siZulvili praqtikulad daadastures. arsebuli vi-
Tareba problemisadmi obieqtur midgomas da Seqmnili sinam-
dvilis aRiarebas moiTxovda. sakiTxisadmi pragmatuli mid-
gomis TvalsazrisiT, erovnul— demokratebis mxridan osuri
mosaxleobis ganTesvis sakiTxis dRis wesrigSi dayeneba savse-
biT kanonzomierad moCans. i. farnievis gaRizianeba proble-
169
mis gadasawyvetad radikaluri formis gamoyenebis moTxovnam
ganapiroba. `Tqven — ambobda i.farnievi — marTlac gindaT wa-
vides osis eri sadRac, magram wasvla SeuZlia mas, vinc guSin
an dRes movida da ara im xalxs, romelsac qarTvelebTan er-
Tad saukuneebiT ucxovria~ [1].
rogorc vxedavT, i.farnievma zemoaRniSnuli sakiTxis
dasma mtkivneulad aRiqva, magram pasuxgaucemeli datova Sem-
degi kiTxvebi: 1)saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi eTnikuri umcireso-
bebis fonze, saqarTvelos osebi ganicdidnen Tu ara erovnu-
li niSniT devnas an raime saxiT Seviwroebas; 2)TavianTi moqme-
debidan gamomdinare, saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi osebi iZleod-
nen Tu ara qarTvelebTan Tanacxovrebis SesaZleblobas. ose-
bis damcvelTa mxridan nebsiT Tu uneblied aRniSnuli kiT-
xvebis ignorireba xdeboda. arada, masze sajarod pasuxis ga-
cema srulad warmoaCenda im ganuzomel umadurobasa da daum-
saxurebel RvarZls, rasac saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi osebi
qarTvel erTan mimarTebaSi avlendnen. es realobas warmoad-
genda da igi qarTuli politikuri azris mesveurebis mxridan
SeumCneveli ar darCenila. vinc safuZvlianad gaecnoba im pe-
riodis saparlamento sxdomebis stenografiul angariSebsa
da presis furclebze gamoqveynebul publikaciebs, darwmun-
deba, rom qarTuli saxelmwifos samsaxurSi myofi yvela po-
litikuri partiis lideri — (garda bolSevikebisa) osebTan
mimarTebaSi erT Tvalsazrisze idga. osebis yovel namoqme-
dars erovnuli saxelmwifos interesebidan gamomdinare afa-
sebdnen da xelisuflebis mxridan Sesatyvisi pragmatuli xa-
siaTis gadawyvetilebis miRebas moiTxovdnen. osebis umadu-
robisa da am sinamdvilisadmi qarTuli politikuri partie-
bis uaryofiTi damokidebulebis warmoCenis mizniT, im perio-
dis presis furclebze dabeWdili statiebidan ramdenime amo-
narids SevTavazeb mkiTxvel sazogadoebas, sadac osebis `naR-
vawis~ obieqturi Sefasebaa mocemuli. am mxriv gansakuTre-
bul interess gazeT `erTobaSi~ dabeWdili mowinave statia
`osebis gamosvlebi~ iqcevs. saqarTveloSi `mcxovrebma osebma
— vkiTxulobT werilSi — yovelive miiRes revoluciidan, ris
miRebac SeiZleboda; miwa- wyali, tye- saZovari da Tavisufle-
ba. es udidesi ganZi— romelic mogvca revoluciam. magram
mTis xalxs (osebs S.v.) ar SeuZlia mixvdes am wyalobas, rome-
lic mianiWa ganaxlebulma cxovrebam~ [2]. am fonze Tuki ganvi-
170
xilavT saqarTvelos osebis mier qarTvel erTan mimarTebaSi
gaweul `damsaxurebas~ davrwmundebiT, rom isini saqarTve-
losaTvis danamat parazitebad iynen qceulni. Cveni es gancxa-
deba miutevebel braldebad rom ar CagveTvalos, amis dama-
dastureblad gazeT `saxalxo saqmeSi~ axalgorelis fsevdo-
nimiT dabeWdili statiidan `osuri safrTxe~ Sesabamis amona-
wers movitanT da Tavad mkiTxvelma gansajos Tu ra rols as-
rulebda osebi im periodis saqarTvelos politikur cxovre-
baSi. `swored maSin — vkiTxulobT werilSi — roca gareSe saf-
rTxe aRimarTeboda, aseT kritikul momentSi Cven ar gvax-
sovs, rom saqarTvelos qveSevrdom osobas raime monawileoba
mieRos samSoblos (saqarTvelos S. v.) dacvis saqmeSi, Tund
sityvieri TanagrZnoba gamoecxadebinos qarTveli xalxisaT-
vis, raime nivTieri msxverpli gaeRos im miwawylis dasacavad,
romelzedac isini cxovroben da cxovroben gacilebiT ukeT
vinem qarTveli glexoba~ [3]. analogiuri Tvalsazrisia ga-
moTqmuli gazeT `erTobaSi~ dabeWdil mowinave werilSi `isev
osebze.~ `gvegona, rom osebi TavianT movaleobas Seignebdnen
respublikis winaSe. am ori wlis ganmavlobaSi maT erTi jaris-
kaci ar miuciaT saxelmwifosaTvis. erTi Sauri ar SeutaniaT
respublikis xazinaSi da rogorc parazitebi, cxovroben da-
narCeni moqalaqeebis xarjze~ [4]. qarTvelebTan mimarTebaSi
osebis umadurobaze werda s.abulaZe Jurnal `mxedarSi~ da-
beWdil statiaSi `osebis amoZravebaze.~ `didi siyvaruli ga-
moiCina osebisadmi saqarTvelos mSromelma xalxma, zomaze
metic, qarTvel memamuleTagan CamorTmeuli miwebi os gle-
xebs misces, im os glexebs, romelTac mcire gamonaklisis gar-
da saqarTvelos dasacavad TiTic ki ar gaunZreviaT. maTve mi-
iRes yvela is sikeTe, romelic demokratiulma wyobilebam sa-
qarTvelos xalxs mouvlina. magram osebi mainc ukmayofiloni
darCnen. ver moigo saqarTvelom maTi guli!~[5, 7].
Cvens mier zemoT motanil masalebs Tuki obieqturad ga-
avanalizebT davrwmundebiT: 1)masSi sruladaa warmoCenili
osebTan mimarTebaSi qarTuli politikuri azris mesveurTa
negatiuri damokidebuleba; 2)dasabuTebulia, rom qarTvel
politikosTa gansakuTrebuli gaRizianeba osebis mxolod pa-
razitobam ki ar ganapiroba, aramed igi osebis oTxgzis Rala-
tis faqtze iyo dafuZnebuli. saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi ra
donis boroteba unda Caedina osebs, rom ucxo tomis warmo-
171
madgenlebisadmi `sibriyvemde misuli tolerantobiT~ gan-
Tqmuli, sakuTari saxlkaris garkveuli nawilis daTmobamde
wamsvleli qarTveli eri, wonasworobidan gamosuliyo da
warsulSi osebisadmi gakeTebuli sikeTis Secdomad aRiare-
bamde misuliyo.
XX saukunis 20-ian wlebSi qarTvelebTan mimarTebaSi
osebis mxridan gamorCeuli `niWiereba,~ Znelbedobis Jams
myofi saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg mowyobili `Sida jvarosnuli~
omiT warmoCnda. am qmedebaSi saqarTvelosa da qarTveli eri-
sadmi gansakuTrebuli siZulvili iyo Cadebuli. amas maSinde-
li qarTuli politikuri azris mesveurebi SesaniSnavad xe-
davdnen da gakvirvebasac ver malavdnen. amis erT-erT dadas-
turebas gazeT `saxalxo saqmeSi~ g. lasxiSvilis mier gamoq-
veynebuli statia `bolo unda moeRos~ warmoadgens. `netavi
macodina — kiTxulobda g. lasxiSvili — ratom sZulT osebs
saqarTvelos respublika? xarjebs isini ar ixdian, saldaTad
ar midian, respublikas arafriT exmarebian da yovlisfers ki
sargebloben. auarebeli xarjebi midis maTze da gana imitom,
rom mtrulad iyvnen yovelTvis?~[6].
imave problematikas Seexo gazeT `kldeSi~ gamoqveynebu-
li i.didiZis statia `osebis gadasaxlebisaTvis.~ `saqarTve-
los siZulviliT anTebuli osi xalxi— wers avtori, — qarTu-
li haeriT sunTqavs da Cvens purs sWams. magram... saqarTvelos
yovelwliurad zurgSi maxvils scems da brZolis vels umar-
Tavs~ [7]. aqedan gamomdinare, i.didiZe saqarTvelos xelisuf-
lebas sayvedurobda, rom man `Wkua- gonebis gareSe mdgom uvi-
curad sikvdilTan moTamaSe~ osebs Sesaferisi pasuxi ver gas-
ca da osuri safrTxisagan saqarTvelos saxelmwifos samuda-
mod dazRveva ver SeZlo. aq erTi metad mniSvnelovani niuan-
sia gasaTvaliswinebeli; mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs qarTvel mefeTa
da TavadaznaurTa mxridan wina saukuneebSi CrdiloeTidan
osebis `mopatiJebiT,~ da Sida qarTlis mTian zolSi maTi da-
saxlebiT daSvebuli udidesi Secdoma. im periodis qarTuli
politikuri azris mesveurni aRniSnulis gamosworebas, damo-
ukidebeli saqarTvelos xelisuflebisgan erTi xelisdak-
vriT moiTxovdnen. magram, imave xelisuflebas dasabuTebuli
formiT ver sTavazobdnen im alternatul gzas, romlis meS-
veobiTac am problemis mogvareba gaxdeboda SesaZlebeli. mi-
uxedavad amisa, saqarTvelos mTavrobas yovel nabijze Seaxse-
172
nebdnen Sida qarTlis mTian 22 osur sofelSi mcxovrebi `ve-
luri mecxvare osebisgan~ mosalodnel garduval safrTxes.
saqarTvelos `saxelmwifoebrivma sxeulma — werda i. didiZe —
ver moiSora osuri muwuki!... am muwukidan dausrulebliv
sdis iara da alpobs qarTlis guls... osebi mudmivi safrTxea
saqarTvelosaTvis. osebi yoveli mzis Casvlisas ocneboben
saqarTvelos waxdenas~ [7].
am amonaweridan, saqarTvelos mTiani zolis osebisadmi
saocari siZulvili moCans. es arcaa gasakviri, radgan 1918-
1920 wlebSi mowyobilma osurma ajanyebebma, ekonomikuri da
politikuri TvalsazrisiT, axladSeqmnili qarTvelTa damo-
ukidebeli saxelmwifo `sikvdilis piramde~ miiyvana. Tuki
osur sakiTxs am WrilSi ganvixilavT, maSin i.didiZis zemoaR-
niSnuli Sefaseba saRad moazrovne WeSmariti qarTvelisaTvis
misaRebi aRmoCndeba. rac Seexeba osuri wylulis moSuSebis
SesaZleblobas, igive i. didiZe saqarTvelos xelisuflebas
Semdegi saxis `samkurnalo recepts~ sTavazobda: `sanam roks
da mamisons osebi floben, sanam isini Cven sazRvarTa bWeebze
mosaxleoben, manamdis respublika Tavs ver daizRvevs osuri
yovelwliuri gastrolebisagan. osebs verasodes ver mov-
TxovT saqarTvelos mimarT ara Tu erTgulebas, aramed loia-
lobasac ki... osi yovelTvis gagvyidis, osi yvela gareSe
mters udidesi sixaruliT gauRebs kars. aucilebelia saz-
Rvrebze mTavrobis gankargulebiT sruliad ayril iqnan ose-
bi da maT adgilas dasaxldes samSoblos erTguli qarTuli
elementi~ [7]. aq garkveviTaa naTqvami, CrdiloeTis mTiani
sazRvris zolidan osebis asaxlebisa da mis nacvlad samSob-
los erTguli qarTvelebis Casaxlebis Sesaxeb. amis gatarebis
aucileblobas im periodis qarTuli politikuri azris mesve-
urebi nomer pirvel amocanad miiCnevdnen. am SemTxvevaSi, isi-
ni yovelive saxis kompromiss gamoricxavdnen, radgan warsu-
lis gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, osebTan mimarTebaSi Tavs
motyuebulad Tvlidnen. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT statiaSi
`osebis amoZravebaze~ s. abulaZe garkveviT werda: `Cven gvin-
doda osebi TviTon mosuliyvnen gons, moenaniebinaT danaSau-
li. vfiqrobdiT, bneli xalxia da provokatorebma aiyolies.
amitom iyo, rom osebs advilad Cauara im samtro gamosvlebma,
romelic saqarTvelos daRupvis mizniT maT ramdenjerme mo-
axdines... isini kvlav darCnen saqarTvelos iseTive sruluf-
173
lebiani moqalaqeebi, rogoradac gvinda iTvlebodes Cveni
respublikis yoveli mcxovrebi. magram... Cven mwared movtyuv-
diT~ [8, 8]. erovnuli saxelmwifos mosalodneli safrTxis
qveS dayeneba, qarTvel politikosebs Tavis meored motyue-
bis uflebas ar aZlevda. aqedan gamomdinare, sakiTxi maT wina-
Se principulad iyo dasmuli — xalxisTvis simarTle eTqvaT
da erTxel da samudamod sajarod gamoeaSkaravebinaT Tu vin,
vin iyo.
osuri safrTxis saaSkaraoze gamotanas da TviT osTa Si-
nagani bunebis srulad warmoCenas isaxavda miznad, saqarTve-
los erovnuli sabWos 1918 wlis 23 ivlisis sxdomaze gr.veSa-
pelis mier cnobili publicistisa da sazogado moRvawis ia
ekalaZis publikaciis garkveuli monakveTis wakiTxvis faqti.
`rodesac saqarTvelos miwawyalze, qarTveli xalxis winaaR-
mdeg amxedrebs CvenSi samadlod Semosaxlebul osebs maTi in-
teligenciis erTi nawili, es aramc Tu umadurobaa, aramed di-
di usamarTlobac, romelic daiwyo oci— ocdaaTi wlis winaT.
iniciatorebad Seiqmnen jer rusis moxeleebi, cnobili vos-
torgovis meTaurobiT da mere osis naswavli axalgazrdoba,
romelic gamoizarda rusis skolebSi, rogorc ruseTis sti-
pendiantebi. vostorgovma da am axalgazrdebma mowamles sa-
qarTvelos osebis masa da es Sxami ar gadaerecxebaT gulidan
iqamde, vidre Tavisufali saqarTvelo ar alagmavs xalxis
mtrebs da ar daanaxvebs saqarTvelos osebs maT Secdomebs.
jer sad iyo revolucia, rodesac saqarTvelos osebis inte-
ligenciam mTeli gegma Seadgina ruseTis politikiTa da asi
wlis monobiT dabeCavebuli qarTveli xalxis daCagvra- dap-
yrobisa. liaxvis xeobaSi mibrZandiT, Tundac cxinvalSi, Tva-
li SeavleT im rkals, romelic Seiqmna osi mosaxleobiT, da-
ukvirdiT marto cxinvalsa da dgvrisSi axlad, Cvens dros Ca-
mosaxlebul os vaWarTa moxeleoba- moqmedebas. am xeobidan
gamosul am vaWar `burJuebis~ Svilebs, mozard Taobas, stu-
dent moswavleTa wreebs, maT kavSirebs, ganzraxvebs da Tqven
dameTanxmebiT, arc es vaJbatonebi daixeven ukan, Tuki cota
rames mainc Camoglejen yvelasagan gabriyvebul saqarTve-
los, Tu ki SeZleba miecema xeli moiTbon saqarTvelos ube-
durebaze~ [9].
rogorc vxedavT, osebis sandoobis eWvqveS dayenebis,
qarTvelebisadmi siZulvilisa da mtruli damokidebulebis,
174
qarTuli miwebis mitacebis, qarTvelTa gaubedurebisa da Ca-
wixvlis xarjze osebis miznebisa da amocanebis Sefasebis sa-
kiTxSi, qarTuli sazogadoebriv-politikuri azri identuri
iyo. isini erTxmad aRiarebdnen, rom saqarTvelos — Sida qar-
Tlis `sakinZeCamoglejil ubeSi~ Sxamiani gveli iyo dabude-
buli da es `CrdiloeTis qvewarmavali~ qarTuli saxelmwifos
yovelwliurad dagesvlis safuZvelze, saqarTvelos saxel-
mwifos waqcevas da misi teritoriuli mTlianobis darRvevas
cdilobda. aseT fonze, bunebrivia qarTuli politikuri az-
ris mesveurTa winaSe mTeli principulobiT dadga sakiTxi:
1)rogor moqceodnen Sida qarTlSi mcxovreb osebs; 2)ra meqa-
nizmiT moexdinaT axladSeqmnili damoukidebeli saqarTve-
los dasangrevad amoqmedebuli ucxo saxelmwifosgan marTva-
di osuri separatizmis SeCereba; 3) osuri baciliT daavadmyo-
febuli damoukidebeli saqarTvelos sxeulis samudamod gan-
sakurneblad da mis gadasarCenad, qveynis xelisuflebas ro-
gori saxis `samkurnalo malamo~ unda gamoeyenebina. aRniSnu-
li sakiTxebi im periodis qarTuli politikuri azris mesve-
urTa farTo msjelobis sagans warmoadgenda. presis fur-
clebze gamoqveynebuli publikaciebis avtorebi TavianT mo-
sazrebebs yovelgvari dafarvis gareSe ambobdnen. imavdrou-
lad Seqmnili urTulesi situaciidan gamosavali gzebisa da
saSualebebis Ziebas cdilobdnen. am mxriv, gansakuTrebul in-
teress gazeT `saxalxo saqmeSi~ axalgorelis fsevdonimiT ga-
moqveynebuli werili `osuri safrTxe~ iqcevs. `ra vuyoT im
xalxs — kiTxulobs avtori, — romelic sargeblobs Cvens res-
publikaSi yovelgvari priveligiebiT, ar ixdis saxelmwifo
gadasaxads, ar icavs Cvens teritorias, Cvens respublikas da
romelic mudam mzad aris garedan momdgar... mters Seuer-
Tdes, Rvaros qarTveli jariskacis... sisxli, agviwiokos sof-
lebi da qalaqebi, miitacos Cveni moqalaqis sarCo-sabadebe-
li? es kiTxva Cvens winaSe pirvelad ar ismis, magram samwuxa-
rod, dRemdis ver mogvixerxebia misi jerovnad gadaWra, ro-
gorc amas Cveni xalxis sasicocxlo interesebi, respublikis
keTildReoba da misi uSiSroebis uzrunvelyofa gvikarna-
xebs.~ qveynis winaSe mdgomi am urTulesi problemis gadauW-
relobis erT— erT ZiriTad mizezs werilis avtori damnaSave
osebis sanimuSod dausjelobaSi xedavda. aqedan gamomdinare,
igi xelisuflebis winaSe savsebiT logikurad svamda ritori-
175
kul SekiTxvas: `rodemdis unda gagrZeldes aseTi mdgomareo-
ba. damokles maxviliviT rodemdis unda gvekidos osoba? ro-
demdis unda daiRvaros qarTveli xalxis SvilTa sisxli?
mzadyofnaSi rodemdis unda viyolioT SeiaraRebuli Zalebi
gaTavxedebuli osi brboebis mosagerieblad?... erTxel da sa-
mudamod... unda SevignoT, rom mters mtrulad moveqceT.
osebs unda vagrZnobinoT, rom Tu Cvens miwa— wyalze cxovre-
ba surT, movaleobac unda ikisron samSoblos winaSe, rom Cven
maTTvis mudam Ralatis patieba ar SegviZlia.~
SekiTxvis formiT gamoTqmuli es aRSfoTeba savsebiT
kanonzomieri iyo, radgan 1918-1920 wlebis CaTvliT, saqar-
Tvelos osebis `namoRvawari,~ sabWoTa ruseTis agenturisa da
mis mier SekveTili antiqarTuli davalebebis aRsrulebisaT-
vis brZolis CarCoSi Tavsdeboda. bunebrivia, es faqtori qar-
Tuli saxelmwifos usafrTxoebis garantiis Sesaqmnelad sa-
Tanado meqanizmis gamoZebnis aucileblobas moiTxovda. aseT
saSualebad, imave statiis avtors osuri sakiTxis dauyovneb-
livi gadawyveta miaCnda. `Cven erTxel da samudamod unda mo-
viSoroT osuri safrTxe, — werda igi — Tu mSvidobiani cxov-
reba gvinda.~ es imas niSnavs, rom qarTuli politikuri azris
mesveurebi qveynis SigniT mSvidobiani cxovrebis Seqmnasa da
stabilurobas, osuri safrTxis mocilebas ukavSirebdnen. ra-
dikalizmiT Sezavebuli aseTi Tvalsazrisi wiTel zolad gas-
devda osebis sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi XX saukunis 20-iani wle-
bis presis furclebze gamoqveynebuli publikaciebis umete-
sobas. misi avtorebi erTxel kidev xazgasmiT miuTiTebdnen
saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi osebis, saqarTvelosaTvis rogorc
zedmeti tvirTis Sesaxeb. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT gazeT `sa-
xalxo saqmeSi~ dabeWdili mowinave werili `kmara!~ gamoirCe-
va. damoukidebeli saqarTvelos periodSi osebis mier qveyni-
sa da qarTveli eris sawinaaRmdegod gaweul saqmianobis ana-
lizis safuZvelze zemoaRniSnuli statiis avtori mkiTxvel
sazogadoebas erTxel kidev Seaxsenebda, rom osebis mxridan
saqarTvelo zaralis mets arafers iRebda, rom maTdami samsa-
xuri qveynis xazinas udidesi Tanxa ujdeboda. `araviTari
sargebloba maTgan da auarebeli xarjebi... maswavleblebis
jamagirs — vkiTxulobT werilSi — iReben saqarTvelos xazi-
nidan; eqimebis, ferSlebis, samkurnalo punqtebis xarji... go-
ris samazro erobas awveba kiserze. vin mosTvlis, osebis moT-
176
xovnilebaTa dakmayofileba raoden fulad ujdeba saqarTve-
los. miaqcieT yuradReba imasac, rom revoluciis yoveli Se-
naZeni farTod gamoiyenes Tavis sasargeblod saqarTvelos
wyalobiT. maTSi farTod ganxorcielda kulturuli avtono-
mia isev da isev saqarTvelos xarjiT~ [10].
aRniSnul amonawerSi motanili faqtebi imis damadastu-
rebelia, rom saqarTveloSi Semoxiznuli ucxo tomis warmo-
madgenlebi qarTvelma erma, misi istoriis umZimes periodSi-
ac ar daiviwya, SesaZleblobis farglebSi qveynis mwiri xazi-
nidan osebis kulturuli da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis miz-
niT uwyvet dafinansebas axorcielebda. amis dadasturebas
sruliad saqarTvelos maswavlebelTa II yrilobis (1921 wlis 9
ianvari) stenografiuli angariSi warmoadgens. am dokumenti-
dan irkveva, rom im etapze, saqarTveloSi 48 osuri skola ar-
sebobda. maSin rodesac Crdilo oseTSi am mimarTulebiT sab-
WoTa ruseTs nabijic ar hqonda gadadgmuli. miuxedavad ami-
sa, qarTvel erTan mimarTebaSi osebma umadurobis saocari ma-
galiTi gamoavlines. amasTan dakavSirebiT, angariSgasawevi
mosazrebaa gamoTqmuli Jurnal `mxedarSi~ dabeWdil publi-
kaciaSi `umadurni.~ misi avtori saTanado faqtebze dayrdno-
biT da qarTvelTa stumarTmoyvareobis fonze ganixilavs `sa-
qarTvelos kalTas~ TavSefarebuli osebis umadurobas. am
fonze, Tavis Sexedulebas Semdegi formiT gadmoscems: `ro-
gorc kerZo ojaxs, ise sazogadoebas da saxelmwifosac hyavs
amagis daunaxveli umaduri wevrebi. aseT xalxs fiandazadac
rom daefinoT, mTeli sacxovrebeli rom zed gadaagoT, mala-
mod rom waecxoT, ukanaskneli puris lukmac rom SesTavazoT,
maT garecxil guls ver moigebT, maTi gamgelebuli mada ganu-
zomelia... utifrobamde misulma osebma kadnierebaSi orives
(somxebsa da azerbaijanelebs S.v.) gadaaWarbes. osebi Cvens
samSoblos Tavis kalTaze hyavs gazrdili. ucxo qveynidan ta-
barukad gadmosuli osoba Cvens qveyanas Tavis gulSi dausax-
lebia, Semouxiznavs, patronoba da mzrunveloba ar mouklia,
qarTlis saukeTeso adgil-mamuli dauTmia, magram maT gaqsu-
ebul guls dRemde umadurobis meti araferi gamouCenia. sa-
qarTvelos demokratiulma respublikam osebs sakuTrebad
qarTlis saukeTeso adgilebi gadasca, sruluflebian moqa-
laqeebad gaxada, gaadamianebis gzaze daayena, kulturuli
winsvlisaTvis gza gauxsna, magram mgeli mainc tyisken iyure-
177
ba da moxerxebul dros SeurCevs xolme, rom qurdulad, ava-
zakurad daeces mSvidobian mcxovrebT, daawiokos da daarbi-
os igi~ [8, 2] .
vinc demokratiuli saqarTvelos arsebobis wlebSi
osebis mier qarTul saxelmwifosTan da mis mosaxleobasTan
mimarTebaSi Cadenil danaSaulebriv qmedebebs safuZvlianad
icnobs dameTanxmeba, rom osebis rogorc umaduri, sikeTis
verdamnaxveli, mtacebeli da sxvis gasaubedureblad mudam-
Jams iaraRSemarTuli eTnikuri warmomadgenlebis Sesaxeb ze-
moT motanili daxasiaTeba, TiTqmis srulyofil saxes ata-
rebs. roca saxelmwifos sasazRvro zolSi da mis `gulSi~ kom-
paqturad dasaxlebuli aseTi eTnikuri umciresobebi arse-
bobs, qveynis xelisuflebas maTdami damokidebulebis sakiT-
xSi Sesatyvisi politikuri kursi unda qondes SemuSavebuli.
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, nebismieri saxelmwifo mudamJams sao-
mar mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeba. swored es garemoeba qonda
mxedvelobaSi aRniSnuli statiis avtors, roca osebis misa-
marTiT werda: `qarTvelebis mxridan Sewyaleba usazRvroa,
magram dee igrZnon garewrebma, rom qarTul demokratias saT-
noeba-siyvarulisa da mzrunvelobis garda SeuZlian mrisxa-
neba da SurisZiebac. Tuki umadurni droulad gons ar mov-
len, vidre isini ar gaxdebian Rirsi demokratiuli respubli-
kis mzrunvelobisa da Sewyalebisa~ [8, 2] .
es imas niSnavda, rom qveyanaSi anarqiis Semqmneli da mo-
Zalade osebisadmi raime saxiT mzrunvelobaze, an mis Sewya-
lebaze xelisuflebas uari unda eTqva. erovnuli saxelmwi-
fos interesebidan gamomdinare, civilizebuli qveynebisaT-
vis damaxasiaTebeli kanonmdeblobiT emoqmeda da osebis na-
moqmedarisaTvis Sesatyvisi saxeli daerqmia. am pozicias
icavda gazeT `erTobaSi~ gamoqveynebuli mowinave statiac
`isev osebze.~ `im adamianebs, romelTac am ori wlis ganmavlo-
baSi— vkiTxulobT werilSi — araviTari vali ar mouxdiaT
respublikis winaSe, Cveni mSvidobiani damokidebulebis bo-
rotad gamoyeneba surT. dRes respublikam unda sTqvas —`kma-
ra!~— da mTeli Tavisi siZlieriT Seagnebinos TavaSvebul
brboebs Tu ras niSnavs respublikaSi wesrigis dacva da moqa-
laqis elementaruli movaleobis asrulebis saWiroeba. res-
publikis mTavroba valdebulia erTxel da samudamod alag-
mos qveynis moRalateebi, bolo mouRos am vandeas. is mkacri
178
zomebi, romelsac Cveni respublika iZulebuli xdeba mesamed
mimarTos ajanyebuli osebis asalagmavad, iqneba wminda Tav-
dacviTi aqti CrdiloeTidan SemoWrili mtris winaarmdeg. es
iqneba moZaladeebTan da mtarvalebTan brZola adgilobriv
mcxovrebTa dasacavad, respublikis da demokratiis gadasar-
Cenad~ [4] .
am vrceli amonaweris mixedviT Tuki vimsjelebT, saqar-
Tvelos xelisuflebis mxridan osebTan mimarTebaSi gatare-
buli nebismieri sadamsjelo RonisZieba gamarTlebuli iyo
Tundac im elementaruli mizezis gamo, rom igi CrdiloeTi-
dan SemoWrili mtrisadmi Rirseulad daxvedras, misi mxar-
damWeri osuri mosaxleobis alagmvas da qveynis usafrTxoe-
bis garantiis Seqmnas emsaxureboda. saqarTvelos garSemo,
gansakuTrebiT aRmosavleTidan (azerbaijanidan) da Crdilo-
eTidan im etapze Seqmnili realuri safrTxe, qveynis xeli-
suflebis winaSe principuli gadawyvetilebis miRebis auci-
leblobis sakiTxs ayenebda. am SemTxvevaSi ormagi standartis
kursis gatareba dauSvebeli iyo, radgan aseT politikur
kurss, qveyana savalalo mdgomareobamde SeiZleba mieyvana. es
safrTxe, maSindeli qarTuli politikuri azris mesveurebs
SesaniSnavad hqondaT gacnobierebuli.
Tu ramdenad rTul da mZime mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda am
TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelo, amis sailustraciod saqarTve-
los social- demokratiuli muSaTa partiis meore yrilobaze
(1920 wlis 13-19 ivnisi) n.Jordanias mier gakeTebuli moxsene-
ba gamodgeba. mmarTveli politikuri partiisa da sakanon-
mdeblo organos pirveli rigis amocanad, n.Jordania qveynis
damoukideblobisaTvis saZirkvelis gamagrebas da Sinauri
mtrebis dauyovnebliv daTrgunvas miiCnevda. am fonze, damo-
ukidebeli saqarTvelos Sinaur mtrebSi igi bolSevikebs, rus
social-demokratebs, rus eserebs, rus socialist-revolu-
cionerebs, daSnakcuTiunis partias da osebs asaxelebda. mi-
sive TqmiT, saqarTvelos SigniT osebi ajanyebebsa da arev-da-
revas im mizniT awyobdnen, rom saqarTvelo damoukidebeli
saxelmwifo ar yofiliyo da ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi darCe-
niliyo. `gvipirebdnen gadagdebas im aboboqrebul okeaneSi —
ambobda n.Jordania, — romelsac ruseTi winad warmoadgenda
da axlac warmoadgens. amaTTan brZola... dResac ar aris dam-
Tavrebuli. isini Tumc arian damarcxebulni... magram ar yrian
179
farxmals da brZolas ganagrZoben. miuxedavad amisa, isini
dRes ise saSiSni aRar arian, rogoric iyvnen winad, roca Cvens
damoukideblobas Ziri momagrebuli ar hqonda~ [11, 28] .
qveynis pirveli piris mier gakeTebuli aseTi saxis gan-
cxadeba, xelisuflebis mxridan osebTan mimarTebaSi loia-
luri kursis radikalizmiT Secvlis garduvalobaze mianiS-
nebda. qveynisaTvis mosalodneli qaosis im etapze acileba,
politikuri situaciis Sesatyvisi pragmatuli nabijis gadad-
gmaze iyo damokidebuli. am TvalsazrisiT Tuki ganvixilavT
im periodis presis furclebze gamoqveynebul publikaciebs,
yuradRebis centrSi gazeT `erTobaSi~ dabeWdili mowinave
werili `kmara!~ moeqceva. `kmara! saqarTvelos aRar SeuZlia
zurgs ukan gamudmebiT iyolios SeiaraRebuli moRalate. ke-
Tili sityva— vkiTxulobT werilSi — uqmi yofila maTTvis,
lmobiereba da kacTmoyvareoba aTavxedebs maT da Cveni sisus-
tis niSnaT miaCniaT. saukunod unda davukargoT Ralatis yo-
veli xalisi. amas moiTxovs marto Cveni Sinauri myudroeba ki
ara, gareSe safrTxis Tavidan acilebac rokis uReltexilis
mxridan. Cven davumtkiceT osebsac da mTel qveyanasac Cveni
lmobiereba, kacTmoyvareoba, Sebralebis da Sewyalebis una-
ri. Cveni morigi valia davumtkicoT yvelas, rom revoluciisa
da respublikis dacvis saqmeSi saWiro simtkicis gamoCenis
unarica gvaqvs~ [12] . yoveli wlis zafxulobiT rokis xeobi-
dan Camosuli SeiaraRebuli osebis cxinvalze Tavdasxma da
mSvidobiani mosaxleobis Zarcva rom aRekveTaT, qarTulma
politikurma elitam sauReltexilo xeobebSi arsebuli osu-
ri soflis mosaxleobis ayra da saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSi
Casaxleba erTad— erT gamosaval saSualebad miiCnia. rac See-
xeba osebis namosaxlars, qarTuli politikuri azris mesveu-
rebi am adgilebSi mTis qarTuli mosaxleobis Casaxlebis mi-
zanSewonilobas dasabuTebuli formiT ayenebdnen. es sakiTxi
mTeli principulobiT osi social-demokratebis Tbilisis
1920 wlis 21 seqtembris TaTbirze al.lomTaTiZis mier iqna
dasmuli. misi mtkicebiT, saqarTvelios respublikis usaf-
rTxoebis mizniT, aucileblobas CrdiloeTis sazRvrebis ga-
magreba warmoadgenda. igi os social-demokratebs pirdapir
afrTxilebda: `Tqven unda SeurigdeT im faqts, rom dReidan
rokis yeli unda Cabardes saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi
ideiis matarebel xalxs. ramdenadac am sakiTxs pirvelxaris-
180
xovani mniSvneloba aqvs saqarTvelos respublikis dacvaSi, am
respublikis dacvas gvavalebs Cveni dRevandeli saerTaSori-
so mdgomareoba~ [13]. es imas niSnavda, rom Sida qarTlis mTia-
ni zolidan (ruseT-saqarTvelos sazRvris zona) osebi unda
aesaxlebinaT da saqarTvelos sxva regionebSi daesaxlebinaT,
xolo gamoTavisuflebul adgilebze qarTuli mosaxleoba
damkvidrebuliyo.
saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi osebis mier damoukidebeli sa-
qarTvelos winaarmdeg mowyobilma mudmivma ajanyebebma, mSvi-
dobiani mosaxleobis Zarcvam da qveynis momavali bedis kiT-
xviTi niSnis qveS dayenebam, saqarTvelos xelisuflebas sxva
alternativa ar dautova. aRniSnuli sakiTxi am kuTxiT unda
iqnas ganxiluli. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki demokratiuli saqar-
Tvelos mTavrobis am gadawyvetilebas arahumanuri pozicii-
dan miudgebian, aseTma `Semfaseblebma~ pasuxi unda gascen
kiTxvas; 1918- 1920 wlebSi saqarTvelos osebis mier Cadenili
danaSaulis msgavs qmedebas rogor Sexvdeboda dasavleT ev-
ropis civilizebuli qveynebis da Tu gnebavT igive sabWoTa
ruseTis xelisufleba. problemis ganxilva da misi Sefaseba
im periodis saerTaSoriso samarTlisa da qarTveli eris
erovnuli saxelmwifos interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT unda
moxdes da ara sabWouri, an separatistuli zedapiruli ideo-
logiis mxardamWerTa mixedviT.
warsulis mZime gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, saqarTve-
los xelisufleba im etapze ramdenadac sxva gamosavals ver
xedavda, CrdiloeTis sazRvrispira zolidan mTis osebis mo-
cileba da saqarTvelos sxva regionebSi gadasaxleba— qveynis-
Tvis usafrTxoebis Seqmnis erTad- erT saSualebad miiCnia.
aRniSnuli sakiTxi im etapze imdenad mwvaved idga, rom igi
qveynis Tavdacvis sabWos sagangebo msjelobis sagani gaxda.
mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs samxedro saministros generalur StabSi
gamarTuli respublikis Tavdacvis sabWos 1920 wlis 18 ivni-
sis sxdoma, romelmac Sida qarTlis mTis osur mosaxleobas-
Tan mimarTebaSi Sesabamisi dadgenileba miiRo. es dokumenti,
19 ivniss saqarTvelos mTavrobas gadaegzavna. `saidumlod.
friad saswrafod. samxrdro saministros generaluri Stabis
ufrosi 1920 w. 19 ivnisi. mTavrobis saqmeTa sammarTvelos. ga-
axlebT saTanado gankargulebisaTvis respublikis Tavdacvis
sabWos ama wlis 18 ivnisis dadgenilebas.
181
moismines: saxalxo gvardiis mTavari Stabis Tavmjdoma-
ris v. jurelis moxseneba oseTSi moqmedebis Sesaxeb.
daadgines: 2. a) sofeli roki sruliad moispos garda sa-
napiro jarebis binebisa; b) oseTidan Crdilo kavkasiaSi (dva-
leTSi) gadasasvleli yvela gzebi garda mamisonisa afeTqebiT
iqnas sabolood gafuWebuli; g) ayril da Crdilo kavkasiaSi
wasul osebs ar mieces ukan dabrunebis neba. im osebs, romleb-
mac Cvendami loialoba gamoiCines, TavianT soflebSi darCe-
nis neba mieces. xolo saeWvo pirebs, mTavrobis gankargule-
biT respublikis sxva raionebSi gadasaxlebis saSualeba mie-
ces; d) srulebiT gadasaxlebuli iqnas javis midamoebis osebi
(liaxvisa da facis xeobebi) da maT magier es adgilebi miwaT-
moqmedebisa da Sinagan saqmeTa saministroebios gankargule-
biT dasaxlebuli iqnes qarTvelebiT; e) ar daubrundes osebs
CamorTmeuli pirutyvi; v) yovelgvari zarali, romelic mi-
adga samxedro moqmedebebiT Cvens momxre osebs, anazRaurdes
respublikis xazinidan; z) ltolvil osebs, romlebic Cvens
teritoriaze amJamad imyofeba, Sinagan saqmeTa saministros
gankargulebiT daxmareba mieces da erobaTa kavSiris gankar-
gulebiT isini Casaxlebuli iqnan respublikis sxva terito-
riaze. generali g.zaqariaZe.~
am dokumentis mkacri tonis miuxedavad, masSi kargad
Cans, rom saqarTvelos xelisufleba ebrZoda ara saerTod
osebs, aramed mxolod im osebs, romlebsac saqarTvelos sa-
xelmwifos winaaRmdeg mowyobili oTxgzis ajanyebiT, Sida
qarTlis qarTvelTa genocidisa da eTnowmendis mcdelobi-
dan gamomdinare, qveynis winaSe Ralatis tolfasi danaSauli
qonda Cadenili. am SemTxvevaSi, respublikis Tavdacvis sabWo-
sa da qarTuli politikuri speqtris (sakanonmdeblo organo-
sa da qveynis mTavrobis) pozicia identuri iyo. problemisad-
mi aRniSnuli formiT midgomis amosaval safuZvels— saqar-
Tvelos damoukideblobis, qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobis
SenarCunebis, Sida qarTlis qarTuli mosaxleobis usafrTxo-
ebisa da misi Rirsebis dacvis garantiis Seqmna warmoadgenda.
rac Seexeba osTa namosaxlarze qarTvelTa Casaxlebas,
am process miwaTmoqmedebis saministros agrarul ganyofi-
lebasTan Seqmnili gadasaxlebis qveganyofileba xelmZRvane-
lobda. mosaxleobis Sesabamis adgilebze Casaxlebis proce-
sis zedamxedvelobas, damfuZnebeli krebis wevris l. JRentis
182
TavmjdomareobiT Seqmnili adgilobrivi komisia axorcie-
lebda. miwaTmoqmedebis saministrosTan arsebuli gadasaxle-
bis ganyofilebis mier, Sinagan saqmeTa saministrosadmi gag-
zavnili 1920 wlis 24 ivlisiT daTariRebuli dokumentiT ir-
kveva, rom javis raionSi axladCasaxlebuli qarTvelebi, ose-
bisagan Tavdausxmelobis garantiiT ar iyvnen dazRveulni, mi-
Tumetes, wunarisa da yornisis TemebSi osi SeiaraRebuli ya-
CaRebi aqtiurad moqmedebdnen. `amnair pirobebSi — vkiTxu-
lobT dokumentSi — ara Tu gadasaxlebulebi, adgilobrivi
mcxovrebi qarTvelebic SiSoben darCenas da Tu administra-
ciis gaZlierebas ar mieqca seriozuli yuradReba, erT mSve-
nier dRes gadasaxlebulebica da adgilobrivi mkvidri qar-
Tveli mcxovreblebic daiZvrebian iqedan.~ mosalodneli sir-
Tuleebis acilebis mizniT, miwaTmoqmedebis saministrosTan
arsebuli sagadasaxlebo ganyofileba, Sinagan saqmeTa sami-
nistros winaSe principulad ayenebda sakiTxs: a)zemoaRniS-
nul soflebSi momxdariyo administraciisa da miliciis Za-
lebis dauyovneblivi gaZliereba; b)Sinagan saqmeTa saminis-
tros eSuamdgomla samxedro saministrosTan, raTa arsebuli
sajariso SenaerTebi damatebiTi kontigentiT gaezarda da
javis xeobaSi qarTvelTa Casaxlebis damTavrebamde hyoloda
[14, 277; 327].
es faqti imaze migvaniSnebs, rom im etapze osuri saf-
rTxe jer kidev arsebobda da misi SeCereba mxolod Zalismie-
ri meTodis demonstrirebiT iyo SesaZlebeli. rac Seexeba
osebis sagadasaxlebo politikas, am sakiTxis dasmis inicia-
torad saqarTvelos xelisufleba namdvilad ar CaiTvleba.
igi TviT osebidan momdinareobs. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs 1919
wlis 20 seqtembers sof. javaSi gamarTuli osebis VIII yrilo-
bis mier miRebuli dadgenileba. am dokumentis mixedviT, yri-
lobam osebis erovnul sabWos daavala, eSuamdgomla saqar-
Tvelos xelisuflebis winaSe, raTa mciredi mamulebis mqone
mTis osebi qveynis im adgilebSi gadaesaxlebinaT, sadac isini
SedarebiT ufro met miwas miiRebdnen.[15] aRniSnuli dadgeni-
leba, romelic osebis gadasaxlebas exeba, bolSevikebis mxri-
dan yuradRebis miRma Segnebulad iqna datovebuli. magram,
roca igive sakiTxi saqarTvelos xelisuflebam qveynis usaf-
rTxoebidan gamomdinare winaplanze wamoswia, qarTvelma
bolSevikebma f.maxaraZis meTaurobiT aJiotaJi atexa da da-
183
moukidebeli saqarTvelos mTavroba `kacTmoZule~ politi-
kuri kursis gamtareblad gamoacxada.[16, 125] rogorc yovel-
Tvis, am SemTxvevaSiac qarTveli bolSevikebi saqarTveloSi
mimdinare politikuri da ekonomikuri procesebis obieqtur
analizs Segnebulad gaurbodnen, TavianT Sexedulebebsa da
daskvnebs sabWouri ideologiisaTvis misaReb formebSi sTa-
vazobdnen mkiTxvel sazogadoebas. gverds uvlidnen im faqts,
rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebis agraruli reformis proeq-
ti, mciremiwiani glexebis sxva adgilebSi— Tavisufal miwebze
Casaxlebas iTvaliswinebda. am reformas, ekonomikurTan er-
Tad, politikuri mxarec gaaCnda. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs res-
publikis sazRvrispira auTvisebel miwebze qarTveli glexe-
bis Casaxlebisa da qarTuli soflebis Seqmnis idea. exeboda
ra aRniSnul sakiTxs, miwaTmoqmedebis ministri n.xomeriki
xazgasmiT werda: `ganapira adgilebi yvela TiTqmis uklebliv
dasaxlebulia araqarTuli elementebiT, romelnic... xSirad
mtrul ganwyobilebas iCenen respublikisadmi, dawyebuli me-
xadiridan, respublika rkaliviT garsSemortymulia an ucxo
tomis xalxiT, an kidev iseTebiT, romelnic SegnebiT qar-
Tvelni ar arian da arc mainca da mainc siyvaruls iCenen Cveni
kulturisa da saxelmwifosadmi. amitom, saqarTvelos karebi
Tu gnebavT mudam Riaa momxdurTaTvis.~ amis realur dadas-
turebas 1918-1920 wlebis mimdinare movlenebi warmoadgenda.
aseT pirobebSi myofi qveynis mdgomareobis nawilobrivi ga-
mosworebis SesaZleblobas, n.xomerikis azriT sagadasaxlebo
politikis gatareba Seqmnida. `gadasaxlebis politika — am-
bobda igi — saSualebas mogvcems es mdgomareoba cotaTi ma-
inc gamovasworoT da saxelmwifos sazRvarze daraji davaye-
noT... saWiroa mxolod iq ucxo tomelTa dena Sewydes da maT
magier qarTvel umiwawylo glexs mieces mamuli Tavis qveyana-
Si~ [17, 357].
am metad mniSvnelovani reformis pirvel safexurs— ra-
Wis, duSeTisa da ozurgeTis mazrebidan gadmosaxlebuli qar-
Tvelebis javis xeobaSi Casaxlebis procesis dawyeba warmoad-
genda. aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, gazeTi `saqarTve-
lo~ statiaSi — `javis xeoba,~ gansakuTrebul yuradRebas
mTis macxovrebel gudamayar-moxeveebis 80 ojaxis am xeobaSi
Casaxlebis faqtze amaxvilebda. imavdroulad, mkiTxvel sa-
zogadoebas maTis mxridan tradiciulad maRali meomruli
184
suliskveTebis faqtebs Seaxsenebda da dasZenda: gudamayar-
moxeveebs `gmiruli warsuli aqvs, CrdiloeTidan Semosuli
mtris damarcxebaSi da ukuqcevaSi awmyoSiac isaxeles Tavi...
warsul saukuneebSi mTis xalxi rusebs ebrZoda da maTi saqar-
Tvelodan garekva surda... axlandel droSi mTiel-moxeveebis
gadmosaxlebas javis xeobaSi msgavsi istoriuli mizani aqvs.
es mTis arwivni ampartavanni da avgulni gadmoasaxla Cvenma
mTavrobam im mizniT, rom daicvan CrdiloeTis mtris Semose-
visagan osebisgan dacarielebuli javis xeoba.~ aRniSnuli
amonaweri imis damadasturebelia, rom javis xeobaSi saqar-
Tvelos xelisufleba ZiriTadad mxolod im qarTvelobas asa-
xlebda, romlebSiac soflis meurneobis gaZRolisa da meom-
ris suliskveTeba erTmaneTTan iyo Sexamebuli. am gegmis gan-
xorcielebaSi xedavda CrdiloeTis sasazRvro zolis gamag-
rebis SesaZleblobas. meore mxriv, igi imazedac miuTiTebs,
rom maSindeli qarTuli politikuri azri, saqarTvelos xe-
lisuflebis am politikuri kursis mxardamWeris rolSi gamo-
dioda.
saqarTvelos saxelmwifosaTvis usafrTxoebis Seqmnis
mizniT, erovnuli ideiiT datvirTuli zemoaRniSnuli re-
formis —sagadasaxlebo politikis erT-erT Stos, osebis saz-
Rvrispira zolidan asaxleba da qveynis sxva regionSi Casax-
leba warmoadgenda. am proceduris praqtikulad ganxorcie-
lebis pirvelsave etapze, qarTvelma bolSevikebma erTi aur-
zauri atexes— saqarTvelos xelisuflebas osebis borCalosa
da yaraiazSi Casaxleba aqvs gadawyvetilio. saxelmwifos es
politikuri kursi, maTi mxridan damoukidebeli saqarTve-
los mTavrobis ara marto dausabuTebeli kritikis, aramed
ganqiqebis sagani gaxda. XX saukunis 20- iani wlebis qarTveli
bolSevikebis Tvalsazriss sabWouri istoriografiac icav-
da. am mxriv gansakuTrebul yuradRebas a.surgulaZis mosaz-
reba iqcevs. `menSevikebma — wers igi — ...miznad daisaxes ose-
Tidan mkvidri macxovreblebis savsebiT ayra da yaraiazis
velze gadasaxleba. es iyo saSineli gegma, romelic oseTis mo-
saxleobas ganadgurebas uqadda~ [18, 23- 24]. am striqonebis av-
tori istoriis totalur gayalbebas axdens; a)rogorc aRniS-
nuli gvqonda, saqarTvelos xelisufleba, ajanyebaSi monawi-
le Sida qarTlis mTiani osuri soflebis macxovrebelTa ga-
dasaxlebis sakiTxs ayenebda dRis wesrigSi da ara oseTis, ro-
185
melic ruseTis federaciis SemadgenlobaSi iyo da romelze-
dac saqarTvelos iurisdiqcia ar vrceldeboda; b)saqarTve-
los sazRvrispira zolSi mcxoverbi osebis yaraiazis velze
Casaxleba, oseTis mosaxleobas veranair safrTxes ver Seuq-
mnida. es yalbi Sexeduleba, damoukidebeli saqarTvelos mTa-
vrobis maqsimalur diskreditaciaze iyo gaTvlili. winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi a. surgulaZesa da sxvebs, ramdenime sityviT
mainc unda eTqvaT, rom imave yaraiazSi 1920 wels Casaxlebuli
qarTvelebisgan sami axali qarTuli sofeli — `Zmoba,~ `erTo-
ba,~ da `Tavisufleba~ Seiqmna, romlebsac 3368 desetina miwis
farTobi eWira [19, 315]. agraruli reformis am kursTan mimar-
TebaSi n.xomeriki ambobda: `dasaxleba im adgilebSi sadac Ta-
visufali miwebia, saSualebas miscems saxelmwifos ufro mi-
zanSewonilad gamoiyenos mravali aTasi adamianis Sroma da
qveynis bunebrivi simdidre. ekonomiurad es respublikas Zli-
er gaamagrebs~[18, 23]. osebis sagadasaxlebo politikas, swo-
red am principiT ganixilavda gazeTi `klde~ 1920 wels gamoq-
veynebul statiaSi — `osebis ajanyebis gakveTili.~ aRniSnul
sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi Tavis pozicias igi Semdegnairad aya-
libebda: `zurgidan osebs SeuZliaT muSaoba da maTi ekonomi-
uri unari gamosayenebelia saxelmwifosaTvis, magram politi-
kuri upiratesobani Cvens xalxzed rac eZleodaT rusebisa da
Cveni mTavrobisagan — yovlad dauSvebelia.~
erovnul-demokratebis mxridan saqarTvelos xelisuf-
lebisadmi gamoTqmul am sayvedurSi simarTlis marcvali iyo
Cadebuli. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs: 1) osebis kulturuli da eko-
nomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT, qveynis saxel-
mwifo xazinidan gaRebuli didZali dafinanseba; 2) 1918— 1919
wlebis osebis antisaxelmwifoebrivi permanentuli ajanyebe-
bis Sedegad, damnaSave osi mosaxleobis sanimuSod dausjelo-
ba da saqarTvelos saxelmwifos erTguli moqalaqeebisadmi
uflebrivad maTi gaTanabreba. saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier
osebTan mimarTebaSi daSvebuli es `Secdoma,~ imave qarTuli
politikuri azris warmomadgenelTa mixedviT, qveynis agra-
rul proeqtSi Cadebuli osebis sagadasaxlebo politikuri
kursis praqtikulad dawyebiT iqna gamosworebuli.
amrigad, 1) saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mier osebTan
mimarTebaSi gatarebuli sasikeTo RonisZiebebis (miwis, tyis,
saZovrebis gadacema, osuri skolebis Seqmna) sapasuxod, ose-
186
bis mxridan 1918-1920 wlebSi damoukidebeli saqarTvelos sa-
xelmwifos winaaRmdeg ganxorcielebulma `Sidajvarosnulma
laSqrobebma,~ qarTuli politikuri azris liderTa Soris
osebi qveynis danamat parazitebad warmoaCina. osebis namoqme-
daris safuZvlianma analizmma, qarTuli politikuri speq-
tris winaSe kanonzomierad dasva sakiTxi — riT iyo ganpirobe-
buli osebis mxridan qarTvelTa gansakuTrebuli siZulvili,
imsaxurebdnen Tu ara osebi qarTvelebTan Tanacxovrebis uf-
lebas. qarTvelTa Znelbedobis Jams, osebis oTxgzis ajanye-
bam da qarTuli saxelmwifos dauZlurebis mcdelobam, qar-
Tuli politikuri speqtri osebisadmi gaweuli sikeTis Sec-
domad aRiarebamde miiyvana. am fonze, savsebiT logikuri iyo
erovnul-demokratebis mier gakeTebuli radikaluri gancxa-
deba — `osebi sabediswero muwukia saqarTvelos sxeulze da
igi aucileblad unda moviSoroT;~ 2) rokisa da mamisonis sau-
Reltexilo xeobis osuri mosaxleobisagan gawmenda da sanac-
vlod qarTvelebis Casaxlebis sakiTxis dayeneba, osebisadmi,
rogorc arasaimedo eTnosisadmi undoblobiT iyo ganpirobe-
buli. am SemTxvevaSi, sabWoTa ruseTis agenturis mier qarTu-
li saxelmwifos dasangrevad 1918-1920 wlebSi osebisadmi Sek-
veTili da dafinansebuli ajanyebebis faqtebia gasaTvaliswi-
nebeli. osuri safrTxis neitralizebisa da saqarTveloSi
mSvidobiani cxovrebis elementaruli pirobebis Sesaqmnelad,
qarTuli politikuri azris warmomadgenlebi erTaderT ga-
mosavals osebis sanimuSod dasjaSi da qarTuli saxelmwifos
samsaxurSi CayenebaSi xedavda; 3) damoukidebeli saqarTvelos
mTavrobis mier osebTan mimarTebaSi gatarebuli sagadasax-
lebo politika, sabWoTa ruseTidan mosalodneli Tavdasxmi-
sadmi Rirseul daxvedras, misi mxardamWeri osuri mosaxleo-
bis sasazRvro zolidan mocilebas da qveynis usafrTxoebis
garantiis Seqmnas emsaxureboda. osebis mier saqarTvelos sa-
xelmwifos damoukideblobis kiTxvis niSnis qveS dayenebam,
saqarTvelos xelisuflebas sxva alternativa ar dautova.
mis mier gatarebuli radikaluri RonisZiebebi, osuri mosax-
leobis im nawils Seexo, romlebmac qveynis winaSe Ralatis
tolfasi qmedeba Caidina. meore mxriv, sagadasaxlebo poli-
tika, qveynis agraruli reformis erT-erT nawils warmoad-
genda da qarTul mosaxleobasTan erTad, osebis Sromis mizan-
mimarTulad gamoyenebas iTvaliswinebda.
187
damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. gaz. `erToba~, 1918, 8 agvisto, #166.


2. gaz. `erToba~, 1920, 11 ivnisi, #129.
3. gaz. `saxalxo saqme,~ 1920, 11 ivnisi, #847.
4. gaz. `erToba~, 1920, ivnisi, #130.
5. Jurn. `mxedari~, 1920, #27.
6. gaz. `saxalxo saqme~, 1920, 23 maisi, #832.
7. gaz. `klde~, 1920, 14 ivnisi, #26.
8. Jurn. `mxedari~, 1920, #5.
9. gaz. `saqarTvelo~, 1918, mariamobiTvis 14, #160.
10. gaz. `saxalxo saqme~, 1920, 13 ivnisi, #849.
11. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,
fondi 1825, aRw. 1, saq. #159.
12. gaz. `saxalxo saqme~, 1920, 13 ivnisi, #849.
13. gaz. `erToba~, 1920, 3 oqtomberi, #224.
14. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,
fondi 1863, aRw. 1, saq. #320. d. WumburiZe, qarTveli xal-
xis erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli brZola XX s-is dasaw-
yisSi 1918-1921 wlebSi, Tb., 2003.
15. gaz. `erToba~, 1920, 25 oqtomberi, #243.
16. g. TogoSvili, qarTveli da osi xalxebis urTierToba
1801-1921 ww. Tb., 1969.
17. a. surgulaZe, narkvevebi revoluciuri moZraobis isto-
riidan saqarTveloSi (1917-1921 ww.), Tb., 1954.
18. n. xomeriki, agraruli reforma da Cveni sasoflo meurne-
oba, Tb., 1920.
19. S. vadaWkoria. qarTuli social-demokratia 1917-1921
wlebSi, Tb., 2001.
Shota Vadachkoria
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Ivane Java-
khishvili Institute of History and Ethnology,
Senior research scientist of the Department
of Modern and Contemporary History

Exile Policy of the Shida Kartli Osetians Living in the Mountains and
Georgian Political Thinking (The 20es of the 20th century)

Summary

On the basis of the documental material it is stated that: 1) The Geor-


gian government carried on several positive activities towards the Osetians.
188
The government gave the Osetians: lands, wood, pastures, founded Osetian
schools. In 1918 – 1920 the Osetians in their turn replied to these positive
steps of the government with “inland crusade campaigns” towards the inde-
pendent republic. The leaders of the Georgian political thinking saw that the
Osetians became the adjunct spongers of the country. After the sound analy-
ses of the Osetians’ deeds the political spectrum of Georgia put forward legal
questions: Why the Osetians hated Georgians so much? Did the Osetians
deserve to live together with Georgians? When Georgians were undergoing
the difficulties four rebellions of the Osetians and the attempt of weakening
the Georgian state drove the Georgian political elite to acknowledge that their
positive step was a mistake. The radical declaration of the National – Democ-
ratic Party on this background was completely logical. They declared: “The
Osetians are fatal pimple on the body of Georgia and we by all means must
get rid of it”. 2) The decision to free gorges of the Roki and Mamisoni passes
from the Osetian population and resettle there Georgian population and put
this issue forward was determined by untrustworthiness of the Osetians. In
this case we must take into consideration the facts of four rebellions ordered
and donated in 1918 - 1920 by Soviet intelligent service for destroying the
Georgian government. For neutralization of the Osetian threat and for the
elementary conditions of living peacefully the representatives of the Georgian
political thinking believed the one of the ways out of this difficult situation
was to make an example of punishing the Osetians and put them in the ser-
vice of the Georgian state. 3) The exile policy of the Osetians carried on by
the government of the independent Georgia served to oppose with dignity the
expecting attack from the Soviet Russia, to move its adherent Osetian popula-
tion living at the border line from this region and thus have the guarantees.
After throwing doubts on the independence of the Georgian state, there was
not another alternative left for the government of Georgia. Radical activities
carried on by the government influenced those part of the Osetian population,
who committed actions equal to betrayal. On the second hand, the exile pol-
icy was one of the parts of the country’s agrarian reform which aimed to use
together with Georgians the labor of the Osetians in purpose.

189
nugzar zosiZe
istoriis doqtori, baTumis SoTa
rusTavelis saxelmwifo universite-
tis asocirebuli profesori

baTumis olqi 1920 wlis pirvel naxevarSi

1918 wlis 26 maiss saqarTvelo damoukidebel saxelmwi-


fod gamocxadda; saqarTvelos samuslimano nawili osmalTa
xelSi iyo 1918 wlis aprilidan. osmaleTisaTvis baTumis olqi
ar warmoadgenda, mxolod, saomar viTarebaSi dakavebul sao-
kupacio zonas, osmaleTis sulTanma mehmed VI, 1918 wlis 15
seqtembers, igi osmaleTis Semadgenel nawilad gamoacxada [1,
166]. pirvel msoflio omSi osmaleTis damarcxebam, regionSi
movlenaTa sxva mimarTulebiT ganviTarebas Seuwyo xeli. ami-
tomac saqarTvelosTan misi kvlav dabruneba gaxda erovnul-
saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis amocana da am mimarTulebiT
mniSvnelovani nabijebic gadaidga.
osmaluri okupaciisagan gansxvavebiT, ingliselebis
dros baTumSi politikuri saqmianobisaTvis gacilebiT meti
Tavisufleba igrZnoboda. aman erovnul Zalebs misca SesaZ-
lebloba sacxovreblad aq dabrunebuliyvnen da saqarTvelos-
Tan regionis gaerTianebisaTvis muSaoba uSualod adgilze wa-
remarTaT. samwuxarod, ingliselebma aqcenti Zveli ruseTis
aRdgenisaTvis mebrZol denikinze aiRes da baTumis olqSi aspa-
rezi rusul Sovinistur Zalebs dauTmes. baTumSi denikinelTa
poziciebi imdenad ganmtkicda, rom mosaxleobaSi gavrcelda
arcTu usafuZvlo xmebi moxaliseTa armiaSi olqis srulasako-
van mamakacTa mobilizaciis Sesaxeb. `am xmebis gamo bevr baTu-
mels surs miiRos saqarTvelos qveSevrdomoba@ da amiT daix-
snas Tavi mosalodneli mobilizaciisagano~ — werda polkovni-
ki gedevaniSvili 1919 wlis 7 Tebervals [5, 187].
erTian qarTul cnobierebas amRvrevdnen aq SemorCenili
osmalo agentebic. q. baTumis qarTvelTa erovnuli sabWo,
ganmaTavisuflebeli komiteti da samuslimano saqarTvelos
saqvelmoqmedo sazogadoeba warmoadgendnen swored im orga-
nizaciebs, romlebmac didi roli Seasrules samxreT-dasav-
leT saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikur da politikur
cxovrebaSi. es patriotuli organizaciebi saqarTvelos

190
mTavrobis erovnuli politikis aqtiuri gamtareblebi iyvnen.
Tavis mxriv, mTavroba am organizaciebs finansuradac exmare-
boda, ramac 1918 wlis 25 oqtombridan 1919 wlis 28 agvistom-
de Seadgina 1 milion 975 aTasi maneTi [6, 439].
saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis mowinaaRmdege-
ebs Soris seriozul Zalas warmoadgenda osmaluri orienta-
ciis `sedai mileTis~ dajgufeba. misi mcdelobiT, pirvelad,
yarsSi gamocxadda samxreT-dasavleT kavkasiis islamuri res-
publika, magram am ukanasknelis dacemis Semdeg sedai mileT-
lebis samoqmedo asparezad baTumi iqca.
aWaraSi moqmedi sedai mileTis organizacia Tavisi Semad-
genlobiT gansxvavdeboda yarsis dajgufebisagan. gazeT `sa-
muslimano saqarTvelos~ ganmartebiT aWaris sedai mileTel-
Ta razms umTavresad Seadgendnen osmalo oficrebi, deniki-
nelebi, azerbaijanis da somxeTis agentebi, romelTac mxars
ubamdnen adgilobrivi fanatikosebi da saeWvo warsulis pi-
rebi, agreTve, yaCaRuri bandebi vinme baikoz-oRlis meTauro-
biT [9]. am Zalas garkveuli gavlena hqonda mahmadiani morwmu-
neebis mniSvnelovan nawilze.
sedai mileTis warmateba mniSvnelovnad ganapiroba er-
Tmorwmune osmaleTis farglebSi samuslimano saqarTvelos
avtonomiurad gaerTianebis propagandam, miTumetes, rom es
sakiTxi osmaleTis saxelmwifos xelisuflebis zeda eSelo-
nebSic gaJRerda. 1920 wlis dasawyisSi am qveynis sagareo saq-
meTa uwyebam daadgina, rom baTumis, artaanis da yarsis olqe-
bis mier avtonomiis mopoveba osmaleTis politikuri gavle-
nis farglebSi, Seesabameboda saxelmwifo interesebs da es sa-
kiTxi imsaxurebda Rrma, farTo da yovelmxriv ganxilvas.
amasTan, trapizonis vilaieTis xelmZRvanelobas daevala ba-
Tumel sedaimileTelTa finansuri uzrunvelyofa da imis
garkvevac, ramdenad momzadebuli iyo es sakiTxi, Semdgomi
msjelobisaTvis [4, 34, 56]. avtonomiis droSiT gamovidnen, ag-
reTve, rusi velikoderJavnikebi, azerbaijaneli musavatebi
da somexi daSnakebic. amdenad, avtonomiis ideam garkveulad
moikida fexi samuslimano saqarTvelos mosaxleobaSic.1 sa-

1
saqarTvelos iurisdiqciaSi baTumis olqis gadmosvlis Semdeg dam-
fuZnebeli krebis prezidiumis mier aq movlinebuli p. geleiSvili
Tavis angariSSi aRniSnavda: pirveli^ rasac aq gaigonebT — aris avto-
191
muslimano saqarTvelos momavali politikuri mowyobis sa-
kiTxebi, jer kidev, 1918 wlis dekembris damlevs Camoayaliba
noe Jordaniam Tavis mimarTvaSi mosaxleobisadmi. masSi vkiT-
xulobT: `TviT musulmani qarTvelebis warmomadgenelni ga-
moscemen kanonebs, romliTac isini samuslimano saqarTvelo-
Si Tavis gemoze da Tavisi sindisisamebr moawyoben cxovrebas.
mtkice kanonebiT uzrunvelyofen TavianT sarwmunoebriv uf-
lebebs, moawesrigeben adgilobriv saqmeebs da amiT daamyare-
ben TavianT mSobliur mxareSi bednierebas [11]. Seqmnil viTa-
rebaSi baTumis olqis dedasamSoblosTan umtkivneulod
kvlav dabrunebis procesSi erT-erT realur gzad, rogorc
Cans esec Canda, da qarTul politikaSi administraciuli mow-
yobis am formats mieca upiratesoba.
samuslimano saqarTvelos ganmaTavisuflebel komitets
da piradad memed abaSiZes sxva arCevani ar hqondaT, maT unda
daecvaT qarTuli avtonomiis idea da, amgvarad, dapirispire-
bodnen aWaraSi osmalur avtonomias, agreTve, sxva destruq-
ciuli da antiqarTuli Zalebis msgavs dapirebebs. cxadia, es
nabiji idgmeboda saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis
mTavrobasTan SeTanxmebiT.
aRsaniSnavia, rom Tavdapirvelad avtonomiis sakiTxze
samuslimano saqarTvelos ganmaTavisuflebeli komitetis
wevrebs Soris ar iyo erTiani azri. magaliTad, haidar da zia
abaSiZeebi saqarTvelos SigniT qarTvelTa avtonomias zedme-
tad Tvlidnen. meore, ufro mravalricxovan nawils ki piri-
qiT miaCnda. amasve iziarebda saqarTvelos respublikis mTar-
vobac. haidar abaSiZis sityviT demokratiuli mTavrobis yve-
laze ufro pasuxismgebeli wevrebi gvarwmunebdnen, rom av-
tonomiur niadagze Cvens muSaobas metis nayofis motana SeuZ-
lia da am gziT ufro advilad movimxrobT samuslimano saqar-
Tvelos umravlesobas saqarTvelosTan SemosaerTeblad. ami-
tom Cven kategoriulad gvirCevdnen ganmaTavisuflebel ko-
mitets mieRo avtonomia da am gziT dagvewyo muSaoba [10].

nomia. didi Tu patara, swavluli Tu uswavleli amiT iwyebs da amTav-


rebs laparaks… Tumca bevrma maTganma arc ki icis ra aris es. ,,poli-
tikuri situacia aWaraSi’’, 1920 w. p. geleiSvilis 1920 w. 8 oqtombris
moxsenebiTi baraTi saqarTvelos mTavrobis Tavmjdomares ~teqsti
gamosces a. silagaZem da v. gurulma, Tb., 1998, gv. 22.
192
agreTve, samuslimano saqarTvelosTvis avtonomiis ide-
iT apelirebas garkveulwilad ganapirobebda antantis saxel-
mwifoTa politikac, romelTa winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTi da
urTierTdapirispireba xSir SemTxvevaSi am regionSi iCenda
Tavs. amitom^ saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi baTumis olqis av-
tonomiurad gaerTianebis sakiTxis win wamoweva metnaklebad
aneitralebda amave statusiT, an kidev, Tundac sxva formiT
am regionis xelSi Cagdebis mosurne ucxo Zalebis mcdelo-
bebs. saqarTvelos saxelmwifoSi baTumis olqis avtonomiu-
rad gaerTianebis propagandam mniSvnelovnad Seasusta mowi-
naaRmdege banaki. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia qobuleTis mcxovreb-
Ta pozicia 1920 wlis 9 martis mitingze. misma monawileebma
dainaxes sedai mileTis uperspeqtivoba da zurgi Seaqcies mas.
kidev meti, aqtiur sedaimileTelTa nawili ganudga am dajgu-
febas da miemxro qarTul orientacias.1 Tumca sedai mileTis
sruli neitralizeba ar moxerxda. misi erTi nawili am kuTxis
saqarTvelosTan dabrunebamde — ganagrZobda proTurqul
saqmianobas, rac gamovlinda 1920 wlis ivnis-ivlisSi qarTuli
jaris sawinaaRmdego gamosvlebSi Wvanasa da ColoqTan.
1920 wlis ivlisSi baTumis olqSi qarTuli jarebis Se-
moyvanis Semdeg 1920 wlis 9 agvistos gaimarTa baTumis saqa-
laqo sabWos sxdoma, romelsac qalaqis mouravi gizo anjafa-
riZe uZRveboda. aRniSnul sxdomaze kamaTis sagani gaxda ba-
Tumis olqisaTvis avtonomiis miniWebis sakiTxi. nawili amis
momxre iyo, meoreni ki Tvlidnen, rom amaze saubari jer naad-
revi iyo da am sakiTxis saboloo gadawyveta damfuZnebeli
krebis prerogativas warmoadgenda.
SeiZleba isic iTqvas, rom rogorc adgilze, aseve, cen-
trSic xSir SemTxvevaSi bundovani warmodgena hqondaT ara
mxolod am kuTxis marTvis avtonomiur formasTan mimarTe-
biT arsebul sakiTxebSi, aramed regionis administraciul
mowyobasTan dakavSirebiTac. Cven ki imas davamatebdiT, rom

1
qobuleTis mitingze sedaimileTlebma ivaldebules, rom 20 dRis
ganmavlobaSi Caatarebdnen axal arCevnebs, denikinelTa rigebidan
gamoiyvandnen yvela qarTvels, ar daemorCilebodnen iq moqmed Te-
Trgvardielebs, agreTve, Sewyvetdnen TanamSromlobas azerbaija-
nis, osmaleTis, somxeTis, bolSevikebis agentebTan, mouspobdnen maT
moqmedebis yovelgvar asparezs da ar aRiarebdnen arc erTi saxel-
mwifo proteqtorats.
193
kuTxis administraciuli mowyobis avtonomiuri forma ar
warmoadgenda raRac idealur variants. samwuxarod saqar-
Tvelos demokratiuli respublikis imJamindeli yofa, didi
amierkavkasiuli politikis CaxlarTulobebi da antantis ga-
marjvebul saxelmwifoTa umwifari xedva amierkavkasiis
axalgazrda damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa momavalisadmi, gar-
kveulwilad baTumis olqis qveynis erTian sivrceSi kuTvnili
adgilis kanonzomierad dakavebisasac iCenda Tavs. cxadia,
ZirZvel qarTul miwaze, sadac mosaxleobis umravlesoba eT-
nikur qarTvelebs warmoadgenda, avtonomiis forma da Sinaar-
si erTmaneTs scildeboda da xelovnurobis maRali xarisxic
saxeze iyo. Uufro marTebuli iqneba es mdgomareoba Sevada-
roT neli moqmedebis naRms, romelic sabednierod arasdros
ar afeTqebula.1
deda-samSoblosTan dabrunebisaTvis brZola regionSi
mniSvnelovnad gaaqtiurda 1920 wlis adre gazafxulze. es ga-
moiwvia saerTaSoriso arenaze baTumis sakiTxis axalma eska-
laciam. kerZod, Tebervlis dasawyisSi britaneTis sardloba
baTumidan jarebis evakuacias ise Seudga, rom arc ki gamouc-
xadebia Tu vis gadaecemoda qalaqi da olqi. amitom am adgi-
lebSi daiwyo TavSeukavebeli agitacia, erTi mxriv, bolSevi-
kebis, meore mxriv, osmaleTis agentebisa [12]. maT ematebodnen
denikinelebi da sxva. isini cdilobdnen esargeblaT gaurkve-
velobiT da dauflebodnen regions. am mizniT, baTumSi Tavs
uyridnen samxedro Zalas da iaraRs. eweodnen aqtiur propa-
gandas mosaxleobis mimxrobis mizniT. gazeTis cnobiT, pro-
vokatorebi gamalebiT darbian soflidan sofelSi da axal-
gazrdebis sias adgenen. zogs `CauSobas hpirdebian, zogs Jan-
darmobas da zogs vin icis ras. vinc ar Caewereba maT siaSi,

1
aWaris avtonomiis istoriis srulfasovani kvleva ar warmoadgens
Cvens amocanas. Tumca imis Tqma ki saWirod migvaCnia, rom am sakiTxiT
dainteresebul mklevarTa erTi nawili cdilobs baTumis olqis sa-
qarTvelos farglebSi administraciuli mowyobis sakiTxi (avtono-
mia) am kuTxis imJamindel calkeul politikur moRvaweTa, an kidev
maT TanamoazreTa piradi ideebisa da miznebis realizaciis mcdelo-
biT axsnan. Aam SemTxvevaSi, xSirad upirobod aseTad moiazreba samus-
limano saqarTvelos ganmaTavisuflebeli komitetis Tavmjdomare
memed abaSiZe. aseTi xedva, am uaRresad rTuli sakiTxis gaazrebaSi
arafris momcemi, zerele da subieqturia.
194
sxvadasxva sasjeliT emuqrebian. amis gamo xalxi metad aRel-
vebulia~@[15].
marTalia, 20 Tebervals inglisis mTavrobam daadgina ba-
Tumidan jarebis evakuaciis SeCereba, magram amas viTarebis
Secvla aRar SeeZlo. olqi anarqiam da qaosma moicva. aq dato-
vebuli ori inglisuri batalioni ki srulad qalaqsac ver
akontrolebda. saqarTvelos ruspublikis mTavrobamac, ga-
iTvaliswina ra Tavisi istoriuli teritoriebis dakargvis
realuri saSiSroeba, ubrZana SeiaraRebul Zalebs baTumis
olqis sazRvrebSi Sesvla.
am pirobebSi gamoqveynda antantis umaRlesi sabWos 24
Tebervlis gadawyvetileba erTa ligis mandatiT baTumis da-
moukidebeli qalaq-saxelmwifos Seqmnis Sesaxeb. es qarTvel-
ma xalxma Seafasa saqarTvelosgan baTumis Zalismierad mow-
yvetis cdad, ramac mZlavri saprotesto moZraobis azvirTeba
gamoiwvia [9].
protestis niSnad, baTumSi Seikriba muSaTa da moqalaqe-
Ta mravalricxovani mitingi, romlis rezoluciaSi naTqvamia:
`qalaq baTomisagan karikaturuli saxelmwifos Seqmna moaswa-
vebs saqarTvelos demokratiis interesebis fexqveS gaTelvas
da respublikis ekonomikur-politikuri ganviTarebisaTvis
karebis daxSobas. mitingi kategoriulad moiTxovs damfuZne-
beli krebisagan da mTavrobisagan gabedul nabijebs baTomisa
da olqis SemosaerTeblad, xolo didi saxelmwifoebisagan sa-
qarTvelos interesebis swrafad dakmayofilebas~ [9].
antantis umaRlesi sabWos zemoaRniSnuli gadawyveti-
lebis winaaRmdeg gamovidnen, agreTve, baTumis qarTvelTa
erovnuli sabWos Tav-re gr. eliava da saqarTvelos social-
demokratiuli partiis baTumis komitetis Tavmjdomare a. wu-
laZe [13].
saprotesto mitingebi Catarda qalaqebSi — TelavSi,
siRnaRSi, gurjaanSi, TianeTSi, duSeTSi, axalqalaqSi, axal-
cixeSi, lanCxuTSi, xonSi, foTSi, abaSaSi, axalsenakSi, vanSi,
soxumSi, agreTve, dabebsa da soflebSic [7, 21-38]. maTi dadge-
nilebebi da rezoluciebi gadaegzavna saqarTvelos mTavro-
bas da mokavSire saxelmwifoebis misiebs TbilisSi.
yvelaze xalxmravali saprotesto gamosvla iyo 1920
wlis 19 marts TbilisSi [14]. masSi monawileobdnen universi-
tetis studentebi, mowafeebi, muSa-mosamsaxureebi, agreTve,
195
saqarTvelos sxvadasxva mazrebidan specialurad Camosuli
warmomadgenlebi. manifestantebs mihqondaT erovnuli dro-
Sebi da plakatebi qarTul, inglisur, frangul da rusul
enebze, warwerebiT — `baTumi saqarTvelos karia evropisa-
ken!~@ `baTumi saqarTvelos unda daubrundes!@~ `baTumi—saqar-
Tveloa!~@ `saqarTvelo da aWara ganuyofelia!~ da a.S. vnebaTa-
Relva gadaedo damfuZnebel krebasac, sadac imave 19 marts
ganixiles baTumis problema. moxseneba gaakeTa damfuZnebeli
krebis sagareo saqmeTa komisiis Tavmjdomarem svimon mdivan-
ma. manve ganacxada, rom saqarTvelos jarma ukve daikava ol-
qis nawili, magram saWiroa TviT baTumSi Sesvla [8, 49-54]. igive
moiTxoves sxva deputatebmac. krebam antantis da neitralu-
ri saxelmwifoebis parlamentebs gaugzavna saprotesto mi-
marTvebi.
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobis az-
riT, baTumis olqi da qalaqi baTumi upirobod unda dabrune-
boda qveyanas. dasaSvebad iqna miCneuli baTumis sazRvao por-
tis, rogorc samxedro bazisa da saqvanaxSire sadguris in-
gliselTa mflobelobaSi datoveba [3, 63].
1920 wlis Teberval-martis dReebSi baTumSi gaaqtiur-
dnen bolSevikebic. denikinelebis damarcxebis Semdeg, maTken
gadaixara baTumis rusuli mosaxleobis mniSvnelovani nawi-
li. gazeT `samuslimano saqarTvelos~ SefasebiTac leninel-
komunistebs da denikinelebs saerTo mizani amoZravebdaT —
erTiani ruseTis aRdgena, radgan TeTrgvardiulma moZraobam
am amocanas Tavi ver gaarTva, es Zalebi komunistebis banakSi
gadavidneno [17].
bolSevikebi cdilobdnen miemxroT ararusebic, risTvi-
sac iyenebdnen baTumis profkavSirebs. 1920 wlis 29 marts
TviTmmarTvelobis SenobaSi gaimarTa profesiul kavSirTa
warmomadgenlebis konferencia. qveynis interesebs icavdnen
mejlisi da samuslimano saqarTvelos ganmaTavisuflebeli
komiteti. cxare kamaTi gaimarTa konferenciis rezoluciis
garSemo, romelSic dasmuli iyo sabWoTa ruseTTan baTumis
olqis SeerTebis sakiTxi [2, 114].
mosaxleobis saxeliT sityviT gamosulma jemal qiqavam
aRniSna— aWaris mSromelTa masebi Tqven, batono bolSevikebo,
ar gamogyvebaT; me vamtkiceb, rom Tqven Soris ar aris arc er-
Ti qarTveli muslimani da Tu aris vinme muslimani, is aris os-
196
maleTidan gamoqceuli avantiuristi, Turqi—panislamisti,
romlebTanac Tqven bloki gaqvT Sekruli da erTad lamobT
Cveni qveynis daRupvas [16].
TvalsaCinod warmoCnda bolSevikebisTvis saimedo da-
sayrdenad miCneuli baTumis profkavSirebis maTi xelidan ga-
moclis aucilebloba. SevniSnavT, rom saqarTvelos mmar-
Tvelma social—demokratiulma partiam sakmaod gvian Seafa-
sa profkavSirebis, rogorc muSaTa gamaerTianebeli organi-
zaciis roli ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobaSi. amis mizezi, ro-
gorc Cans, isic iyo, rom Tavdapirvelad baTumis olqis dab-
runebas varaudobdnen politikuri meTodebiT, magram Semdeg
igi saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis problemad gadaiqca. bolSe-
vikebmac isargebles seriozuli konkurentebis aryoliT da
memarcxene eserebTan erTad daepatronen baTumis profkavSi-
rebs, rac naTlad aCvena 1919 wlis pirvelmaisobam, agreTve,
agvistoSi Catarebulma profkavSirebis arCevnebma.
saqarTvelos xelisuflebam mxolod amis Semdeg gadai-
tana aqcenti dargobriv profkavSirebSi muSaobaze. baTumis
qarTvelTa erovnuli sabWos Sekrebaze mowveulebs daevalaT,
rom profkavSirebSi aerCiaT saTanado gamocdilebis sando
pirebi [5, 231].
gatarebulma RonisZiebebma sasurveli Sedegi gamoiRo
1920 wlis 20 ivniss, profkavSirebis baTumis sabWos arCevneb-
Si qarTvelebma damajereblad gaimarjves.
baTumis olqis dabrunebisaTvis brZola ukompromisod
mimdinareobda, saqarTvelo unda gamTlianebuliyo, mTeli
mecadineoba erisa da berisa upirvelesad am mizans unda mom-
saxureboda.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. S. murusiZe, baTumis olqis sakiTxi saqarTvelos demokra-


tiuli respublikis sagareo politikaSi (1918-1920 ww.),
krebulSi: `axali da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi~, # 2,
2007.
2. n. zosiZe, politikuri situacia da erovnul-ganmaTavi-
suflebeli moZraoba aWaraSi 1918-1920 ww., baTumi, 1995.
3. v. nozaZe, saqarTvelos aRdgenisaTvis brZola mesxeTis
gamo, Tbilisi, 1989.

197
4. Arsiv basbEakanlik Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, BEO 346469.
5. Борьба за победу Советской власти в Аджарии, Батуми, 1961.
6. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,
harvardis mikrofirebis fondi, s. 439.
7. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi, ^
fondi #1833,^ aRw. 1,^ saq. #852.
8. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi, ^
fondi #1883,^ aRw. 1,^ saq. #772.
9. Ggaz. saqarTvelos respublika,@^ 1920, #375^.
10. Ggaz. sabWoTa aWara,@^ 1990, #142^.
11. Ggaz. saxalxo saqme,^ 1919, #430^.
12. Ggaz. erToba,^ 1920, #42^.
13. Ggaz. erToba,@^ 1920, #66^.
14. Ggaz. erToba,^ 1920, #65.
15. Ggaz. samuslimano saqarTvelo,@^ 1920, #296^.
16. gaz. samuslimano saqarTvelo,@^ 1920, #328^.
17. Ggaz. samuslimano saqarTvelo,@^ 1920, #31^.
18. Ggaz. samuslimano saqarTvelo,@^ 1920, #341^.

Nugzar Zosidze
Doctor of History, Associate Professor of the
Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University,
Department of History, Archeology and Eth-
nology

Batumi District in the first part of year 1920

Summary

In the beginning of 1920, one of the actual subjects of Batumi district


political life was working on it’s administrative suitment. Remarkable is, that
from the start there was no common opinion among local national forces, for
example Haidar and Zia abashidze were thinking that inside Georgia,
Georgian Autonomy was not necessary, but the more numereous part was
thinking otherwise.
The appealing of idea of Georgia’s regions autonomy was conditioned
by Antanta countries’ Caucasian politics, which very often came to
contradiction in this Region. We may also say, that as locally, so in the central
198
government, they had blur impression of governing form of autonomy as in
Region’s administrative suitment. We would also add, that region’s
administrative suitment’s autonomous form was not an ideal version.
Comeback to the motherland in the region became significantly active
in 1920 year’s early spring. This was challanged by escalation of Batumi
subject on international arena.
In the conclusion we may say, that the fight for bringing Batumi district
back was uncompormising, that was bringing nationally and teritorially
divided Georgia back together.

199
nino RambaSiZe,
istoriisA doqtori, ivane javaxiSvi-
lis istoriisa da eTnologiis insti-
tutis saqarTvelos eTnologiis gan-
yofilebis ufrosi mecnier-Tanam-
Sromeli

vaxtang RambaSiZe — cxovreba da moRvaweoba

vuZRvni yvela im qarTvelis xsovnas, vinc sam-


SobloSi dabrunebis imediT gavida ama soflidan.

`saukunis meoTxedi swavlas movundi da momzadebas sam-


kurnalo da sazogado muSaobisaTvis. meore meoTxedi saukune
movandome samSobloSi muSaobas sneulTa da dasustebulTa
sikvdilis brWyalebidan gamosaglejad. mesame meoTxedi sau-
kunisa, mxolod erTi wlis gamoklebiT JamTa siavem, bunebis
sasjelad marguna ltolvilobaSi es uzenaesi sasjeli — Zvir-
fasi samSoblos moSorebisa...exla, rodesac unda gadavdo am
Cemi didi xnis ganzraxuli muSaobis Sesruleba, saukunis me-
oTxe meoTxedis Sesrulebamde xom ara?! amis ufleba ara maqvs
da arc SemiZlia viqonio...
didi madloba unda Sevswiro uzenaess Zalas, romelmac
amdeni xnis gamZleoba momaniWa.
am dRiuris weras mavalebs Cemi xangrZlivi arseboba am
qveynad da Tanac is garemoeba, rom Cven yvelani Svilni varT
patara da Zvirfasi saqarTvelosi, sadac piradad me ganvle
Segnebuli arsebobis naxevari saukune, sadac yoveldRe Cabmu-
li viyavi mis xilvaSi, grZnobaSi da sazogado cxovrebis ma-
jiscemis Tvalyuris gdebaSi, sadac saerTo mwuxarebas vizia-
rebdi samSoblos tanjvisas yvela Segnebul qarTvelTan er-
Tad da sadac agreTve vmxiarulebdi saerTo misi samxiarulo
wuTebis gancdis dros..~ — werda vaxtang RambaSiZe 1949w. Sot-
landiaSi [3].
1951w. agvistoSi vaxtang RambaSiZe Tavis erT-erT qaliS-
vils, JorJetas kvlav stumrobda kinloxSi, SotlandiaSi. 10
ricxvSi igi gardaicvala. vaxtangi JorJetasa da misi meuRlis
nil stuartis mamulSi dakrZales [2, 1]. ATavidan ki yvelaferi
ase iwyeboda:
200
vaxtang RambaSiZe 1872 w. 15/28 aprils zestafonSi, cno-
bili sasuliero pirisa da sazogado moRvawis, dekanoz daviT
(darispan) RambaSiZis ojaxSi daibada*. `did dekanozs~, ro-
gorc mas Tanamedroveebi eZaxdnen, seminariis dasrulebis
Semdeg, didi survili hqonda swavla ucxoeTSi gaegrZelebia
da eqimi gamxdariyo. magram, gabriel episkoposis didi Txov-
nis Semdeg, sasuliero piri gaxda. me ganaTlebuli sasuliero
pirebi mWirdebao — uTqvams gabriel episkoposs. is iseTi pi-
rovnebaa, rom mas uari ver vuTxario-Tavis mxriv uTqvams
ojaxSi daviTs. `sarwmunoebrivi gatacebiT da zneobrivi uze-
naesobiT gamsWvaluli misi arseba momajadoebel gavlenas ax-
denda yvelaze, visac — ki masTan axlo yofna uxdeboda~ — igo-
nebs vaxtangi. mRvdlad kurTxevamde daviT RambaSiZe Tbilis-
Si Cavida da colad aleqsandre yazbegis axlo naTesavi, olRaA
(guranduxt) yazbegi SeirTo. daaxloebiT 1867 w. maT TbilisSi
jvari daiweres da damkvidrdnen zestafonSi, sadac im drois-
Tvis maT garda am dabaSi maWavarianebis ori — sami ojaxi Tu
cxovrobda. rkinigzis gayvanis Semdeg, zestafonSi sicoc-
xles gafurCqvna dauwyia. vaxtangi ojaxSi meore vaJi iyo. igi
wiTel paraskevs dabadebula, rodesac kvercxebs Rebavdnen
Turme. misi pirveli maswavlebeli mama iyo. igi Svils jer qar-
Tulad aswavlida anbans, saRrmTo rjuls da angariSs, Semdeg
ki igives rusulad. vinaidan im dros qarTvelTa garusebis
mizniT mefis ruseTis mTavroba rusulad iTxovda swavlebas,
ymawvili gimnaziaSi garkveuli codniT unda Sesuliyo. wina-
aRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, misTvis ganaTlebis kari samudamod dake-
tili iyo.
1880 w. vaxtang RambaSiZe quTaisis progimnaziaSi Sevida.
marTalia progimnaziis yvela klasSi qarTuli, rogorc saga-
ni, kargad iswavleboda, magram moswavleebs Sesvenebaze sas-
tikad ekrZalebodaT erTmaneTSi qarTulad saubari. is, vinc
qarTulad dailaparakebda, mas zedamxedveli ajarimebda da
sajarimo baraTs gadascemda. dajarimebuls unda moexerxebi-
na misi sxvisTvis gadacema. mas, visac dRis bolos sajarimo ba-
raTi aRmoaCndeboda, usadilod tovebdnen. 8 wlis iyo vaxtan-
gi, rodesac am garemoSi aRmoCnda [3]. `gvyavda adamiani, rome-

*
gansakuTrebul madlobas movaxsenebT rezo nikolaZesa da nana Ram-
baSiZes mowodebuli masalebisaTvis.
201
lsac hqonda gaqaneba Rirsi Cvenis drois udidesi patrioti-
sa...~ [1, 109] `misi patriotuli moRvaweobis Sinaarsi qarTvel
xalxSi saarakod vrceldeboda~ [2, 1] — ase daweren vaxtangze
misi gardacvalebis Semdeg. Tavdadebamde misuli erovnuli
gancdebi TiTqosda genetikurad iyo masSi.
8 wlis vaxtangi progimnaziaSi dadgenil wess ar daemor-
Cila. Sesvenebebze qarTulad laparakobda da, miuxedavad imi-
sa rom usadilod rCeboda, arc sxvas gadascemda baraTs. piri-
qiT, mowafeebs amxnevebda ilaparakeT qarTulad, nurafris
SegeSindebaTo. rodesac SimSili gausaZlisi gaxda, igi gimna-
ziasTan axlos, erTi berZenisagan xaWapurs yidulobda. rode-
sac vaxtangis dasjis am meTodma ar gaWra, maSin pedagogi mas
leqsebs da prozaul nawyvetebs azepirebinebda, Tan ori saa-
Tis nacvlad oTx saaTs tovebda mSiers. vaxtangma xerxs mi-
marTAa — Sesvenebebze momavali dRis gakveTilebs amzadebda.
amgvarad, mas laparaki aRar uwevda da Sesabamisad aRarc ja-
rimdeboda. `gakveTilebis gaTavebis Semdeg, nasadilevs aua-
rebeli dro mrCeboda saTamaSod, savarjiSod, saWidaod da
yovelgvar gasarTobisaTvis~. maT Soris musikisaTvis. misi am-
xanagi vano faliaSvili (zaqarias Zma) pianinoze ukravda da am-
xanagebs arTobda.
quTaisis progimnaziis warmatebiT damTavrebis Semdeg,
vaxtang RambaSiZe quTaisis gimnaziaSi Sevida. gimnaziaSi swav-
lis garda, Jurnal `mwyemsis~ daarsebidanve mamas sagamomcem-
lo saqmeSi exmareboda. icoda asoebis awyoba, beWdva da awyo-
bisas gaparuli Secdomebis Sesworeba. iyo imdroindeli sa-
qarTvelos mniSvnelovani kulturuli da politikuri mov-
lenebis saqmis kursSi. misi TqmiT, 13 wlis iyo*, rodesac Tbi-
lisSi dimitri yifiani dakrZales. igi mamis, dekanoz daviTis
monaTxrobs ixsenebs dimitri yifianis dakrZalvis Sesaxeb,
romelic misi didi megobari yofila: `policielebi gadagve-
Robnen~ — uambobda dekanozi meuRles — `da ar gviSvebdnen sa-
saxlisaken kubo wagvesvenebia da iseTi wuTi dadga yvelani ai-
lesnen, damswreTa ukmayofilebas sazRvari ar honda da mec
damaviwyda Cemi xarisxic da anaforac da iseT gunebaze davde-

*
Tavis mogonebebSi igi wers, rom dimitri yifianis dakrZalvisas 13
wlis iyo. savaraudod igi 15 wlis unda yofiliyo, vinidan daibada
1872 w., xolo dimitri yifiani 1887w. gardaicvala.
202
qi, rom mzad viyavi xelCarTul brZolaSi CavrTuliyavi da
sxvisi iaraRic mexmara... bolos aleqsandre episkoposi miawva
policielebisagan gakrul kedels da jvriT gaapo maTi urCi
winaaRmdegoba~ [3]∗. am epizodSi ori udidesi qarTveli mwer-
lisa da sazoagdo moRvawis sulieri moZRvrebis pirovnuli
Tvisebebi da suliskveTeba Cans. episkoposi aleqsandre (oq-
ropiriZe) saqarTvelos ugvirgvino mefed wodebuli wminda
ilia marTlis (WavWavaZis) sulieri moZRvari iyo, xolo `didi
dekanozi~, daviT RambaSiZe, saqarTvelos bulbulad wodebu-
li akaki wereTlis.
davubrundeT quTaisis gimnazias. am gimnaziis direqto-
ri yvela Rones xmarobda, rom qarTveli mowafeebisaTvis xe-
li SeeSala, raTa maT swavlis gagrZeleba veRar moexerxebi-
naT. warCinebuli swavlis miuxedavad, direqtorma mainc moa-
xerxa, rom vaxtangs quTaisis gimnazia ar daemTavrebina. amis
mizezi misi erovnul, saymawvilo gazeT `ganTiadis~ gamocema-
Si monawilwoba gaxda. `didma dekanozma~ Svili TbilisSi waiy-
vana. vaxtang RambaSiZem gimnazia TbilisSi daamTavra, xolo
1896 w. Semodgomaze moskovis universitetis samedicino fa-
kulteti. mamis rCevbiT igi jer saqarTveloSi Camovida, Sem-
deg ki ori wliT (1896-1898) safrangeTSi gaemgzavra codnis
gasaRrmaveblad.
moskovSi swavlis dros igi e. w. internacionaluri wris
wevri iyo. am wreSi gawevrianebis ufleba mxolod: ukraine-
lebs, polonelebs, balkanelebs, serbebs, bulgarelebs da
qarTvelebs hqondaT. es jgufi miznad isaxavda erTmaneTis-
Tvis ATavianTi qveynis istoria da literatura `politikur
viTarebasTan SefardebiT~ gaecnoT.
jer kidev quTaisis gimnaziaSi yofnisas vaxtangma qar-
Tul samecniero terminologiaze da mis damkvidrebaze daiw-
yo muSaoba da zrunva. 1890 w. Jurnal `mwyemsis~ daxmarebiT
man sazogadoebas mimarTaA TxovniT daxmareboda qarTuli sa-


dimitri yifianis dakrZalvis Sesaxeb grigol lorTqifaniZe gan-
sxvavebul informacias iZleva. igi wers, rom rusi policielebis wre
qarTvelebma `SiSveli xmliT xelSi~ valerian gunias meTaurobiT
gaarRvies (g. lorTqifaniZe, `fiqrebi saqarTveloze~, Tbilisis uni-
versitetis gamomcemloba, Tb., 1995, gv. 56. masalis mowodebisaTvis
madlobas vuxdiT irine arabiZes).
203
mecniero terminologiis SeqmnaSi, rac sabolood qarTuli
enis mcodneTaA TandaswrebiT unda dasrulebuliyo. qarTul
samecniero terminologiaze muSaoba man ruseTSi swavlisas
gaagrZela. 1892 w. zamTris ardadegebze peterburgSi specia-
lurad Cavida, raTa am mizniT xelnawerTa wignTsacavSi qar-
Tul xelnawerebze emuSava. saamisod mas sWirdeboda Suam-
dgomloba, romelic daviT RambaSiZis `kargma nacnobma~ aleq-
sandre cagarelma misca. wignTsacavSi, vaxtangisve TqmiT, na-
yofierad umuSavia da bevri sagulisxmo masalac Seugrovebia
[3]. Tu ra bedi ewia SemdgomSi am masalas da Seqmna Tu ara man
leqsikoni CvenTvis ucnobia. erTi ki SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
1895 w. `mwyemsSi~ daibeWda misi werili mowerili mamisadmi. am
werilidan vigebT, rom mas wignTsacavSi meore welsac umuSa-
via. am muSaobis dros nanax xelnawerTa Soris erT — erTis:
`ganmzadebisaTvis soflisa da SeqmnisaTvis meoreTa naTel-
Ta~ teqsts agzavnis dasabeWdaT. `darwmunebuli var, rom is,
visac Zveli mwerlobis ena esmis, siamovnebiT waikiTxavs, xo-
lo visac ar esmis kargad qarTuli ena, is Seiswavlis mas amis-
Tana nawerebis kiTxviT~ [4, 7].
1898 w. `iveriaSi~ Cndeba statia, sadac avtori zemo ime-
reTis ugzoobas uCivis, rac bevri `advilad mosarCeni~ avad-
myofis daRupvas uwyobs xelso. Tumca statiis avtori iqve
aRmatebulad aRniSnavs: `magram RmerTma Sexeda ra Cvens aseT
gaWirvebuls mdgomareobas, Segvibrala da zecis mananasaviT
mogvivlina axalgazrda eqimi b-ni vaxtang RambaSiZe. b-ni Ram-
baSiZe bevrs sxva eqims ar hgavs; igi dauzarelia da muyaiTi;
ver SeaSinebs verc cudi dari da verc soflis uxeiro gza;
amasTanave igi Sedis sawylis xalxis mdgomareobaSi da xel-
mokle avadmyofs srulad aras axdevinebs, ise muqTad swam-
lobs xolme. amboben rom b-ni RambaSiZe SemdegisaTvis zesta-
fonSi, Tavis sakuTar saxlebSi, saavadmyofos gamarTvas api-
rebso. es xom saSviliSvilo saqme iqneba CvenTvis da vin das-
Tvlis, ramdens sikeTes moutans igi axlo — maxlo soflebs~
[5, 3]. parizidan axladCamosuli vaxtangi imTaviTve Caeflo
profesiul saqmianobaSi. parizSi yofnisas man SeirTo warmo-
SobiT amerikeli qalbatoni, vanda hope, romelic safrangeT-
Si 19 wlis asakSi Cavida. safrangeTSi igi franguli enis pro-
fesori gaxda. vanda meuRles saqarTveloSi gamohyva da `ise
SeiTvisa da Seiyvara saqarTvelo, qarTveloba da qarTuli
204
ena, rom bevri qarTveli qalisTvisac samagaliTo iyo igi am
mxriT... ar yofila qarTuli saqme romelSic mxurvale monawi-
leoba ar mieRoT vaxtangs da mis meuRles, da am maT Rvawls
siyvaruliT da madlobiT aRunazRaurebda maT erovnuli saq-
mis msaxuri qarTveloba~ [1, 80-81]. misi es Tvisebebi saqarTve-
loSi darCenil RambaSiZeebis ojaxSic icodnen da es codna
Taobebs gadaecema. vandas da vaxtangs sami qaliSvili: medea,
sunana, JorJeta da erTi vaJi, givi hyavdaT.
1898 w. safrangeTidan Camosuli vaxtang RambaSiZe rom
imTaviTve Caeba samedicino saqmianobaSi, rogorc aRvniSneT,
kargad Cans imdroindeli qarTuli presis furclebidan. igi
zestafonsa da mTel Sorapnis mazraSi eqimad muSaobda. `ive-
riis~ erT-erT nomerSi, pirvel gverdze gamoqveynebulia misi
gancxadeba pacientebis miRebis Sesaxeb. `eqimi v. RambaSiZe
iRebs Sinagan da sabavSvo avadmyofebs dilis 10-11 saaTamde
da saRamos 6-7 saaTamde. bina: baronis quCa # 22, didi vanqis
quCis kuTxesTan. telefoni 642~ [6, 1]. rogorc Cans 1903 wels
igi TbilisSi, dRevandel furcelaZis quCaze* cxovrobda.
amave gazeTidan irkveva, rom msaxiobi lado (vladimer) aleqsi
— mesxiSvili avad gamxdara da qarTul dramatul sazogadoe-
bas Tbilisidan quTaisSi vaxtang RambaSiZe gaugzavnia. Sem-
dgom l. aleqsi — mesxiSvili samkurnalod ucxoeTSi unda ga-
egzavnaT [6, 1-2]. rogorc Cans, vaxtangi am saqmeSi monawileob-
da.
vaxtang RambaSiZes rkinigzis erTi muSisTvis uwamlia da
mourCenia kidec. am muSas misi uwyebis eqimi, dimitri nazaro-
vi gulgrilad moqcevia, ris gamoc vaxtang RambaSiZisTvis mi-
umarTavs, visganac Svebac da kurnebac miuRia. Tumca, xsene-
bul muSas samuSaos gacdena arasapatiod CauTvales da samsa-
xuridanac gaanTavisufles. muSas Tavis mxriv nazarovisTvis
uCivlia. amas nazarovis vaxtangisadmi dapirispireba da Seu-
racmyofeli publikaciebi mohyva [7, 5-7; 8, 850-851; 9, 3; 10, 3-4;
11, 82; 12, 9-13; 13, 14-19]. am davas, rogorc Cans, `kvalSi~ gamoq-
veynebulma saredaqcio statiam daudo bolo.
ukve 1898 wlidan 26 wlis axalgazrda vaxtangi Tavisi mo-
mavali sanatoriumisTvis adgilis Zebnas iwyebs. rogorc mog-

*
madlobas vuxdiT nato cincabaZes yofili baronis quCis adgilmde-
bareobis dadgenaSi gaweuli daxmarebisaTvis.
205
vianebiT dawers, mas am saqmeSi gverdiT mama — dekanoz daviT
RambaSiZe edga. am saqmeSi mas mxars agreTve uWerdnen: akaki we-
reTeli, dekanozis uaxloesi megobari, sulieri Svili∗ [14,
384; 15, 62] da vaxtangis ufrosi qaliSvilis, medeas naTlia [3],
`eqimi samson Tofuria, gigo da aleqsandre diasamiZeebi, eqimi
grigol eliava da kondrat mxeiZe baTumSi da kidev ramodeni-
me piri. danarCenT yvelas ocnebad miaCndaT aseTi ganzraxva
da yovelTvis umatebdnen: eg saqme aq verasodes ver ixarebso~
[3].
sanatoriumis daarsebisTvis praqtikul samuSaoebs (Se-
saferisi adgilis Zebna) Teoriuli samuSaoc axlda Tan. amis
Sesaxebac imdroindeli perioduli presis furclebidan vi-
gebT. 1901 wlisTvis vaxtang RambaSiZes gamocemuli hqonia
wigni: `sanatoriumis daarsebis gegma~. `iveriis~ erT-erTi
publikaciis avtori, e. vaSakiZe vaxtangs Canafiqrs uwonebs da
mkiTxvels mouwodebs mas am saqmeSi mxarSi amoudges. bevrs ga-
jansaRebisTvis wamali ar Wirdebao — dasZens avtori [16, 2-3].
sanatoriumis daarsebis wina mosamzadebel samuSaoebze
saubrisas specialuri da jerovani aRniSvnis Rirsad migvaC-
nia vaxtang RambaSiZis mier imdroindeli presis furclebze
warmarTuli saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba, romelic miznad
isaxavda mosaxleobisaTvis elementaruli samedicino codnis
miwodebas, raTa maT SeZlebodaT garkveuli saxis daavadebebi
Tavidan aecilebinaT; uxsnida raoden sasikeToa higienisa da
profilaqtikuri zomebis dacva; cdilobda popularuli eniT
gaenaTlebina, daezRvia avadmyofobis garduvalobisagan da
amiT nugeSi, imedi mieca politikur da ekonomikur gansac-
delSi myofi xalxisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki soflad mcxovre-
bi, ubralo mosaxleobisaTvis. misi statiebi Jurnal `mwyem-
sSi~ sami wlis (1900-1903) ganmavlobaSi ibeWdeboda. ∗∗
vaxtang RambaSiZe janmrTelobas bunebis ganZs uwodebda
[17, 5] da cdilobda am ganZis dacvaSi daxmareboda misi usay-


dekanoz daviT RambaSiZe akakis sulieri mama da moZRvari iyo. cno-
bisa da Sesabamisi literaturis mowodebisTvis madlobas movaxse-
nebT bibi kinwuraSvils.
∗∗
mocemul sakiTxze im publikaciebze dayrdnobiT visaubrebT, rom-
lis mopovebac SevZeliT. zemoT aRniSnuli sami wlis ganmavlobaSi
gamocemul zogierT sagazeTo statias ver mivakvlieT.
206
varlesi qveynis Svilebs, risTvisac ZalRones ar iSurebda.
igi gazeTis mkiTxvelebs, gansakuTrebiT ki maT, visac Svilebi
hyavdaT,ATvdapirvelad Wleqze anu tuberkuliozze esaubre-
ba; daavadebaze romelic, misi TqmiT, ufro metad sasuliero
saswavleblebSi iyo gavrcelebuli. igi aqve amSvidebs mSob-
lebs da ganumartavs, rom Wleqi arc ise saSiSia, rogorc sa-
zogadoebaSi hgoniaT. statiis avtori ramdenime SekiTxvas
svams: ra uwyobs xels Wleqis gavrcelebas? ra saxis zomebi
unda SemoviRoT mis winaaRmdeg da rogor unda gavxadoT es
zomebi savaldebulo? pirveli, rac misi azriT unda gakeTdes
aris is, rom eqimma saswavleblebSi mowafeebis filtvebi we-
liwadSi 3-4 jer mainc unda moisminos avadmyofis `winaswari
gafrTxilebis~ mizniT. igi asaxelebs Wleqis gamomwvev im mi-
zezebs, romlebic medicinisTvis im dros iyo cnobili. esenia:
genetikurad susti filtvebi, gaciveba-filtvebis anTeba,
Wleqis bacilebian sadgomSi (binaSi) yofna, SexuTul haerSi
cxovreba, rigiani sazrdos uqonloba da sxva. pirveli mize-
zis garda, yvela danarCens vaxtang RambaSiZeA Tavidan advi-
lad asaSoreblad miiCnevs. Tvlis rom avadmyofobis profi-
laktikis saqmeSi mSoblebs bevri sasikeTo saqmis gakeTeba Se-
uZliaT [18, 1-3].
momdevno werilSi avtori ufro dawvrilebiT saubrobs
zemoT CamoTvlil Wleqis gamomwvev mizezebze; Tu ra da ro-
gori saxisaa memkvidreobiT gadacemuli daavadeba; saubrobs
Wleqis axlad aRmoCenil gadamdeb bacilaze. janmrTelobis-
Tvis mavne pirobebSi is CamoTvlis da asaxelebs: 1) antisani-
tarias, binis siviwroves, SexuTul haers, sibneles da nests. 2)
saWmel-sasmelis uvargisobas da ar qonas. aseve tansacmlis
uvargisobas. 3) gadaWarbebul da organizmisTvis Seusabamo
samuSaos. gonebriv gadaRlilobas, dards, siRaribes. 4) avad-
myofobebi, romlebic asusteben adamians, gansakuTebiT mis
sasunTq gzebs: xSiri surdo, bronxiti, plevriti da sxva. 5)
gadaWarbebuli Rvinis sma da sxva. avtori aqve ganumartavs
mkiTxvels Tu rogor SeiZleba naxvelis meSveobiT meore ada-
mianze gadavides Wleqis bacila. am sakiTxTTan dakavSirebiT
Tnamedrove medicinis miRwevebsac iSveliebs. Zalze sainte-
resod gveCveneba is rCevebi, romlebic sakvebs exeba. eqimi
mkiTxvels urCevs xarisa da Zroxis xorci, gansakuTrebiT Sig-
neuli, kargad moxarSos an Sewvas, Zroxis rZe kargad aduRos,
207
raTa bacilebi ar gadavides masze. Tvlis, rom mkurnalobis
saqmeSi sxva qveynebis gamocdilebac unda dainergos CvenSi.
avtori specialurad mimarTavs samRvdeloebas da saWi-
ro wesebis dacvas sTxovs, zogierTis `sakuTari dadgenile-
biT~, zogisac ki mTavrobasTan SeTanxmebiT. esenia:
1. `saswavleblis eqimma yovel 3 TveSi gulmodgined ga-
sinjos mowafeebi. Tu mowafes raime niSnebi SeeniSneba, dau-
yovneblad mieces yvelaferSi gansxvaveba: Sroma, sazrdo, bi-
na. es yvelaferi sxvebisgan gansxvavebuli unda mieces~ [17, 3].
2. moswavleTa binebis daTvalierebis dros yuradReba
mieqces mis mdebareobas, sinaTles, haeris moZraobas, aris Tu
ara sivrce sakmarisi, mobinadreTa raodenobas, ezos sanita-
rul mdgomareobas da sxva. binas weliwadSi orjer komisia un-
da aTvalierebdes, romlis SemadgelobaSi eqimi aucileblad
unda iyos, raTa pansionebSi oTaxebi swored, zemoTqmulis
gaTvaliswinebiT, unda moewyos. siTbos SesanarCuneblad SeSa
ar unda iyos dazogli, vinaidan SeSis dazogvis magivrad ada-
miani unda davzogoTo.
3. sust da riskis jgufSi myof mowafeebs SeRavaTebi un-
da mieceT. `maTTvis marxva nu iqneba aucilebeli. mas, sanam
wamloba esaWiroeba, marxvaSi marto samarxvo saWmlis Wama nu
moeTxoveba~ [17, 4]. riskis jgufSi myofi mowafeebi unda gan-
Tavisufldnen momqancavi samuSaosagan. isini pansionSi yof-
nis SemTxvevaSi unda gadaiyvanon kerZo binaze, xolo Tu ker-
Zo binaSi arian, maTi sacxovrebeli pirobebi unda eTanxmebo-
des zemoT CamoTvlil normebs. Tu saswavlebeli amas ver
axerxebs, Seqmnili mdgomareobis Sesaxeb auwyon moswavlis
mSoblebs. dauZlurebuli moswavle jobs saswavlebelma ar
miiRos. `SeiZleba mSobels erCios didxans uyuros uswavlel
Svils, vidre naswavli naadrevad damarxos~.
4. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu pedagogi Tavadaa daavadebuli, man
aucileblad unda iqonios `jibis safurTxi~ sadizinfeqcio
saSualebiT da yovelTvis masSi agrovebdes naxvels.
5. saswavlebels da oTaxebs weliwadSi oTxjer gaukeT-
des dizinfeqcia im teqnikuri saSualebebiT, romlebic im
droisaTvis saukeTesod iTvleboda. `winaswar naxmar Ronis-
ZiebebiT, rogorc Wleqis SemTxvevaSi, aseve sxvadasxva daava-
debebis dros, bevrs igebs adamiani. amitom saswavleblis eqimi
mudam sadarajoze unda iyos mozardis janmrTelobis~ [17, 5].
208
avtori gamoTqvams mosazrebas, rom im droisaTvis `ime-
reTis samRvdeloebis warmomadgenelTa krebaze es sakiTxi
rom daisvas da sadac jer ars gaigzavnos Suamdgomloba raime
zomebis SemosaRebad, kargi iqneba. marTalia aseTi ram pirve-
lad moxdeba, magram viRacam xom unda daiwyos. daJinebaa saWi-
ro, rom uzrunvelobis sasTumalze myofi Cveni adamiani saer-
To saqmis gasakeTeblad wamoiweodes~ [17, 5].
amave statiaSi vaxtang RambaSiZe gamoTqvams imeds, rom
tuberkuliozis prevenciasa da higienaze SesaZloa gamosces
wigni. CvenTvis Zneli sTqmelia ra bedi ewia mis Canafiqrs.
Semdeg werilSi vaxtang RambaSiZe aRniSnavs, rom xalxi
CvenSi ucodinrobis gamo udierad eqceva sakuTar janmrTe-
lobas, rasac ganaTlebiT unda SevebrZoloTo. vinaidan, sam-
wuxarod Cveni saswavleblebi am mxriv araviTar codnas ar iZ-
levian, rac ucxourSi ukve danergilia, xalxSi samedicino ga-
naTleba beWdurma sityvam, mRvdlebma da maswavleblebma un-
da gaavrcelono [19, 6]. yvelgan, Segnebul qveynebSi, Tavisi
Tavis movla rom SeZlon, momaval Taobas codnas aZleven. am-
denad, codna sayovelTao xdeba. `Cveni moswavle cxra mTas
iqiT momxdar ambavs ATamamaT mogiyvebaT da Tavis cxvirs ro-
gor unda mouaros gacivebis dros-imas ki veras getyviT~- da-
nanebiT werda vaxtang RambaSiZe da mkiTxvels ganumartavda,
rom sakvebs, sasmels da sxvas SerCeva da zomierad sWirdeba
moxmareba. `kuWi xalTa ar aris da yvelafers ver miiRebs~ [20,
12-13]. swored samedicino ganaTlebis xalxSi ukeT gasavrce-
leblad aurCevia mas Jurnali `mwyemsi~, vinaidan es ukanaskne-
li ZiriTadad soflis mosaxleobisa da soflis sasuliero
pirebisaTvis iyo gankuTvnili. vaxtang RambaSiZis mocemuli
statiidan irkveva, rom 1867 wlamde sasuliero seminariaSi
`saeqimo mecnierebis~ swavleba yofila SemoRebuli. mas 2
wlis ganmavlobaSi aswavlidnen. amgvar gadawyvetilebas me-
tad praqtikuli da humanuri safuZveli edo. medicinaSi gaT-
viTcnobierebul mRvdels ueqimobis pirobebSi mrevlis dax-
mareba unda SeZleboda. mogvianebiT sagani gauuqmebiaT, vinai-
dan CauTvliaT, rom TiTqos zogierT sabunebismetyvelo sa-
gans SeiZleba cudi zneobrivi zegavlena hqonoda maTze. mog-
vianebiT gairkva, rom im sasuliero pirebs, visac samedicino
ganaTleba hqondaTA seminariaSi miRebuli, didi sargebeli
mohqondaT AmrevlisaTvis. amis gamo, zogierT seminariaSi
209
kvlav ganaxlebula sagnis swavleba. amave mizniT xsenebul sa-
gans pedagogiur saswavleblebSic aswavlidnen, Tumca versad
sakmaod da rigianad [21, 13-14].
vaxtang RambaSiZe or sagazeTo publikacias orsulobisa
da Cvilis movlis sakiTxebs uTmobs. gulistkiviliT aRniS-
navs, rom 13 wlis mozardi gogonas gaTxoveba dauSvebelia da
misi janmrTelobisTvis saziano. am asakSi gaTxovil mozards
14 wlisas ukve bavSvi uCndeba. jer kidev Camoyalibebis pro-
cesSi myofi organizmi did jafas ganicdis. pirvel bavSvs
momdevno mSobiarobebi mosdevs da organizmic naadrevad zi-
andeba [22, 13-14].
vinaidan vaxtangi Tvlida, rom CvenSi im dros orsulobi-
sa da bavSvis movlis Sesaxeb ucodinaroba iyo, man erTi sta-
tia bavSvTa kvebas dauTmo. ZuZuTi kvebis wesebze da sargeb-
lianobaze saubris garda, igi xelovnur kvebasac Seexo. av-
torma mkiTxvels safrangeTSi eqim diufuris mier bavSvTAa
usafrTxo, higienuri, xelovnuri kvebis Sesaxeb danergili we-
si gaacno. diufuris saxlebs, romlebic ZuZuTa bavSvebisTvis
rZes amzadebdnen, `rZis wveTi~ erqva. statiis avtori qarTul
sazogadoebasac mouwodebda amgvari saxlebis gaxsnisaken [23,
3-6].
xalxSi samedicino ganaTlebis gavrcelebasTan dakavSi-
rebiT gamoqveynebuli bolo statiebi vaxtang RambaSiZem
avadmyofobis, janmrTelobis raobisa da nairgvarobis gan-
martebas dauTmo. igi mkiTxvels uxsnida, rom arsebobs adgi-
lobrivi avadmyofobebi, romlis gaCenas geografiuli mdeba-
reoba, niadagi, hava... uwyobs xels. arseboben drois cvlile-
bebiT (sicxe, sicive, nesti anu klimati) gamowveuli daavade-
bebi, gaufrTxileblobis seni (daudevrobiT da gaufrTxi-
leblobiT gamowveuli) `uilajobis, siRaribis seni~, `siWar-
bis, siuxvis seni~. Tu siRaribis seni ufro Sesawynarebelia, am
ukanasknelis ar aris, vinaidan igi `sixarbiTa da simsunagi-
Taa~ gamowveulio [24, 14-15]. igi aRniSnavs, rom qalaqis cudi
pirobebiT yvelaze metad bavSvebi ziandebian. miuxedavad imi-
sa, rom TiTqos saswavleblebSi fizikuri varjiSi da mogzau-
robaa SemoRebuli, magram `usufTao haerze varjiSoba-moZra-
oba da aTasSi erTxel mogzaurobas, an ki ra sargebloba moh-
yveba?! amas mxolod maSin eqneboda mniSvneloba, rom igi Se-
fardebuli iyos TviToeuli sxeulis mdgomareobasTan. anu
210
vis ra sWirdeba janmrTelobidan gamomdinare. ucxoeTSi sxva-
dasxva saSualebaa danergili axalgazrdebis janmrTelobis
gasaumjobeseblad. maT Soris movixseniebT erTs, romelsac
didixania didi kargi Sedegi mohyva. es aris sazafxulo axal-
Senebis sazafxulo samyofebis gamarTva mozard qal-vaJTaT-
vis. momaval nomerSi gavacnobT mkiTxvels ras warmoadgens es
saSualeba, ra aris misi umTavresi mizani da daniSnuleba, ra
Sedegi mohyva am saqmes ucxoeTSi da rogor sasurvel saSua-
lebadaa igi dasaxuli dRes mecnierebisagan~ [25, 20-22]. samwu-
xarod `mwyemsis~ Semdegi nomeri dazianebulia da xsenebuli
statia veRar vipoveT.
amgvarad, vaxtang RambaSiZe sazogadoebis gajansaRebi-
saTvis dauRalavi zrunvis saqmeSi miadga im moments, rodesac
misi ocneba unda asrulebuliyo. rodesac sazogadoebis ga-
jansaRebaze zrunva axal, ufro maRal safexurzeA unda asu-
liyo. rodesac Rrma, Tnamedrove evropul gamocdilebaze
dafuZnebuli kvlevebi praqtikaSi unda ganxorcielebuliyo.
1904w. vaxtangma mamis daxmarebiT `patara cemSi~ borjo-
mis xeobaSi pirveli qarTuli sanatoriumi aaSena. sanatoriu-
mis gaxsna da kurTxeva amave wlis 15 ivnisisTvis iyo gadawyve-
tili. saerTo zeimSi monawileobis misaRebad akakisac elode-
bodnen, magram moulodnelad misi eqimi, samson Tofuria gar-
daicvala. `ase uceb umTavresi ATnamgrZnobi gamogvecala am
axali wamowyebis, ramac Zalian daaziana Cveni axali saqme~ —
werda vaxtangi. samson Tofuria pirveli iyo, visac mTel qu-
Taisis guberniaSi samkurnalo saxli hqonda gaxsnili. samson
Tofuriam am saxliT yvelas daumtkica, rom samkurnaloSi da-
wola aramc Tu saSiSi, aramed sasargebloao — werda vaxtangi.
Turme akaki wereTeli didad ar swyalobda eqimebs, magram mi-
si piradi eqimisadmi pativiscema da ndoba didi hqonda. am sam-
kurnalo saxlSi erTi oTaxi akakisTvis iyo gamoyofili. iqve,
am oTaxSi gitarac yofila. Turme, iq yofnis dros akakisTan
yoveldRe varenka wereTeli (barbare maWavariani-wereTlisa)
dadioda da poetis leqsze daweril sakuTar simReras, `suli-
kos~, umReroda. Turme, swored samson Tofurias samkurnalo
saxlidan gavrcelebula es popularuli simRera. samson To-
furia Tvlida, rom akakis gulis avadmyofobisaTvis simRera
wamali iyo [3].

211
marTalia patara cemis sanatoriumi im drois qarTuli
sazogadoebis sayvareli adgili iyo da yvelas, visTvisac iq
yofna sasargeblo iyo, guli miuwevda, magram es dasasvenebe-
li saxli 8-16 wlis ymawvilebisTvis aSenda. sanatoriumi da iq
mkurnaloba mecnierulad dasabuTebuli da gaangariSebuli
iyo; eyrdnoboda im drois Tanamedrove kurortologiis miR-
wevebs. mozardebis mkurnalobasTan erTad yovel wels 150
mozardze dakvirveba da miRebul Sedegebze dayrdnobiT
kvleviTi samuSaoc warmoebda. 1904 wels, sanatoriumis daar-
sebamde, momavali kurortis modeli vaxtang RambaSiZem `lei-
sonSi, Sveicariul sanatoriumTaA axleburi modelis mixedviT
Seadgina~. amisTvis mas leisonSi mTeli weli umuSavia [26, 32].
dakvirvebebs da kvlevebs vaxtang RambaSiZe or frang mecni-
erTan ATnamSromlobiT awarmoebda. sorbonis profesor al-
fred binesTan da eqim alfons laveranTan. es ukanaskneli Wa-
obis ciebis gamomwvev mizezebs ikvlevda da tropikuli daava-
debis saukeTeso mcodne da msoflioSi ganTqmuli eqimi iyo.
alfred bines surda gaerkvia Tu ra cvlilebebs iwvevs sis-
xlSi mTis hava. ra gansakuTrebul gavlenas axdens mTis mze
sunTqvasa da filtvebSi mimdinare procesebze. bine labora-
toriis pirobebSi cdilobda ewarmoebina cdebi, magram es ra
Tqma unda mas ver daakmayofilebda. bine vaxtangs eubneboda,
rom amgvari dakvirveba maRalmTian raionSi aravis uwarmoebia
da Tu Tqven amas gamoikvlevT, did saqmes gaakeTebTo. man vax-
tangs masalis erTad damuSaveba da kvlevis Sedegebis saku-
Tar krebulSi dabeWdva aRuTqva.
laverans ainteresebda Waobis ciebiT daavadebulebze,
maT sisxlze, rogor moqmedebda maRalmTiani hava da vaxtang
RambaSiZes urCevda, rac SeiZleba maRal simaRleze aeSenebia
sanatoriumi, vinaidan saqarTveloSi Waobis cieba Zlier aris
gavrcelebulio. rodesac vaxtangs misTvis uTqvams, rom mas
sanatoriumis aSeneba 1400m-ze* hqonda navaraudevi, laverans
misi gadawyvetileba gauziarebia da mouwonebia [3].
1905 w. vaxtang RambaSiZe periodul presaSi aqveynebs
gancxadebas sanatoriumis pirobebis Sesaxeb. Cveni azriT, es
publikacia scildeba gancxadebis farglebs. masSi mokled,
magram TvalnaTliv da aSkaradaa gadmocemuli Tu rogori sa-

*
patara cemi 1370m-zea zRvis donidan[32. 107].
212
medicino safuZvlebi edo sanatoriumis gaxsnas, ramdenad
Rrmad efuZneboda misi Semqmneli imdroindeli kurortolo-
giis miRwevebs. amis gamo xsenebuli gancxadeba srulad gvinda
movitanoT Cvens statiaSi.
`sanatoriumi da sazafxulo samyofi eqimis vaxtang d.
RambaSiZisa mozard qal-vaJTaTvis 8-16 wlamde `patara-cemSi~
bakurianis rkinis gzazed sazafxulo mTis sadguri 4400 fu-
tis simaRleze (gancxadeba).
`patara-cemi~ mdebareobs borjomis xeobaSi TrialeTis
qedis erT-erT kalTaze, bakurianis rkinis gzazed, sadgur ni-
kolaevisa da sakoWavs Soris, maRlob vakezed, 4400 futis, anu
1340 metris simaRlezed (230 futiT maRalia abasTumanze).
am adgilis mdebareoba, rogorc mTeli xeobisa, metad
moxdenilia da lamazi. `patara-cemi~ warmoadgens mTebiT Se-
mozRudul gaSlil vakes, fiWvnariT Ada naZvnariT garSemor-
tymuli, mTel dRes mziT ganaTebulia da civi qarisaganac da-
faruli, niadagi mSrali da notierebas moklebuli aqvs, hava
mudam grilia da siTbo-sicivec metad zomieri; haeri sufTa,
mCate da saamo, adgili myudro da yovel xmaurobas moklebu-
li. Suaze miudis bakurianis rkinis gza.
aq aris aSenebuli sanatoriumisaTvis didi Senoba, sava-
Jo da saqalebo ganyofilebiT, samxreTisaken miqceuli, mTel
dRes mziT ganaTebuli, romelSiac dRe da Rame haeri moZra-
obs da icvleba. sanatoriums aqvs sakuTari samecniero labo-
ratoria da meteorologiuri sadguri.
sanatoriums da sazafxulo sadgoms miznad aqvs gauad-
vilos mozardis agebulebas dasveneba da janmrTelobis mo-
poveba, rom bunebrivis saSualebiT da higienur pirobebSi
cxovrebiT gamoswordes is nakli, rac sxeulSi an avadmyofo-
biT aris gamowveuli, an cxovrebis Seuferebel pirobebiT; da
amnairad xeli Seuwyos sxeulis ganaxlebasa da wesier muSao-
bas, fizikur keTildReobis misaRwevad.
miiRebian: vinc aris naavadmyofari, sxva da sxva sneule-
bisagan daRlili-dasustebuli, metadre visac gamovlili
aqvs ganmeorebiTi: influenca, bronxiti, filtvis sxva da sxva
avadmyofoba; vinc mada-dakargulia, sisxl-naklulebi, nerveb
aSlili, Waobis ciebiT anu tyirpis gadidebiT dasustebuli;
visac sxeuli dasZabunebia haeris, sinaTlis da sazrdos nak-
lebulobiT an cxovrebis Seuferebel pirobebiT; stomaqisa
213
da nawlavebis AaSlilobiT dasneulebuli, gonebiT moqanculi
da saerTod yvelani, visac-ki samkurnalo mecnierebis rCeviT
esaWiroeba haeris gamocvla, dasveneba, sxeulis gamagreba da
qalaqis morideba cxel zafxulis TveebSi.
ar miiRebian: mwoliare avadmyofni, romelime gadamdeb
seniT Sepyrobilni, filtvis siWleqiT daavadmyofebulni,
suliT avadmyofni da arc isini, visac romelime mizezis gamo
maRal mTa-adgils yofna sargeblobas ver moutans.
samkurnalo saSualebaT aris dasaxuli Semdegi:
1) mTis wminda haeri, mCate, grili, fiWvis suniT Sezave-
buli da yovelgvar usufTaobas moSorebuli; dRe sul gared
yofna, Rame ki Ria fanjarebian saxlSi wola.
2) gonebisa da sxeulis dasveneba, sruli myudroeba,
Suagul tyeSi yofna, usiamovno xmaurobis moSorebiT.
3) gadaWarbebuli sazrdooba dReSi eqvsjer: sauzme
dilis 7.s., meore 10s., sadili 1s., samxari 4s., vaxSami 7s., da me-
eqvse ijarac 9 saaTzed.
4) wyliT eqimoba: tanis dazela, duSi da abano, haeris
abano (Luft-bad, Bain d'air).
5) sxva da sxva gvari Seqceva —A TamaSoba evropidan gamo-
werili moZravi saTamaSoebis saSualebiT, ucxoeTis savarji-
So sazogadoebaTaA gegmis mixedviT.
6) samkurnalo varjiSoba stokholmis savarjiSo mTa-
var institutSi langis mier SemoRebul gegmisamebr.
7) saxaliso da gasarTobi samuSao da sxva da sxva xel-
saqme, saadvilo da sxeulisaTvis margebeli, TviTeulis age-
bulebasTan SerCeuli. msurvelTaTvis fotografiuli oTaxi.
8) jgufebad seirnoba da mogzauroba yovel or-sam
dRes axlo midamoebSi.
9) yovel dRes axlad motanili madneuli wylebi: bor-
jomis mJave da waRveris rkinis wyali, eqimis daniSnulebisa-
mebr.
10) sxva wamlebiT eqimoba mxolod aucilebel saWiroe-
bis dros.
yovelive zemoxsenebuli saSualeba SemoRebulia mecnie-
rebisagan damtkicebul wesisamebr, swarmoebs eqimis mudmiv
xelmZRvanelobiT da kerZod TviTeulis agebulebasTan Se-
fardebiT.

214
kviraSi erTxel TviTeuli sanatoriumSi myofi dawvri-
lebiT isinjeba eqimisagan, Tnac samecniero iaraRebiT aRiniS-
neba is TandaTani cvlileba, rac daetyoba, Rones, mkerdis
sisrules, sulisTqmas, gulisa da majis cemas da sxva.
yovelive zemoxsenebuli, rogorc xangrZlivma gamocdi-
lebam daamtkica ucxoeTis yvela kuTxeebSi da mecnierebamac
gamoarkvia, sxvagvar wamlobazed ufro warmatebiT hkurnavs
zemod aRniSnul sneulebaT ase rom, exla yvelsagan sasargeb-
lod aris dasaxuli sanatoriumebis bunebrivi mkurnaloba,
rasac Semdeg mohyveba xolme Semdegi cvlilebebi: yovel mo-
zards emateba wona, Zala da Rone, uganivrdeba mkerdi, umag-
rdeba kunTebi, sxeulis sazrdooba umjobesdeba. modunebul
agebulebas simarjve emateba da gonebas sifxizle, xasiaTi
mSviddeba da swordeba, tol-amxanagebSi yofniT erToba da
zneobrivad iwvrTneba, da rasakvirvelia yovelives es didaT
xels uwyobs da awinaurebs sxeuliTac, gonebiTac da zneobri-
vadac mozardis agebulebas.
wasvlisas TviTeuls Sesaferisi darigeba eZleva, ro-
gorc unda mouaros Tavis Tavs momavalSi.
yvelani iyofebian jgufebad Ronis, sqesisa da wlovano-
bis mixedviT. TviTeul jgufs hyavs sakuTari Tvalyuris
mgdebeli da yvelas ki saerTod — mudmivi xelmZRvaneli-eqimi.
sanatoriumSi da sazafxulo samyofSi dadgenili wes-ri-
gi yvelasaTvis savaldebuloa. vinc ar daeTanxmeba mas, unda
miatovos es dawesebuleba erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi.
es wes-rigi, roemlsac miznad aqvvs sxeulis keTildReo-
ba, advili SesaTvisebelia da momavlisaTvisac sasargeblo:
sxeuli pataraobiTve eCveva sicivis atanas, rigianad sma-Wa-
mas, sasargeblo moZraobas, wesier moZraobas, wesier muSaobas
da saerTod higienur cxovrebas.
samkurnalod daniSnulia zafxulis Tveebi: 15 ivlisid-
gan 31 mariamobisTvemde. miiRebian msurvelni ori TviTA da
naxevriT da ori TviTac.
misaReb pirTa ricxvi gansazRvrulia.
fasi pataraTaTvis Tviurad xuTi Tumania, xolo moz-
rdilTaTvis eqvsi Tumani, amaSia nagulisxmevi: sadgomi, lo-
gini, sazrdo, ganaTeba, wyliT eqimoba, sarecxis darecxa,
wylebi, wamlebi da saerTod yovel-mxrivi movla da eqimoba.

215
visac hsurs samkurnalod mosvla, windawinve unda ga-
mogzavnos avadmyofis sruli aRweriloba da adgilobrivi
eqimis werlic. sabolood gardawyveta miRebis Sesaxeb mxo-
lod avadmyofis piradad naxvis Semdeg aris SesaZlebeli.
TviTeuls unda mohyves Tan: orgvari tanisamosi: sazaf-
xulo da erTi Tbili, TeTreuli 4-6-mde, oroli fexsacmeli,
maTSi erTi uquslo, Wilis qudi mzeSi saxmarad da, Tu SesaZ-
loa magari tilos zevidgan Casacmeli tanisamosi saTamaSod.
yovel kviras mSoblebs gaegzavnebaT werili sanatoriu-
mis eqimisagan da euwyebaT maTi Svilis mdgomareobis ambavi.
dawvrilebiTi cnobebis SesatyobaT msurvelT unda mi-
marTon eqims vaxtang daviTis Ze RambaSiZes maisis 31-de qalaq
Tbiliss, Semdeg — ki borjomiT patara cemis sanatoriumSi.
misavali gza: borjomidan ori saaTis savalze, bakuria-
nis rkinis gziT, me-25 versze sadgur nikolaevis Semdeg saku-
Tari baqania patara-cemSi, sadac yoveli saxalxo matarebeli
Cerdeba sakuTrad sanatoriumisaTvis.
matareblis mimosvla: borjomidgan gadis 9s. 7w. `pata-
ra — cemis~ sanatoriumSi midis 1s. 13w., patara-cemiTgan gamo-
dis naSuadRevis 1s. 19w. da borjoms midis 3s. 29w. saWiroebis
dagvarad dadis meore matarebeli: borjomidgan gadis naSu-
adRevis 5s. 28w. `patara-cemis~ sanatoriumSi modis saRamos
7s. 32; patara cemidgan gamodis saRamos 9s. 45w. borjoms mo-
dis Ramis 11s. 33w.
adresi: fostiT: borjomiT — `patara-cems~ eqims v. Ram-
baSiZes. telegrafiT: borjomi RambaSiZes~ [27, 395-398; 427-
430].*
aRwers ra v. veliaminoviCi borjomis xeobis sakurorto
ATvisebebs, aRniSnavs, rom miuxedavad imisa, rom 1901 wlisTvis
saqarTveloSi jer erTi balneologiuri sadguria (borjomi,
samefo ojaxis mamuli), ar gava aTi weli, rom aq aRmocendeba
sxva kurortebic, kerZod cemSi, cagerSi, bakurianSi, cixis-
jvarSi [28, 6-7].
xsenebuli wignis gamosvlidan erTi wlis Semdeg mTavro-
bas gadauwyvetia cemSi rkinigzis muSebisaTvis tuberkulio-
zis samkurnalod sanatoriumis daarseba. 1903 w. aq da bakuri-

*
gancxadeba or nomerSia (#14 da #15) gamoqveynebuli. orive statia
identuria. gancxadebis stili daculia.
216
anSi barakebSi da karvebSi, TiTqmis savele pirobebSi, moaTav-
ses avadmyofebi da daarsda sanitaruli sadguri. e. fedorovi
aRniSnavs, rom 1904 w. eqimma RambaSiZem `patara cemSi~ gaxsna
kerZo sanatoriumi, `sazafxulo bavSvTa koloniiT~ da saku-
Tari plaTformiT, romlis saxeli Sors gascda kavkasiis far-
glebs. cemis gaSlil platoze sofelia. mas gars tyis masivebi
ertya. am tyeSi uxvad iyo: fiWvi, naZvi, soWi. aseve wifela, mu-
xa, rcxila, panta da maJalo [29. 53]. e. fedorovis TqmiT, rTu-
li iyo tyis masivis gamoyeneba sanatoriumis mSeneblobisa da
cemidan bakurianamde gzis gasayvanad, Tumca, im droisaTvis,
aRniSnavs igi xazgasmiT, vaxtang RambaSiZem samkurnalo sax-
lis tyeSi ganTavseba moaxerxao [29, 3-4, 13].
cemis plato CrdiloeTis mxridan gaSlilia, samxreTiT
maRldeba. horizonti Zlier gaSlilia. plato adriani dili-
dan gvian saRamomde mzis sxivebis zemoqmedebis qveSaa. hori-
zontis gaxsnilobis gamo, Tavisuflad niavdeba kurortis
mTeli teritoria. `cemis nayofier samkurnalo pirobebs di-
dixania miaqcies yuradReba da jer kidev 1904 w. cemSi gaixsna
rkinigzis sanatoriumi, romelic dRemde funqcionirebs~ —
wers m. nodia [31, 58-59] da arafers ambobs patara cemis sana-
toriumsa da mis damfuZnebelze.
wignis avtorebi `gamoCenili qarTveli kurortologe-
bi~ qveynisTvis WeSmaritad Rvawlmosil da pativcemul pi-
rovnebebze saubroben, romelTa Rvawli dafasebisa da aRniS-
vnis Rirsia. Tumca arc am wignSi, romelic 1981 welsaa dawe-
rili, rodesac politikuri devna aRar iyo mwvave da bevri ra-
mis Tqma da dawera SeiZleboda, vaxtang RambaSiZe naxsenebic
ki araa. arc borjomis xeobaSi pirveli sanatoriumi. ufro me-
tic, am wignSi vkiTxulobT: `mxolod XIX saukuneSi aSenda
Cvens miwa-wyalze TiTo-orola sasaxle mefis dinastiisa da
mdidari vaWrebis sakeTildReod...
kurortebis namdvili, gegmazomieri ganviTareba daiwyo
mxolod sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Semdeg, mas Semdeg,
rac 1919 w. martis dekretiT samkurnalod gamosadegi wylebi,
mdinareebi, tyeebi, mTebi da sxva bunebrivi simdidreebi sa-
xelmwifoebriv sakuTrebad gamocxadda da mSromeli xalxis
janmrTelobis samsaxurSi Cadga. amrigad kurortologia, ro-
gorc mecniereba, sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirmSoa.

217
saqarTveloSi bunebrivi samkurnalo saSualebebis mec-
nieruli Seswavla, kurortebis dagegmareba da mSenebloba
mxolod 1921 w. damdegs daiwyo. dRes, rodesac arc Tu ise So-
reuli warsulis aRdgenas vcdilobT, vxedavT, rom masala Za-
lian cota mogvepoveba...~ [32, 3]. Tumca, fedorovis wigni da
qarTuli perioduli presa, sadac naTladaa aRniSnuli vax-
tang RambaSiZesa da mis sanatoriumze, romlis Sesaxebac kav-
kasiis farglebs gareTac icodnen, arsebobda da xelmisaw-
vdomic iyo. 1919 w. xsenebuli dekretis gamocxadebis wina
wels is, rac patara cemis sanatoriumSi moxda, erTgvar `mo-
samzadebel samuSaod~ gvesaxeba. vaxtang RambaSiZis mogonebe-
bidan vigebT, rom 1918 w. gabolSevikebulma jariskacebma,
mTeli soflis monawileobiT, mTlianad gaZarcves sanatori-
umi [3].
`oqtombris did socialistur revoluciamde es (igu-
lisxmeba borjomi da misi xeoba-n.R.) iyo sayvareli kuTxe
zafxulobiT drois satareblad titulosani muqTaxorebi-
saTvis. ramdenime mdidari vila mkveTrad gamoirCeoda ku-
rortis danarCeni nawilisagan, romlis keTilmowyobaze ara-
vin fiqrobda.
sabWoTa xelisuflebam yvela piroba Seqmna kurortis
ganviTarebisa da keTilmowyobisaTvis, aago sanatoriumebi da
dasasvenebeli saxlebi, gadaaqcia borjomi Cveni qveynis jan-
mrTelobis erT-erT saukeTeso kerad~-werda n. yifSiZe [33, 6].
aratitulosani `muqTaxorebidan~ patara cemSi isveneb-
dnen: akai wereTeli, aleqsandre xaxanaSvili, mixeil wereTe-
li, giorgi nikolaZe, pavle ingoroyva, ekaterine gabaSvili,
Salva RambaSiZe, marijani...
akaki wereTelma mozrdili leqsi, saxelad `patara cemi~,
miuZRvna sanatoriums. erTxel, rodesac igi mcire xniT iyo
cemSi (didi survilis miuxedavad, mas guli awuxebda da aq
didxans ver rCeboda) erT-erTi skamis zurgze fanqriT aseTi
strofebi dauweria:
`kargi sanatoria es patara cemia,
dasustebulisaTvis janRonis mimcemia~.
akaki
vaxtangs am strofebisTvis ATavisi mxridan miuweria:
`xolo damwyebisaTvis didi WirTa mCenia~.

218
Semdeg skamis es zurgis ficari mouxsnia da Seuanxavs.
1918 wlis darbevisas sxva yvelaferTan erTad es ficaric wa-
uRiaT. 1909 w. 18 ivliss vaxtangis megobars, cnobil mecniers
da sazogado moRvawes, mixeil wereTels misTvis es strofebi
uZRvnia:
`brZana vaxtangman mkurnalman
da aRmocenda sanatoria
patara cemis saxeliT
TviT samoTxisa sworia~.
vaxtangi igonebs, rom mixeil wereTeli mxurvaled mona-
wileobda sanatoriumSi gamarTul varjiSobaSi, seirnobaSi,
adgilobrivi saxumaro matianes Sedgenasa da gamocemaSi [3].
saerTod sulisaTvis da sxeulisaTvis sasargeblo mravali
samxiarulo TavSesaqcevi imarTeboda vaxtangis patara cemSi.
wyalze xidebis gadeba, seirnoba, varjiSi, warmodgenebis ga-
marTva. `maTTan erTad maTi sayvareli eqimi vaxtangic ganuy-
relaT muSaobda, xelmZRvanelobda da axalisebda varjiSoba-
Si~ bavSvebs Tu mozrdilebs[34, 498]. gava dro da mixeil were-
Teli zemoTqmul sakuTar striqonebs miumatebs:
`Cvidmeti weli gavida...
sadRaa sanatoria...
davkargeT Cveni qveyana,
marTlac samoTxis sworia...
es aris wuTi-sofeli,
JamTa ukuRma triali:
cemis niavis magivrad
avtomobilTaA xriali...~
Tan Tavisive Targmanic miuweria da lursmuli warwerac
gaukeTebia: `maRalTa RmerTTa akurTxon megobari Cemi `vax-
tang~ da saxli misi. 14. II. 1926. parizi [3].
sanam saSineli da tragikuli movlenebi datrialdeboda,
vaxtang RambaSiZe samSobloSi ori didi sazogado movlenis mo-
nawile da TviTmxilveli kidev gamxdara. pirveli iyo 1917 w. 1
(14) oqtombers, rodesac kirion II kaTolikosis rangSi pirve-
lad aRavlenda avtokefaliaaRdgenil saqarTvelos eklesia-
Si kvarTobis liturgias sveticxovelSi. sxva mogonebebisagan
gansxvavebiT vaxtangi aRelevbuli, emociebiT savse, mxatvru-
lad gadmogvcems am movlenas.

219
meore iyo 1918 w. 26 ianvari (8 Tebervali), rodesac pir-
veli qarTuli universiteti gaixsna. am zeims Tavis mogone-
bebSi igi saaRdgomo litaniobas adarebs. Turme vaxtangs 1916
wlis Semodgomaze petre meliqiSvilis sapativcemulod ga-
marTul vaxSamze sadRegrZeloSi misTvis pirveli qarTuli
universitetis pirveli reqtoroba uwinaswarmetyvelebia.
universitetSi leqciebis wasakiTxad vaxtangic da misi
meuRle, vandac miuwveviaT. vaxtangi higienas aswavlida, vanda
ki inglisur enas [3]. moxda ise, rom studentis #1 bileTi maT
ufros qaliSvils, medeas ergo wilad [35, 15].
1921w. Tebervlis ARames vaxtangs samxedro uwyebidan me-
gobarma daureka da uTxra, rom dilis 6sT-ze bolSevikebi uk-
ve TbilisSi iqnebodnen. es iyo Ramis 3 saaTi. vaxtangma qaliS-
vilebi Tbilisidan gaamgzavra. gzaSi isini bedad dedas Sex-
vdnen, romelic maSin wiTel jvarSi muSaobda. maTi 18 wlis Zma
givi moxalised wavida omSi. daxevis dros aRmoCnda zestafon-
Si da yvela erTad wavida baTumSi. maT, mravali gasaWiris ga-
datanis fasad, qveyana datoves. vaxtang RambaSiZes, mravali
qarTvelis msgavsad, imedi hqonda rom saqarTvelo bolSevi-
kebisagan male ganTavisufldeboda da samSoblodan maTi gaq-
ceva Tavis droebiTi gadarCena iyo. vaxtangi im xanad kavkasia-
Si yvela sakurorto zonas ganagebda. misTvis nebarTva miuci-
aT britaneTsa da safrangeTSi samedicino aRWurviloba See-
Zina.
vaxtangs imedi hqonda, rom SeZlebda axal mTavrobasTan
ATnamSromlobas, raTa misTvis ganusazRvrelad sayvarel sam-
SobloSi eRvawa. magram es SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda. wvalebiT,
didi codniTa da siyvaruliT aSenebuli sanatoriumi Camoar-
Tves. misTvis usayvarlesi adamianebi ucxoeTSi iyvnen. 1921 w.
10 noembers man samudamod datova samSoblo. ori weli, 1924
wlamde, igi TurqeTSi iyo da stambolSi rCeboda. 1924 w. mTe-
li ojaxi safrangeTSi gaemgzavra. safrangeTSi zogierTi ax-
loblis finansuri daxmarebiT klinika gaxsna, magram valebis
gamo, iZulebuli iyo daexura. amis miuxedavad, igi usasyid-
lod sakuTar binaSi mraval midadar Tu xelmokle qarTvels
mkurnalobda. didi xnis ganmavlobaSi vaxtangs samSobloSi
dabrunebis imedi hqonda. 20-30iani wlebis mijnaze Turme pa-
rizSi ramdenime sabWoTa Cinovniki Casula, romlebic mas sam-

220
SobloSi Casvlas sTxovdnen, raTa kavkasiis kurortebisTvis
exelmZRvanela. Tumca usafrTxoebas ver pirdebodnen. saqar-
TveloSi darCenili megobrebic uTvlidnen, rom misTvis dab-
runeba usafrTxo ar iqneboda.
vaxtangis vaJma, romelic erTxel ukve ijda sabWoTa ci-
xeSi, ver gauZlo usamSoblobas da 1922 w. dabrunda saqarTve-
loSi. isev daapatimres da sabednierod gamouSves. rodesac
safrangeTSi brundeboda, Turqi mesazRvreebi, TurqeT-sab-
WoTa kavSiris xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad, mas ukan TbilisSi ab-
runebdnen. maSin givim mamas sTxova daxmareba. vaxtangma Svili
TurqeTis premierministris, enver faSas daxmarebiT gamoix-
sna, romelsac piradad icnobda. givi safrangeTSi Secvlili
da daTrgunuli dabrunebula. sul male man TviTmkvlelobiT
daasrula sicocxle[26, 32-33, 34].
marTalia vaxtang RambaSiZes male mouwia parizSi gaxsni-
li klinikis daxurva, magram Tavis profesiul saqmianobas,
masze fiqrs mainc ar wyvetda. misi mogonebebidan vigebT, rom
jer kidev 1918 w. Zvlis tuberkulioziT daavadebulTaTvis
gemze moZravi sanatoriumis Seqmna surda. mas undoda zRvis
hava da mzis sxivebi erTdroulad gamoeyenebina samkurnalod.
saamisod avadmyofebis gemze moTavsebas apirebda. okeaneSi
gems garkveuli marSrutiT unda emoZrava. am ideis ganxorci-
elebaze igi safrangeTSic ganagrZobda fiqrs, magram mas es
Canafiqri ganuxorcielebeli darCa [3]. vaxtang ARambaSiZe pro-
fesiul saqwmianobas emigraciaSic rom agrZelebda, `bedi qar-
TlisaSi~ gamoqveynebuli statiidanac Cans. statia samecnie-
ro-popularuli da saganmanaTleblo xasiaTisaa da geronto-
logiis sakiTxebs exeba. igi mkiTxvels urCevs sakuTar jan-
mrTelobas meti yuradReba dauTmos, raTa dRegrZeli iyos.
CvenSi manqanaze metad zrunavs adamiani, vidre sakuTar jan-
mrTelobazeo. igi kacobriobis mier gaaxalgazrdavebis wam-
lis Seqmnis istoriaze mokled uambobs mkiTxvels. mas es sta-
tia mkiTxvelis gaTviTcnobierebis mizniT winamdebare Jur-
nalis mesveurTa TxovniT dauweria. statiidan vigebT, rom
amave wlis ivnisSi gamarTula gerontologTaA pirveli kon-
gresi, romelzec daswrebis survili ganucxadebia vaxtangs.
mocemul statiaSi vaxtang RambaSiZe Tavis yuradRebas amaxvi-
lebs adamianis organizmSi arsebuli jirkvlebis mniSvnelo-
baze, maTi funqciis Sesustebis Sedegad gamowveul zianze da
221
Tanamedrove medicinis miRwevebze amgvari dazianebebis mkur-
nalobis saqmeSi [36, 25-28].
vaxtang RambaSiZe emigraciis periodSi aqtiurad iyo sa-
zogado moRvaweobiT dakavebuli. igi safrangeTSi qarTvelTa
koloniis prezidentad samjer iyo arCeuli [26, 34; 2, 1]. qar-
Tveli tyveebisa da emigraciis dasacavad safrangeTis okupa-
ciis periodSi misi iniciativiT sakonspiracio jgufi, xuTeu-
li daarsda. siZneleebis miuxedavad, liberaciis pirvel peri-
odSi, safrangeTis mTavrobis nebarTviT, am xuTeulma daaar-
sa `qarTli erovnuli komiteti safrangeTSi~. vaxtangi am ko-
mitets sikvdilamde xelmZRvanelobda. amave dros, misi uSua-
lo monawileobiT gamosula krebuli `merani~. upartio vax-
tang RamaSiZe sxvadasxva partiis wevr qarTvel emigrantebs
aerTianebda, Tavs uyrida sakuTar binaSi, sadac qarTuli li-
teraturis, istoriis, Teatris Sesaxeb imarTeboda saubari,
ikiTxeboda moxsenebebi da mogonebebi. 1950 w. 19 noembers igi
`qarTuli erovnuli politikuri centris sapatio wevrad
airCies~ [2,1]. vaxtangi safrangeTSi arsebul `qarTvelTa plu-
ralistur asociacias~ xelmZRvanelobda. misi iniciativiT
yoveli wlis 26 maiss qarTvelebi `mopovebuli da dakarguli
damoukideblobis aRsaniSnavad ikribebodnen~ [37, 20].
raoden gasakviric ar unda iyos, dRes am mravalmxrivi,
qveynisTvis Tavdadebuli pediatr-kuriortologis Rvawli
da saqmianoba ar aris aRniSnuli qarTveli kurortologebis
mier. arc codna unda arsebobdes misi pirovnebisa da saqmia-
nobis Sesaxeb. CvenSi guram SaraZisa da avTandil sonRulaSvi-
lis garda aravis dauweria mis Sesaxeb. erTi mxriv, sabWoTA kav-
Siris arsebobis pirvel naxevarSi misi saxelis da Rvawlis
gaqrobis survili politikuri Sexedulebebisa da ideologi-
is sxvaobiT SeiZleba aixsnas. imiT, rom miuxedavad mraval-
gzis Txovnisa, man uari ganacxada sabWoTa reJimTan eTanam-
Sromla. vfiqrobT, rodesac sabWoTa mTavrobam dapirebebiT
sabWoTa kavSirSi Semotyueba da Semdeg misi fizikurad ganad-
gureba ver SeZlo, igi, ase vTqvaT, virtualurad gaanadgura.
misi pirovneba da saqmeebi daaviwya sazogadoebas.
istoriuli samarTlianoba moiTxovs, rom yovelives Ta-
visi saxeli daerqvas. istoriis amoglejil furclebs qveyni-
sa da sazogadoebisTvis ar SeuZlia sikeTis motana. vfiqrobT,
vaxtang RambaSiZe, romelmac samecniero kvlevasa da msoflio
222
kurortologiis imdroindel miRwevebze dafuZnebuli yo-
velmxriv gamarTuli, saqarTvelos farglebs gareT cnobili
sanatoriumi daarsa, erT-erT pirvel qarTvel kurortolo-
gad unda iyos aRiarebuli. im qarTvel eqimad da sazogado
moRvawed, romelic XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze sazogadoebis
samedicino ganaTlebisTvis moRvaweobda, raTa qveyanas jan-
mrTeli axalgazrda Taoba hyoloda. igi sasuliero da saero
saswavleblebSi samedicino ganaTlebis danergvis da skoleb-
Si moswavleTa higienaSi gaTviTcnobierebis momxred gamodi-
oda. dRes, rodesac `jansaRi skolis~ programaze amdeni sau-
baria, amis miuxedavad, jer-jerobiT igi ver xorcieldeba. am
sakiTxebs, mis praqtikulad ganxorcielebas, TiTqmis erT sa-
ukuneze meti xnis win emsaxureboda vaxtang RambaSiZe. vfiq-
robT, misi moRvaweobis aRiareba, samarTlianobis, qarTuli
kurortologiis istoriis xandazmulobis aRdgenis, misi, ro-
gorc mecnierebis imTaviTve saerTaSoriso asparezze CarTu-
lobis aRiarebis garda, vaxtang RambaSiZis samSobloSi dab-
runebis tolfasic iqneba.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. g. SaraZe, ucxoeTis cis qveS, wigni 3, gamomcemloba `mera-


ni~, Tb., 1993.
2. ini-gani, vaxtang RarmbaSiZe, gaz. `saqarTvelos damouki-
debloba~, qarTuli erovnuli politikuri centris orga-
no ucxoeTSi, redaqtori r. gabaSvili, 1951, #2.
3. vaxtang RambaSiZe, Cemi Tav-gadasavali, 1946 w. 17 ianvari,
safrangeTi, xelnaweri, daculia ojaxSi.
4. vaxtang RambaSiZe, werili redaqciisadmi, `mwyemsi~, 1895,
#1.
5. s. jinWvelaSvili, werili zemo imereTidan, `iveria~,1898,
#244.
6. v. R-s gancxadeba, `iveria~, 1903, #21.
7. v. RambaSiZe, Ria werili b-n doqtor nazarovs, `mwyemsi~,
1899, #22.
8. g-o, kviridan kviramde, `kvali~, 1899, #50.
9. nazarovi dimitri, b-n eqim v. R. pasuxad, `iveria~, 1900,
#19.

223
10. nazarovi dimitri, b-n eqim v. R. pasuxad, `iveria~, 1900,
#20.
11. eqimTaA dava, `kvali~, 1900, #5.
12. nazarovi dimitri, pasuxi eqim vaxtang RambaSiZes, `mwyem-
si~, 1900, #1-2.
13. v. R., pasuxis pasuxi b-ns medicinis doqtors nazarovs,
`mwyemsi~, 1900, #1-2.
14. akaki, TxuTmettomeuli, t. V, poemebi, gamomcemloba `sab-
WoTa saqarTvelo~, Tb., 1956.
15. Cveni axali mwerloba or wignad, Sedgenili s. r. gorgaZis
mier, meore wigni, quTaisi, 1919.
16. e. vaSakiZe, feletoni. Cveni janmrTeloba, `iveria~, 1901,
#145.
17. vaxtang RambaSiZe, zogierTi saWiro gafrTxileba moswav-
leTA mSoblebisaTvis, `mwyemsi~, 1900, #23-24.
18. vaxtang ARambaSiZe, zogierTi saWiro gafrTxileba moswav-
leTA mSobelTaTvis, `mwyemsi~, 1900, #13-14.
19. vaxtang RambaSiZe, eqimis saubari gulisxmier mkiTxvel-
Tan, `mwyemsi~, 1901, #1-2.
20. vaxtang RambaSiZe, eqimis saubari gulisxmier mkiTxvel-
Tan, `mwyemsi~, 1902, #18.
21. vaxtang RambaSiZe, eqimis saubari gulisxmier mkiTxvelTan
(gagrZeleba), `mwyemsi~, 1902, #20.
22. vaxtang RambaSiZe, eqimis saubari gulisxmier mkiTxvelTan
(gagrZeleba), `mwyemsi~, 1902, #19.
23. vaxtang ARambaSiZe, rZis wveTi (kacT-moyvaruli da mecnie-
ruli daxmareba ZuZu-mwovarTa sakeTildReod SemoRebu-
li), `mwyemsi~, 1901, #23-24.
24. vaxtang RambaSiZe, eqimis saubari gulisxmier mkiTxvelTan
(gagrZeleba), `mwyemsi~, 1903, #3.
25. vaxtang RambaSiZe, eqimis saubari gulisxmier mkiTxvelTan
mozardi Taobis janmrTelobis Sesaxeb, `mwyemsi~, 1903,
#9-10.
26. JorJeta RambaSiZe, mcire monaTxrobi Cems cxovrebaze,
Jur. `Cveni mwerloba~, red. rostom CxeiZe, 2009, #3(81).

224
27. vaxtang RambaSiZe, sanatoriumi da sazafxulo samyofi
eqimis vaxtang d. RambaSiZisa (gancxadeba), `nakaduli mci-
rewlovanTaTvis~, 1905, #14, #15.
28. В. Ф. Велямович, Горно-климатические и балнеологические
станции в Боржом, Цагери, Цеми, Бакуриани и Цихисджвари,
Тифлис, 1901.
29. Е. Г. Федоров, Горная климатическая станция Цеми, издание
Комиссии Императорского Кавказского Медиц. Общества, Тифлис,
1908.
30. a. lazaridi — ciciSvili, borjomi, saq. ssr samedicino ga-
momcemloba, Tb., 1955.
31. М. Ю. Нодия, Боржомская группа курортов и лечебных местностей,
изд. «Грузмедгиз», Тб., 1956.
32. v. wiTlanaZe, n. cxomeliZe, m. juReli, r. Cxetia, gamoCeni-
li qarTveli kurortologebi, gam. `sabWoTa saqarTve-
lo~, Tb., 1981.
33. n. yifSiZe, borjomi da misi xeoba, gamomcemloba `saqmed-
gami~, Tb., 1954.
34. vinme qali, eqimi vaxtang RambaSiZis sanatoriumi, saymawvi-
lo naxatebiani Jurnali `jejili~, seqtemberi, 1911.
35. medea ARambaSiZe, mogonebebi, `kavkasioni~, parizi, XIII, 1968.
36. vaxtang RambaSiZe, adamianis janmrTelobis sakiTxi, `bedi
qarTlisa~, 1948, ivlisi,@1.
37. fransuaz da revaz nikolaZeebi, qarTvelebi safrangeTi-
saTvis brZolebSi, 1939-1945 wlebi, gamomcemloba `inte-
leqti~, Tb., 2009.

Nino Ghambashidze
Doctor of History, the Ivane Javakhishvili
Institute Of History and Ethnology, Senior
research scientist of the Department of
Ethnology of Georgia

Vakhtang Ghambashidze – The Life and Activity

Summary

Vakhtang Ghambashidze (1872 - 1951) was born in Zestaphoni in the


family of prominent church and public figure archpriest Davit Ghambashidze.

225
People called him `the great archpriest~. He was the editor of the famous reli-
gious magazine `The Shepherd~ publishing not only about the problems of
the Church of Georgia but about the burning issues of the secular life of the
country as well.
Vakhtang Ghambashidze studied at a preliminary school in Kutaisi and
finished a grammar school of Tbilisi. After graduating the medical faculty of
the Moscow University he continued his qualification in France. In 1898,
after retuning back to Georgia, from the very beginning was involved in
medical practice as a village doctor. Those days Georgian press was writing
about his sensitiveness, devotion in helping poor village people whom he was
often treated free of charge.
As soon as he arrived in Georgia he started to fulfill his desire of
establishing sanatorium mostly for children with lung and breathing system
difficulties. Before establishing the sanatorium he had written several
publications for medical education of the population. In his publications he
was explaining the readers how to prevent tuberculoses, what it means, how
should seminaries and schools with the help of prophylactics avoid illness;
how and what to eat, how to feed a baby.
Before establishing his sanatorium he was on business tour in Leysin,
in Switzerland where he studied the experience of current achievements of
curortology and based on these achievements in 1904 he founded the
sanatorium for children in Patara Tsemi. The sanatorium was famous and
beloved place for rest and recover all over Georgia. It also was known beyond
the boarders of the Caucasus. Vakhtang Ghambashidze was carrying on the
studies and experiments in his, for those days modern sanatorium. In his
scientific work he was co-laborating with the well known French physicians:
Alphonse Laveran and Alfred Binet who paid a great attention to his work.
In 1921 when Bolsheviks’ occupied Georgia he with his family had to
leave the mother land hoping that one day he would return back. He with his
family settled in France where he was continuing activity as a physician and
the head of the Georgian emigration; actively participated in French
Resistance movement.
In 1951 he died in Scotland when he was visiting his daughter.

226
Tamar TamaraSvili
Telavis iakob gogebaSvilis saxelo-
bis saxelmwifo universitetis huma-
nitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis
doqtoranti

ganaTlebis istoriidan saqarTveloSi


(Telavis pedagogiuri teqnikumi)

XX s-is 20-iani wlebi uamravi sirTuliT xasiaTdeba sa-


qarTvelos saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi. I—ma msoflio omma,
misma momdevno politikurma movlenebma, bolos ki damouki-
debeli saqarTvelos aneqsiam sabWoTa ruseTis mier — zegav-
lena moaxdina sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela mimarTule-
baze, maT Soris ganaTlebis sferoze. damoukideblobis dros
dawyebuli ganaTlebis reforma am sistemaSi seriozul cvli-
lebebs iTvaliswinebda, es iyo pedagogiuri kadrebis momza-
debis sakiTxis gadaWrac, am mizniT daarsda kidec pedagogiu-
ri saswavleblebi, maswavlebelTa daxelovnebis kursebi, mag-
ram reforma bolomde ver iqna miyvanili saqarTvelos aneqsi-
is gamo. sabWouri reJimi TiTqos axlidan iwyebda yovelives,
akritikebda damoukidebeli qveynis xelisuflebis refor-
mebs, miiCnevda, rom es reformebi iyo `burJuaziuli~ da ara
demokratiuli, ubralo xalxis interesebi ar iyo Zveli re-
formiT gaTvaliswinebuli, amitom, am xelisuflebis azriT,
saWiro iyo axali reforma ganaTlebis sferoSi. ra Tqma unda,
es mosazreba ar iyo marTali. damoukideblobis dros gatare-
bulma reformam udavod Secvala ganaTlebis sistema, Seiqmna
qarTuli dawyebiTi, saSualo da umaRlesi ganaTlebis kerebi,
daiwera qarTuli saxelmZRvaneloebi, saswavlo sagnebs Soris
prioritetuli gaxda qarTuli ena da literatura, saqarTve-
los istoria da geografia. paralelurad, gaZlierebulad
xdeboda ucxouri enebis Seswavla. iyo wera-kiTxvis Semswav-
leli wreebi, magram, drois simciris gamo,ganaTlebis srul-
yofili reformirebis problema ver gadaiWra [1,16].
wera-kiTxvis ucodinroba da mciremcodneoba XX s-is 20-
iani wlebisaTvis kvlav saWirboroto sakiTxs warmoadgenda.
`MmSromeli da Raribi~ xalxis interesebisTvis mebrZolma sab-

227
WoTa xelisuflebam mTeli kampania gaaCaRa problemis mosag-
vareblad, gaixsna wera-kiTxvis ucodinrobisa da mcired-
mcodneobis salikvidacio, mozrdilTa, dawyebiTi, rvawliani
da saSualo skolebi, aRniSnuli tipis skolebi arsebobda
asakgadacilebuli adamianebisTvisac. zogadi ganaTlebis mi-
cemis mizniT, ,,swavleba mimdinareobda saRamos saaTebSi, wre-
ebi ZiriTadad ixsneboda qalaqebsa da dabebSi, romelSic Cab-
muli iyvnen warmoeba-dawesebulebebis muSakebi.
wera-kiTxvis ucodinrobis likvidaciisaTvis arsdeboda
specialuri punqtebi, sadac mimdinareobda swavleba rogorc
jgufurad, ise individualurad” [2, 100-120].
1921 wlis 4 ivliss saqarTvelos revoluciurma komi-
tetma gamoaqveyna dekreti ,,wera-kiTxvis ucodinrobis lik-
vidaciis Sesaxeb mosaxleobaSi”. dekretiT wera-kiTxvis uco-
dinrobis likvidacia 14-50 wlis asakis mosaxleobaSi unda
damTavrebuliyo umokles vadaSi. im mizniT, rom warmoebaSi
momuSave wera-kiTxvis ucodinrebsa da mciredmcodneebs
swavlis saSualeba hqonodaT, samuSao dRe maTTvis 2 saaTiT
iyo Semcirebuli, xelfass ki srulad iRebdnen. 1921-1930
wlebSi, maSindeli xelisuflebis monacemebiT, wera-kiTxva Se-
iswavla naxevarma milionma adamianma [2, 66].
xelisuflebis mier gatarebuli saganmanaTleblo Ro-
nisZiebebi emsaxureboda rigiT, ubralo mosaxleobaSi ele-
mentaruli ganaTlebis Setanas, umecrebis aRmofxvras, uam-
rav adamians wera-kiTxvis Seswavlis SesaZlebloba eZleoda.
wera-kiTxvis ucodinrobis salikvidaciod saqarTve-
los respublikaSi Seiqmna skolebis erTiani qseli. Tu 1920
wels saqarTveloSi 1293 qarTuli, 88 somxuri, 30 Turquli, 48
rusuli da a.S. skola iyo, 1925 wels maTi raodenoba sagrZnob-
lad gaizarda: sul iyo 1428, maTgan 120 somxuri, 79 ki sxvadas-
xva erovnebaTa nacionaluri skola [3, 151].
warmodgenili statistikuri monacemebi saSualebas
gvaZlevs vivaraudoT, rom, 1920-iani wlebidan dawyebuli, qve-
yanaSi gansakuTrebiT izrdeba skolaTa ricxvi, romelic Ta-
vis mxriv moiTxovda mravalricxovani pedagogiuri kadrebis
arsebobas, maT momzadebas da aRzrdas.
XX s-is 20-iani wlebisaTvis saqarTvelos saxalxo ganaT-
lebis sistemaSi Camoyalibda swavlebis Semdegi safexurebri-
vi sistema: 1) sabavSvo baRebi anu skolamdeli aRzrdis dawe-
228
sebulebebi; 2) sxvadasxva tipis safexuris zogadi ganaTlebis
skolebi; 3) bavSvTa Soris skolisgareSe muSaobis dawesebu-
lebebi; 4) profesiuli ganaTlebisa da 5) mozrdilTa ganaT-
lebis dawesebulebebi[1. 13].
saxalxo meurneobis TiTqmis yvela dargi ganicdida spe-
cialistebis deficits. kvalificiuri muSaxelis, saerTod,
kadrebis nakleboba mkveTrad igrZnoboda sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis yvela sferoSi. am rTuli problemis mosagvareb-
lad saqarTveloSi farTod gaiSala profesiuli teqnikume-
bis qseli, ase rom, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri viTareba dRis
wesrigSi ayenebda profesiuli Tu teqnikuri ganaTlebis mo-
wesrigebas. Camoyalibda erTmaneTisgan sruliad gansxvavebu-
li mimarTulebebis saswavleblebi: 1) industriul-teqniku-
ri; 2) sasoflo-sameurneo; 3) samrewvelo ekonomikuri; 4) same-
dicino; 5) samxatvro; 6) pedagogiuri.
Telavis pedagogiuri teqnikumis daarseba am progra-
mis farglebSi ganxorcielda.
maswavlebelTa kadrebis mosamzadeblad 1921-22 saswav-
lo wlidan saqarTveloSi daarsda 9 pedagogiuri teqnikumi,
amaTgan 1 TbilisSi, xolo 8 sxvadasxva qalaqSi da raionSi:
kerZod gorSi, xonSi, bodbeSi, cxinvalSi, axalcixeSi, zesta-
fonSi, ozurgeTsa da did jixaiSSi [4. 44]. 1930-31 wlisaTvis
maTi ricxvi 40-mde aRwevs.
1924 wlidan pedagogiur saswavleblebis ricxvs miemata
Telavis pedagogiuri teqnikumi.
imisaTvis, rom teqnikumebSi saTanadod warmarTuliyo
muSaoba, saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatTan Se-
iqmna profesiuli ganaTlebis mTavari sammarTvelo. am uwye-
bas evaleboda zedamxedveloba, xelmZRvaneloba da profesi-
uli teqnikumebis mTeli saqmianobis warmarTva.
skolebis qselis gafarToveba moiTxovda pedagogebis
masobriv momzadebas, am mizniT xdeboda pedagogiuri teqni-
kumebis raodenobis gazrdac.
saqrTveloSi arsebuli pedagogiuri teqnikumebis peda-
gogTa da moswavleTa raodenoba 1925-1926 wlebisaTvis ase ga-
moiyureboda [2, 379]:

229
daar- sul maT Soris
teqnikumis dasa- maswav-
# sebis moswav-
xeleba leblebi
weli leebi vaJi qali
miasnikovis saxe-
1 lobis Tbilisis 1924 43 21 22 14
somxuri
narimanovis saxe-
2 lobis Tbilisis 1925 36 25 11 9
azerbaijanuli
3 quTaisis 1924 123 63 60 22
4 xonis 1918 53 17 36 10
5 axalsenakis 1924 101 66 35 9
6 ozurgeTis 1925 66 31 35 8
7 onis 1925 32 13 19 5
8 goris 1918 86 37 49 9
9 Telavis 1924 73 35 28 12
10 siRnaRis 1918 28 11 17 6
sul 10 641 319 322 104

CvenTvis saintereso Telavis pedagogiuri teqnikumis


Sesaxeb saerTod arcTu mdidari masala gvxvdeba. gamonakli-
sia 2009wels gamocemuli e. mamukelaSvilis monografiuli
gamokvleva— ,,codnis kera— 70”. naSromSi gaanalizebulia Te-
lavis saxelmwifo universitetis samocdaaTwliani Semoqme-
debiTi, samecniero-pedagogiuri saqmianobis daZabuli da na-
yofieri wlebi. gamokvlevaSi garkveuli adgili aqvs daTmobi-
li Telavis pedagogiur teqnikumsac. naSromis gacnobam dag-
varwmuna, rom uaRresad mniSvnelovani da saWiroa XX sauku-
nis 30-iani wlebis saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sistemaSi Seqmni-
li viTarebisa da axlad daarsebuli pedagogiuri teqnikume-
bis moRvaweobis calke, srulyofili Seswavla.
Telavis pedagogiuri teqnikumi daarsda 1924 wels. misi
gaxsna ganpirobebuli iyo imiT, rom maswavlebelTa raodeno-
ba Zalzed mcire iyo, moTxovna ki dRiTidRe izrdeboda. ami-
tom, raionis aRmaskomis ganaTlebis ganyofilebam aRZra Su-
amdgomloba ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatis winaSe pedago-
giuri teqnikumis gaxsnis Sesaxeb, rac daakmayofila ganaTle-
bis saxalxo komisariatma. pirvelad teqnikumi gaixsna saSua-
lo skolaze damatebuli orwliani kursiT. momdevno wlidan

230
ki, pedagogiuri teqnikumi oTxwlianad gadakeTda. teqnikumi
iRebda SvidklasdamTavrebulT. pirvel direqtorad dainiSna
k. gegeliZe. pedagogiur teqnikums Tavisi funqcionirebisaT-
vis aucileblad sWirdeboda materialur-teqnikuri baza, ka-
binet-laboratoriebi, xelsawyoebi. pedagogiuri teqnikumis
yofili direqtori g. meliTauri Tavis mogonebebSi aRniSnavs,
rom kabinet-laboratoriebis da xelsawyoebis nawili gadmo-
ugzavniaT Tbilisis yofili lisievianis gimnaziidan, nawili
ki,—qimiuri kabinetisaTvis saWiro aparatura da reaqtivebis
WurWleuli, Tavad SeuZeniaT.
g. meliTauri iyo Telavis inteligenciis erT-erTi
TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli da 20-30-iani wlebis Telavis ga-
naTlebis sistemaSi moRvawe gamoCenili pedagogi. is xan-
grZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi emsaxureboda mozardi Taobis
aRzrdis rTul da sapasuxismgeblo saqmes, sxvadasxva dros
muSaobda Telavis qalTa I saSualo skolaSi maswavleblad,
samazro saskolo instruqtorad, Telavis samazro aRmaskom-
Si aRmaskomis ganyofilebis gamged, Telavis pedagogiuri sas-
wavleblis direqtorad, rusuli saSualo skolis direqto-
rad, is dajildovebuli iyo saqarTvelos ssr skolis damsa-
xurebuli maswavleblis wodebiT[6, :2-7]. 1927 wels ganaTle-
bis saxalxo komisariatma, moskovSi, iqauri teqnikumebis mu-
Saobis gasacnobad, quTaisisa da ozurgeTis teqnikumebis di-
reqtorebTan — masabliSvilsa da kvantresTan erTad, miavli-
na Telavis pedagogiuri teqnikumis direqtori — k. gegeliZe.
am mivlinebis Semdeg dadga sakiTxi, yvela sagnis mixedviT da-
arsebuliyo kabinet-laboratoriebi, e.i. ramdeni discipli-
nac iyo, imdeni kabineti unda yofiliyo. radgan amisTvis meti
farTobi iyo saWiro, dRis wesrigSi dadga saswavleblis ad-
gilsamyofelis Secvla. 1927 wels teqnikumi gadavida yofili
sasuliero saswavleblis SenobaSi, romelic arcTu saxarbie-
lo mdgomareobaSi imyofeboda, TviT pedpersonals mouxda
misi mowesrigeba—mowyoba.
pedagogiuri teqnikumis kursdamTavrebuls unda mieRo
rogorc saSualo, ise specialuri ganaTleba.
1927 wlidan Telavis pedagogiur teqnikumTan daarsda
meTodbiuro, masSi gaerTianebulni iyvnen pedagogebi Tela-
vis mazris skolebidan. muSaoba mimdinareobda seqciebis mi-
xedviT. TiToeul seqcias evaleboda: sanimuSo gakveTilebis
231
organizacia da meToduri xasiaTis Temebze moxsenebebis Ca-
tareba. muSaobda sagnobrivi seqciebi, Semdegi pedagogebis
xelmZRvanelobiT:
1) qarTuli enis da literaturis — s. bregaZe, l. ZeZami-
Ze, g. korsaveli;
2) fizika-maTematikis — g. meliTauri;
3) bunebismetyvelebis — s. amirxanaSvili;
4) rusuli da ucxo enebis — z. mkevliSvili;
5) istoria-geografiis — e. CiCua, d. mataraZe;
6) saxviTi xelovnebis - n. vinokurovi.
meToduri gaerTianeba arsebobda 1934 wlamde. meTodbi-
urom gamosca Jurnali ,,sabWoTa maswavlebeli”, romelmac
erTi weli iarseba, sul 9 nomeri gamovida. Jurnalis mizani
iyo kaxeTis soflis skolebisTvis meToduri daxmarebis gawe-
va.
pedagogiur teqnikums hqonda e.w. sabunebismetyvelo
moZravi kabineti, romelic momsaxurebas uwevda yvarlis da
Telavis raionis skolebs.
pedagogiuri teqnikumis saarqivo masalebis gacnobisas
gvrCeba STabeWdileba, rom iq mimdinareobda metad saintere-
so da aqtiuri SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba. arsebobda erTi me-
Todbiuro Tavisi seqciebiT, tardeboda saraiono konferen-
ciebi, ganixileboda sanimuSo gakveTilebi, gamodioda meTo-
duri saxelmZRvanelo-Jurnali, arsebobda moZravi sabune-
bismetyvelo kabineti, mimdinareobda pedagogiuri praqtikis
gaziareba axalbeda pedagogebisaTvis.
teqnikums hqonda sul 15 gamoSveba, zogi orwliani, zogi
oTxwliani, zogi samwliani, sul pedagogiuri teqnikumi daam-
Tavra 786-ma msmenelma.
Telavis pedagogiuri teqnikumis direqtorebad da
saswavlo nawilis ufrosebad sxva da sxva dros muSaobdnen :
1. kote giorgis Ze gegeliZe — 1924-1928 ww.
2. giorgi onisimes Ze meliTauri — 1928-1933 ww.
3. dimitri mataraZe — 1933-1939 ww.
4. dimitri Sarmanis Ze SafaqiZe — 1939-1941 ww.
5. vasil giorgis Ze frangiSvili— 1927-1929 ww. — saswav-
lo nawilis gamge.
Telavis pedagogiuri teqnikumi xSirad ukavSirdeboda
msgavsi tipis sxva dawesebulebaTa warmomadgenlebs: ozurge-
232
Tis, siRnaRis, gurjaanis teqnikumebs, xdeboda gamocdilebe-
bis gaziareba, erToblivi kulturul-saganmanaTleblo Ro-
nisZiebebis mowyoba. pedagogiuri teqnikumebis muSaobas mTav-
robac axlisebda, xSiri iyo warmatebulTa dajildoveba, ma-
galiTad, Telavis pedagogiur teqnikums miRebuli hqonda
rogorc saqarTvelos saxalxo ganaTlebis komisariatis, ase-
ve sakavSiro jildoebic [7, 4-17].
sakmaod vrcelia im soflebis nusxa, romelTac emsaxu-
reboda zemoaRniSnuli saswavlo dawesebuleba. maTi ricxvi
50-mdea. arqivSi daculi pasportidan vgebulobT teqnikumis
pedagogiur Semadgenlobas 1938-43 wlebSi, agreTve moswavle-
Ta raodenobas klasebis mixedviT, inventars, kabinet labora-
toriebSi arsebul materialur bazas, anu teqnikumis muSaobi-
sa da aRWurvilobis srul suraTs. 1938 wlisTvis teqnikumSi
swavla mimdinareobda erT cvlaSi, muSaobda 8 klasi, swav-
lobda 303 moswavle. saswavleblis pedagogTa Semadgenloba
aseTi iyo: zina ivanes asuli mkevliSvili, mariam TuSiSvili,
nino arCilis asuli maWavriani, andro giorgis Ze bibiluri,
levan ivanes Ze ZeZamiZe, daviT raJdenis Ze kirvaliZe, noe da-
viTis Ze gurgeniZe, aleqsandre erastis Ze gvencaZe, aleqsan-
dre prokofis Ze milorava, nikolozi albertiSvili, valeri-
an melaZe, stepanovi, vano aruTinis Zekuzanovi [8,1-10]. amas-
Tan, Telavis Temis sabWos aRmaskomis masalebSi SemorCenilia
cnobebi maswavlebelTa da teqnikuri muSakTa saxelfaso
anazRaurebis Sesaxeb:
1. meliTauri giorgi — pedteqnikumis gamge — 205-00 man.;
2. amirxanaSvili stefane— maswavlebeli — 109-90 man.;
3. frangiSvili vaso — maswavlebeli — 148-8 man.;
4. bregaZe savle — maswavlebeli — 111-60 man.;
5. vinokurovi aleqsandre — maswavlebeli — 79-05 man.;
6. kiknaZe valerian — saqmeTa mwarmoebeli — 40-00 man.;
7. poRosovi akofi — daraji — 25-00 man.
8. aruTinovi nina — daraji — 25 man. [9, 182].
ase mcirea maSindeli pedagogiuri koleqtivisa da dam-
xmare personalis saxelfaso anazRaureba. Mmaswavleblebi
rTul socialur pirobebSi Sromobdnen, magram aSkarad
gvxvdeba is didi enTuziazmi, rac maT gamorCeviT axasiaTeb-
daT.

233
saarqivo fondSi daculia pedagogiuri teqnikumis misa-
Rebi sagamocdo komisiis sxdomis oqmebi, sadac saswavleblis
Sesaxeb mraval saintereso cnobas vxvdebiT[10, 1-3].
ped.saswavleblis muSaobaze SegviZlia vimsjeloT
ped.sabWos oqmebis mixedviT [11, 1-12], romelic ganekuTvneba
1937-1941 wlebs. teqnikumis 1932-33 wlebis muSaobaze, moswav-
leTa akademiur, moswrebaze, warmatebebze SegviZlia vimsje-
loT Cven mier moZiebuli saarqivo dokumentebidan SemorCe-
nili 1934-35 da1935-1936 saswavlo wlebis pedagogiuri praq-
tikis dRiurebidan. arqivSi agreTve daculia atestatebi, sa-
idanac ikveTeba cnobebi teqnikumis saswavlo procesisa da
TviT atestatis mflobelTa Sesaxeb.
masalebs pedagogiuri teqnikumis Sesaxeb vxvdebiT ara-
marto Telavis saraiono arqivSi, aramed Telavis istoriul-
eTnografiuli muzeumis fondebSi. aqve vxvdebiT Telavis pe-
dagogiuri meToduri Jurnalis ,,sabWoTa maswavleblis~ 1934
wlis noembris nomris mimoxilvas saredaqcio kolegiis mier.
Jurnali ibeWdeboda Telavis stambaSi. SemorCenilia suraTe-
bi Telavis pedagogiuri teqnikumis cxovrebidan [12. 3926].
teqnikumis pedkoleqtivi did yuradRebas aqcevda peda-
gogiur praqtikas, romlis Sesaxebac arsebul meTodur Jur-
nalebSi cota ram Tu moipoveboda. arc gansaxkomidan modio-
da instruqciebi da miTiTebebi. pirvel wlebSi ase mimdinare-
obda pedpraqtika: gakveTilisaTvis emzadeboda praqtikanti,
meTodisti maswavlebeli aZlevda rCeva-darigebebs, damswre
pedagogebi analizs ukeTebdnen mosmenil gakveTilebs, ecno-
bodnen skolis Sidaganawess, saswavlo-aRmzrdelobiT gegmas,
dasvenebis organizacias, praktikanti maswavleblebTan er-
Tad adgenda gakveTilis konspeqts—,,proeqts”. ase atarebda
sacdel gakveTils, gakveTils eswrebodnen klasis maswavle-
beli, meTodisti da kursis msmenelebi, imave dRes xdeboda
gakveTilis garCeva da Sefasebac iwereboda. praqtikanti ram-
denime sityviT gaacnobda gakveTilis mizans, rogor moaxerxa
miznis miRweva. Semdeg msmenelebi gamoTqvamdnen SeniSvnebs,
sagnis maswavlebeli da sagnis meTodisti dawvrilebiT afa-
sebdnen Catarebul gakveTils. saarqivo dokumentaciaSi
gvaqvs sagnebis CamonaTvali, ra disciplinebi iswavleboda am
saswavlo dawesebulebaSi. magaliTad, 1937 wlisaTvis iswav-
leboda Semdegi sagnebi: qarTuli ena da literatura, rusuli
234
ena da literatura, ucxo ena, ariTmetika, algebra, geomet-
ria, trigonometria, bunebismetyveleba, fizika, qimia, isto-
ria, geografia, pedagogika, saskolo higiena, qarTuli enis
swavlebis meTodika, ariTmetikis swavlebis meTodika, bune-
bismetyvelebis meTodika, istoriis meTodika, geografiis me-
Todika, simRera, musikis meTodika, xatvis meTodika, xazvis
meTodika, sufTa wera, fizikuri aRzrda, samxedro saqme, sim-
Rera, musika, pedagogiuri praqtika [13,159].
pedagogiuri teqnikumi daixura 1939 wels TelavSi sa-
maswavleblo saswavleblis gaxsnasTan dakavSirebiT. salikvi-
dacio klasebi SeierTa samaswavleblo institutma. teqniku-
mis kursdamTavrebulTa bolo gamoSveba moxda 1941Qw .
Aamrigad, Telavis ped. teqnikumis saqmianoba sakmaod sa-
intereso, mravalmxrivi da Sinaarsiani iyo, is srulad pasu-
xobda ganaTlebis sferoSi arsebul imdroindel moTxovnebs,
pirvel rigSi,—samaswavleblo kadrebis aRzrdis saqmes. sas-
wavlebelSi aRizarda araerTi gamoCenili pirovneba. saqar-
Tvelos pedagogTa kadrebis aRzrdaSi man didi roli Seasru-
la. aq aRzrdili axalgazrdoba iwyebda muSaobas skolebSi,
skolamdeli aRzrdis dawesebulebebSi, Telavis da kaxeTis
raioni maragdeboda aq aRzrdili pedagogiuri kadrebiT. pe-
dagogiur teqnikumSi euflebodnen saSualo skolisaTvis gan-
kuTvnil sagnebs da damatebiT eZleodaT kvalifikaciis amaR-
lebis saSualeba. aq miRebuli atestatis Semdeg axalgazrdas
saSualeba eZleoda emuSava Sesabamisi specialobiT, an swavla
gaegrZelebina umaRles saswavlebelSi.
Telavis pedagogiurma teqnikumma didi roli Seasrula
maswavlebelTa momzadebis, mozardi Taobis aRzrdisa da ga-
naTlebis saqmeSi. 1939 wlidan mis bazaze Camoyalibda samas-
wavleblo saswavlebeli, Semdeg pedagogiuri instituti, ro-
melic sul ramdenime wlis win gadakeTda saxelmwifo univer-
sitetad da warmatebiT agrZelebs samecniero-aRmzrdelo-
biT moRvaweobas Tanamedrove moTxovnebis safuZvelze.
D
damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. d. WumburiZe, ganaTleba 1918-1921 wlebSi, Tbilisi, 2000.


2. i. Wanturia, saxalxo ganaTleba sabWoTa saqarTveloSi
(1921-1951), Tbilisi, 1956.
235
3. u. obolaZe, saxalxo ganaTleba sabWoTa saqarTveloSi,
Tbilisi, 1961.
4. m. naTmelaZe, al. dauSvili, saqarTvelos uaxlesi isto-
ria, Tbilisi, 2005.
5. m. simonia, saSualo pedagogiuri ganaTleba saqarTvelos
ssr respublikaSi 1921-1941 ww., Tbilisi, 1957.
6. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, Telavis raionuli arqivis filiali, fondi 475, aR-
wera1, saqme #1.
7. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, fondi 475, aRwera1, saqme #8.
8. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, Telavis raionuli arqivis filiali, fondi 358,
aRwera 1, saqme #12.
9. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, Telavis raionuli arqivis filiali, fondi 358,
aRwera 1, saqme #32.
10. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, Telavis raionuli arqivis filiali, fondi 358,
aRwera 1, saqme #3.
11. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, Telavis raionuli arqivis filiali, fondi 358,
aRwera 1, saqme #10.
12. g. CubinaSvilis saxelobis Telavis istoriul-eTnografi-
uli muzeumis fondi #3926.
13. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, Telavis raionuli arqivis filiali, fondi 117, aR-
wera 1, saqme #2.

236
Tamar Tamarashvili
Doctoral Student of the Telavi Jakob
Gogebashvili State University

From the History of Education in Georgia


(Telavi pedagogical technical institut (1924-1939))

Summary

In the article, according the archival primary sources, the most difficult
conditions existed in public life of Georgia of 20-30s of XX century are
critically taught and analyzed. The special place has been taken to the
significance of the results of holding the liquidation inevitable events of
literary ignorance and less knowing in the country.
The institutions of literary ignorance liquidation, general education
schools of different type, groups of evening and tuition by correspondence of
adults’ education, professional technical institutions were established in
whole republic. For timely settlement of this national importance problem,
the training of the pedagogical specialists was necessary.
Among the pedagogical technical institutions existed in East Georgia,
in Kakhety, Telavi pedagogical technical institution (1924-1939) took the
greatest part in generations’ education business.

237


niko javaxiSvili
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori,
profesori, ivane javaxiSvilis isto-
riisa da eTnologiis institutis axa-
li da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofilebis
mTavari mecnier-TanamSromeli

qarTvelTa kvali baltiispireTSi


(XVII saukunis miwurulidan —
XIX saukunis Sua xanebamde)

qarTul-baltiur urTierTobebs aT saukuneze meti xnis


istoria gaaCnia. am sakiTxis kvlevas mivuZRveniT xuTi narkve-
vi, romlebSic SeviswavleT qarTveli da baltiispireli xal-
xebis samxedro-politikuri, savaWro-ekonomikuri da samec-
niero-kulturuli urTierTobebis aTaswlovani istoriis am-
saxveli ramdenime umniSvnelovanesi faqti [13-17].
am statiaSi, romelic rva narkvevisagan Sedgeba, Seswav-
lilia qarTvelTa moRvaweoba baltiispireTSi XVII saukunis
miwurulidan — XIX saukunis Sua xanebamde.

1. ufliswul aleqsandre arCilis Ze bagration-


imeretinskis mogzauroba liflandiasa da kurlandiaSi
(XVII saukunis miwuruli)

ruseTis mefem (1682 wlidan) da momavalma imperatorma


(1721 wlidan) petre I-ma (1672-1725) saartilerio saqmisa da da
gemTmSeneblobis dasaufleblad 1697-1698 wlebSi evropis
qveynebSi imogzaura. es mogzauroba cnobilia, rogorc `didi
elCoba~. am elCobis Sesaxeb sayuradRebo cnobebia daculi n.
ustrialovis naSromSi `petre didis mefobis istoria~ [30,
563-566] da m. bogoslavskis gamokvlevaSi `petre I: masalebi bi-
ografiisaTvis~ [20, 36-37].
1697 wlis martis dasawyisSi `didi elCoba~ moskovidan
gaemgzavra. aRniSnuli mogzaurobisas petre I-is amala 250
sxvadasxva rangis moxelisagan Sedgeboda. maT Soris iyo 20

238
aznauri da 35 volonteri — privilegirebul wodebaTa warmo-
madgeneli (Tavadebi, grafebi), romlebic dayofilni iyvnen
aTeulebad [4, 18].
mefe — `petre mixailovis~ fsevdonimiT mogzaurobda
[22, 41]. mas Tan axldnen Tavisi uaxloesi Tanamoazreni, ro-
melTa Sorisac sapatio adgili ekava qarTvel ufliswuls
aleqsandre arCilis Ze bagration-imeretinskis (1674-1711).
igi iyo qarTuli kulturis moRvawe, mwerali, moskovis qar-
Tuli axalSenis meTauri [8, 99-100]. imavdroulad is iyo vaJi
da memkvidre mefe arCil II-isa (1647-1713), romelic saqarTve-
los calkeul samefoebSi 1661-1696 wlebSi mefobda. kerZod,
arCil II imereTSi mefobda: 1661-1663; 1678-1679; 1690-1691;
1695-1696 wlebSi, xolo kaxeTSi — 1663-1675 wlebSi.
`didi elCobisas~ aleqsandre arCilis Ze bagration-ime-
retinski iricxeboda volonterTa III aTeulSi, xolo petre I —
volonterebis II aTeulSi [9, 202].
juanSer vaTeiSvilis naSromSi vkiTxulobT: `2 марта 1687
года из Москвы выехал передовой отряд, а через неделю – основной
состав посольства: более 250 человек, включая свиту и обслугу (врачей,
поваров, слуг, шутов). Посольству был придан отряд так называемых
волонтеров в 35 человек, составленный из представителей различных
слоев общества, связанных с придворными кругами. Его возглавлял
командор князь А. М. Черкаский, подчиненными которого считались
как сам царь, участвовавший в посольстве инкогнито в качестве одного
из трех «десятников» – волонтеров под именем «бомбардира Петра
Михайлова», так и двое из волонтеров, находившихся непосредственно
при монархе. Ими являлись Александр Арчилович Багратиони и Алек-
сандр Данилович Меншиков в окружении Петра I, пожалуй, наиболее
приближенные к нему люди.
Участие в российском «Великом посольстве» в Западную Европу
Александра Арчиловича Багратиони и сопровождавших его в качестве
свитских трех грузин (его слуг, их личности не установлены) являлось
событием отнюдь не ординарным, скорее даже беспрецедентным с
точки зрения не только истории русско-грузинских отношений, но и
истории Грузии и грузино-западноевропейских связей... Александр Ар-
чилович являлся самостоятельным официальным участником российс-
кого посольства в Западную Европу, на которого... были возложены

239
вполне определенные полномочия и обязанности в качестве высо-
копоставленного и деятельного члена этого посольства~ [21, 151-152].
amdenad, rogorc irkveva, ufliswul aleqsandres Tan 3
qarTveli piradi msaxuri axlda.
22 marts `didi elCoba~ fskovSi Cavida. 25 marts elCobis
monawileebma gadalaxes sazRvari, xolo 31 marts rigaSi Ca-
vidnen. mdinare dvinis adidebis gamo, elCoba am qalaqSi erT
kviras Seyovnda.
imxanad, liflandia rigis CaTvliT SvedeTis sakuTrebas
warmoadgenda. rogorc Cans, Svedebi grZnobdnen petre I-is
dainteresebas am strategiulad mniSvnelovani regioniT, ris
gamoc liflandiis general-gubernatorma `didi elCobis~ vi-
ziti rigaSi ar moiwona. yovelive amis gamo, aRniSnul qalaqSi
myof elCobis wevrebs sakmaod Seuferebeli sacxovrebeli ga-
mouyves da ar misces SesaZlebloba, rom daeTvalierebinaT
simagreebi, Tanac isini meTvalyureobis qveS moaqcies. maT qa-
laqSi gadaadgileba SezRuduli hqondaT. rodesac ruseTis
mefem mainc daiqirava navi da erT-erT simagresTan miaxloeba
scada, is iaraRis muqariT aiZules, rom iqaurobas gascloda.
amis Taobaze petre I-ma ganacxada:
— `Svedebi nebas ar maZleven davaTvaliero rigis simag-
reebi, magram Sevecdebi davaTvaliero isini maTi nebarTvis
gareSe~.
8 aprils `didma elCobam~ riga datova. 14 aprils isini
Cavidnen mitavaSi (Tanamedrove elgava), sadac maT kurlandi-
is hercogi fridrix kazimiri SeegebaT. hercogma sapatio
stumrebi Tavis sasaxleSi miipatiJa da didebulad umaspin-
Zla. gzaSi da Semdeg, sxva qalaqebis daTvalierebisas, elCo-
bas didi pativiT — samxedro musikiTa da qvemexebis baTqiT
xvdebodnen. elCobam kurlandiaSi erT kviras dahyo [4, 19].
j. vaTeiSvili mogviTxrobs: `Посещением Риги Петр остался
недоволен, ибо встретили его там холодно и недружелюбно. Несколько
сгладил это непрятное впечатление у царя радушный прием, оказанный
ему в Митаве – столице герцогства Курляндского, куда он прибыл 14
апреля. Достигнув морского берега, Петр 2 мая в сопровождении своих
друзей отплывает на «Святом Георгий» в Кёнигсберг и впервые видит
Балтиийское море~ [21, 164].

240
22 aprils, petre I, volonterebTan da 70 jariskacTan
erTad, libavaSi (liepaia) gaeSura, xolo TanmxlebTa danarCe-
ni nawili man droebiT mitavaSi datova. libavaSi Casuli pet-
re I mcirericxovani amaliT dabinavda savaWro gemze `wm. gi-
orgi~, romliTac kenigsbergisaken gaemarTa. elCobis sxva mo-
nawileni aRniSnuli qalaqisaken xmeleTiT gaeSurnen [4, 19].
Aaleqsandre arCilis Ze bagration-imeretinskim evropis
qveynebSi 1699 wlis miwurulamde dahyo. erovnul tanisamosSi
gamowyobili qarTveli ufliswuli sayovelTao yuradRebis
centrSi imyofeboda [7, 9]. is sxvadasxva dros cxovrobda pru-
siaSi (kenigsbergi), holandiasa (haaga, utrexti, amsterdami)
da did britaneTSi (londoni, deptfordi, vuliCi), sadac sam-
xedro xelovnebaSi codnas imaRlebda. igi saartilerio saq-
mes gansakuTrebuli mondomebiT eufleboda.
1700 wlis 19 maiss aleqsandre bagration-imeretinski da-
iniSna ruseTis artileriis pirvel sardlad — general-fel-
dceixmaisterad [32, 31-48].
imave wlis 19 noembers, narvasTan momxdar brZolaSi,
rusTa jari sastikad damarcxda. meore dRes, ruseTis armiis
sxva generlebTan (i. dolgoruki, a. golovini, i. buturlini, a.
veidi, i. trubeckoi da sxv.) erTad, Svedebma tyved general-
feldceixmaisteric Caigdes.
petre I Seecada, rom Tavisi uaxloesi megobari dauyov-
nebliv gamoexsna tyveobidan. qarTveli ufliswulis ganTavi-
suflebis sanacvlod Svedebma moiTxoves jer 10 kasri oqro,
xolo Semdeg — rusTa tyveobaSi Cavardnili 60 Svedis ganTa-
visufleba [31, 445].
ruseTis mefem sTxova aleqsandre bagrations, rom Svede-
bis winadadebasTan dakavSirebiT Tavisi azri gamoeTqva. amis
pasuxad, 1710 wlis 6 seqtembers petre I-isadmi gagzavnil we-
rilSi qarTveli ufliswuli werda: `aramcTu miTqvams, azra-
dac ki ar momsvlia, rom saxelmwifos raime zarali miadges ara-
Tu Cems gamo, aramed imaT gamoc, romlebic Cemze Tundac aTas-
jer ukeTesni arian. Cven valdebulni varT, rom moviTminoT da
sicocxle SevwiroT mefes da saxelmwifos interesebs~ [31, 64].
aTwlianma tyveobam aleqsandre bagration-imeretinskis
janmrTelobas waruSleli daRi daasva. 1711 wlis 3 Teber-
vals, rodesac igi tyveobidan ganTavisuflebuli ruseTSi
brundeboda, gzad piteos naxevarkunZulze gardaicvala. 37
241
wlis asakSi man suli dalia qarTveli beris pankratis (eriska-
cobaSi — bagrat soloRaSvili) xelebSi [21, 516-517].
qarTveli ufliswulis neSti moskovSi gadaasvenes da
donis monasterSi dakrZales [4, 37-38].
amrigad, qarTveli mefis arCil II-is vaJi da taxtis mem-
kvidre ufliswuli aleqsandre bagration-imeretinski (1697-
1711) — 1697 wlis 31 martidan — 22 aprilamde imyofeboda lif-
landiisa da kurlandiis teritoriaze. sagulisxmoa, rom is
iyo bagrationTa aTaswlovani samefo dinastiis CvenTvis cno-
bili pirveli warmomadgeneli, romelic baltiispireTs ewvia.

2. ufliswulebis adarnase levanis Ze da giorgi


vaxtangis Ze bagrationebis sabrZolo gza kurlandiaSi
(XVIII saukunis Sua xanebi)

1724 wlisaTvis saqarTveloSi Seqmnili urTulesi poli-


tikuri viTarebis gamo, qarTlis mefe vaxtang VI (1675-1737, me-
fobda 1709-1724 wlebSi) Tavisi 1.200-kaciani amaliT ruseTSi
gadaixvewa. amis Semdeg, mefis amalis udidesi nawili ruseTSi
darCa da iq moRvaweobda.
saqarTvelodan ruseTSi gadasaxlebul qarTvelTa So-
ris iyvnen bagrationTa samefo dinastiis qarTlis Stos war-
momadgenlebi, ufliswulebi aTanase (adarnase) levanis Ze
(1707-1784) da giorgi vaxtangis Ze (1712-1786).
moskovis ober-komendanti, general-poruCiki (1764 wli-
dan) aTanase levanis Ze bagrationi iyo umcrosi Zma mefe vax-
tang VI-isa, xolo general-anSefi giorgi vaxtangis Ze bagra-
tioni — xsenebuli mefis umcrosi vaJi.
XVIII saukunis ociani wlebidan, zemoxsenebuli ufliswu-
lebi, iseve rogorc qarTlis samefo amalis wevrTa mniSvne-
lovani nawili, ruseTis imperiis samxedro kampaniebSi aqtiu-
rad monawileobdnen [25, 15-17].
ufliswuli giorgi monawileobda ruseT-SvedeTis omSi
(1741-1743). am omidan misi dabrunebis Sesaxeb ase iuwyeboda
gazeTi `Санкт-Петербургские ведомости~: `В Санкт-Петербурге, 4
октября, Грузинский царевич Георгий возвратился по счастливом
окончании кампании в Финляндии. Он был на флоте~ [28].

242
giorgi vaxtangis Ze bagrationi, romelic imxanad gene-
ral-maiori iyo, xelmZRvanelobda galerebidan gadmomsxdar
grenaderebsa da muSketerebs [33, 203].
ufliswulebi aTanase da giorgi bagrationebi monawile-
obdnen rainis laSqrobaSi (1747-1748 wlebi). giorgis daekisra
organizeba sagalero flotisa, romelsac desanti unda gada-
esxa q. kronStadtidan — q. mitavaSi [22, 86].
amrigad, 1747-1748 wlebSi kurlandiis teritoriaze ibr-
Zodnen ufliswulebi aTanase (adarnase) levanis Ze (1707-1784)
da giorgi vaxtangis Ze (1712-1786) bagrationebi.

3. ufliswul paata vaxtangis Ze bagrationis mogzauroba


baltiispireTSi (1749 w.)

vaxtang VI-is umcrosma vaJma — paatam (1720-1765) ruseTSi


saartilerio da safortifikacio saqme Seiswavla.
mamis gardacvalebis (1737) Semdeg, ufliswuli finansur
gasaWirSi Cavarda.
1745 wlis maisSi paatam ruseTis imperatricas ana ioanes
asuls sTxova, rom Sesaferis samsaxurSi aeyvanaT, anda sa-
qarTveloSi gamgzavrebis nebarTva miecaT. amis paralelu-
rad, man iTxova Tanxa valebis gasastumreblad.
imperiis xelisufalni SiSobdnen, rom saqarTveloSi
dabrunebuli ufliswuli sparseTis samsaxurSi ar Camdgari-
yo da Tavisi samxedro ganaTleba iq ar gamoeyenebina. amis ga-
mo, maT paatas SesTavazes qveiT polkSi Caricxva podpolkov-
nikis wodebiT da fuladi daxmareba, riTac SesaZlebeli iqne-
boda misi valis mxolod mcire nawilis gastumreba.
am SeTavazebiT ukmayofilo ufliswulma gadawyvita,
rom ruseTi saidumlod daetovebina. 1749 wlis 22 ianvars igi
qarTveli aznauris vasil egorovis pasportiT ewvia jer ri-
gas, xolo Semdeg mitavas (elgava), saidanac memelSi Cavida [27,
71-77].
imave wlis 5 maiss ruseTis imperiis senatSi qarTveli
ufliswulis saqme ganixiles. im dRes Sedgenili dokumentis
saxelwodebaa: `Протокол собрания правительствующего Сената об
отказе в отпуске на родину грузинского царевича Пааты, о принятии на

243
службу подполковником, а также о тайном отъезде его с подложным па-
спортом в Мемель~ [29, 519].
protokolSi naTqvami iyo: `Царевич Паата подлежным пас-
портом, под именем грузинского дворянина Егорова, с одним человеком
приехал в Ригу из Петербурга и объявя об себе, отпросился до Митавы,
откуда тайно в Мемель приехал~ [29, 519-520].
memelidan kenigsbergSi Casulma paatam prusiis monarqs
fridrix II-s qveSevrdomobaSi miReba da samxedro samsaxurSi
Caricxva sTxova, rasac Sedegi ar mohyva. rogorc Cans, ruse-
Tidan gaqceuli qarTveli ufliswulisaTvis TavSesafaris
micemas prusiis xelisufleba moerida.
amis gamo, ufliswuli paata evropis sxva qveynebisa da
konstantinopolis gavliT, mogvianebiT (1752 w.) saqarTvelo-
Si dabrunda [11, 629].
misi mogzaurobis marSruti aseTi iyo: sankt-peterbur-
gi — riga — mitava — memeli — kenigsbergi — varSava — kamene-
ci — buqaresti — konstantinopoli — erzurumi — Tbilisi [27,
79].
amrigad, 1749 wlis dasawyisSi baltiispireTSi imogzau-
ra ufliswulma paata vaxtangis Ze bagrationma (1720-1765).

4. qarTvel husarTa polkis sabrZolo gza baltiispireTSi


(XVIII saukunis 50-iani wlebi)

1729 wlidan ruseTSi cxovrobda da moRvaweobda gamoCe-


nili qarTveli poeti, Tavadi daviT giorgis Ze guramiSvili
(1705-1792), romelic daaxloebuli iyo vaxtang VI-sTan da mis
garemocvasTan.
vaxtang VI-is gardacvalebis (1737) Semdeg, saqarTveloSi
dabrunebis imedgadawuruli qarTveli emigrantebi da maT So-
ris daviT guramiSvilic iZulebulni gaxdnen, rom ruseTis
imperiis qveSevrdomoba mieRoT.
1738 wlis 8 ivniss, ruseTis imperiis ministrTa kabinetma
daamtkica senatis mier wardgenili proeqti `qarTuli husar-
Ta aseulis~ Seqmnis Sesaxeb. 1741 wlidan aRniSnuli aseuli
gardaiqmna `qarTul husarTa polkad~, romlis Semadgenloba-
Sic 500-mde qarTveli iricxeboda.

244
`qarTuli husarTa polki~, romelsac polkovniki (Sem-
dgomSi — general-leitenanti), Tavadi elise (ediSer) paatas
Ze amilaxvari meTaurobda, monawileobda ruseT-prusiis omSi
(1756-1762). imxanad d. guramiSvili podporuCiki iyo.
1757 wlis 18 ivniss `qarTul husarTa polkma~, ruseTis
imperiis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis sxva samxedro SenaerTebTan
erTad gadalaxa mdinareebi vili da nemani. isini dabanakdnen
jer qalaq kovnoSi (kaunasi), xolo Semdeg — SadovSi. amis Sem-
deg, maT aiRes: benzagoli, krokena, rudziuna da olita. 25 iv-
niss maT daikaves memeli, xolo momdevno dRes — gumbini. 27
ivniss maT piCkenis tyesTan sZlies prusielebs.
aRniSnul brZolebSi monawileobda d. guramiSvilic [10,
41-89], romelsac mogvianebiT (1760 wlis 1 ivniss) poruCikis
samxedro wodeba mieniWa [26, 144].
amrigad, ruseT-prusiis Svidwlian omSi (1756-1762) ruse-
Tis imperiis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis SemadgenlobaSi Semavali
`qarTuli husarTa polki~ 1757 wlis ivnisSi baltiispireTis,
kerZod litvis teritoriaze ibrZoda. maT Soris iyo gamoCe-
nili qarTveli poeti, Tavadi daviT guramiSvili (1705-1792).

5. general petre ivanes Ze bagrationis mamuli


baltiispireTSi (XVIII saukunis miwuruli — XIX saukunis
dasawyisi)

ruseTis saimperio armiis erT-erTi yvelaze saxelgan-


Tqmuli mxedarTmTavari, infanteriis generali, mravali sapa-
tio jildos kavaleri petre ivanes Ze bagrationi (1765-1812) —
qarTlis mefe ieses (mefobda 1714-1716 da 1724-1727 wlebSi)
pirdapiri STamomavali iyo [24, 50-52].
italiisa da Sveicariis samxedro eqspediciebSi (1799) ga-
moCenili didi damsaxurebisaTvis, imperatorma pavle I-ma
1800 wlis aprilSi p. bagrations jildod uboZa mdidari so-
feli, romelic litvis guberniaSi mdebareobda [23, 61].
saxelovani sardali — suliTa da xorciT mxedari iyo.
misi moRvaweobis mTavar asparezs — brZolis veli warmoad-
genda. amitomac, mas srulebiT ar izidavda imperatoris mier
jildod naboZebi yma-mamuli, romelTac arc ki moinaxuleb-
da, ise hyidda. mas mdidruli, xelgaSlili cxovreba uyvarda,

245
ris gamoc xSirad valebs iRebda da Semdeg mamulebis gayidviT
ixdida [4, 51-57].
1802 wels p. bagrationma litvis mamulidan 6 axalgazrda
yma-glexi amoarCia da Tan waiyvana, xolo TviT sofeli — ru-
seTis saxelmwifo xazinas mihyida.
sagulisxmoa, rom aTi wlis Semdeg, borodinos brZolaSi
(1812 w.) daWrilma da sasikvdilo sarecelze mijaWvulma gene-
ralma Tavis litvel ymebs Tavisufleba mianiWa [23, 72].
amrigad, saxelganTqmul mxedarTmTavars, general pet-
re ivanes Ze bagrations (1765-1812) 1800 wlis aprilSi litvis
guberniaSi jildod uboZes sofeli, saidanac wayvanil eqvs
litvel yma-glexs man gardacvalebis win Tavisufleba uboZa.

6. baltiispireTi ukanaskneli qarTveli mefis


grigol I-is TvaliT (1813 w.)

XIX saukunis dasawyisidan ruseTis imperiam TandaTan da-


ipyro saqarTvelos teritoriaze mdebare samefo-samTavroe-
bi, xolo bagrationTa samefo dinastiis mravali warmomadge-
neli sankt-peterburgSi gadaasaxla.
erovnuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebam Tavisuflebis-
moyvare qarTveli eris didi ukmayofileba gamoiwvia. amas
mohyva saxalxo ajanyebebi kaxeTsa (1802) da mTiuleTSi (1804),
romlebic ruseTis administraciam sisxlSi CaaxSo.
imperatoris mmarTvelobis qveS iZulebiT moqceuli
qarTveli eris jansaR nawils kvlav bagrationebis gamefeba
surda. am gvaris saxiT qarTvelobas erovnuli saxelmwifoeb-
riobis cocxali simbolo eguleboda.
ruseTis saimperio administracia saqarTveloSi ise iq-
ceoda, rogorc dampyrobeli dapyrobil qveyanaSi. amis gamo,
qarTveli eris ukmayofileba TandaTan matulobda da saxal-
xo ajanyebisaTvis niadagi mzaddeboda.
1812 wlis 31 ianvridan aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi axalma
saxalxo ajanyebam ifeTqa. masSi dawyebisTanave Caeba qarTl-
kaxeTis samefo saxlis saqarTveloSi SemorCenili erTaderTi
wevri — 23 wlis ufliswuli grigol ioanes Ze bagrationi
(1789-1830). igi iyo SvilTaSvili mefe erekle II-isa (mefobda
1744-1798 wlebSi), SviliSvili mefe giorgi XII-isa (mefobda
1798-1800 wlebSi) da vaJi ufliswul ioanesi (1768-1830).
246
erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis asparezze qar-
Tveli ufliswulis gamoCena ajanyebulTaTvis udides stimu-
lad iqca. maT grigoli TavianT winamZRolad miiRes da qarTl-
kaxeTis mefed gamoacxades. igi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mni-
Svnelovan nawilSi 1812 wlis Tebervlis Sua ricxvebidan — mar-
tis dasawyisamde mefobda. eklesiebSi mis, rogorc qarTl-kaxe-
Tis mefis saxelze, wirva-locvas aRavlendnen [12, 23-53].
mefe grigol I-is energiuli moRvaweobis wyalobiT, aja-
nyebulebma mniSvnelovan warmatebebs miaRwies. es amboxeba
TandaTan saqarTvelos sazRvrebs scildeboda da saerToka-
vkasiuri ajanyebis xasiaTs iRebda. yovelive aman ruseTis sa-
imperio xelisufleba aiZula, rom gadamWreli zomebisaTvis
miemarTa.
saqarTvelos mTavarsardali, generali filip osipis Ze
pauluCi ruseTis saxelmwifo sabWosa da ministrTa kabinetis
Tavmjdomaris nikoloz rumiancevisadmi (1754-1826) gagzav-
nil saidumlo patakSi SeniSnavda: `Царевич Григорий, сын цареви-
ча Иоанна, в Москве пребывающего, провозглашенный кахетинскими
мятежниками царем Грузии и издавший от имени своего возмутитель-
ные прокламации, также коего имя в церквах бунтовщиками поминаемо
было как царя Грузии и который, собрав мятежную толпу, дрался про-
тив войск В. И. В., но был мною разбит, бежал было в Дагестан, к ан-
цухским лезгинам~ [18, 63].
saimperio xelisuflebam veragulad daatyveva grigol
bagrationi da ruseTSi gadaasaxla. igi jer q. oloneckSi
hyavdaT, xolo Semdeg q. petrozavodskSi gadaiyvanes. er-
Twliani patimrobis Semdeg is gaaTavisufles.
1813 wels grigol bagrationi monawileobda ruseTis ar-
miis sazRvargareTul laSqrobaSi, romlis STabeWdilebanic
man gadmosca Tavis samogzauro xasiaTis TxzulebaSi `mogza-
uroba peterburgidan vilnomde~.
mixeil gorgiZis naSromSi vkiTxulobT: `Григорий Иоанно-
вич после двенадцатимесячного заключения в крепости был помилован.
Дальнейшая его жизнь связана со службой в русской армии в Петер-
бурге и отчасти в Астрахани. Он принимал участие в известном походе
1813 года. Как и многие из членов грузинского царского дома, выслан-
ных в Петербург, он тоже отдавал дань литературной деятельности. Так,
им описан поход, в котором он сам участвовал («Путешествие из Пе-

247
тербурга в Вильно»). Сохранились в рукописи его стихотворения «Мар-
гиналии», а также переводы с русского языка. Умер Г. И. Багратиони в
чине подполковника в Петербурге в 1830 году, похоронен в Александро-
Невской лавре)~ [22, 107-108].
grigol bagrationis samogzauro TxzulebaSi saintere-
sod aris aRwerili baltiispireTis qalaqebi, mdinareebi da
tbebi.
sagulisxmoa, rom grigoli xSirad qarTul, erovnul ta-
nisamosSi gamowyobili daiareboda. ucxo tanisamosiT mosili
axovani, moxdenili vaJkaci evropis qveynebSi mnaxvelTa did
yuradRebas iqcevda.
g. bagrationis TxzulebaSi asea aRwerili mdinare narva:
`mdinare ese iqnebis ori da mtkvrisodeni... mivediT saidamca
mdinare narva gamodis, romelic ars saSineli tba. sigrZe aqvs
330 da sigane 165 da aris sul tba ese riyiani da gemrieli sas-
meli wyali, romelica ukeTesi gemo wylisa aRar iTqmis... tba-
sa amas hqvian ozira pskova~ [1, 1-2].
grigolma oTxi dRe gaatara vilnoSi (vilniusi), romlis
RirsSesaniSnaobebi, Semogareni, Teatri, mosaxleoba da maTi
zne-Cveulebani man Tavis TxzulebaSi aRwera.
masSi vkiTxulobT: `aris vilnosa qalaqi dablobSi, sam
kuTxidgan aqvs sul gorebi tyiani da erTidgan md. vil-
la...…vilnisa qalaqsa Sina aris xalxi dia mSvenieri, romeli
vsTqva, ukeTesi arsad minaxavs, nametnavad uriaTa qalni... ar-
ian viTarca qarTvelni, moarulni kabiTa, sartyeliTa da Cib-
letebiT, ese igi CaxCurebiT da Coxa-barmniTa moarulni, vi-
Tarca bunebiT qarTvelni~ [1, 5].
g. bagrationis SefasebiT, `vilnosa Sina mcxovrebni uri-
ani arian moarulni kacni maTni cudisa tanisamosiTa da didi-
Ta wveriTa da TmiTa da zevidam acviaT, viTarca somxis ter-
teraTa Savi anaforani da zogTa dakecili mxarzedan uZevsT~.
misive azriT, mamakacebze ukeTesad ecvaT ebrael qalebs,
romlebic gamowyobilni iyvnen `CadriTa da qoSebiT da aqvT
Tavni Sekrulni didisa kopiTa da yelTa zeda aqusT yovelTa
saraRuji margalitisa~ [1, 5].
avtorma yuradReba gaamaxvila vilnos mcxovrebTa wes-
Cveulebebzec. magaliTad, man ase aRwera dakrZalvis iqauri
tradicia: `odes mkudari moukvdebaT, miitaneben mkvdarsa mas

248
da Caasveneben zemoxsenebulsa xvrelsa Sina da gaamweseben mi-
wisa da kedlis pirsa da waafareben Cveulebisamebr qvasa.
odes mis gobonasa gverdsa gaivli, vera scnob Tu es goboni
sasaflao ars. ase gegoneba, rom erTi didi sasaxle aris~ [1, 5].
amrigad, ukanasknelma qarTvelma mefem grigol I-ma
(1789-1830), datusaRebisa da ruseTSi gadasaxlebis Semdeg,
1813 wels imogzaura baltiispireTSi, xolo samogzauro STa-
beWdilebebi Tavis TxzulebaSi gadmosca.

7. giorgi qsnis erisTavi baltiispireTSi


(XIX saukunis 30-iani wlebi)

gamoCenili qarTveli dramaturgi, poeti da Teatris


moRvawe, Tavadi giorgi daviTis Ze qsnis erisTavi (1813-1864)
erTxans baltiispireTSi moRvaweobda.
1832 wlis dekemberSi gamJRavnebul antiimperiul SeTq-
mulebaSi monawileobisaTvis praporSCik g. erisTavs baltiis-
pireTSi gadasaxleba miusajes.
1834 wlis 9 ianvars igi gagzavnes q. vilnoSi (vilniusi),
sadac fexosanTa III diviziis novo-ingermanlandiis polkSi Ca-
ricxes [19, 413].
g. erisTavi sxvadasxva dros msaxurobda aseve qalaqebSi:
kovnoSi (kaunasi), rigaSi, varSavaSi, volkovskSi, belostoksa
da sxv. [3, 26].
man safuZvlianad Seiswavla polonuri ena, ramac SesaZ-
lebloba misca ziareboda polonur literaturas, xolo adam
mickeviCis `yirimis sonetebi~ da `didi improvizacia~ qarTul
enaze eTargmna.
samxedro samsaxuris paralelurad, g. erisTavi leqci-
ebs ismenda vilnos universitetSi. iq mas Seuyvarda `mSvenieri
litveli qalwuli~, romelsac SemdgomSi, Tavis nawarmoebebSi
xSirad ixseniebda [5, 99].
1838 wels g. erisTavs neba darTes, rom droebiT Camosuli-
yo saqarTveloSi, sadac sabolood 1842 wels dabrunda [2, 192].
amrigad, XIX saukunis 30-ian wlebSi baltiispireTSi moR-
vaweobda gamoCenili qarTveli dramaturgi, poeti da Teatris
moRvawe, Tavadi giorgi daviTis Ze qsnis erisTavi (1813-1864).

249
8. ufliswul Teimuraz giorgis Ze bagrationis
TxzulebaSi aRwerili baltiispireTi (1836 w.)

1836 wlis maisis miwuruls da ivnisis dasawyisSi, baltiis-


pireTSi imogzaura qarTl-kaxeTis mefis giorgi XII-is (mefobda
1798-1800 wlebSi) vaJma — Teimuraz bagrationma (1782-1846). is
iyo cnobili mwerali da mecnieri, sankt-peterburgis mecnie-
rebaTa akademiis sapatio wevri da namdvili wevri parizis saa-
zio da kopenhagenis antikvarTa samefo sazogadoebebisa.
xsenebuli wlis 26 maiss, sankt-peterburgSi myofi T. ba-
grationi evropis qveynebis mimarTulebiT mogzaurobas Se-
udga. Tavis TxzulebaSi `mogzauroba Cemi evropiisa sxvaTa da
sxvaTa adgilTa~ igi wers: `ganvleT liflandiis qalaqebi da
soflebi, derptis qalaqi, liflandiis deda Ruberniis qala-
qi; qalaqi riga, romelica Cinebuli qalaqi aris. iqidam kur-
landiis pirveli qalaqi mitava, romelica kurlandiis Ruber-
niis qalaqia, kais alags da kargi quCebi aqvs. aqedam viareT.
ganvleT kurlandiis samzRvarica da SevediT polSis samzRva-
rSia, vilenckis RuberniaSi~ [6, 18-19].
amrigad, ufliswulma Teimuraz giorgis Ze bagrationma
(1782-1846) 1836 wels imogzaura baltiispireTSi, ris Sesaxe-
bac mis TxzulebaSi garkveuli cnobebi gvxvdeba.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. xelnawerTa erovnuli centri, xelnaweri H-2178.


2. alania nodar, erisTavi giorgi daviTis Ze, qarTuli sabWoTa
enciklopedia, t. 4, Tb., 1979.
3. gamezardaSvili daviT, giorgi erisTavi, Tb., 1949.
4. gonikiSvili mixeil, bagrationTa dasaxleba da moRvaweoba
ruseTSi, Tb., 1986.
5. vozniaki andJei, qarTvelebi varSavaSi (XVII-XX saukuneebSi),
krebuli `polonelebis 200 weli kavkasiaSi. qarTul-polonu-
ri urTierTkavSirebi~ Tb., 2004.
6. Teimuraz batoniSvili, mogzauroba Cemi evropiisa sxvaTa da
sxvaTa adgilTa, solomon iordaniSvilis redaqciiT, weri-
liTa da SeniSvnebiT, Tb., 1944.

250
7. megreliZe SamSe, Cveni saxelovani samxedro winaprebi, Tb.,
1979.
8. sixaruliZe fridon, aleqsandre batoniSvili (bagrationi),
enciklopedia `saqarTvelo~, t. I, Tb., 1997.
9. tatiSvili vladimer, qarTvelebi moskovSi, meore Sevsebuli
da gadamuSavebuli gamocema, Tb., 1959.
10. yubaneiSvili solomon, daviT guramiSvili qarTul husarTa
polkSi, Tb., 1955.
11. xanTaZe SoTa, paata batoniSvili, qarTuli sabWoTa enciklo-
pedia, t. 7, Tb., 1984.
12. javaxiSvili niko, grigol I — ukanaskneli qarTveli mefe, Tb.,
2008.
13. javaxiSvili niko, qarTul-latviuri urTierTobis istorii-
dan, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis institu-
tis axali da uaxlesi istoriis ganyofilebis samecniero
SromaTa krebuli `axali da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi~, t. I
(V), Tb., 2009.
14. javaxiSvili niko, qarTul-baltiispiruli urTierTobis sa-
TaveebTan (X-XI saukuneebi), krebuli `axali da uaxlesi isto-
riis sakiTxebi~, t. II (VI), Tb., 2009.
15. javaxiSvili niko, baltiis qveynebTan saqarTvelos samxed-
ro-politikuri urTierTobis istoriidan (XV saukunis miwu-
ruli), krebuli `axali da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi~, t. II
(VI), Tb., 2009.
16. javaxiSvili niko, baltiis qveynebTan saqarTvelos savaWro-
ekonomikuri urTierTobis istoriidan (XVII saukunis pirve-
li mesamedi), krebuli `axali da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi~,
t. II (VI), Tb., 2009.
17. javaxiSvili niko, baltiispireTis regionebi da qalaqebi —
XVIII saukunis didi qarTveli mecnieris TvaliT, krebuli
`axali da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi~, t. II (VI), Tb., 2009.
18. Акты собранные Кавказской Археографической комиссией, Архив
Главного управления наместника Кавказского (под редакцией А. Бер-
же), т. V, Тифлис, 1873.
19. Акты собранные Кавказской Археографической комиссией, Архив
Главного управления наместника Кавказского (под редакцией А. Бер-
же), т. VIII, Тифлис, 1881.
20. Богославский М., Петр I: матерялы для биографии, т. II, Москва, 1940.

251
21. Ватеишвили Д., Грузия и европейские страны, т. II. Побратим Петра
Великого. Жизнь и деятельность Александра Багратиони, Москва, 2003.
22. Горгидзе М., Грузины в Петербурге (страницы летописи культурных
связей), Тб., 1976.
23. Грибанов В., Багратион в Петербурге, Ленинград, 1979.
24. Дворянские роды Российской империи. III, Князья, под редакцией С.
Думина, Москва, 1996.
25. Джавахишвили Н., Грузины под российским флагом (Грузинские
военные и государственные деятели на службе России в 1703-1917 гг.),
Тб., 2003.
26. Думин С., Гребельский П., Дворянские роды Российской империи, т.
IV, Князья Царства Грузинского, под редакцией С. Думина и
Ю.Чиковани, Москва, 1998.
27. Пирцхалайшвили А., Царевич Паата (сын царя Вахтанга VI-го), В
сборнике: «Вопросы истории Грузии феодальной эпохи», т. II, Тбилиси,
1970.
28. Газ.`Санкт-Петербургские ведомости~, СПб., 1742, № 80.
29. Сенатский архив, т. 7. Протоколы Правительствующего Сената, СПб.,
1895.
30. Устрялов Н., История царствования Петра Великого, т. I, СПб., 1851.
31. Устрялов Н., История царствования Петра Великого, т. IV, СПб., 1858.
32. Хмыров М., Главные начальники русской артиллерии. 1-ый генерал-
фельдцейхмейстер царевич Александр Арчилович Имеретинский.
«Артиллерийский Журнал», СПб., 1866, № 1.
33. Шпилевский Н., Описание войны между Россией и Швецией в
Финляндии в 1741-1743 гг., СПб., 1859.

252
Niko Javakhishvili
Doctor of Historical sciences, Professor, Chief
scientist-researcher of the Modern and Contempo-
rary History Department of the Ivane Javakhishvili
Institute of History and Ethnology

Trace of Georgians in the Baltics


(From the end of XVII th – to the first half of XIX th century)

Summary

In the previous research it is studied an activity of Georgians in the


Baltics from the end of XVII th century – to the first half of XIX th century.
There are 8 subtitles represented in the research:
1. Travel of the prince Alexander Bagration-Imeretinsky in Liflandia
and Kurlandia (End of the XVII th century);
2. Military way of princes Afanasi (Adarnase) and George Bagrationis
in Kurlandia (Middle of XVIII th century);
3. Travel of the prince Paata Bagrationi in the Baltics (End of the XVII
th century);
4. Military way of Georgian Husar’s regiment in the Baltics (50-ies of
XVIII th century);
5. Estate of general Peter Bagrationi in the Baltics (End of the XVII th
century – Beginning of the XIX th century);
6. The Baltics as seen by the last Georgian king from Bagrationi’s
Royal Dynasty – Gregory I (year 1813);
7. The Duke of Ksani Giorgi Eristavi in the Baltics (Thirties of the
XIXth century);
8. The Baltics descripted in prince Theimuraz Bagration’s work (year
1836).

253
giorgi beJitaSvili
iakob gogebaSvilis saxelobis Te-
lavis saxelmwifo universitetis
humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakul-
tetis saqarTvelos istoriis ka-
Tedris doqtoranti

poloneTSi qarTuli samxedro emigraciis


istoriis zogierTi aspeqti

qarTuli samxedro emigraciis pirveli warmomadgeneli


poloneTSi XVII saukunis 60-iani wlebidan Cans. qarTvelma
emigrantma bogdan gurjickim didi roli Seasrula maSindeli
samyaros poloneTis saxelmwifosa da sparseT-TurqeTis
qveynebs Soris diplomatiuri urTierTobis mowesrigebis
saqmeSi [8, 185].
istoriuli gamocdileba gvidasturebs, rom poloneTi-
sa da saqarTvelos diplomatiur urTierTobebs udidesi
mniSvneloba hqonda maSindeli osmaleTis didi imperiis wina-
aRmdeg osmaleT-poloneTis qveynebis sabrZolo mzadebaSi.
im drois osmaleTisa da evropuli saxelmwifoebis dip-
lomatiuri urTierTobebis Seswavla SesaZlebels xdis gaviT-
valiswinoT saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi viTareba da misi
politikuri SesaZleblobebi saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis
rTuli sakiTxebis diplomatiuri meTodebiT mogvarebaSi. es
sakiTxi Tanabrad sainteresoa poloneli da qarTveli mkvlev-
rebisaTvis.
polonur istoriografiaSi saTanadod aris Seswavlili
b. gurjickis moRvaweoba. poloneli mkvlevarebi stanislav
koSCialikovski, stanislav zalenski, ian kreSinski, bogdan ba-
ranovski, ian suixmani, a. voJniaki da sxva. cdiloben zustad
Seiswavlon, Seafason da gadmogvcen qarTveli diplomatis
bogdan gurjickis saqmianoba, poloneTis saxelmwifo intere-
sebis dacvaSi.
istoriul movlenaTa msvlelobaSi poloneTis bedi sa-
qarTvelosas sakmaod hgavs. adreuli saukuneebidan iwyeba am
qveynebs Soris urTierTTanadgoma, TanagrZnoba. poloneT-sa-
qarTvelos urTierTobaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ekava ara

254
marto osmaleTis imperias, aramed ruseTis sagareo politi-
kur moqmedebebsac. poloneTis saxelmwifo sakmaod gvian Ca-
moyalibda, xolo saqarTvelos mravalsaukunovani saxelmwi-
foebrioba aqvs. erT dros poloneTi iyo evropis uZlieresi
saxelmwifo. aseTive iyo saqarTvelo — kavkasiaSi. SemdegSi
gaZlierebuli ruseTi iwyebs ucxo miwebis, maT Soris polone-
Tisa da saqarTvelos dapyrobas. aseTi istoriuli msgavsebi-
Tac sainteresoa maTi samomavlo urTierTobebis Seswavla,
gaanalizeba, gamocdilebis gaazreba.
poloneli istorikosebi didi interesiT ganixilaven
erT-erTi pirveli gamoCenili qarTveli diplomatis bogdan
gurjickis damsaxurebas poloneTis samefo karis miznebis gan-
xorcielebaSi sparseTTan, osmaleTTan, ruseTTan, saqarTve-
los urTierTobis procesSi. polonur istoriografiaSi bog-
dan gurjicki daxasiaTebulia im drois erT-erT ganaTlebul
pirovnebad. man SesaniSnavad icoda samxedro saqme, iyo samefo
laSqris aseulis meTauri. 1662 wels miiRo rotmistris wode-
ba. samxedro kompaniebisas mas vaJkacoba gamouCenia. am damsa-
xurebisaTvis 1666 wlis zeimze samefo jaris warmomadgenlebi
jildod moiTxovdnen misTvis aznaurobis micemas. 1676 wlis
seimma mas mianiWa aznauris wodeba e.i. SliaxtiCoba. miniWebis-
Tanave miuciaT mamulebi lenCickis raionSi. Tavdapirvelad
igi qarTlis mefis samsaxurSi imyofeboda da SesaniSnavad er-
kveoda samefo karis sagareo politikaSi. bogdan gurjicki XVII
s-is naxevarSi poloneTSi aqtiurad moRvaweobs:
a) stanislav koSnialkovski wers, rom poloneTis mefe
ian kazimeJma 1668 wels Tavisi mefobis bolo wels specialu-
ri misiiT gaagzavna sparseTSi b. gurjicki; xolo ian III — sobi-
eskis mefobis dros poloneTis elCTa Soris sparseTis karze
iyo polkovniki b. gurjicki, romelic asrulebda elCis mova-
leobas kapitan zagorskisTan erTad sparseTSi [1, 166].
b) b. gurjickis saqmianobis Sefasebisas mkvlevari sta-
nislav zalenski gvamcnobs: `mefe ian kazimeJma 1668 wels su-
leiman SahTan elCad gagzavna rostmistri gurjicki da misi
piriT SesTavaza kavSiri TurqTa winaaRmdeg~; vfiqrobT es
iyo qarTveli diplomatis didi Rirsebisa da ndobis gamoxa-
tuleba [1, 167]. s. zalenskis aseT cnobas didi mniSvneloba
aqvs. rogorc Cans b. gurjicki droulad da zustad asruleb-
da Tavis rTul misias qveynebs Soris urTierTobis diploma-
255
tiuri xerxebiT mowesrigebaSi, igi ar erideboda Seecvala re-
ligiuri Sexedulebebi saxelmwifoebrivi davalebis Sesru-
lebisaTvis. amis gamo stanislav zalenski samarTlianad wers:
`es elCi iyo cnobili baroni buxtam-begi, romelic iyo polo-
neTis mefis rezidenti ispahanSi [1, 168].
g) poloneli mogzauri da mematiane ian kuSinski ganixi-
lavs 1722 wels sparseTSi avRanelTa SeWras, ramdenjerme ax-
senebs bogdan gurjickis pirovnul Tvisebebs, mis moRvaweo-
bas da wers: `erT-erTi elCi, romelic didxans iyo poloneTis
mefis rezidenti sparseTis Sahis karze, iyo mdidari kaci, sam-
xedro saqmis kargi mcodne da politikur saqmeebSi gamocdi-
li moRvawe~. mas Sah suleimanisgan miRebuli hqonda didi ma-
mulebi Sirvanis provinciaSi, igi gardaicvala moskovSi ro-
gorc kaTolike, iq Sahma suleimanma gagzavna elCad, sadac iyo
kaTolikuri misiebis mgznebare qomagi [1, 169].
d) bogdan baranovski gvauwyebs — XVII saukunis meore na-
xevarSi poloneT-sparseTis urTierTobaSi `yvelaze metad
cnobili diplomati iyo bogdan gurji, warmoSobiT qarTveli,
romelic mravaljer iyo elCad gagzavnili sparseTSi~ [1, 170].
e) ian reixmani gvatyobinebs: b. gurjicki (igive buxtam-
begi, berbi bugdan begi, bogdan sparsi, bogdan gurjie) samefo
jarebis rotmistri, poloneTis samsaxurSi myofi, SemdegSi
cnobili diplomati, warmoSobiT saqarTvelodan iyo [1, 171];
amrigad, xazgasma qarTuli warmoSobis Taobaze mianiSnebs mis
sapatio damokidebulebaze poloneTis sazogadoebaSi.
v) b. gurjickis saqarTvelosTan, mis samefo karTan mud-
mivi urTierToba da kavSiri hqonda. poloneTis elCs spar-
seTSi mogzaurobisas saqarTvelos xelisuflebasTan gadasa-
cemi saidumlo mimowera evaleboda da urTierToba hqonda
TviT Sah-navazTan. aseT moments adasturebs ian streisis
cnoba. ian streisi (SemdgomSi cnobili holandieli mogzau-
ri) b. gurjickim gamoixsna monobidan, miuxedavad amisa sakma-
od mkacr daxasiaTebas aZlevs [7, 172].
z) arsebuli istoriuli cnobebis miuxedavad, kvlav sa-
intereso sakvlevad rCeba b. gurjickis qarTuli warmomav-
loba, misi saxelisa da gvaris Zieba. migvaCnia, rom aseTi mcde-
loba aqvs guram zedgeniZes statiaSi — `qarTveli diplomati
bogdan gurjicki~. mainc saWirod vTvliT gavagrZeloT saar-
qivo (ucxouri da qarTuli) masalebis Semdgomi moZieba da
256
mecnieruli ganzogadeba. cxadia, bogdan gurjickis diploma-
tiuri moRvaweoba poloneTis samefo karze sruliadac ar
aris poloneT-saqarTvelos saxelmwifo urTierToba, magram
es calkeuli saqmianoba, pirovnebis niWiereba da gamocdile-
ba xels uwyobda ori qveynis daaxlovebas. evropuli samyaro-
saken ltolva ucxo ar aris qarTuli sagareo politikuri
kursis warsulisaTvis. poloneTsa da saqarTvelos istoriu-
li urTierToba kidev ufro ganmtkicda mogviano periodSi,
gansakuTrebiT XX saukunis aTian wlebSi. qarTuli samxedro
emigracia poloneTSi saTaves iRebs 1921 wlidan [1, 172].
qarTuli samxedro emigraciis mdidari istoriuli masa-
lis gaanalizebisa da kritikuli Seswavlis aucilebloba gan-
pirobebulia XX saukunis pirveli naxevris movlenebis mniS-
vnelobis gamo da evropaSi mimdinare politikur urTierTo-
baSi qarTveli samxedro emigrantebis monawileobis rolis
SefasebisaTvis.
qarTvel mecnierTa gansakuTrebuli daintereseba po-
loneT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis istoriis SeswavlisaTvis
gaZlierda Tanamedrove pirobebSi. qarTveli istorikosebi: n.
javaxiSvili [7], g. zedgeniZe [1], v. beniZe [3], S. murusiZe [4], c.
CxartiSvili [8], i. cincaZe [6], T. qvelaSvili [5], e. mamukelaS-
vili [2]. vrclad da sarwmuno wyaroebis kritikuli analizis
safuZvelze siRrmiseulad ganixilaven poloneT-saqarTve-
los samxedro-politikuri urTierTobebis ZiriTad sakiT-
xebs.
wlebis manZilze saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministros
sistemaSi muSaobam ganapiroba didi daintereseba qarTuli
samxedro emigraciis istoriis jer kidev ucnobi masalebis
mimarT.
1918 wlis 26 maiss, rodesac Seiqmna saqarTvelos demok-
ratiuli respublika (1918-1921ww.), qveynis xelisuflebaSi
aRmoCnda arcTu Zlieri politikuri nebis adamianTa jgufi.
amasTan, gamoCnda Zlieri rusuli Zala CrdiloeTidan, ramac
ganapiroba pirveli qarTuli demokratiuli respublikis xe-
lisuflebis da misi Tanamdgomi politikuri Tu samxedro Za-
lebis evropaSi emigrireba.
qarTuli emigraciis ori ZiriTadi nawili mieZala evro-
pas: 1) politikuri; 2) samxedro.
samxedro emigracia ZiriTadad poloneTSi Cavida.
257
q. gurjaanSi SalikaSvilebis samxedro saxl-muzeumSi
moviZieT saintereso saarqivo dokumentacia qarTuli samxed-
ro warmomadgenlebis raodenobisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb,
rasac gavaanalizebT Cveni Semdgomi kvleva-Ziebis procesSi.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. g. zedgeniZe, qarTveli diplomati bogdan gurjicki,


Jurnali `mnaTobi~, 1965, #12.
2. e. mamukelaSvili, Cvenebi, Tb., 2009.
3. v. beniZe, saqarTvelos social-politikuri mdgomare-
oba da saxelmwifoebriobisaTvis brZola 1920-1925ww., (cvli-
lebebi emigrantuli mTavrobisa da politikosebis brZolis
taqtikaSi), Tb., 1999.
4. S. murusiZe, qarTuli emigraciis erovnuli-ganmaTavi-
suflebeli moZraobis kvlevis problemebi, krebulSi: `axali
da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi~ II (4), 2008.
5. T. qvelaSvili, poloneTi da saqarTvelo evropis `did
saWadrako dafaze~ (XV s-is II nax), Tb., 2005.
6. i. cincaZe, masalebi poloneTisa da saqarTvelos ur-
TierTobebis istoriisTvis (XV-XVII ss.), Tb., 1965.
7. n. javaxiSvili, qarTveli mxedrebi poloneTis droSis
qveS, Tb., 1998.
8. c. CxartiSvili, poloneT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis
zogierTi sakiTxi, krebulSi: `axali da uaxlesi istoriis sa-
kiTxebi~, II (4), 2008.

258
George Bezhitashvili
Doctoral student of Iakob Gogebashvili
Telavi State University

The certain aspects of History of the Georgian Military


Immigration in Poland

Summary

In the Article, on the basis of rich historical material, activity of first


representatives of the Georgian Military Immigration in the state of Poland is
analyzed. It is shown, that such representative is already seen since the second
half of XVII century in face of Bogdan Gurjietski and his brother Parsadan.
The author quite justly considers, that the first Georgian talented
military emigrant played a great role in the matter of settling the diplomatic
relations between the state of Poland and Persian – Turkish countries.
The special attention is paid on historical relations of Poland and
Georgia, which was strengthened in further period, especially in the 10 year
of XXI century.
The author justly reviews the reasons resulting the Georgian military
immigration began since the 20s of XX century. The political immigration
leaving Georgia was folled by the representation of the Georgian Generals
and Officers. They stayed in Poland by support of Polish Authority.

259
avTandil sonRulaSvili
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, pro-
fesori, ivane javaxiSvilis istoriis da
eTnologiis institutis axali da uax-
lesi istoriis ganyofilebis gamge

saqarTvelos urTierToba dasavleT evropasa


da amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan XX saukunis
pirvel meoTxedSi

ruseTis mier saqarTvelos dapyrobam da qarTuli sa-


xelmwifoebriobis gauqmebam, Cvens qveyanas gare samyarosTan
urTierTobis SesaZlebloba mouspo. Tumca saimperatoro ka-
ri saqarTvelos geopolitikur mdebareobas angariSs uwevda
da ucxo qveynebTan urTierTobis dros am faqtors saTana-
dod iTvaliswinebda. ukve, 1818 wels TbilisSi arsdeba fran-
guli sakonsulo. 1820 wels aq warmogzavnes konsuli gamba,
romelsac oficialurad evaleboda Tbilisis gadaqceva aR-
mosavleTTan vaWrobis centrad [1, 164].
carizmma ver moaxerxa samxreT kavkasiis politikuri
dapyrobis Semdeg misi sruli ekonomikuri aTviseba. amitom
igi xels uwyobda ucxouri kapitalis mozidvas am teritoria-
ze. es procesi gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda XIX saukunis 80-iani
wlebidan. am TvalsazrisiT, saqarTveloSi mniSvnelovani ad-
gili moipova germanulma kapitalma. man wamyvani poziciebi
daikava mrewvelobis mraval dargSi da maT Soris — samTamad-
no mrewvelobaSi. manganumisa da spilenZis warmoeba — ai is
dargebi, sadac gansakuTrebiT warmatebiT moikides fexi ger-
manelebma. rogorc Cans, am miswrafebas ara marto komerciu-
li mogeba, aramed samxedro-strategiuli mizezebic edo sa-
fuZvlad [2, 46].
germanelebi cdilobdnen, rac SeiZleba meti miwis nakve-
Tebi SeeZinaT saqarTveloSi. 1901 wels germanelma karl si-
mensma miiRo baTumidan 57 kilometris manZilze, arTvinis max-
loblad, sofel qvarcxanasTan arsebuli spilenZis mdidari
sabados damuSavebis ufleba. aq male aages Saxtebi da daiwyes
madnis mopoveba. simensebma izrunes, agreTve, axali madniani
miwis nakveTebis SeZenaze.

260
1900-1909 wlebSi qvarcxanis axlos, sofel baSaulSi,
karl simensis memkvidreebma, ruseTis qveSevrdomma barone-
sebma maria grevenicma da Sarlota buksgevdenma adgilobrivi
glexebisagan SeiZines miwis nakveTebi da daiwyes madnis mopo-
veba. rogorc wyaroebSia aRniSnuli, simensebi miwas iZendnen
Calis fasad [2, 45].
samxreT kavkasiaSi satelegrafo xazebis mSeneblobas
udidesi mniSvneloba hqonda germanuli firmis `simensis da
halskes~ saqmianobaSi kapitalis dagrovebis TvalsazrisiT.
1866 wlidan, mas Semdeg, rac mefis mTavrobam aRar gaagrZela
firmasTan kontraqti ruseTSi satelegrafo xazebis gamar-
Tuli muSaobis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb, peterburgis `simen-
sisa da halskes~ saqmianoba 80-90-ian wlebSi, ZiriTadad, sam-
xreT kavkasiaSi iyo koncentrirebuli. am periodSi firma
kvlav Zlierdeba ruseTSi, umTavresad — eleqtroteqnikis
mrewvelobaSi. swored am dros, 1866-1867 wlebSi TbilisSi da-
saxldnen verner simensis umcrosi Zmebi valteri da oto,
mogvianebiT — karli, TavianTi ojaxebiT da ganizraxes aq
mtkiced damkvidreba. es faqti erTxel kidev adasturebs, Tu
ra did mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen simensebi saqarTveloSi saq-
mianobas [3, 35-36].
XX saukunis damdegidan WiaTuraSi samrewvelo saqmiano-
ba garTulda. qarTveli mrewvelebi didi siZneleebis winaSe
aRmoCndnen. maT an kapitali unda gamoenaxaT, an daetovebinaT
samrewvelo saqmianobis asparezi. saTanado molaparakebis
Semdeg, germanuli firmis `mangansindikatis~ meSveobiT, qar-
Tvel mrewvelTa sazogadoeba awarmoebda marganecis eq-
sports, ijariT iRebda da yidulobda marganecis sabadoebs.
udavoa, `mangansindikats~ imTaviTve ufro didi mizani amoZ-
ravebda, vidre kapitalis procentis miReba da madnis gasaRe-
bis saqmeSi Suamavloba iyo. kerZod, mas surda xelT egdo Wia-
Turis mdidari sabadoebi da TviTve ewarmoebina maTi eqsplo-
atacia.
1902 wels Camoyalibebuli qarTvel mrewvelTa sazoga-
doeba `Savi qva~ TandaTan ebmeboda `mangansindikatis~ mier
dagebul badeSi. male gamomJRavnda, rom sazogadoebas avansi
da krediti araxelsayreli pirobebiT hqonda miRebuli, rac
iwvevda mis daqvemdebarebas germanuli firmisadmi. `mangan-
sindikats~ didxans aRar dauyovnebia gadamwyveti naxtomis
261
gakeTeba. 1906 wels TbilisSi molaparakeba gaimarTa `Savi
qvis~ rwmunebul zdanoviCsa da `mangansindikatis~ warmomad-
genel fridrix neimans Soris. germanel kapitalistTa badeSi
gaxlarTuli qarTvel mrewvelTa sazogadoebis rwmunebuli
iZulebuli gaxda araxelsayreli SeTanxmebisaTvis moewera
xeli. mogvianebiT sazogadoebam, didi msxverplis gaRebis fa-
sad, Tavi daaRwia germanul firmaze damokidebulebas, magram
sakuTar fexze mtkiced dadgoma ver SeZlo da male daiwyo
sxva kreditoris Zebna.
WiaTuris samrewvelo raionis ekonomikuri dapyrobis
mizniT, ucxoel kapitalistTa Semoteva gansakuTrebiT gaZ-
lierda 1908 wlidan. konkurenciaSi damarcxebuli qarTvel
mrewvelTa erTi nawili xels iRebs warmoebaze, yidis an ija-
riT scems sabadoebs, ZiriTadad ucxoelebze. didi raodeno-
biT Seisyida marganecis sabadoebi germanulma firmam (gel-
zenkirxenis samTo samrewvelo sazogadoeba), romelmac mar-
to 1910-1911 wlebSi WiaTuraSi erTi milioni maneTi daabanda.
Zalian gaaqtiurdnen sxva ucxouri sazogadoebani da mrewve-
lebi [4, 106,107].
sainteresoa, rom warmoebis mTeli aparati WiaTuraSi
mxolod germanelebiT iyo dakompleqtebuli, ris Sesaxebac
mefisnacvali 1916 wels acnobebda ruseTis ministrTa sabWos:
`germanuli firmebis moRvaweobis uaryofiT mxared unda Ca-
iTvalos rusuli teqnikuri Zalebis ignorirebac. maT mTeli
momsaxure personali germaniidan moiyvanes~ [5, 23-24].
XIX saukunis bolos aSS-ma sakonsulo gaxsna baTumSi,
rac ganpirobebuli iyo amerikis kapitalis samxreT kavkasiis
regionSi gamoCeniT. ufro metad ki amerikis miznebiT, uaxlo-
es momavalSi germaniis, safrangeTisa da misi sxva evropeli
metoqeebis SeviwroebiT Rirseuli adgili daekavebina am re-
gionSi.
1914 wels, pirveli msoflio omis dawyebisTanave, sakon-
sulom TbilisSi gadmoinacvla [6,12].
1917 wlis Tebervlis revoluciis Semdeg, saqarTvelos
politikurma partiebma pirvel erovnul yrilobazec ki ver
gabedes ara Tu saqarTvelos damoukideblobis moTxovna, ara-
med avtonomiis sakiTxis dayenebac ki. Tumca, Cans arc evropi-
dan igrZnoboda mxardaWera. es faqti kargad gamoCnda saqar-
TveloSi antantis (aSS, inglisis, safrangeTisa da italiis)
262
diplomatebis vizitis dros (1917 wlis dekembris pirvel na-
xevarSi). maT pirdapir ganucxades saqarTvelos erovnuli
sabWos mesveurebs, rom isini cnobdnen ganuyofel ruseTs da
ara mis calkeul mxareebs — Tundac saqarTvelos an sxva vin-
mes, visac sakuTari mTavroba ar hyavs. maTve dasZines agreTve,
rom isini cnobdnen ruseTis droebiTi mTavrobis mier Seq-
mnil amierkavkasiis komisariats. amasTan antantis diploma-
tebma erovnul sabWos arc osmaleTis SesaZlo Setevis wina-
aRmdeg daxmareba da arc iaraRis miwodeba ar aRuTqves, isini
mxolod zogadi rCevis micemiT dakmayofildnen [7, 99-100].
maSin saqarTvelos mesveurebma imedis Tvali germanias
miapyres. germanelTa interesi ki saqarTvelosa da samxreT
kavkasiaSi, marTlac mravalmxrivi iyo. kaizeruli germaniis
erT-erTi burjTagani fon ludendorfi saqarTvelosa da
samxreT kavkasiaSi germanelTa gegmebze sakmao gulaxdilo-
biT miuTiTebs Tavis mogonebebSi. germanias saqarTvelosken
eweoda samxedro, ekonomikuri da politikuri interesebi:
samxreT kavkasia strategiuli TvalsazrisiT germanelTa sam-
xedro gegmebSi friad mimzidvelad gamoiyureboda. aqedan
rkinigzebiT SeiZleboda jarebis gadayvana CrdiloeT iranSi
da ingliselTa gandevna iranis placdarmidan. am saqmeSi sa-
qarTvelos jarebis gamoyenebac iyo navaraudevi. saqarTve-
loSi adgilobrivi mosaxleobidan Segrovdeboda muSaxeli,
romelsac germaniaSi muSaTa armiaSi gasawvevi kontingenti
unda Seecvala.
ekonomikuri interesebi ufro farTo iyo: xangrZliv om-
Si sisxlisgan dawretil germanias samrewvelo nedleuli da
sursaTi aRar gaaCnda. samxreT kavkasia ki, Tavisi wiaRiseuli
simdidreebis siuxviTa da mravalferovnebiT did imeds iZle-
oda: aq iyo marganeci, navTi, qvanaxSiri, xe-tye. germanelebs
gansakuTrebiT baqos navTi ainteresebdaT. saqarTveloSi
damkvidreba baqoskenac kafavda gzas. miT umetes, ganjaSi Ca-
moyalibebuli musavaturi mTavroba germanelebs sTxovda
daxmarebas baqos komunis winaaRmdeg [8, 608].
kaizeris germaniis mesveurebi TavianT politikas saqar-
TveloSi arc ki faravdnen. saqarTvelo maT momaval gegmebSi
gamoiyureboda ise, rogorc indoeTi inglisis mfarvelobaSi.
roca berlinSi saqarTvelos delegaciis wevri z. avaliSvili
simonss SeekiTxa, Tu rogor esaxeba mas momavalSi germaniis
263
warmomadgenlis mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi, am ukanasknelma
upasuxa: `formiT es Cveulebrivi diplomatiuri warmomadge-
nelia, arsebiTad igi SeiZleba warmovidginoT rogorc ingli-
sis rezidenti damoukidebeli indoeTis saxelmwifoSi~. ro-
gori damokidebuleba hqonda indoeTs inglisis proteqtora-
tis dros, es avaliSvilsa da samonss kargad esmodaT [8, 609].
amierkavkasiis seimma brest-litovskis sazavo xelSekru-
leba ar cno, romlis mixedviT osmaleTis xelSi gadadioda ba-
Tumis, yarsisa da ardaganis teritoriebi. amierkavkasiis de-
legaciasTan molaparakebis dros osmaleTis mxare aiZulebda
seimis warmomadgenlebs, rom vidre amierkavkasiis mTavroba
ar ucvnia sxva saxelmwifoebs, amierkavkasia iTvleboda ruse-
Tis federaciis nawilad da maTTvis savaldebulo iyo brest-
litovskis xelSekrulebaTa miReba. amasTanave, osmaleTis
gegmebSi Sedioda, rom samxreT kavkasia Camoecilebina ruse-
TisaTvis da wamoeyenebina misi damoukidebloba [9, 31], raTa
ufro meti teritoria Caegdo xelSi. ase rom, germaniisa da
osmaleTis interesebi samxreT kavkasiSi erTmaneTs emTxveo-
da.
rodesac germania kisrulobda Suamavlis rols saqar-
Tvelosa da osmaleTs Soris da qmnida pirobebs saqarTvelos
damoukideblobis gamocxadebisaTvis, germaniis saxelmwifos
ZiriTadad sakuTari interesebi amoZravebda samxreT kavkasi-
aSi, kerZod, saqarTveloSi. es kidev erTxel gamoCnda 1918
wlis 27 aprils osmaleTsa da germanias Soris saidumlo Se-
TanxmebaSi, rac miznad isaxavda gavlenis sferoebad ganawi-
lebas [10, 10].
1918 wlis 26 maiss saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamoc-
xadebam da germaniis misiis Semosvlam saqarTveloSi didi SeS-
foTeba gamoiwvia sabWoTa ruseTSi. bolSevikebi, oqtombris
gadatrialebis Semdeg, yofili imperiis mTeli teritoriis
gasabWoebas varaudobdnen da yofil koloniur qveynebs axla
bolSevikebis `sakuTrebad~ acxadebdnen. amasTan dakavSrebiT,
1918 wlis 8 ivliss, stalini swerda kavkasiis saqmeTa sagange-
bo komisars stefane Saumians: `amierkavkasiis sakiTxSi Cveni
zogadi politika imaSi mdgomareobs, rom germanelebi vaiZu-
loT saqarTvelos, somxeTisa da azerbaijanis sakiTxebi ofi-
cialurad aRiaron ruseTis Sinaur sakiTxebad, romelTa ga-
dawyvetaSi germanelebi ar unda iRebdnen monawileobas. swo-
264
red amitom ar vcnobT Cven saqarTvelos damoukideblobas,
romelic germaniam scno~ [11, 5].
am werilidan naTlad Cnas, ras upirebda momavalSi sab-
WoTa ruseTi saqarTvelos. ukve am droidan mzaddeboda 1921
wlis Tebervlis tragedia.
qarTveli politikosebi kargad iyvnen garkveulni ger-
manelebis namdvil zraxvebSi. zogierTi daTmoba ganpirobe-
buli iyo Tavisuflebis gzaze axlad gamosuli saqarTvelos
siZneleebiT, romelsac garSemo uamravi mteri exvia. osmale-
Tisagan Tavis daRwevas, germaniis Carevis gareSe, saqarTvelo
ver SeZlebda, germanelebma ki, savsebiT bunebrivia, isargeb-
les Cveni qveynis mZime mdgomareobiT da Seecadnen sargebeli
meti enaxaT.
1918 wlis maisis bolos saqarTveloSi Semosuli germane-
lebi aq didxans ar gaCerebulan. 1918 wlis 9 noembers germani-
aSi daiwyo revolucia, romelmac taxtidan Camoagdo vilhelm
II, xolo 11 noembers germaniis warmomadgenlebi iZulebulni
iyvnen kompienis tyeSi xeli moeweraT dazavebaze, romliTac
germania Tavs damarcxebulad cnobda. amis Semdeg germania
iZulebuli gaxda daetovebina samxreT kavkasia da konkretu-
lad saqarTvelo. 1918 wlis 26 dekembers foTidan gavida ger-
maniis jarebis ukanaskneli eSeloni.
miuxedavaT germaniis mxardaWerisa saqarTvelos damou-
kideblobis gamocxadebaSi, respublikis faqtiuri cnobis
Semdeg isini ar Cqarobdnen Cveni qveynis iuridiul aRiarebas.
germaniam saqarTvelo de iured cno mxolod 1920 wlis 24 seq-
tembers. manamde saqarTvelos damoukidebloba iuridiulad
aRiara osmaleTma 1918 wlis 3 ivniss, argentinam 1919 wlis 13
seqtembers da ruseTma 1920 wlis 7 maiss [12, 15].
rogorc Cans yvela Zlier saxelmwifos naklebad adar-
debs patara qveynis bedi da, mxolod, sakuTari teritoriis
gafarToeba-gaZlierebas isaxavs miznad. amaze metyvelebs ze-
moxsenebuli simonsis sityvebi, romelic germaniis garkveuli
politikuri wreebis interesebs gamoxatavda. kerZod, mas mi-
aCnda, rom `saqarTvelos geografiuli siSore rom ara, yvela-
ze marTebuli iqneboda misi Sesvla germaniis federaciaSi (!)~
[13, 105].
cota xanSi germanelebi ingliselebma Secvales. mudro-
sis sazavo xelSekrulebis mixedviT, ingliselebma daikaves
265
baTumi da baTumis olqi da daaweses saokupacio reJimi, Seq-
mnes sageneralgubernatoro, romelsac saTaveSi Cauyenes ge-
neral maiori kuk-kolisi.
1918 wlis dekembris bolos daiwyo britaneTis jarebis
ganlageba saqarTvelos teritoriaze. baTumis garda maT dai-
kaves mniSvnelvani navsadgurebi: foTi, soxumi, moaxdines saz-
Rvao Zalebis aRwera da kontroli daaweses portebis funqci-
onirebaze. paralelurad britanelebma daikaves baTum-Tbi-
lisis sarkinigzo xazi, ganaxorcieles jaris nawilebis dis-
lokacia mniSvnelovan administraciul-strategiul pun-
qtebSi, ZiriTadad rkinigzis xazis gaswvriv: TbilisSi, quTa-
isSi, samtrediaSi, mcxeTaSi, gorSi da a.S. inglisis samxedro
razmebi idgnen aseve duSeTSi. maT daniSnulebas Seadgenda
jvris uReltexilis Caketva, raTa ar daeSvaT bolSevikebis
gadmosvla saqarTveloSi [14, 21].
aRniSnuli cvlilebebi qarTul politikaSi Semdegma
procesebma ganapirobes: pirvelma msoflio omma sasikvdilo
ganaCeni gamoutana saqarTvelos germanul sagareo-politi-
kur orientacias. qarTulma diplomatiam gezi gamarjvebuli
qveynebisaken aiRo.
evropaSi saqarTvelos delegaciis wevrebisaTvis naTe-
li iyo, rom gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeboda inglis-
Tan diplomatiuri kontaqtebis gafarToebas. am amocanis
warmatebiT gaxorcielebaze mniSvnelovnad iyo damokidebu-
li saqarTvelos momavali.
saqarTvelo-somxeTis samxedro konfliqti saqarTvelo-
Si inglisis samxedro Zalebis Semosvlamde ramdenime dRiT
adre daiwyo. es ori movlena saeWvod daemTxva erTmaneTs.
sabWour istoriografiaSi gabatonebuli iyo mosazreba,
rom saqarTvelo-somxeTis omi ingliselebis mier iyo inspiri-
rebuli. marTalia, somxeTis mier, 1918 wlis 18 oqtombers,
borCalos mazraSi wamowyebuli saomari operaciebi erTgva-
rad proinglisur xasiaTs atarebda da, SeiZleba, inglisis po-
litikis nayofad miviCnioT. araa gamoricxuli, rom im droi-
saTvis somxeTis xelisuflebis moqmedeba inglisis mier iyo
waqezebuli, radganac, ebrZoda ra saqarTvelos, somxeTi faq-
tobrivad am qveyanaSi myof germanelebs upirispirdeboda da
ase, inglisis wisqvilze asxamda wyals. bunebrivia, am momentma
(inglis-somxeTis urTierTobam saqarTvelo-germaniis mi-
266
marT) Tavisi daRi daasva 1918 wlis dekembris movlenebs, mag-
ram amjerad somxebis gamosvlas araviTari proinglisuri xa-
siaTi ar hqonda, ufro metic, SeiZleba iTqvas, saqarTveloSi
britaneTis miznebis ganxorcielebis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTu-
li da kaCaznunis mTavrobis viwro politikuri, nacionaluri
mosazrebiT sazrdoobda [14, 28-29].
inglisis mTavrobis damokidebuleba saqarTvelo-brita-
neTis ekonomikisaTvis, Seqmnili politikuri pirobebis gamo,
`daxurul zonas~ warmoadgenda. londonis ekonomikuri po-
litika saqarTveloSi mTlianad sufTa politikuri miznebis
ganxorcielebas emsaxureboda, rac, xSir SemTxvevaSi, saqar-
Tvelos sasicocxlo ekonomikuri interesebis Selaxvas da mis
srul ignorirebas iwvevda [14, 76].
`saqarTvelos sakiTxSi~ inglisis ormagma standartebma
kulminacias 1920 wlis dekemberSi miaRwies, rodesac london-
Si inglis-ruseTis savaWro xelSekrulebis proeqtis mosamza-
deblad molaparakebani loid jorjis mTavrobasa da krasinis
ekonomikur misias Soris daskvniT fazaSi Sevida. 22 dekembers
SeTanxmebuli proeqtis preambulaSi ruseTis `antiinglisuri
moqmedebis~ akrZalvis zonebis geografiul nomenklaturi-
dan kavkasiis amoReba oficialurad adasturebda saqarTve-
loSi ruseTis interesebis cnobas inglisis mier [15, 186].
cota xniT adre, rogorc inglis-italiis diplomatiuri
urTierTobebis amsaxveli masalebidan irkveva, inglis-ita-
liis 8 aprilis cnobili SeTanxmebis erT-erTi punqti iTva-
liswinebda baTumSic (iseve rogorc mTlianad saqarTveloSi)
inglisis jarebis italiuri jarebiT Secvlas. es daadastura
j. kerzonmac san-remos konferenciis 18 aprilis sxdomaze ga-
mosvlisas (1920 w.) [16, 92], magram aq yuradRebas iqcevs erTi,
arc Tu ise umniSvnelo niuansi; rogorc Cans, baTumSi ingli-
suri jarebi unda SeecvalaT ara mxolod italiis, aramed sa-
frangeTis batalionebsac, e.i. inglisis warmomadgenelTa
gegmebSi sakuTriv baTumsa da mis olqSi ar unda daeSvaT
`wminda italiuri okupacia~, saqarTvelos sxva regionebisa-
gan gansxvavebiT. am ASemTxvevaSi safrangeTs eniWeboda baTum-
Si italiis gavlenis erTgvari gamaneitraleblis da misi po-
ziciebis SemzRudavi qveynis roli. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom
miuxedavaT miRweuli SeTanxmebisa, ingliss 1920 wlis ivli-
samde ar ganuxorcielebia baTumis regionis deokupacia. am
267
drois manZilze italiis samxedro misia didi yuradRebiT
adevnebda Tvals baTumsa da mis irgvliv mimdinare procesebs
da sakuTari mTavrobis intensiur informirebas eweoda am sa-
kiTxze [15, 95].
sagulisxmoa, rom inglisma orientacia aiRo maincdama-
inc italiaze, romelic ar gamoirCeoda arc politikuri
mdgradobiTa da siZlieriT, arc samxedro-ekonomikuri po-
tencialiT. maSasadame, inglisma erTob susti mokavSire air-
Cia im rwmeniTa da imediT, rom italiis samxedro-politikur
gavlenas saqarTveloze ar eqneboda yovlismomcveli da siR-
rmiseuli xasiaTi da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, am gavlenis
blokireba Tu italiis `gandevna~ saqarTvelodan mas ar gau-
Wirdeboda [15, 64-65]. magram inglisis gegmebi mTlad Canafiq-
ris mixedviT ver warimarTa. italia warmoadgenda erTaderT
evropul saxelmwifos, romelmac diplomatiuri urTierTo-
bis damyareba saqarTvelosTan saelCos CamoyalibebiT gamo-
xata. arc ingliss da arc safrangeTs analogiuri nabiji ar
gadaudgamT. maT ar SeucvliaT saqarTveloSi TavianTi warmo-
madgenlobis statusi da kvlavac `umaRlesi komisrebis~ do-
neze datoves da es maSin, rodesac saqarTvelos mTavrobam,
1921 wlis 29 ianvars, evropaSi saqarTvelos warmomadgenloba
regularul diplomatiur warmomadgenlobad gadaakeTa ev-
ropis qveynebSi (Svecia, espaneTi, rumineTi, portugalia,
norvegia, dania, Cexoslovakia, serbia-xorvatia-sloveniis
federacia, belgia, safrangeTi didi britaneTi da italia)
[15, 193].
saerTod, ingliselebze yvelaze cudi STabeWdileba mo-
axdina 1920 wlis 7 maisis xelSekrulebam sabWoTa ruseTTan.
isini mixvdnen, rom amiT saqarTvelos saqme xelidan iyo wasu-
li. rodesac maT jari gaiyvanes baTumidan generalma kuk-ko-
lisma aafeTqa qalaqis didi zarbaznebi, romlebic baTums
icavda. amiT damTavrda Cveni urTierToba inglisTan [17, 64].
didi mniSvneloba hqonda aSS-is pozicias saqarTvelos-
Tan mimarTebaSi. 1914 wlidan 1919 wlis maisamde, saqarTvelo-
Si amerikis konsuli feliqs uiloubi smiTi iyo [6, 12].
noe Jordaniam, rogorc ki xelisufleba Caibara, mTavro-
bis sasaxlidan Camoaxsnevina erovnuli droSa da revoluciis
wiTeli droSa aafrialebina. es valiko juRelis sagangebo
moTxovna iyo. erTi wlis manZilze, es droSa aRelvebda qar-
268
Tvelobas da uaryofiT STabeWdilebas axdenda ucxo qveyne-
bis warmomadgenlebze. bevri amas bolSevikobis niSnad miiCne-
da. magaliTad, TbilisSi myofma amerikelma profesorma, ro-
melsac unda gaerkvia, SeiZleboda Tu ara Cveni aRiareba, ro-
gorc ki wiTeli droSebi dainaxa Sesabamisi SeniSvna gagzavna
amerikaSi [17, 25]. es profesori iyo cnobili mecnieri rosi,
romelic Tavisive surviliT eswreboda 1917 wlis 3 oqtom-
bers qarTuli universitetis sazogadoebis pirvel saerTo
krebas [18, 13].
konsuli smiTi aSS sagareo departamentisagan Tavidanve
moiTxovda, rom amerikas finansuri daxmareba gaewia kavkasiis
xalxebisaTvis. gamudmebiT cdilobda amerikuli firmebis da-
interesebas kavkasiiTa da saqarTveloTi. diplomatiuri ur-
TierTobis dros, zogjer arasasurveli kuriozebic xdeboda.
magaliTad, saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministrs evgeni ge-
geWkors konsulTan `gaugebroba~ mouxda. gegeWkors `daaviw-
yda~, rom smiTi uzarmazari amerikis warmomadgeneli iyo, xo-
lo TviTon ki — patara saqarTvelosi. is, zogjer, sificxesa
da ampartavnobas iCenda. ministrma mebaJeebs gaaCxrekina ame-
rikis konsulis diplomatiuri Cemodani. es ambavi cecxlis
aliviT moedo saqarTveloSi myof yvela warmomadgenels. ev-
geni gajiutda da, cxra Tve bodiSs ar ixdida. bolos, gegeW-
kori da smiTi italiis warmomadgenelma Cerutim Seariga. sam-
wuxarod, am incidents ori cudi Sedegi mohyva saqarTvelos-
Tvis. kerZod, Cemodnis ambavi konsulma dawvrilebiT amcno
vaSingtons. amerikelebma Cvens mTavrobas fsevdo-mTavroba
uwodes da es gaimeora kidec mokavSireebis uzenaesma sabWom.
meores mxriv, amerikis konsuli amjerad ukve urCevda ameri-
kel mrewvelebs, ar wamoewyoT saqmeebi saqarTveloSi, sanam
mas de iure ar icnobdnen [17, 57].
aSS prezidentma vudro uilsonma SesaniSnavad ganWvrita
is garemoeba, rom italiis jarebis Seyvana inglisuri okupa-
ciisagan gamoTavisuflebul samxreT kavkasiaSi safrTxes uq-
mnida aSS-is strategiul interesebs am regionSi. aSS-is stra-
tegiuli da geopolitikuri interesebis arsi, maTi realiza-
ciisaTvis SemuSavebuli konkretul-taqtikuri meTodebis
sistema, safuZvlianadaa Camoyalibebuli aSS-is saxelmwifo
departamentis sainformacio ganyofilebis specialur doku-
mentSi — `winaswari angariSisa da winadadebebis proeqti, mom-
269
zadebuli instruqciaTa Sesabamisad sainformacio ganyofi-
lebis mier, prezidentisa da sruluflebiani warmomadgenle-
bisaTvis~. dokumentis mixedviT, aSS-is kavkasiuri politikis
RerZad miCneulia orientacia somxeTze, romlisTvisac, sxva-
TaSoris, Sav zRvaze gasasvlelis uflebis motivirebiT, nava-
raudevi iyo axalqalaqisa da axalcixis mazrebis gadacema (?).
Tu `italiuri mandati~ saqarTvelos mxolod sagareo-poli-
tikuri prerogativebis nawilobriv Sekvecas uqadda, `ameri-
kuli mandati~, amasTan, teritoriuli ganuyoflobis xelyo-
fis perspeqtivasTanac iyo dakavSirebuli. rogorc vxedavT,
somxeTis xelovnuri `gaZliereba~ da masze sakuTari mandatis
daweseba aSS-is strategiul mizandasaxulobas warmoadgenda.
rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, mas eniWeboda `droebiTi damouki-
deblobis~ statusi da Semdeg igi unda SeerTeboda somxeTs
(`Zia semi~ am `SeerTebaSi~ ar gamoricxavda federaciul gaer-
Tianebasac). analogiuri `perspeqtiva~ eloda azerbaijansac.
aSS-is kavkasiuri politikis doqtrinul elementebs Seicavda
polkovnik hauzis e.w. `komentarebic~, romlebic am ukanas-
knelma daurTo uilsonis `14 punqts~. `komentarebis~ VI pun-
qtSi xazgasmuli iyo, rom `am sivrcis gareT unda darCes po-
loneTi, litva, latvia, fineTi, ukraina da cimbiri~. rac See-
xeba kavkasias da Sua azias, `komentarebSi~ naTqvamia: `kavkasia
albaT, unda ganxilul iqnas, rogorc TurqeTis imperiis pro-
blemis nawili ... savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom romelime did sa-
xelmwifos (bunebrivia, rom hauzi aSS-s gulisxmobs) gadaeces
mmarTvelobis SezRuduli mandati proteqtoratis safuZ-
velze~.
amdenad, aSS-is samxreT kavkasiuri politikis prizmaSi
saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanis damoukidebeli saxelmwifoe-
bis arseboba arc ki moiazreboda da es `teritoriuli gaerTi-
anebani~ somxuri inkorporaciis obieqtebad miiCneodnen. am
konteqstSi savsebiT bunebrivia uilsonis negatiuri reaqcia
loid jorjsa da orlandos Soris momxdari garigebisadmi
[15, 67-68].
smiTis Semdeg saqarTveloSi konsulad dainiSna Carlz
mozeri, romelic TbilisSi 1920 wlis ianvris pirvel dReebSi
Camovida. 1921 wlis gazafxulze konsuli saqarTvelos mTav-
robasTan erTad gaemgzavra da Tbilisis amerikis saelCom
stambulSi daido bina [6, 13].
270
saqarTvelos erTa ligaSi miRebis dros inglisis uaryo-
fiTma poziciam gadamwyveti roli Seasrula. kenWisyraSi mo-
nawileobda 24 saxelmwifo. gawevrianebisaTvis saWiro iyo 16
xma. saqarTvelos sasargeblod xma misca aTma qveyanam, oTxma
Tavi Seikava. winaaRmdeg gamovida aTi, maT Soris didi brita-
neTi da misi zegavleniT dominioni qveynebi — kanada, avstra-
lia, zelandia [14, 113].
saqarTvelos miRebis sakiTxi erTa ligis momaval sesiam-
de gadaido, romelic 1921 wlis seqtemberSi Catarda JenevaSi,
magram ukve dagvianebuli iyo...
de iured cnobidan sami Tvis Semdeg, 1921 wlis ianvris
pirvel dReebSi italiuri TbomavliT, `franc ferdinandiT~,
baTumSi Camovida germaniis elCi saqarTveloSi roSeri. mog-
vianebiT igi didi pativiscemiT miiRes TbilisSi. elCs Tan ax-
lda saelCos mrCeveli andersi, romelic adre foTSi asru-
lebda eqs-konsulis movaleobas. garda amisa, germaniis dele-
gaciaSi Sediodnen sakmaod didi ricxvi pirebisa, romelTagan
umetesoba sxva erovnebis pasportiT Camovida. baTumSi myofi
frangi kontradmiralis diumenilis sityviT, eWvs gareSe iyo,
rom misiis aqtivoba antantis winaaRmdeg iqneboda mimarTuli.
diumenilis moxsenebiTi baraTis mixedviT, romelic saf-
rangeTis xelisuflebas gaegzavna, germaniis delegaciis Ca-
mosvlis Semdeg antifranguli propaganda daiwyo baTumSi. sa-
xeldobr, germanelebi xazs usvamdnen im garemoebas, rom
frangebi adre mxars uWerdnen carizms da axla surdaT Zveli
ruseTis aRdgena mis adrindel sazRvrebSi, rac saqarTvelos
damoukideblobis dakargvas niSnavda.
frangebis azriT, saqarTveloSi germanelebis ekonomiku-
ri gavlena aqamde italiis droSiT iniRbeboda. im momentSi ki
es saSiSroebas aRar warmoadgenda, radgan sufTa germanuli
komerciuli operaciebi ifargleboda saqonlis iseTi saxee-
biT, romlebic markis gaufasurebas Zalian ganicdida. mdgoma-
reoba mTlianad Seicvleboda maSin, rodesac ganaxldeboda
germanuli saqonlis pirdapiri eqsporti. maSin safrangeTisa
da inglisisaTvis konkurencia saxifaTo gaxdeboda, miT ufro,
rom saqarTveloSi bevri iyo germanuli koloniebi maTi moxer-
xebuli da gavleniani warmomadgenlebiT [19, 179].
miuxedavaT mravali xelisSemSleli pirobebisa, saqar-
Tvelos demokratiul respublikas savaWro-ekonomikuri kav-
271
SirurTierTobebi hqonda aSS-sTan, inglisTan, italiasTan,
safrangeTTan, germaniasTan, osmaleTTan, sparseTTan, ru-
seTTan, somxeT-azerbaijanTan, poloneTTan, daRestanTan,
belgiasTan, egviptesTan, espaneTTan, rumineTTan, holandias-
Tan, fineTTan, SveciasTan, CineTTan da sxva.
produqciis gatana da Semotana xdeboda Semdegi sabaJo-
ebiT: baTumis, bogdanovkis, gudauTis, voroncovkis, Tbili-
sis, lagodexis, natanebis, onis, oCamCiris, sadaxlos, saloR-
lis, soxumis, foTis, quTaisis da yazbegis [20, 43]. magram sa-
qarTvelos aRar dascalda evropisa Tu sxva kontinentis
qveynebTan urTierToba momavalSi normalurad ganeviTarebi-
na. 1921 wlis Savma Tebervalma kidev erTxel daaCoqa Tavi-
suflebisa da damoukideblobis gzaze mdgari Cveni samSoblo.
sazRvargareTis warmomadgenlobaTa umravlesobam Tbi-
lisSi bolSevikebis Semosvlamde ramdenime dRiT adre dato-
va Cveni dedaqalaqi, xolo italiis elCi, safrangeTis konsu-
li, britaneTis umaRlesi konsulis TanaSemwe saqarTvelos
mTavrobis wevrebTan erTad matarebliT gaemgzavrnen.
aqve unda iTqvas, rom damoukidebeli saqarTvelo, germa-
niaze aRebuli orientaciiT dawyebuli, damTavrebuli 1921
wlis ianvar-Tebervlis omis dros evropasTan kavSiris damya-
rebis, iqidan iaraRisa Tu politikuri mxardaWeris mopovebis
cdiT — bolomde darCa ruseTis dampyrobluri interesebis
moZule da evropuli orientaciis qveyana [21, 125].
mogvianebiT, 1926 wlis martSi gazeT `fineTis social-
demokratSi~ gamoqveynda makdonaldis statia saqarTvelos
Sesaxeb, sadac naTqvami iyo, rom didi britaneTis muSaTa par-
tiam saqarTvelos aRmouCina yovelgvari daxmareba mas Sem-
deg, rac saqarTvelom gamoacxada damoukidebloba. partiam
dagmo moskovis wiTeli armiis SeWra da ruseTis mier saqar-
Tvelos okupacia. ruseTma ZaliT moaxdina saqarTvelos oku-
pacia da SeierTa mxolod imitom, rom iq iyo komunistTa mci-
re jgufi [22, 2].
1921 wlis TebervalSi saqarTveloSi saWoTa xelisufle-
bis `mosvlis~ Semdeg, ukve 21 aprils Seiqmna saqarTvelos sab-
WoTa socialisturi respublikis sagareo saqmeTa saxalxo
komisariati, romlis movaleobaSic Sedioda sazRvargareTis
qveynebTan urTierTobis warmoeba da saqarTvelos respubli-
kisa da misi moqalaqeebis interesebis dacva sazRvargareT,
272
aseve, piriqiT — ucxoeTis moqalaqeebisa saqarTveloSi. 1922
wlis dekemberSi sabWoTa respublikebis erT saxelmwifoSi —
sabWoTa socialisturi respublikebis kavSirSi gaerTianebis
da, saerTod, sakavSiro komisariatebis Seqmnis Semdeg, 1924
wels miRebuli sakavSiro konstituciis mixedviT, sagareo
saqmeTa saxalxo komisariatma, faqtobrivad, arseboba Sewyvi-
ta da mxolod 1944 wels iqna aRdgenili [23, 623].
saqarTvelos maSindeli xelisufleba saqarTveloSi
myof ucxoeTis saxelmwifo warmomadgenlebTan da sazogado-
ebriv dawesebulebebTan urTierTobas, mxolod, sagareo saq-
meTa komisariatis meSveobiT awarmoebda. urTierTobis wess
gansazRvravda 1921 wels gamoqveynebuli dekreti # 81 [24, 46].
evropis zogierTi qveynis diplomatiuri warmomadgenlo-
ba, sabWoTa reJimis sawyis etapze kvlav ganagrZobda muSaobas
saqarTveloSi. 1922 wlis ivnisSi mTavrobis gadawyvetilebiT
italiis warmomadgenlobisaTvis unda gamoeyoT kojorSi ar-
RuTinskis yofili agaraki, romelic 1921 wels amave warmomad-
genlobis gankargulebaSi iyo da saremonto samuSaoebic Caata-
ra. germaniis warmomadgenlobisTvis ki gaTvaliswinebuli iyo
aseve kojorSi, gurgenovis yofili agaraki [25, 133].
amave periodSi saqarTveloSi funqcionirebda `ameri-
kelTa damxmare komiteti~, romelic Tavis moqmedebas ZiriTa-
daT avrcelebda somxeTsa da azerbaijanze. aparatis Senaxva
ki TiTqmis mTlianad Tbilissa da baTums uxdeboda. ameriku-
li komiteti materialur daxmarebas uwevda kaTolike
mRvdels, romelic xelmZRvanelobda cixisZirSi bavSvTa sko-
las. komitetis saqmianoba ewinaaRmdegeboda xelSekrulebis
pirobebs [26, 301].
saqarTvelos saxkomsabWos dadgenilebiT, Sinsaxkoms
ufleba mieca moexdina ucxo saxelmwifoTa qveSevrdomebis
registracia. aseve, mis kompetenciaSi Sevida `sacxovrebeli
uflebis~ nebarTvis gacema. dawesda sapasporto da saregis-
tracio gadasaxadi saanketo bankisaTvis, romlis Rirebuleba
ganisazRvra: 3 TviT — 50 kap; 6 TviT — 1 man; da 1 wliT — 2 mane-
Ti [27, 74, 76].
1922-1923 wlebSi saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi germaneli
erovnebis warmomadgenlebi da ruseTis yofili qveSevrdome-
bi, sabWoTa xelisuflebasTan SeuTanxmeblad gaxdnen germa-

273
niis qveSevrdomebi. am faqts mwvave reaqcia mohyva sagareo
saqmeTa komisariatis mxridan. germaniis generalurma kon-
sulma kargad gamoiyena saqarTvelos saxkomsabWos dekretis
VIII muxli da aRniSna, rom `saqarTvelos yvela moqalaqes uf-
leba aqvs miiRos ucxoeTis moqalaqeoba, ris Semdeg is avto-
maturad aRar CaiTvleba saqarTvelos moqalaqed. dekreti-
dan gamomdinare aRniSnul proceduras ar Wirdeboda sabWo-
Ta xelisuflebis Tanxmoba~ [26, 410].
20-ian wlebSi saqarTveloSi, pirvelyovlisa, qalaqebSi
da saqalaqo dasaxlebebSi mcire raodenobiT, magram mainc
saxlobdnen litveli, Cexi, slovaki, ingliseli, Svedi, itali-
eli, germaneli da sxva erovnebis warmomadgenlebi, romel-
Tac miRebuli hqondaT sabWoTa kavSiris moqalaqeoba, agreT-
ve ucxoeTis sxvadasxva saxelmwifos moqalaqenic — avstrie-
li, poloneli, frangi, Sveicarieli, amerikeli, norvegieli,
holandieli, rumineli, Cineli da sxva. sul 1926 wels saqar-
TveloSi aRricxuli iyo 2287 ucxoeli, maT Soris TbilisSi —
2589 suli [28, 80].
aq mcxovreb erovnul umciresobas urTierToba hqonda
sazRvargareTTan. urTierTobas ZiriTadad ekonomikuri in-
teresebi gansazRvravda. magaliTad, germanelebis sasoflo-
sameurneo biznesi koncentrirebuli iyo Rvinismwarmoebel-
Ta kavSirSi — `unionSi~. paralelurad kavSiri cdilobda sa-
konservo warmoebis Seqmnas [29, 3]. am mizniT, `unionma~ sakon-
servo warmoebis Sesaswavlad germaniaSi gagzavna emil almen-
dingeri, romelic dabadebuli iyo 1903 wels kolonia luqsem-
burgSi (yofili ekaterinenfeldi). 1922 wels 19 wlis emili
gaemgzavra germaniaSi sakonservo saqmis Sesaswavlad. 1925
wels saqarTveloSi dabrunebis dros, rogorc Cans winaaR-
mdegoba Sexvda, ris gamoc saqmeSi aqtiurad Caebnen misi Zma
oto almendingeri da kavSiri `unioni~ [29, 1, 2].
calkeuli gakotrebuli samrewvelo sawarmoebi uSualo
kontaqtebis damyarebas cdilobdnen gare samyarosTan. maga-
liTad, adelxanovis yofili fabrikis warmomadgenlebi saWi-
ro nedleulis SesaZenad TurqestanSi midiodnen. fabrikis
komerciuli warmomadgeneli — adelxanovi 1925 wels germani-
aSi iyo da iq SeiZina specialuri daniSnulebis manqana-mowyo-
bilobebi. yvelaferi es miuTiTebs, rom 20-iani wlebis Sua xa-
nebSi saqarTvelos rigi samrewvelo sawarmoebi jer kidev
274
inarCunebdnen pirdapir ekonomikur kavSirebs sxva respubli-
kebis da evropis sawarmoo koleqtivebTan, rac gegmiuri eko-
nomikis damkvidrebis pirobebSi sruliad Sewyda [30, 80].
bolSevikuri xelisufleba xelovnurad cdilobda See-
ferxebina saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso savaWro kontaqtebi.
magaliTad, 1922 wlis ianvarSi Sveicariis firma `miSel met-
Cikma~ baTumSi Semoitana sxvadasxva saqoneli, maT Soris xe-
lovnuri Sali. kanonis Tanaxmad, baTumis sabaJom Seamowma sa-
qoneli da saWiro gadasaxadis Semdeg, firmas neba misca res-
publikis sazRvrebSi gadaadgilebis Sesaxeb.
saqonlis didi nawili firmam Camoitana TbilisSi, magram
saqarTvelos `Ceka~-s gankargulebiT TbilisSi Camotanili sa-
qoneli daayadaRes. aq xelmeored iqna Semowmebuli sagangebo
komisiis mier finsaxkomis warmomadgenlebTan erTad. Semow-
mebam daadastura baTumis sabaJos moqmedebis samarTlianoba,
Tumca mepatrones saqonels ar ubrunebdnen. saqarTvelos xe-
lisuflebas TxovniT mimarTa Sveicariis konsulma, raTa
problema droulad gadawyvetiliyo. ucxoeli komersantebi
SeSfoTebulni adevnebdnen Tvals movlenebis ganviTarebas,
miTumetes, rom Tavadac analogiur mdgomareobaSi imyofe-
bodnen. amave dros, TbilisSi Tavisuflad iyideboda analo-
giuri Salis saqoneli da SedarebiT maRal fasebSi, vidre Sve-
icariis firmas hqonda gansazRvruli [31, 41].
bolos, 1922 wlis aprilSi saqarTvelos saxkomsabWom ga-
dawyvita daebrunebina firmisTvis kuTvnili saqoneli [31, 6].
1921-1924 wlebSi saqarTvelos sakoncesio komisiaSi Se-
vida saberZneTis, safrangeTis, italiis da sxva qveynebis fir-
mebis araerTi winadadeba, magram bolSevikuri xelisufleba
sifrTxiles iCenda koncesiebis gacemisas. amas mowmobs is ga-
remoeba, rom mravalricxovan sakoncesio winadadebaTagan,
mxolod WiaTuris manganumis sabados sakoncesiod gadacemis
winadadeba iqna miRebuli. igi ekuTvnoda ucxoeTis ramdenime
firmas, romelTa Soris konkurenciaSi gamarjvebuli gamovi-
da amerikuli savaWro-samrewvelo firma `harimani da kompa-
nia~, romelmac wamoayena sabWoTa mxarisaTvis yvelaze momge-
biani winadadebani. igi daedo safuZvlad amerikel mrewvel-
Tan, bankirTan, Semdgom diplomatsa da politikur moRvawes-
Tan uiliam averel harimanTan dadebul ocwlian sakoncesio
xelSekrulebas. 1925 wlis 12 ivniss gaformebul xelSekrule-
275
bas xeli moaweres ssr kavSiris saxalxo meurneobis umaRlesi
sabWos Tavmjdomarem f. ZerJinskim da aSS savaWro-samrewve-
lo saxlis viceprezidentma jon spid eliotma. xelSekrule-
biT, romelic Sedgeboda 74 muxlisagan, TandarTuli rukiT,
amerikel koncesioners gadaeca ufleba manganumis da peroq-
sidis mopovebaze, garecxva-gamdidrebasa da eqsportze. amas-
Tan koncesioneri emorCileboda Sromis, socialuri dazRve-
vis, Sromis dacvis sabWour kanonmdeblobebs [28, 34-35].
axali ekonomikuri politikidan (`nepi~) gamomdinare,
bolSevikebis sakoncesio politika kapitalis dabandebas ag-
rarul sferoSic gulisxmobda. magaliTad, 1922 wlis 15 iv-
niss daido xelSekruleba saqarTvelos miwaTmoqmedebis sa-
xalxo komisariatsa da kavkasia-aSS savaWro da samTo-samrew-
velo kompanias Soris. mis mizans Seadgenda sasoflo-sameur-
neo manqana-iaraRebis saqarTveloSi Semotana, samagierod
marganecisa da sxva saqonlis sazRvargareT gatana. amerika-
kavkasiis savaWro da samTo-samrewvelo kompaniam amerikaSi
daiqirava da saqarTveloSi Camoiyvana agronomi jon J. langa-
ni da soflis meurneobis ramdenime specialisti, Camoitana
manqana-iaraRebi da moawyo maTi sawyobi. kompania reklamas
uwevda sasoflo-sameurneo manqanebs da avrcelebda glexo-
baSi, magram kompaniam ar Seasrula yvela piroba — kompaniis
prezidenti ise marTavda mamuls, rogorc sakuTars, aviwro-
ebda adgilobriv glexobas, ramac gaamwvava maT Soris urTi-
erToba. amitomac saqarTvelos maSindelma xelisuflebam
1924 wlis TebervalSi gaauqma koncesia [32, 140].
1926 wlidan moskovma Tavis xelSi aiRo e. w. `mokavSire
respublikebSi~ ucxoeli specialistebis mowvevis monopo-
lia. kerZod, brZanebis im muxlSi, sadac naTqvami iyo, rom
`ucxoeli specialistebis samuSaoze daSveba da maTTvis ga-
samrjelos gacema SesaZlebelia mxolod mas Semdeg, rodesac
xelSekruleba damtkicebuli iqneba sakavSiro s. m. u. s. Tav-
mjdomaris an misi moadgilis mier~. e. i. faqtiuri SeTanxmebis
miRwevidan ramodenime Tvis Semdeg. es arsebiTad SeuZlebels
xdida ucxoel specialistTa gamoyenebas. saqarTvelos Tu
amierkavkasiis xelisufleba iZulebuli xdeboda saqme Hhqono-
da meorexarisxovan specialistebTan, romlebic ver axerxeb-
dnen Tavis samSobloSi samsaxuris Sovnas [33, 11].

276
saerTod, sazRvargareTis samrewvelo sawarmoebTan da
firmebTan saqarTvelos urTierToba TaviseburebebiT gamo-
irCeoda. sabWoTa kavSirSi sagareo vaWrobis monopoliis ar-
sebobis pirobebSi gamoricxuli iyo uSualo kontaqtebi saz-
RvargareTis samrewvelo organizaciebTan, firmebTan. saxel-
mwifos saSuamavlo organizaciebi mTlianad akontrolebdnen
komerciul urTierTobas sazRvargareTel partniorebTan.
1926 wels `amierkavkasiis sapaio amxanagobam~ jagari gai-
tana ucxoeTSi: Tbilisis jagris fabrikis nawarmi gaiyida
londonis bazarze. 1927 wels goris sakonservo qarxanam sami
vagoni maRalxarisxovani konservi gaagzavna germaniaSi.
ekonomikuri urTierToba sazRvargareTel partnioreb-
Tan, ZiriTadad, sabWoTa saxelmwifos egidiT da kontroliT
xorcieldeboda. zahesis generatorebisaTvis sami turbina
damzadda SveciaSi neimeris qarxanaSi.
1927-1928 wlebSi respublikis minis taris warmoebaSi da-
idga belgiuri firma `ruaronis~ maRalmwarmoebluri boT-
lis damyalibebeli manqanebi.
aris fragmentuli cnobebi, rom saqarTvelos sawarmoeb-
Si muSaobdnen ucxoeli specialistebi. magaliTad, baTumis
aznavTmSenis qarxanaSi ramdenime amerikeli inJineri muSaob-
da [34, 121].
sainteresoa, rom 1929 wels amerikelma moqalaqem os-
gold fildma gadaiRo eTnografiuli xasiaTis filmi `svane-
Ti~, romlis asli datova saqarTveloSi `geografiuli sazo-
gadoebisaTvis~ [35, 18].
sazRvargareT `qarTuli sakiTxis~ gaaqtiureba SesaZle-
beli gaxda mxolod mas Semdeg, rac amisaTvis xelsayreli pi-
robebi Seqmna samTavrobo urTierTobebma.
1928 wels daiwyo `axali era~ saqarTvelo-germaniis ur-
TierTobaSi. am wels saqarTvelom moskovidan miiRo cirku-
laruli moweriloba germaniidan `mniSvnelovan pirTa~ Camos-
vlis Sesaxeb. momarTvas xels awerda ssrk centraluri aRmas-
rulebeli komitetis mdivani enuqiZe.
vladikavkazSi germaneli stumrebis Sesaxvedrad gam-
gzavreba daevala Salva nucubiZes, romelic imJamad sazRvar-
gareTis qveynebTan kulturuli kavSiris sazogadoebis saqar-
Tvelos filialSi muSaobda. aq igi Sexvda germaniis `ost-ev-
ropis~ sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebs: oto Smidts, mis meuR-
277
les da mdivans — ionass. Salva nucubiZe stumrebs saqarTve-
loSi megzurad waruZRva. germanelebs ainteresebdaT erov-
nuli respublikebis warmomadgenlebTan uSualo kontaqtebis
damyareba. isini ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamdnen imis gamo, rom
yvela erovnuli respublikis saxeliT, mxolod erTi — rsfs
respublika gamodioda, riTac igi eRobeboda erovnul res-
publikebTan uSualo kavSirurTierTobis damyarebas. am
mdgomareobis gamosworebas isaxavda miznad yofili vilhel-
mis mTavrobis ministrisa da misi meuRlis `ost-evropiseuli~
misia, romelsac miznad daesaxa uSualod `ganawyenebul~ res-
publikebSi stumroba.
SemuSavebuli da xelmowerili iqna germanelebTan kul-
turuli TanamSromlobis proeqti. igi iTvaliswinebda er-
Tobliv arqeologiur gaTxrebs mcxeTasa da noqalaqevSi,
germaniis mier sakuTari xarjebiT rasobriv daavadebaTa in-
stitutis gaxsnas, wignebis urTierTgacvlasa da gamofenis
mowyobas [36, 69-70].
proeqtis Tanaxmad, 1929 wlis seqtemberSi TbilisSi Ca-
movidnen germaneli profesorebi: zaueri da findeizeni [37,
12]. xolo 1930 wlis noemberSi Camovida arqeologi Sneideri,
romelsac g. CubinaSvilsa da S. nucubiZesTan erTad monawi-
leoba unda mieRo noqalaqevis gaTxrebSi [37, 22]. aRsaniSnavia,
rom 1929 wels germaniaSi gamofenaze gaigzavna saqarTvelos
Sua saukuneebis xelovnebis nimuSebi [37, 24]. amave wlis maisis
Sua ricxvebSi moskovSi germaniis saelCos ataSe soflis me-
urneobis sakiTxebSi ityobineboda, rom profesori auxageni
mogzaurobas iwyebda sabWoTa kavSirSi. is unda Camosuliyo
TbilisSi Cveni sawarmoebis dasaTvaliereblad. rogorc saga-
reo saqmeTa saxalxo komisariati avrcelebda informacias,
auxageni iTvleboda cnobil mecnierad, romelic swavlobda
e. w. `sabWoTa~ soflis meurneobas. amave dros, is iTvleboda
germaniis sagareo saqmeTa saministros Cinovnikad. saTanado
uwyebebis cnobiT auxagenma mniSvnelovnad gaafarTova Tavisi
moRvaweobis sfero da uSualo kontaqtebs amyarebda calke-
ul sawarmoebsa da pirovnebebTan [38, 3].
bolos SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 1900-1917 wlebSi saqarTve-
los hqonda epizoduri urTierToba gare samyarosTan. saqar-
TveloSi, aseve, arsebobda diplomatiuri azri. Tavisi diplo-
matia gaaCnda qarTul erovnul moZraobas, magram yovelive
278
amas adgili hqonda saxelmwifoebrioba — dakarguli eris
cxovrebaSi. qarTuli diplomatiis aRorZinebas eyreba safuZ-
veli 1917 wlis gazafxulidan, anu im periodidan, rodesac
ruseTis imperiis ngrevis Semdeg, iwyeba brZola saqarTvelos
saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRsadgenad.
1917-1918 wlebSi diplomatiur sarbielze moRvawe qar-
Tvel politikosebs — akaki Cxenkels, zurab avaliSvils, niko
nikolaZes, evgeni gegeWkorsa da sxvebs — damoukidebeli sa-
xelmwifo diplomatiis warmarTvis araviTari gamocdileba
ar gaaCndaT. pirveli cda, am mxriv, iyo trapizonis sazavo
konferencia (1918 wlis marti). gamocdilebis SeZenis Tval-
sazrisiT, qarTveli diplomatebisaTvis mniSvnelovani iyo ba-
Tumis sazavo konferencia (1918 w. maisi). 1918 wlis 26 maisidan
ki qarTveli diplomatebi pirispir dadgnen im sirTuleebis
winaSe, romlebic dakavSirebuli iyo saqarTvelos demokra-
tiuli respublikis sagareo politikis sworad warmarTvas-
Tan [23, 575].
damoukideblobis 1005-ma dRem qarTul diplomatias
mravalmxrivi gamocdileba SesZina. uSualo kontaqtebi dam-
yarda evropasa da amerikis qveynebTan, magram ruseTis mier
ganwirulma saqarTvelom, okupaciis Semdeg ramdenime weli-
wadSi dakarga gare samyarosTan urTierTobis SesaZlebloba.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. g. iobaSvili, saqarTvelo saerTaSoriso politikasa da


diplomatiaSi XVIII saukunis bolosa da XIX saukunis I mesa-
medSi, `qarTuli diplomatia~, t. 4, Tb., 1997.
2. g. manjgalaZe, germanuli kapitali amierkavkasiaSi, Tb.,
1991.
3. Н. Л. Наниташвили, Германский капитал в Закавказье. Деятельность
фирмы `Сименс и Гальске~, 1860-1917, Тб., 1982.
4. al. bendianiSvili, qarTuli erovnuli burJuazia da uc-
xouri kapitali WiaTuris samrewvelo raionSi (1879-1921
ww.), Jurn. `macne, 1962, #2.
5. g. manjgalaZe, germaneli kolonistebi saqarTveloSi, Tb.,
1974.
6. Jurnali `politika~, 1993, #6.

279
7. T. gasviani, saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublika da
afsuaTa agresiuli separatizmis saTaveebi, Tb., 2003.
8. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. VI, Tb., 1972.
9. Д. Енукидзе, Крах империалистической интервенции в Закавказье,
Тб., 1954.
10. Г. В. Пипия, Политика Германии в Закавказье в 1918 году, Тб., 1971.
11. Германские оккупанты в Грузии в 1918 году, Тб., 1942.
12. saqarTvelos okupacia da gasabWoeba komunistebis mier,
Tb., 1991.
13. z. avaliSvili, saqarTvelos damoukidebloba 1918-21 wle-
bis saerTaSoriso politikaSi, I, Tb., 1990.
14. r. cuxiSvili, inglis-saqarTvelos urTierToba 1918-1921
ww., Tb., 1995.
15. d. jojua, saqarTvelo-italiis urTierToba 1919-1921
wlebSi, Tb., 1997.
16. i. tabaRua, baTumis sakiTxi san-remos konferenciaze
(1920), istoriis `macne~, 1982, #3.
17. a. ramiSvili, Cveni Secdomebi 1918-1921, Tb., 2000.
18. a. sonRulaSvili, qarTuli kultura da inteligencia
1917-1937, Tb., 2008.
19. dokumenti Targmnes da komentarebi daurTes n. axalaZem
da i. tabaRuam, kr. evropis qveynebis istoriis probleme-
bi, Tb., 1983.
20. d. WumburiZe, saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis
saxelmwifo ideologia da politika 1918-1921 wlebSi da
qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azri, sadoqtoro disertaciis
avtoreferati, Tb., 2001.
21. d. WumburiZe, qarTveli xalxis erovnul-ganmaTavisufle-
beli brZola XX saukunis dasawyisSi 1918-1921 wlebi, Tb.,
2003.
22. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 617, anaw. 2, saq. #377.
23. qarTuli diplomatiis istoria, Tb., 2003.
24. saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros arqivi, f. 14,
anaw. 1, saq. #165a.
25. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 300, anaw. 1, saq. #43.

280
26. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 600, anaw. 2, saq. #2.
27. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 600, anaw. 4, saq. #60.
28. m. naTmelaZe, a. dauSvili, `saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoria~
Tb., 2004.
29. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 607, anaw. 2, saq. #3761.
30. a. dauSvili, `saerovnebaTaSoriso urTierToba saqarTve-
loSi 1921-1941 ww.~, Tb., 2000.
31. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 600, anaw. 1, saq. #89.
32. k. wenguaSvili, `saqarTvelos 1921-1925 wlebis istoriis
istoriografia~, Tb., 2005.
33. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 600, anaw. 2, saq. #65
34. a. dauSvili, `saerovnebaTaSoriso urTierToba saqarTve-
loSi 1921-1985 ww~ (sadoqtoro disertacia), Tb., 1999.
35. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 607, anaw. 2, saq. #5204.
36. g. ciciSvili, `Cekisturi braldebebi Salva nucubiZis mi-
marT da maTi dokumentur-analitikuri komentarebi~, Tb.,
1998.
37. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 300, anaw. 3, saq. #35.
38. saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis centraluri saxelmwifo
arqivi, f. 600, anaw. 2, saq. #243.

281
Avtandil Songulashvili
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, The Head
of the Department of Modern and Contemporary
History of the Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History
and Ethnology

Relations of Georgia with the Western Europe and the USA


In the first quarter of the XX century

Summary

Acquisition of Georgia by Russia and the abolition of the governmental


structures of Georgia have cut all the ways of relations with other countries
for Georgia. But the imperator has been always taking in mind geopolitical
situation of Georgia while communicating with other countries. In 1818,
French council has been established in Tbilisi. At the end of the XIX century
United States councils has been opened in Batumi and later in the 1914 it has
been moved to Tbilisi. Felix Volobe Smith was on the position of council of
USA in Tbilisi during the 1914-1919.
During the 1918-1921 Georgia had intensified its relations with
Germany, England, France, and Italy and with other countries of Europe.
In February-March of 1921 Soviet Russia has occupied Georgia which
ended the phase of relations with western countries. But in the first half of the
1920 initial contacts still has been continuing to be established.

282
nodar xorbalaZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universi-
tetis doqtoranti, maiori

saqarTveloSi ruseTis imperiuli politikis


istoriidan

XVIII saukuneSi saqarTveloSi politikuri viTareba Za-


lian damZimda. muslimanuri saxelmwifoebiT garemoculi
qristianuli qveynis arseboba faqtiurad kiTxvis niSnis qveS
dadga. im drois saqarTvelos saxelmwifo moRvaweebs esmo-
daT, rom qristianobis dacva saxelmwifoebriobis SenarCune-
bas udrida. qveynis gadarCenis Sida resursic mcire iyo, rad-
gan qveyana ramdenime samTavrod da samefod iyo dayofili.
yovelive aqedan gamomdinare, qarTl-kaxeTis mefem erekle me-
orem da imereTis mefem solomon pirvelma qveynis gadarCenis
gza dainaxes ruseTisaTvis daxmarebis TxovnaSi. aman kidev
ufro gaamZafra osmalTa, yizilbaSTa da lekTa Tavdasxmebi
saqarTveloze.
1768 wels, ruseT-osmaleTis omis Semdeg, ruseTis impe-
rias kavkasiel qristianTa mxardaWera Tavad dasWirda. misi
mizani SavizRvispireTSi osmaleTis Seviwroveba iyo. amitom,
imperatorma ekaterine meorem, imereTis mefis solomon pir-
velis Txovna — ruseTis mxridan daxmarebis Taobaze, daakma-
yofila. kavkasiaSi gamogzavnili jaris sardlad ki generali
totlebeni daniSna. ruseTis mizans warmoadgenda kavkasiaSi
osmaleTis dasusteba meore frontis gaxsniT.
XVIII saukunis 80-ian wlebSi ruseTma yirimis saxano mii-
erTa da kavkasiis mimarT interesi gaaZliera. kavkasiis dauf-
lebisTvis mebrZol irans da osmaleTs ruseTic daemata.
erekle meorem scada, ruseTis samxreTisken swrafva misTvis
sasargeblod gamoeyenebina da 1782 wlis 21 dekembers, ekate-
rine meores qarTl-kaxeTis mfarveloba sTxova. 1783 wlis 24
ivliss, cixe-simagre georgievskSi, erekle meoris davalebiT
ioane muxranbatonma, garsevan WavWavaZem da pavle potiomkin-
ma ruseT-saqarTvelos erTobis traqtats xeli moaweres.
georgievskis traqtati qarTl-kaxeTis sagareo politi-
kur qmediTunarianobas da saxelmwifoebriobas ar auqmebda,

283
qveyana saerTaSoriso samarTlis subieqtad rCeboda. 1783
wlis 2 noembers, traqtatis Tanaxmad, ruseTis jaris ori ba-
talioni polkovnik burnaSovis xelmZRvanelobiT saqarTve-
loSi Semovida, Tumca ruseTis mTavrobam jari male ukan ga-
iwvia da qarTl-kaxeTis mefe erekle II mtris winaSe martod-
marto datova. saqarTvelos mtrebma — sparseTma, osmaleTma
da lekebma ruseTis mTavrobis Ralati kargad gamoiyenes da
saqarTvelo araerTxel daarbies [4, 9].
daarRvia ra ruseTma traqtatiT gaTvaliswinebuli pi-
robebi, 1801 wlis 18 dekembers, imperatorma pavle pirvelma
xeli moawera manifests qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gauqmebisa da
ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi Sesvlis Sesaxeb. saqarTveloSi impe-
riuli zraxvebis gamyarebas didwilad Seuwyes xeli garuse-
bulma qarTvelebma.
mfarvelobis sanacvlod ruseTma moaxdina saqarTvelos
okupacia da aneqsia. mefobis gauqmebam, xalxisTvis miuRebeli
sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebeli biurokratiuli sistemis
Seqmnam, mosaxleobis umowyalo Cagvram, aseve, bavSvebisa da
qalebis mZevlad ayvanisa da dasjis gaxSirebulma faqtebma
qarTvel xalxSi saprotesto muxti gaaCina.
1801 wlidan moyolebuli, ruseTis imperiis dampyrob-
luri politikis winaaRmdeg mTiuleTSi, qarTlSi, kaxeTSi,
xevsureTSi, imereTSi, samegreloSi, afxazeTSi, guriaSi ajan-
yebebi daiwyo. ajanyebebis mizans warmoadgenda rusebis gan-
devna saqarTvelodan da damoukideblobis aRdgena. iranmac
da osmaleTmac gaacnobieres, rom ruseTis damkvidreba sa-
qarTveloSi maTTvis did saSiSroebas warmoadgenda da Tana-
ugrZnobdnen am ajanyebebs. ruseTis mmarTvelobas saqarTve-
loSi safrTxe rom ar Seqmnoda, rusebi mimarTavdnen usasti-
kes zomebs — xalxis CamoxrCobas, daxvretas, wamebas, gadasax-
lebas, agreTve mosyidvasa da SantaJs [1, 2-3, 5-6].
1917 wlis oqtomberSi ruseTSi monarqia daemxo. revo-
lucia da sabWoTa xelisufleba, amierkavkasiis adgilobrivma
politikurma Zalebma ar scnes.
1918 wels, ruseTis samoqalaqo omis dros, saqarTvelo
amierkavkasiis federaciuli respublikis SemadgenlobaSi Se-
vida, romelic saqarTvelos, somxeTs da azerbaijans warmo-
adgenda da romelsac amierkavkasiis komisariati marTavda.
1918 wlis 26 maiss, amierkavkasiis federaciam, arseboba Sew-
284
yvita, saqarTvelom damoukidebloba gamoacxada.A am dros sa-
qarTvelos farTobi iyo 107 600 kv.km, mosaxleoba Seadgenda
2,5 milions, saxelmwifo religia iyo marTlmadidebloba, sa-
xelmwifo ena — qarTuli.
damoukideblobis xanmokle periodSi — 1918-1921 wlebSi
saqarTveloSi qarTuli ena saxelmwifo enad gamocxadda,
dadginda saxelmwifos sazRvrebi, ganxorcilda sasamarTlo
reforma, Camoyalibda erovnuli gvardia da regularuli ar-
mia, Seiqmna adgilobrivi marTvis organoebi, miiRes konsti-
tucia.
1919 wlis 13 seqtembers, argentinam saqarTvelos damou-
kidebloba aRiara, xolo 1920 wlis 7 maiss ruseTma saqarve-
los damoukidebloba de iured scno.
saqarTvelos damoukideblobis saerTaSoriso aRiareba,
bolSevikuri ruseTis mier Cveni qveynis okupaciamde aseTi
TanmimdevrobiT gagrZelda: 1920 weli — germania, 1921 weli —
belgia, safrangeTi, didi britaneTi, italia, iaponia, polo-
neTi, avstria, rumineTi, luqsemburgi, meqsika [12, 13].
bolSevikurma ruseTma axalgazrda damoukidebeli sa-
qarTvelos mimarT Tavidanve mtruli politika airCia. 1918
wlis mais-ivlisSi saqarTvelos bolSevikuri ruseTis jareb-
ma CrdiloeT kavkasiidan Seuties. Semoseva ori mxridan dai-
gegma — kavkasiis mTebidan, darialis xeobis gavliT Tbilisis
mimarTulebiT da Savi zRvis sanapirodan soxumis mimarTule-
biT. darialTan qarTulma jarma mteri ukuagdo. Tumca mter-
ma soxumTan mcire warmatebas miaRwia, magram qarTuli jaris
mier ganxorcielebulma kontrSetevam rusebi ramodenime Se-
takebaSi daamarcxa da ukuqceul mters saqarTvelos saz-
Rvrebs gareT — tuafsemde misdia. 1918 wlis 26 ivliss saqar-
Tvelos jari tuafseSi Sevida.
1918 wlis dekemberSi saqarTvelos samxreT raionebSi
ruseTis bolSevikuri mTavrobisagan waqezebuli somxeTis
jarebi SemoiWrnen. brZolaSi qarTulma armiam general mazni-
aSvilis meTaurobiT isini daamarcxa, gandevna saqarTvelos
sazRvrebs gareT, qarTuli jari TiTqmis erevnamde mivida,
Tumca inglisis sardlobis CareviT qarTulma armiam saomari
moqmedebebi Sewyvita [12, 13].
1920 wlis maisSi, ruseTis armiis saqarTveloSi SemoiW-
ris uSedego mcdelobis Semdeg, 1921 wlis 21 Tebervals, sab-
285
WoTa ruseTis me-3, me-9, me-11 da me-13 armiebi, budionis da
Jlobis kavaleriebi, qveynis teritoriaze ramdenime mxridan
SemoiWrnen. mokavSireebis gareSe darCenilma saqarTvelom Se-
motevas ver gauZlo. ruseTis jarma Tbilisi daikava da sabWo-
Ta xelisufleba daamyara. damoukidebeli saqarTvelos xeli-
sufleba jer baTumSi gadavida, Semdeg ki qveyana datova da
emigraciaSi wavida.
saqarTveloSi ruseTis armiis sabrZolo moqmedebebi
martis meore naxevramde gagrZelda [12, 13].
1921 wels, saqarTveloSi, sabWoTa socialisturi res-
publika gamocxadda. qveyana damoukideblobas mxolod for-
malurad (1921 wlis 21 maisis axali xelSekrulebis da 1922
wlis konstituciis sauZvelze) inarCunebda.
sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebisTanave, saqarTveloSi
erovnuli moZraoba daiwyo da qveynis sxvadsxva regionebSi
partizanuli razmebi Camoyalibda. partizanebs kaxeTSi qaqu-
ca ColoyaSvili xelmZRvanelobda, qarTlSi — mixeil laSqa-
raSvili. xevsureTSi, kaxeTSi, svaneTSi da raWSi ajanyebuleb-
ma adgilobrivi revkomebi daamxes, policia ganaiaraRes da
ruseTis jarebis gayvana moiTxoves. 1922 wels, JinvalSi, qaqu-
ca ColoyaSvilis SeficulTa razmma ruseTis erT-erTi razmi
daamarcxa, ris gamoc xelisuflebam aragvis xeobaSi didZal
samxedro Zalasa da SeiaraRebas mouyara Tavi [12, 13].
1922 wlis aprilSi, italiaSi, qalaq genuaSi gamarTul
konferenciaze saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi warmoqmnili
problemebi unda gadaewyvitaT. konferenciis muSaobaSi ru-
seTic monawileobda. saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqma am-
brosi xelaiam iq memorandumi gaagzavna da saqarTvelodan
ruseTis jarebis dauyovnebliv gayvana moiTxova. dasavleTis
qveynebi, saqarTvelos problemiT maSin ar dainteresdnen [12,
13].
saqarTveloSi mRelvareba izrdeboda, xalxi ajanyebis-
Tvis emzadeboda. SeTqmulTa winaaRmdeg masobrivi represie-
bi daiwyo. damsjelma eqspediciebma guria, kaxeTi da svaneTi
aaoxres. adre dapatimrebuli politikuri moRvaweebi daxvri-
tes.
1924 wlis 28 agvistos, WiaTuraSi SeiaraRebuli gamos-
vla dagegmilze erTi dRiT adre araorganizebulad daiwyo
da ajanyebis gegmebi CaiSala. amas saqarTvelos mTel terito-
286
riaze sagangebo wesebis SemoReba mohyva. qveyana rusulma te-
rorma moicva. xalxs gansakuTrebuli sisastikiT TbilisSi da
baTumSi uswordebodnen. miuxedavad amisa, ajanyeba moedo —
gurias, samegrelos, imereTs, qarTls da kaxeTs. 1924 wels ga-
mosvlebi gansakuTrebuli sisastikiT CaaxSes. 1921 wels daw-
yebul rusul terors erTaderTi mizani hqonda — dapyrobil
saqarTveloSi politikuri Zalauflebis SenarCuneba [12, 13].
30-iani wlebidan, represiebis momdevno talRa gansakuT-
rebuli sisastikiT daiwyo. sabWoTa qveyanas safrTxes kon-
kretuli realoba uqmnida: erovnuli damoukideblobis ideis
arseboba, adamianebSi socialisturi ideologiisadmi gansa-
kuTrebuli imedgacrueba, stalinis kursisadmi skeptikuri
damokidebuleba da rac mTavaria, Zveli inteligenciis arse-
boba, romlebic sabWoTa sistemas arasodes Serigebian. sta-
linis iniciativiT, sabWoTa imperiis gadasarCenad didi rep-
resiebi daiwyo, romelic yvela fenas Seexo, maT Soris bolSe-
vikebis nawilsac.
1937 wlis represiebma da Semdgom, meore msoflio omma
uamravi qarTvelis sicocxle Seiwira.
1951 wels dawyebuli politikuri represiebi im samxed-
ro pirebs Seexo, romlebic meore msoflio omis dros tyveo-
baSi aRmoCndnen. yofil tyveTa didi nawili samSoblos Rala-
tis braldebiT Sua aziaSi gadaasaxles. gadasaxlebebi SeexoT
partizanebs, aseve imaT, visi naTesavebic sazRvargareT cxov-
robdnen. represiebi SeexoT e. w `megrelTa saqmis~ monawile-
ebs. Tumca, am saqmis detalebi bolomde cnobili ar aris.
cnobilia is, rom politikur moRvaweTa da inteligenciis
erT jgufs ucxoeTis dazvervasTan kavSiri da saqarTvelo-
dan samegrelos gamoyofis mcdeloba daabrales. meore msof-
lio omis Semdeg, xelovnebis yvela dargSi cenzura gamkac-
rda.
XX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi sabWoTa kavSirSi krizisi gam-
wvavda. qveynis ekonomika da mosaxleobis socialuri mdgoma-
reoba gauaresda. SeiaraRebaze da samxedro mSeneblobaze ki
uzarmazari Tanxebi ixarjeboda [12].
aRniSnul periodSi saqarTveloSi erovnul-ganmaTavi-
suflebeli moZraobis niSnebi gamoikveTa. misi mizani sabWoTa
kavSiris Semadgenlobidan saqarTvelos gasvla da damouki-
deblobis aRdgena iyo. erovnul moZraobas saTaveSi zviad
287
gamsaxurdia da merab kostava Caudgnen. 1956 wels, organiza-
ciis ramdenime wevrTan erTad isini sabWoTa suk-ma daapatim-
ra.
totalitaruli mmarTvelobis periodSic ar Camqrala
qarTvel xalxSi damoukideblobisaTvis brZolis survili.
amis naTeli gamoxatuleba iyo 1956 wlis 9 marti. rodesac
skkp XX yrilobis daxurul sxdomaze nikita xruSCovma gaakri-
tika ioseb stalini da sruliad qarTveli eri. Seuracxyo-
filma erma mTel saqarTveloSi moawyo gamosvlebi Tavisi
Rirsebis dasacavad, magram Tbilisis quCebSi uamravi adamiani
daxoces [8].
1974 wlidan erovnul-gamanTavisuflebeli moZraoba
isev gaaqtiurda da adamianis uflebaTa damcavi pirveli or-
ganizacia — `adamianis uflebaTa sainiciativo jgufi~ Seiqmna.
maT erovnul-politikuri xasiaTis Jurnalebis gamocema da-
iwyes.
aseTive enTuziazmiTa da SemarTebiT daicva saqarTve-
los axalgazrdobam 1978 wlis 14 aprils qveynis da eris Rir-
seba da aiZula sabWoTa xelisufleba, ar daeSvaT konstitu-
ciiT qarTulis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis statusis gauqmeba.
amis Sedegad saqarTvelos konstituciaSi aRdga is muxli, ro-
melic saqarTveloSi qarTuls saxelmwifo enis statuss ani-
Webda.
1988 wels, saqarTveloSi erovnulma moZraobm piks miaR-
wia. cxadi iyo, sabWoTa xelisufleba xalxis survils win ver
daudgeboda, amitom mTavrobam sapasuxod saqarTveloSi sepa-
ratizmiT manipulireba daiwyo. konfliqti sabWoTa xelisuf-
lebasa da erovnuli moZraobis warmomadgenlebs Soris gansa-
kuTrebiT gamwvavda. saqarTvelos damoukideblobis moTxov-
niT arasanqcirebuli mitingebis talRa mTel respublikas
moedo.
1989 wlis martSi afxazma separatistebma ruseTis reaq-
ciuli Zalebis waqezebiT egreTwodebuli `lixnis deklara-
ciiT~ afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikisTvis calke sabWo-
Ta respublikis statusis miniWeba moiTxoves. zemoxsenebul
deklaracias xeli soxumis universitetis reqtorma moawera.
universitetis qarTvelma studentobam am faqts saprotesto
demonstraciiT upasuxa. saqarTvelos centralurma xeli-
suflebam soxumeli studentebis saprotesto gamosvlebi ak-
288
rZala, magram isini akrZalvas ar daemorCilnen da aqcia gag-
rZelda.
1989 wlis aprilis dasawyisSi studentTa saprotesto aq-
cia afxaz separatistTa erTi jgufis mxridan Tavdasxmis obi-
eqti gaxda. Tavdasxmam sazogadoebis ukiduresi aRSfoTeba
gamoiwvia rogorc soxumSi, ise TbilisSi, rac saerTo-saxal-
xo mRelvarebaSi gadaizarda.
1989 wlis 16-17 ivliss soxumSi pirveli SeiaraRebuli
Setakeba moxda qarTuli da afxazuri mosaxleobis erT na-
wils Soris. gavrcelebuli mosazrebiT, Setakebebis gamomwve-
vi mizezi gaxda soxumis universitetis misaRebi gamocdebisas
momxdari Zaladobis faqtebi. daiRupa 16 da daiWra 140-mde
moqalaqe, ZiriTadad eTnikuri qarTveli [10].
1988-1989 wlebidan saqarTveloSi mSvidobiani saprotes-
to aqciebi daiwyo. aTiaTasobiT qarTveli mTavrobis sasax-
lis win Seikriba da rusTavelis gamziri gadaketa. mitings da-
moukideblobis komiteti xelmZRvanelobda — zviad gamsaxur-
dias, merab kostavas, irakli wereTelis, giorgi Wanturiasa
da sxvebis meTaurobiT. mSvidobianma demonstrantebma damou-
kideblobis aRdgenis da separatistebis dasjis moTxovniT
SimSiloba daiwyes. sabWoTa xelisuflebam situaciaze kon-
troli dakarga.
1989 wlis 9 aprils, TbilisSi saprotesti aqcia sisxlia-
ni tragediiT dasrulda. moskovidan, kremlis miTiTebiT, sa-
gangebod gadmogzavnilma sabWoTa armiis sadesanto Senaer-
Tma aqciis monawleebi orlesuli sasangre niCbebiT daCexa,
gamoyenebli iyo momwamlavi gazi da cecxlsasroli iaraRi. 20
adamiani, ZiriTadad qalebi da bavSvebi, daxoces. aqciis aTa-
sobiT monawile daiWra, moiwamla an dasaxiCrda. ukve meramde-
ned, ruseTma Zalis saSualebiT scada qarTveli xalxis daT-
rgunva da daSineba, Tumca maT cxadad dainaxes, rom 9 aprilma
katalizatoris roli iTamaSa da situacia ufro gamwvavda
[10].
1990 wlis 28 oqtombers, saqarTveloSi pirveli mraval-
partiuli, demokratiuli da arasabWoTa, uzenaesi sabWos ar-
Cevnebi Catarda, romelSic xmaTa aSkara umravlesobiT saar-
Cevno blokma — `mrgvali magida — Tavisufali saqaTvelo~, ga-
imarjva. uzenaesi sabWos Tavmjdomared airCies zviad gamsa-
xurdia.
289
1991 wlis 31 marts, sayovelTao saxalxo referendumze
dasmul SekiTxvas: `gsurT Tu ara saqarTvelos respublikis
saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdena 1918 wlis 26 mai-
sis damoukideblobis aqtis safuZvelze~, qveynis saarCevno
xmis uflebis mqone mosaxleobis 98%-ma dadebiTi pasuxi gas-
ca, maT Soris afxazebma da osebma.
1991 wlis 9 aprils, saqarTveloSi qveynis saxelmwifoeb-
rivi damoukideblobis aRdgenis aqti miiRes. imave dRes, aSS-s
kongresma, 31 martis referendumis Sedegebi sagangebo rezo-
luciiT legitimurad scno, rac saqarTvelos damoukideb-
lobis de-faqtod cnobas niSnavda. 1991 wlis 26 maiss saqar-
Tvelom airCia damoukidebeli saqarTvelos pirveli prezi-
denti zviad gamsaxurdia.
saqarTvelos damoukideblobisken swrafvam, ruseTis xe-
lisufleba gaaRiziana. maTi sapasuxo reaqcia saqarTvelos
teritoriaze separatistuli moZraobis provocireba da Sei-
araRebuli konfliqtebis inspirireba iyo [14].
1991 wlis 1 seqtembers, osurma mxarem `samxreT oseTis~
sabWoTa avtonomiuri olqi `samxreT oseTis~ respublikad ga-
moacxada. mogvianebiT saqarTvelos uzenasma sabWom gaauqma
aRniSnuli dadgenileba da egreTwodebuli `samxreT oseTis~
avtonomiuri olqis, rogorc ukanono warmonaqmnis, statusi.
1991 wlis bolos moxda ruseTis mier inspirirebuli samxed-
ro gadatrialeba. saqarTvelos xelisuflebaSi mosulma edu-
ard SevardnaZem konfliqtebis daregulirebisaTvis kursi ai-
Ro ruseTTan molaparakebaze. 1992 wlis 24 ivniss boris el-
cinsa da eduard SevardnaZes Soris, problemis daregulire-
bis mizniT, soWis xelSekruleba gaformda. 1992 wlis 14 iv-
liss konfliqtis zonaSi Sereuli komisia Seiqmna. 1995 wlidan
regionSi qarTul-osur-rusuli Sereuli samSvidobo Zalebi
da euTos damkvirveblebi Cadgnen [14].
1992 wlis 10 agvistos samxreT kavkasiis rkinigzis dasav-
leT saqarTvelos monakveTze Seqmnili mZime viTarebis gamo,
saqarTvelos respublikis saxelmwifo sabWom rkinigzis
transportze sagangebo wesebi SemoiRo. 1992 wlis 14 agvis-
tos, dilis 7 saaTze saqarTvelos Sinagani jarebis kolonam
zugdidi-galis administraciuli sazRvari gadakveTa. saqar-
Tvelos samTavrobo Zalebis gadaadgilebis mizani iyo dasav-
leT saqarTveloSi mZevlad ayvanili saxelmwifo sabWos wevri
290
samoqalaqo pirebis gaTavisufleba da Zarcvis gaxSirebuli
SemTxvevebisagan rkinigzis dacva.
1992 wlis 15 agvistos samTavrobo Zalebma daba ganTiad-
Si gadasxes sazRvao desanti, romelmac daba leseliZe Stur-
miT aiRo. saqarTvelo-ruseTis sazRvarze qarTuli droSa
aRimarTa. amave dRes Savnabadas batalionma gagra da daba
kolxida ubrZolvelad daikava, ris Sedegadac gudauTaSi ga-
xiznuli arZinbas gundi, faqtobrivad, blokadaSi moeqca. se-
paratistebis kontrolis qveS, mxolod, biWvinTa-axali aTo-
nis monakveTi darCa. daibloka tyvarCelis raionic.
1992 wlis 18 agvistos uSedego molaparakebebis Semdeg,
qarTulma jarma qalaqSi Sesvla daiwyo. 12:30 saaTze maT afxa-
zeTis uzenaesi sabWos Senoba brZolis gareSe aiRes. afxazuri
droSis nacvlad, Senobis Tavze qarTuli saxelmwifo droSa
afrialda. arZinbam qalaqi datova da gudauTaSi gadabargda.
1992 wlis 21 agvistos kremlis mier marTulma mTiel
xalxTa konfederaciam saqarTvelos omi gamoucxada. agvis-
to-seqtemberSi afxazeTSi Camosvla daiwyes kremlis mier da-
qiravebulma mebrZolebma adiReidan, yabardo-balyareTidan,
CeCneTidan, yaraCaevo-CerqezeTidan, CrdiloeT oseTidan. se-
paratistebs gudauTaSi dislocirebuli ruseTis sazenito
polkidan 1000 avtomati, 600 tyviamfrqvevi, 500 xelyumbara
da uamravi tyviawamali gadaecaT. rusebis wyalobiT, seqtem-
bris bolos separatistTa SeiaraReba qveiTTa sabrZolo man-
qanebiT, t-72 tipis tankebiT, agreTve saartilerio danadga-
rebiTa da naRmmtyorcnebiTac Seivso. iaraRTan erTad inten-
siurad mimdinareobda separatistebis SenaerTTa cocxali Za-
liT momarageba. ruseTis msxvil qalaqebSi daqiravebulTa
mosazidad specialuri punqtebi muSaobdnen [14].
1992 wlis 3 seqtembers konfliqtis daregulirebis miz-
niT, moskovSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo meTauris eduard Se-
vardnaZis, ruseTis prezidentis boris elcinis da separatis-
tTa lideris vladislav arZinbas sammxrivi Sexvedra gaimar-
Ta. Sexvedraze miRebul iqna rezolucia saqarTvelos teri-
toriuli mTlianobisa da xelSeuxeblobis Sesaxeb. molapara-
kebis Sedegad gadawyda, rom 5 seqtembridan afxazeTSi cec-
xli Sewydeboda.
SeTanxmebis miuxedavad, ar wydeboda separatistuli Za-
lebis Semotevebi da grZeldeboda poziciuri brZolebi.
291
1993 wlis 27 ivliss ruseTis SuamavlobiT, konfliqtis
monawile mxareebma soWSi morig SeTanxmebas moaweres xeli.
afxazeTi unda daetovebina yvela daqiravebul mebrZols, ag-
reTve saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli formirebebis umetesobas.
soxumidan unda gaetanaT qarTuli armiis javSanteqnika da
artileria. separatistTa teqnikaze kontroli afxazeTSi
dislocirebul rusul nawilebs daevalaT.
1993 wlis 1 seqtembers soxumidan qarTuli samxedro
teqnika da 23-e brigadis SeiaraReba rusuli samxedro saz-
Rvao SemadgenlobebiT foTSi gadaitanes, Tavad 23-e brigada
ki daSales [14].
rogorc SemdegSi cxadi gaxda, cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesa-
xeb mzakvruli SeTanxmeba separatistebma soxumze Setevis mo-
samzadeblad gamoiyenes. 16 seqtembers maT q. soxums Seuties.
qalaqze farTomasStabiani ieriSi zRvidan, haeridan da xme-
leTis misadgomebidan miitanes. SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, qar-
Tul mxares am droisaTvis mZime SeiaraRebis didi nawili kon-
fliqtis zonidan ukve gayvanili hyavda. rusulma mxarem ki
daarRvia (es ukve meramdened saqarTvelos istoriaSi) yvela-
nairi piroba da ganiaraRebuli qarTuli jari da afxazeTis
qarTuli mosaxleoba sruli katastrofis winaSe daayena.
1993 wlis 27 seqtembers soxumi daeca.
konfliqtis dawyebamde afxazeTis avtonomiur respub-
likaSi cxovrobda 525 000 adamiani. 17,8% — eTnikuri afxaze-
bis, 46% eTnikuri qarTvelebisa da danarCeni sxva eTnikuri
jgufebis SemadgenlobiT. qarTvelebi warmoadgendnen gag-
ris, soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCiris, galis, kodoris xeobis
dominant mosaxleobas. gaerTianebuli erebis umaRlesi komi-
siis adamianis uflebaTa dacvis saerTaSoriso organizaciebi
sazogadod aRiareben, rom dResdReobiT 242 000 iZulebiT ga-
daadgilebuli piri cxovrobs saqarTveloSi, romelTaganac
100 000 samegrelos raionSi, 90 000 TbilisSi, 30 000 imereTSi
da 10 000 qvemo qarTlis regionSia ganTavsebuli. iZulebiT
gadaadgilebuli pirebi warmoSobiT arian galidan 32%, soxu-
midan 21%, oCamCiredan 15% da gulrifSidan 13% [14].
qarTveli xalxis ltolvas Tavisuflebisaken ruseTis
mTavroba yovelTvis xvdeboda didi agresiiT da provokacie-
biT, yvelanairad cdilobda axalgazrda qarTuli saxelmwi-
fos dakninebas, rogorc ekonomikuri, ise samxedro Tvalsaz-
292
risiT, faruli Tu aSkara formebiT, separatistebis waqeze-
biT Tu maTTvis iaraRis gadacemiT, masobrivi informaciebis
saSualebebiT Tu daqiravebuli kriminalebiT... magram aRsa-
niSnavia, rom Ria samxedro operacia 1921 wlis aneqsiis Semdeg
ar ganxorcielebula 2008 wlis 8 agvistomde. operaciis pro-
vocireba gakeTda osi separatistebis xeliT, razec saqarTve-
los mTavroba iZulebuli gaxda pasuxi gaeca, xolo Semdeg
ruseTma wamoiwyo farTomasStabiani samxedro operacia qar-
Tuli saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg.
ruseTis mier moxda saqarTvelos teritoriis mniSvne-
lovani nawilis okupacia. ruseTi dResac agrZelebs agresi-
ul politikas saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg.
samarTliani, mSvidobiani, politikuri brZola saqar-
Tvelos deokupaciisaTvis, teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdge-
nisa da saxelmwifoebriobis ganmtkicebisaTvis grZeldeba.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. simon qvariani, qarTveli eris istoria, quTaisi, 1918.


2. aleqsandre froneli, `amboxeba kaxeTisa 1812 welsa~ Tbi-
lisi, 1992.
3. aleqsandre froneli, mTiuleTi 1804 welsa, tfilisi,
1910.
4. sargis kakabaZe, saqarTvelo erekle II-is dros, tfilisi,
1912.
5. al. xaxanaSvili, solomon II, mefe imereTisa, tfilisi, 1910.
6. a. gozaliSvili, 1832 wlis SeTqmuleba, Tbilisi, 1940.
7. План г. Тифлиса с окрестностью, Тифлис, 1867.
8. SoTa nozaZe, tragikuli 9 marti, Tbilisi, 1990.
9. giorgi paiWaZe, georgievskis traqtati, Tbilisi, 1983.
10. 9 aprili, Seadgina guram gverdwiTelma, Tbilisi, 1990.
11. Tbilisi (quCebi, gamzirebi, moednebi), enciklopedia, Tbi-
lisi, 2008.
12. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t. VI, Tbilisi, 1970.
13. Сергунов А. А., Военно-географический обзор Грузии, ВКФ, 1921.
14. internetgamocema `vikipedia~, www.wikipedia.org

293
Nodar Khorbaladze
Doctoral student of the Georgian
Technical University, Major

From Russia's imperial politics in Georgia

Summary

The work covers the aspects of Russian aggressive politics from XVIII
century till now; discusses the circumstances of Russia's lack of compliance
with Treaty of Georgievsk terms, includes abolishment of reign and
independence in Georgia, together with its occupation and full annexation.
The stages of Georgian nation's fight against this aggression is shown; the
work also covers the issues on restoration of independence by Georgian
people in 1918, development of Georgian democratic State, and its repeated
occupation and annexation by Bolshevik Russia in 1921. The work represents
the character of Georgian national-libratory movement in Soviet period and
declaration of independence by Georgia on Aril 9, 1991. Russian aggressive
politics against independent Georgia, and, aftermath, Russian military
aggression against sovereign State, that took place in August, 2008, is
described.

294
malxaz makaraZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri univer-
sitetis doqtoranti, maiori

damoukidebeli qarTuli saxelmwifo


da ruseTis agresiuli politika

Tanamedrove etapze, zogadad msoflios da kerZod, ev-


ropis usafrTxoebis sakiTxis gaTvaliswinebiT, msoflioSi
mimdinare globalur procesebSi mniSvnelovani adgili uka-
via saqarTveloSi ganviTarebul movlenebs.
kavkasiis regionSi mimdinare procesebi mWidrod aris
dakavSirebuli evropis Tanamegobrobis usafrTxoebasa da
ganviTarebasTan, rac metad mniSvnelovania evropisa da misi
mezobeli regionebis stabilurobisa da mSvidobiani Tanac-
xovrebis, demokratiuli ganviTarebis saqmeSi. aqedan gamom-
dinare, Tanamedrove etapze metad aqtualuria kavkasiaSi da
kerZod, saqarTveloSi saxelmwifoebrivi institutebis Camo-
yalibebis, qveynis ekonomiuri da politikuri satabilurobi-
sa da mSvidobiani, demokratiuli ganviTarebis sakiTxi.
Kkavkasiis regionSi stabilurobas, saqarTvelos saxel-
mwfoebriobis ganmtkicebis, mSvidobiani, demokratiuli gan-
viTarebisa da evropul TanamegobrobaSi integraciis proce-
sebs xels uSlis samxedro konfliqtebi kavkasiaSi, rac metad
problematuria, rogorc sakuTriv qarTuli saxelmwifos,
aseve evropis regionisa da mTlianad msoflio Tanamegobro-
bis usafrTxoebis, mSvidobiani TanamSromlobisa da demokra-
tiuli ganviTarebis saqmeSi [1; 2].
1991 wlidan, saqrTvelos mier saxelmwifoebrivi damou-
kideblobis gamocxadebis, msoflios mravali saxelmwifos mi-
er oficialuri cnobisa da sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg
kavkasiaSi da kerZod saqarTveloSi warmoiqmna da gaaqtiurda
SeiarRebuli konfliqtebis kerebi (CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi —
CeCneTi, saqarTveloSi — afxazeTi da cxinvalis regioni), rac
xelovnurad iyo inspirirebuli ruseTis mier. es qveyana uSu-
alod iyo CarTuli saomar moqmedebebSi, awarmoebda ra sam-
xedro operaciebs CeCneTSi da uwevda ra Ria samxedro daxma-
rebas saqarTveloSi arsebul konfliqtur kerebSi mis mier

295
marTvad marionetul, separatistul reJimebs, rogorc sam-
xedro ZaliT, aseve sabrZolo teqnikiT [2; 3].
saqarTvlos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdge-
nis Semdgomi periodi SeiZleba daiyos sam ZiriTad etapad:
pirveli etapi moicavs periods demokratiuli gziT arCeuli
saqarTvelos pirveli prezidentis zviad gamsaxurdias xeli-
suflebaSi mosvlidan da saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi da-
moukideblobis gamocxadebidan 1991 wlis dekembramde ( kano-
nieri xelisuflebis damxobamde). meore etapi grZeldeba 1992
wels SevardnaZis xelisuflebaSi mosvlidan 2003 wlis varde-
bis reoluciamde, mesame etapi iwyeba da grZeldeba vardebis
revolucis Sedegad xelisuflebaSi saxemwifoebrivad, prog-
resulad moazrovne politikosTa mosvliT [1].
damoukidebeli saqarTvelos politikuri cxovrebis me-
same etapze qveyanaSi iwyeba demokratiuli saxelmwifo insti-
tutebis Camoyalibeba da ganviTareba, Seiqmna wina pirobebi
evroatlantikur samxedro politikur bloksa da evropis Ta-
namegobrobis erTian sivrceSi integraciis procesebis dasaC-
qareblad. am mimarTulebiT gadaidga mniSvnelovani nabijebi,
rac gamoixata demokratiuli institutebis Semdgom ganviTa-
rebaSi, socialuri fonis gaumjobesebaSi, qveynis ekonomikis
stabilizaciaSi, energetikul damoukideblobasa da qarTuli
SeiaraRebuli Zalebis modernizaciasa da ganviTrebaSi. yove-
live aman xeli Seuwyo saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis gan-
mtkicebas da qveynis rolis gaaqtiurebas rogorc kavkasiis
regionSi, aseve mTlianad msoflios masStabiT, rasac adastu-
rebs saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri da energetikuli proeqtebis
wamowyeba da ganxorcieleba, buqarestis samitze miRebuli
mxardamWeri gadawyvetileba da amerikis SeerTebul Statebsa
da saqarTvelos Soris gaformebuli ormxrivi TanamSromlo-
bis da urTierTdaxmarebis qartia [1; 4].
saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis ganmtkicebam, misma
geopolitikurma da geoekonomikurma mdebareobam, saerTaSo-
riso TanamegobrobaSi integraciis procesebis daCqarebam ga-
aqtiura imperiuli ambiciebis matarebeli ruseTis agresiu-
li politika saqarTvelos mimarT [4].
ruseTma miznad daisaxa saqaraTveloze, rogorc saxel-
mwifoze sruli kontrolis damyareba qveynis demokratiuli,

296
kanonieri xelisuflebis Canacvlebis gziT marionetuli,
prorusuli xelisuflebiT, rac SemdgomSi gamoiwvevda saqar-
Tvelos politikuri kursis Secvlas ruseTis imperiuli po-
litikis interesebis Sesabamisad.
ruseTis imperiuli miznebis miRwevis mcdelobis kulmi-
nacias warmoadgens 2008 wlis agvistos SearaRebuli agresia
saqarTvelos mimarT, romelic pirdapir iyo orientirebuli
qveynis kanonieri xelisuflebis damxobaze, saqarTvelos sa-
xelmwifoebriobis, ekonomikisa da demokratiuli institute-
bis moSlaze. es saSualebas miscemda ruseTs, saqarTvelo
msoflios winaSe warmoedgina, rogorc destabilizaciis kera
da safrTxis matarebeli qveyana kavkasiis regionSi, rac Tavis
mxriv gamoiwvevda mniSvnelovani saerTaSoriso proeqtebis Ca-
vardnas da ruseTis mier evropis energetikuli marTvis sada-
veebis mTlianad xelSi aRebas. Tumca, imperiuli ruseTis am-
gvarma mcdelobam Sedegi ver gamoiRo, ufro ki piriqiT [2; 4].
ruseTis agresiulma politikam da agvistos movlenebma
msoflios daanaxva misi, rogorc agresorisa da safrTxis ma-
tarebeli qveynis namdvili saxe da zraxvebi. evropam igrZno
realuri safrTxe ruseTisagan. msoflios reaqciam ar daa-
yovna. igi iyo ganviTarebuli movlenebis adekvaturi, rac ga-
moixata evropis saxelmwifoebis, amerikis SeerTebuli State-
bisa da saerTSoriso organizaciebis aqtiuri politiuri
CarTviT saqarTvelos mxardamWer procesebSi. saerTaSoriso
Tanamegobrobis adekvaturma reaqciam nawilobriv SeaCera
rusuli agresia da saqarTvelo kvlav ganixileba amerikis Se-
erTebuli Statebisa da evropisTvis, rogorc saimedo par-
tniori saxelmwifo kavkasiis regionSi. saerTaSoriso mxarda-
WeriT xorcieldeba agresorze politikuri zewola saqar-
Tvelos teritoriebis deokupaciis moTxovniT, grZeldeba
evropuli da evroatlantikuri integraciis procesi, gaizar-
da interesi saqarTvelos, rogorc politikur da ekonomiur,
maT Soris energetikul sferoSi partniori qveynis mimaraT,
rac gamoixata Tundac `nabuqos~ proeqtis aqtualobiTa da
damtkicebiT [4].
amrigad, miuxedavad imperiuli ruseTis agresiuli po-
litikisa, romelic SemdgomSi gadaizarda SearaRebul agre-
siaSi saqarTvlos winaaRmdeg, saqarTvelo, msoflios Taname-

297
gobrobisaTvis kvlav rCeba, rogorc demokratiuli Rirebu-
lebebis matarebeli partniori saxelmwifo kavakasiis region-
Si da dRis wesrigSi kvalav aqtiurad dgas, rogorc misi sru-
li deokupaciis, aseve sruli integraciis sakiTxi msoflios
Tanamegobrobasa da saerTaSoriso demokratiul struqtu-
rebSi.

Ddamowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. saxelmwifoebrioba da usafrTxoeba, saqarTvelo `varde-


bis revoluciis~ Semdeg. bruno kopitersis da robert
legvoldis redaqciiT, Tbilisi, 2006.
2. ioseb toroSeliZe, Pputinis sagareo politika, Tbilisi,
2008.
3. malxaz saldaZe, postsabWoTa sazogadoeba da xelisuf-
leba ruseTSi, Tbilisi, 2008.
4. giorgi gvalia, ZalTa wonasworoba da safrTxis wonaswo-
roba, aliansebi samxreT kavkasiaSi, Tbilisi, 2008.

Malkhaz Makaradze
Doctoral student of the Georgian
Technical University, Major

Independent Georgia and Russian aggression politics

Summary

This work represents modern World and European security subjects;


there is showing generally Caucasus region and Georgian place and role in
carnet world global presses. It’s analyzed Russian’s aggression politics and
world concord to support to Georgia. It’s made property conclusion.

298
sofiko davlaSeriZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri univer-
sitetis magistranti

saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgena da


aSS-is politika postsabWour sivrceze

XX s-is 90-iani wlebi aRsavse iyo epoqaluri mniSvnelo-


bis movlenebiT — dasrulda civi omi, komunisturi totali-
tarizmi. socialisturi sistemis rRvevis Sedegad radikalu-
rad Seicvala msoflio politikuri speqtri. daiwyo bipola-
rulidan msoflios policentristul mowyobaze gadasvlis
swrafi, xSir SemTxvevaSi umarTavi procesi[5,106].
XX s-is 80-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi saqarTveloSi da-
iwyo erovnul ganmanTavisuflebeli moZraobis axali etapi.
Aamitom, sanam uSualod SevexebodeT saqarTvelo — amerikis
SeerTebuli Statebis urTierTobas da gavecnobodeT mis po-
litikas saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi, aucilebelia am urTi-
erTobis sawyisi etapis ganxilva. sainteresoa ra xdeboda am
urTierTobis dawyebamde saqarTvelos istoriul asparezze,
rogor aRadgina man damoukidebloba da ra faqtorebma gana-
piroba amerikis daintereseba saqarTveloTi.
saqarTvelom @gasabWoebis dRidan ( 1921w. ) mZime gza gan-
vlo, sanam isev Tavs daaRwevda ruseTis batonobis uRels.
sabWoTa kavSiri 1980-iani wlebidan ukve nel-nela ngrevas iw-
yebs. sabWoTa imperiisa da socialisturi banakis daSla, sab-
WoTa memkvidreobis ganawileba swrafad ar momxdara. Aam mem-
kvidreobis gavlenis sferoebad gayofa mtkivneulad mimdina-
reobda zesaxelmwifoebis meTaurTa mravalricxovan Sexved-
rebze. Ees procesi dResac ar dasrulebula. Aamisi dasturia
saqarTvelosa da ukrainis magaliTebi, romelTa Crdilo-at-
lantikur aliansSi gawevrianebas ewinaaRmdegeba sabWoTa kav-
Siris samarTalmemkvidre — ruseTis federacia [7, 252].
1980-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi safuZveli Caeyara mra-
valpartiul sistemas. marTalia, araformaluri jgufebi da
partiebi oficialurad registrirebulni ar iyvnen, magram
realurad isini arsebobdnen da seriozul zegavlenas axden-
dnen qveynis politikur cxovrebaze.

299
ukve am periodisaTvis SeiZleboda dagveyo politikuri
partiebi klasifikaciaTa sam ZiriTad banakad — memarcxene,
centristuli da memarjvene. swored maT Soris dapirispire-
bam gaamwvava SemdgomSi viTareba da qveyana miiyvana samoqala-
qo omamde.
1990wlis 7 maiss Seiqmna politikuri gaerTianeba —
mrgvali magida, Tavisufali saqarTvelo, romelSic kidev 4
politikuri gaerTianeba gawevrianda. maT mizans politikuri
viTarebidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi da-
moukideblobis aRdgenis realisturi koncefciis Seqmna war-
moadgenda.
am droisaTvis kremlis mizani iyo, arCevnebSi gamarjve-
buli da SemdgomSi saxelmwifos saTaveSi mosuli xelisufle-
bisaTvis, daepirispirebina seriozuli opoziciuri Zala da
qveyana samoqalaqo dapirispirebamde mieyvana. Kkremli ki ar
qmnida, romelime sasurvel qveyanaSi politikur speqtrs,
aramed ukve Camoyalibebuli politikuri rukis gamoyenebas
cdilobda.
1990wlis 28 oqtombers Catarebuli saqarTvelos uzena-
esi sabWos mravalpartiuli arCevnebis Sedegad, `mrgvalma ma-
gidam~ 1 248 111 ( 53,99% ) amomrCevlis xma miiRo.
saqarTveloSi xaverdovani revolucia ganxorcielda.
mravalpartiuli uzenaesi sabWos arCevnebSi gaimarjva
mrgvalma magidam. Kkomunisturi erTpartiuli diqtaturis
epoqa dasrulda da uzenaes sabWoSi umravlesoba erovnulma
Zalebma moipoves, rac saqarTvelos xelisuflebaSi maT mos-
vlas niSnavda. Aamavdroulad, qveyanaSi funqcionirebda Seu-
rigebeli radikalebisa da opoziciis TviTgamocxadebuli
warmomadgenlobiTi, makoordinebeli sabWo e.w. erovnuli
kongresi. Ees jer kidev ar niSnavda orxelisuflebianobas,
magram imas mainc niSnavda, rom qveyanaSi ori ZiriTadi kon-
frontaciuli centri Camoyalibda. maTi urTierT mtruli
dapirispireba mraval gauTvaliswinebel saSiSroebas Seicav-
da da qveynis momavals, romelic isedac rTuli gaxldaT, ki-
dev ufro bundovans xdida.
1991wlis 31 marts Catarda referendumi, romelsac unda
gadaewyvita sakiTxi, surda Tu ara qveynis mosaxleobas — sa-
qarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgena. am kiTxvaze saqarTve-
los mosaxleobis didma umravlesobam dadebiTi pasuxi gasca.
300
ris safuZvelzec 9 aprils, ori wlis Semdeg momxdari trage-
diidan, nanatri damoukidebloba gamocxadda.
aseve 1991wlis 26 maiss Catarda saprezidento arCevnebi,
sadac zviad gamsaxurdiam, xmebis didi umravlesobiT gaimar-
jva[4,186].
samwuxarod am faqts mowinaaRmdegeebic hyavdnen, rom-
lebic mudmivad, aqciebis saxiT gamoxatavdnen protests, mag-
ram male maTma protestma seriozuli saxe miiRo da samxedro
formirebaSic ki gadaizarda.
zviad gamsaxurdias xelisuflebis mmarTvelobis erT-
erT sust mxared opozicia Tvlida mis sagareo politikas.
maT miaCndaT, rom swored am sferoSi daSvebulma seriozulma
Secdomebma miiyvana erovnuli xelisufleba krizisamde, xo-
lo saxelmwifo, saerTaSoriso izolaciamde.
pirvelad, aSS-is sagareo uwyeba saqarTveloTi 1991 wlis
31 martis referendumis dros dainteresda seriozulad.
jorj buSma (ufrosma) Cvens qveyanaSi moavlina aSS-is yofili
prezidenti riCard niqsoni. viziti araoficialuri iyo, rac
imas niSnavda rom saxelmwifoTaSoriso urTierTobebis done-
ze igi ar ganixileboda da arc Sesabamisi, raime politikuri
datvirTva an Sedegi ar eqneboda. Mmagram es viziti, amerikis
gazrdil interss mowmobda da SeiZleboda ganxiluliyo, ro-
gorc realuri urTierTobisaTvis garkveuli safuZvlis mom-
zadeba [7, 265].
riCard niqsonma urCia z. gamsaxurdias SeerTeboda axal
samokavSireo xelSekrulebas (anu damoukidebel saxelmwifo-
Ta TanamegobrobaSi Sesvla), razec man uari ganacxada.
unda aRiniSnos isic, rom 1989 wlis 9 aprilis movlenebi
obieqturad Sefasda aSS-is senatis sagareo saqmeTa komisiis
wevris, senator helmsis mier. 12 aprils komisiis sxdomaze man
ara marto politikuri Sefaseba misca 9 aprilis vandalur
aqts, aramed moiTxova sabWoTa kavSiris politikuri da ekono-
mikuri izolacia, raTa amiT xeli SeewyoT saqarTvelos erov-
nul-ganmanTavisuflebeli moZraobisaTvis. miiRes oficialu-
ri rezolucia, igi umniSvnelovanesi dokumenti gaxldaT da
mowmobda, rom aSS-is xelisufleba TanagrZnobiT ekideboda sa-
qarTveloSi mimdinare ganmanTavisuflebel moZraobas.
meore mxriv, senatis rezolucia diplomatiurad gawo-
nasworebuli oficialuri dokumenti gaxldaT, romelic iT-
301
valiswinebda maSindel saerTaSoriso realobas, sabWoTa kav-
Siris arsebobis faqts da gamoTqvamda qarTveli xalxis erov-
nuli uflebebis kanonierebis SezRuduli formiT mxardaWe-
ras [7, 255].
samwuxarod, am da sxva msgavs faqtebs, gamoxmaurebebs da
mxardaWeras mxolod moraluri mniSvneloba hqonda, radgan
ar asaxavda SeerTebuli Statebis oficialur kurss.
aSS-m mogvianebiT pozicia mkveTrad Secvala da saqvey-
nod ganacxada, rom damoukidebel saqarTvelos da mis xeli-
suflebas mxars ar dauWerda, radgan maTTvis miuRebeli iyo
gamsaxurdias xelisuflebis imJamindeli kursi.
aSS cnobda sabWoTa kavSirs da mis respublikebSi ganvi-
Tarebuli movlenebisadmi damokidebuleba moskovis xeli-
suflebis saSinao saqmed miaCnda. 1989-1990 wlebSi dasavle-
Tis arcerTi qveyana da maT Soris verc aSS Riad ver gamoxa-
tavda simpaTias, romelime sabWoTa respublikis separatis-
tuli midrekilebebisadmi.
1991wlis 2 seqtembers, TbilisSi Catarda mitingi, rom-
lisTvisac sainformacio saxis micema surdaT momitingeebs,
ris saSualebac policiam ar misca. Aam faqts, seriozuli Seta-
keba mohyva, rac imiTi damTavrda, rom erT-erTma policielma
gamafrTxilebeli gasrola gaakeTa. es sakmarisi aRmoCnda imis-
Tvis, rom Savi piari agorebuliyo xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg.
am dRes saqarTveloSi imyofeboda aSS-is kongresmenTa
jgufi. Mmas Semdeg rac jorj buSma (ufrosma) saqarTvelo im
respublikebs Soris ar moixsenia, romlebsac amerikelebi
mxars uWerdnen, kongresmenTa delegaciis viziti is erTader-
Ti imediRa iyo, romelTanac dakavSirebuli iqneboda saqar-
Tvelos aSS-Tan Semdgomi urTierTobis perspeqtiva. Ddelega-
ciis meTauri gaxldaT kongresis warmomadgenelTa palatis
mudmivi sabiujeto komisiis vaWrobis qvekomisiis Tavmjdoma-
re sem gibsoni.
am periodisaTvis zviad gamsaxurdias imiji dasavlur me-
diaSi uaRresad arasaxarbielo iyo, rac rusuli pres-samsa-
xurebis damsaxureba gaxldaT. swored amitom z. gamsaxurdiam
delegatebs sTxova Rrmad gamoerkviaT viTareba qveyanaSi da
zerele informacias ar dayrdnobodnen. 2 seqtembris mitin-
gis damsaxureba iyo is, rom amerikelebma momxdar movlenebSi
pasuxismgebloba xelisuflebas daakisres. amerikeli kanon-
302
mdeblebi TiTqos uSualod darwmundnen, rom saqarTveloSi
demokratia namdvilad ar Sendeboda da Tavisuflebis sios
nacvlad diqtaturis qari iwyebda amovardnas.
igive informacia da ganwyobileba waiRes amerikel kon-
gresmenTa meore delegaciam. Ees ufro seriozuli delegacia
gaxldaT — kongresis, evropaSi uSiSroebisa da TanamSromlo-
bis sakiTxTa komisiis wevrebi, misi Tavmjdomaris stiven hoie-
risa da TanaTavmjdomaris denis de konsis meTaurobiT. Mmag-
ram ufro mZime STabeWdileba kongresmenebma saqarTveloSi
datoves. cxadi gaxda, rom saqarTvelo SeerTebuli Statebis-
Tvis da amdenad dasavleTisaTvis, TiTqmis sabolood gairiya,
misi interesebis gareT aRmoCnda. es ukve saerTaSoriso izo-
lacias niSnavda. sabWoTa kavSiris pirispir darCenil saqar-
Tvelos dedamiwis zurgze, erTi potenciuri mokavSiris ime-
dic aRar unda hqonoda.
j. buSma sabWoTa kavSirTan urTierTobis normalizaciis
sakiTxs prioriteti mianiWa da respublikebTan urTierToba
meore xarisxovan sakiTxad miiCnia. 1991wlis 31 ivliss aSS-isa
da sabWoTa kavSiris prezidentebma xeli moaweres stategiu-
li SeiaraRebis Semcirebis xelSekrulebas. Aam globaluri
mniSvnelonis SeTanxmebis fonze, amerikis administracias
aRar awyobda kremlTan dapirispirebuli saqarTvelos xeli-
suflebis mimarT ramenaeri loialobis gamoxatva, radgan gam-
saxurdias maqsimalisturi xelisufleba uars ambobda xeli
moewera axali samokavSireo xelSekrulebisaTvis. A
amerikis administraciis meTauris Ria kritika, saqar-
Tvelos msoflio politikuri procesebisagan da dasavluri
samyarosagan marginalizaciisaken ubiZgebda. ra Tqma unda
sruliad gasagebia saqarTvelos xelisuflebis ganawyeneba
amerikis arasasurveli poziciis gamo, magram patara qveynis
interesi, didi politikuri procesebisadmi angariSis gawevas
moiTxovda [1, 30].
saqarTvelos e.w. saerTaSoriso izolacia ar iyo gamow-
veuli z. gamsaxurdias mcdari politikiT. Ees iyo im droinde-
li saerTaSoriso da geopolitikuri viTarebis kanonzomieri
Sedegi da masze gavlenis moxdena, gamsaxurdias xelisufle-
bas arc brZnuli da arc mcdari politikis warmoebiT ar SeeZ-
lo. saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis arc erT wevrs respubli-

303
kebis damoukidebloba ar ucvnia manamde, sanam sabWoTa kavSi-
ri ar daiSala.
1991 wlis Semodgomis CaTvliT, arc aSS-s da arc dasav-
leTs ar ucvnia sabWoTa respublikebis damoukidebloba, gar-
da baltiispireTis qveynebisa. danarCeni respublikebis de-
iure cnobis procesi 1991 wlis dekemberSi daiwyo. saqarTve-
los xelisufleba, am gadamwyvet momentSic aSS-is mxardaWe-
ris gareSe aRmoCnda.
erovnulma xelisuflebam Tavidanve saTanadod ver Sea-
fasa opoziciis Zala da potenciali, arc moqmedebis mzardi
perspeqtiva da rac mTavaria arc opoziciis mZlavri mokavSi-
ris mxardaWeris resursi. Aam Seufaseblobam sul ufro saSiSi
xasiaTi miiRo, gansakuTrebiT 1991w. noember-dekembris moCve-
nebiTi stabilizaciis periodSi. rogorc erovnul-ganmanTa-
visuflebeli moZraobis liders da moRvawes, z. gamsaxurdias
SeeZlo sabWoTa imperiasTan ukompromoso brZola gaegrZe-
lebina, Mmagram rogorc saqarTvelos prezidentma, man mZime
Secdoma dauSva, roca kompromisze ar wavida arc centrTan
da arc saerTaSoriso koniunqturasTan, ramac misi xelisuf-
lebis damxobaSi sabediswero roli iTamaSa[2,109].
1991-1992 ww. saqarTveloSi adgili hqonda saxelmwifo
gadatrialebas, SeiaraRebuli amboxebis gziT, romelic ram-
denime Tvis ganmavlobaSi, Riad da daufaravad mimdinareob-
da. Ees ar iyo araviTari saxalxo an demokratiuli revolucia,
radgan ar arsebobda misi masobrivi mxardamWeri mosaxleoba
da ar arsebobda revoluciis ganxorcielebis realuri sa-
fuZveli, gamomwvevi mizezi — diqtatura.
1991-1992 ww. dekember-ianvarSi, saqarTveloSi mimdinare
SeiaraRebuli amboxebis da ruseTis intervenciuli Carevis
Sedegad daemxo erovnuli xelisufleba.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. al. dauSvili, m. naTmelaZe, saqarTvelos uaxlesi isto-


ria, Tb., 2004.
2. i. kveselava, saqarTvelos istoriis qronikebi, Tb., 2004.
3. i. kveselava, z. gamsaxurdia, disidentobidan prezidento-
bamde, Tb., 2004.
4. m. vaCnaZe, v. guruli, saqarTvelos istoria, Tb., 2004.
304
5. S. malaSxia, konfliqtebi da prognozireba, Tb., 2007.
6. a. sonRulaSvili, saqarTvelos politikuri portreti,
Tb., 2004.
7. d. SveliZe, politikuri dapirispirebebi da erovnuli xe-
lisuflebis damxoba saqarTveloSi, Tb., 2008.

Sopho Davlasheridze
Magistrant of Georgian Technical
University

Restoration of Georgia independence and policy of USA of Soviet Spare

Summary

In the second part of 80 of XX century there started national freedom


movements new stage in Georgia. Exactly at that period the USA became
interested in Georgia.
On the base of the 31th of march, 1991 referendum, Georgia declared
independence and as a president Zviad Gamsakhurdia was elected. Though
there were persons who were against this fact.
The opposition considered the weak side of Zviad Gamsakhurdia's
ruling his foreign policy. They thought that the mistakes made in this spare
provided national government for the crisis, but the government was lead to
the international isolation. It should be noticed, that the USA in the issue
considering to the normalization of relationships with Soviet Union revealed
the priority. And so the relations between republics made the second degree.
In the 31th of July, 1991, the president of USA and the Soviet Union
signed strategic weaponed decrease agreement. On the background of this
global important agreement, the administration of USA did not want to
express some kind of loyalty according to Georgian government, which was
against to the Kremlin. As Gamsakhurdia's maximalistical government
refused to sign the new united agreement.

305
korneli kakaCia
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbili-
sis saxelmwifo universiteti, poli-
tikuri mecnierebebis departamentis
asocirebuli profesori

aSS-saqarTvelos strategiuli
TanamSromlobis qartia: icavs Tu ara is
saqarTvelos usafrTxoebas?

aSS-saqarTvelos strategiuli TanamSromlobis qartia


warmoadgens mniSvnelovan dokuments, romlis xelmowera da
sruli amoqmedeba aqtualuria saqarTvelos teritoriuli
mTlianobis uzrunvelyofis, misi politikuri da ekonomiku-
ri warmatebebis TvalsazrisiT. qartia, romlis xelmoweridan
ukve erTi weli gavida, CarCo dokumentia da warmoadgens sa-
fuZvels saqarTvelo-amerikis momavali TanamSromlobisTvis
sxvadasxva dargSi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom qartia gaxda baza
sul cota oci ormxrivi dokumentis xelmowerisTvis, ro-
gorc samxedro-ekonomikur, kulturul da sxva sferoebSi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom qartia, sadac garkveuli aqcente-
bi keTdeba saqarTvelos Tavdacvisunarianobis gaZlierebaze,
gaformda aSS-is Zvel administraciasTan, is SeTanxmebuli
iyo obamas axal administraciasTanac da Sesabamisad aSS-s axa-
li xelisuflebac mxars uWers saqarTvelosTan TanamSrom-
lobas. Sesabamisad, SesaZlo samxedro da politikuri daxma-
rebis masStabebi ganisazRvreba amerikis axali administraci-
is mier, romelic TviTon gansazRvravs Tu ra Sinaarsi miani-
Wos am dokuments.
qarTul da dasavlur mediaSi, am bolo dros, xSirad ga-
ismis sxvadasxva mosazrebebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras niSnavs sa-
qarTvelosaTvis aSS-saqarTvelos strategiuli partnioro-
bis qartia da ramdenad aris es dokumenti saqarTvelos usaf-
rTxoebis garanti. amasTan dakavSirebiT, qarTul sazogadoe-
baSi ZiriTadad gamoikveTa ori urTierTsawinaaRmdego mo-
sazreba.
erTi mosazrebis Tanaxmad, 2009 wlis 9 ianvars vaSin-
gtonSi SeerTebul Statebsa da saqarTvelos Soris xelmowe-
rili qartia warmoadgens unikalur da `istoriul~ doku-
306
ments, romelic xazs usvams vaSingtonis erTmniSvnelovan
mxardaWeras saqarTvelosa da misi xelisuflebisadmi. ufro
metic, am mosazrebis momxreebi Tvlian, rom es dokumenti
warmoadgens natoSi saqarTvelos daCqarebuli gawevrianebis
surogatul garantiasac ki mas mere, rac 2008 wlis aprilSi
natos samitze buqarestSi da natos sagareo saqmeTa ministre-
bis dekembris samitze briuselSi, ase sasurveli natos gawev-
rianebis samoqmedo gegma (MAP) qveyanam ver miiRo∗. Tavis sa-
televizio saaxalwlo mimarTvaSi saqarTvelos mosaxleobi-
sadmi, prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma, qartias saqarTvelos
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi `axali fazis~ dasawyisi da qve-
yanaze ruseTis im orsaukonovani dominirebis dasasruli
uwoda, romelsac saTave 1783 wels daedo, rodesac mefis ru-
seTsa da qarTl-kaxeTis samefos Soris georgievskis traqta-
ti gaformda da saqarTvelom nebayoflobiT aRiara rusuli
proteqtorati [1].
saqarTvelos xelisufleba aseve xazs usvamda imas, rom
es aris pirveli oficialuri ormxrivi SeTanxmeba, romelSic
SeerTebuli Statebi saqarTvelos `strategiul partniors~
uwodebs. swored amitomac, xelisuflebis mtkicebiT, SeuZle-
belia misi mniSvnelovnebis Seufasebloba. sainteresoa, rom
amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma analogiur dokuments xeli
10 wlis winaT moawera baltiis qveynebTan, magram misi aqtua-
loba usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT ar aris imdenad didi, vi-
naidan dRevandeli mdgomareobiT samive yofili sabWoTa res-
publika natos wevria da usafrTxoebis araviTar damatebiT
garantias ar saWiroebs.

usafrTxoebis araviTari garantiebi

magram xelmowerili teqstis ufro guldasmiT wakiTxvis


Semdeg ibadeba eWvi, ramdenad sworia am xelSekrulebis in-
terpretacia ise, rogorc amas saqarTvelos xelisuflebis
zogierTi warmomadgeneli gvTavazobs. yovel SemTxvevaSi am


5 marts natos mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba, romlis Tanaxmadac
ruseT-saqarTvelos omis Semdeg ruseTTan 6 Tvis manZilze SeCere-
buli kontaqtebi srulad aRsdgeba, zogierTma imis niSnad miiCnia,
rom Tbiliss kidev didxans mouwevs lodini mapi-s misaRebad.
307
dokumentis Sefaseba, rogorc saqarTvelos upirobo mxarda-
Weris gamoxatuleba da SeerTebuli Statebis mokavSired aRi-
areba, damatebiT Seswavlas moiTxovs da misi amdagvari gageba
albaT Secdoma iqneboda.
pirveli — qartiis teqstis uemocio da yuradRebiT wa-
kiTxvisas ikveTeba mosazreba, rom am mniSvnelovani dokumen-
tis xelmowera ar gulisxmobs, rom saqarTvelos aSS-s saga-
reo urTierTobebSi unikaluri mniSvneloba mieniWa, Tundac
im martivi mizezis gamo, rom teqstis frazeologia zustad
imeorebs ramdenime kviriT adre, 2008 wlis 19 dekembers ukra-
inasa da SeerTebul Statebs Soris dadebuli analogiuri
qartiis frazeologias.
meore — qartia (xelSekrulebisgan gansxvavebiT) arasa-
valdebulo dokumentia da mesame — im pirobebis umetesoba,
romelic marTlac unikaluria aSS-saqarTvelos qartiisTvis
da romelic ar aris moxseniebuli aSS-ukrainis qartiaSi, Sem-
deg garkveul sferoebzea fokusirebuli: mediis Tavisufle-
ba da kanonis uzenaesoba, sakiTxebi, romelTa mimarTebaSic,
arsebuli mosazrebebis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelo Tavis valdebu-
lebebs jerjerobiT bolomde ver asrulebs.
sainteresoa, rom orive qartiis, rogorc ukrainulis,
ise qarTulis preambulis pirveli sami punqti TiTqmis iden-
turia. pirvelSi xazgasmulia — `Cveni, rogorc megobrebisa
da strategiuli partniorebis, urTierTobebis~ da partnio-
robisa da TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebis ormxrivi survilis
mniSvnelovneba. meoreSi naTqvamia, rom TanamSromloba efuZ-
neba saerTo faseulobebs da interesebs, romelTa Sorisaa
demokratiisa da ekonomikur TavisuflebaTa ganvrcoba,
usafrTxoebisa da teritoriuli mTlianobis dacva da kano-
nis uzenaesobis ganmtkiceba [2].
qarTul qartiaSi, ukrainulisgan gansxvavebiT, am kon-
teqstSi damatebiTaa miTiTebuli, rom aucilebelia adamianis
uflebebis pativiscema. aqvea xazgasmuli iZulebiT gadaadgi-
lebul pirTa ufleba (igulisxmeba agvistos omis dros, aseve
afxazeTidan da samxreT oseTidan devnili mosaxleoba) daub-
rundnen TavianT saxlebs da `evraziuli energetikuli usaf-
rTxoebis~ mxardaWeris aucilebloba. mesame punqtSi lapara-
kia — `ekonomikis, energetikis, diplomatiis, mecnierebis,
kulturisa da usafrTxoebis sferoebSi~ TanamSromlobis
308
ganmtkicebis survilze. ukrainuli qartiis preambula Sei-
cavs kidev or damatebiT punqts, romelSic dadasturebulia
adre dadebuli ori xelSekrulebis pirobebi, maT Soris, uk-
rainis SemoerTeba 1994 wlis birTvuli gauvrceleblobis
xelSekrulebasTan da aSS-ukrainis TanamSromlobis 2008 wlis
31 martis TanamSromlobis prioritetebi [3].

xazgasmuli TanamSromloba

orive qartiis pirveli nawili `partniorobis principeb-


zea~ fokusirebuli. am nawilSi orive dokumenti ZiriTadad
identuria da arsebiT gansxvavebas ar Seicavs. orive dokumen-
tSi saubaria am qveynebis (saqarTvelo, ukraina) teritoriu-
li mTlianobisa da suverenitetis mxardaWeraze. qarTul qar-
tiaSi naTqvamia, rom orive mxare iziarebs rwmenas `demokra-
tiaze, rogorc umTavres bazisze~ da `politikur legitimu-
robaze, rogorc stabilurobis~ safuZvelze. xolo ukrainas-
Tan mimarTebaSi qartia xazs usvams TanamSromlobas `usaf-
rTxoebis, keTildReobisa da Tavisuflebis~ konteqstSi.
orive qartiaSi xazgasmulia usafrTxobisa da Tavdacvis
sferoebSi TanamSromlobis aucilebloba, raTa `efeqturad
gaeces pasuxi mSvidobisa da stabilurobis winaaRmdeg mimar-
Tul safrTxeebs~. aRniSnulia, rom `Zlieri, damoukidebeli
da demokratiuli saqarTvelo/ukraina, Tavdacvis unariani
da sakuTar usafrTxoebaze pasuxismgeblobis mqone~ ara mxo-
lod sakuTari qveynebis mosaxleobis `keTildReobasa da
usafrTxoebaSi gaZlierebaSi Seitans wvlils~, aramed `mTeli
evropis Tavisuflebisa da mSvidobis ganmtkicebaSic~.
qarTuli qartia am TavSi sam damatebiT paragrafs Sei-
cavs, romlebSic xazgasmulia, rom `mzardi demokratiis pi-
robebSi saqarTvelo gzas gauxsnis Tavisi Sromismoyvare mo-
qalaqeebis SemoqmedebiT potencials da regionsa da mis miRma
keTildReobis katalizatoris rols Seasrulebs~, xels Seuw-
yobs evro-atlantikur sazogadoebasTan saqarTvelos poli-
tikuri, ekonomikuri, usafrTxoebisa da socialuri kavSire-
bis gaRrmavebas. amave dros, mesame paragrafSi dadebulia pi-
roba, romlis Tanaxmadac, saqarTvelo `evropul da trans-at-
lantikur politikur, kulturul, usafrTxoebis, ekonomi-
kur da TavdacviT institutebSi~ integraciisaTvis (igulis-
309
xmeba evrokavSiri da nato) `unda Seesabamebodes aucilebel
standartebs~ [3].
ukrainuli da qaruli qartiebis mesame, mTavari nawili,
romelic usafrTxoebisa da Tavdacvis sakiTxebSi TanamSrom-
lobas exeba, aseve Zalian msgavsia wina ori nawilisa. orive
SemTxvevaSi, xelmomweri mxareebi evroatlantikur struqtu-
rebSi integracias `prioritetulad asaxeleben~ da `gegmaven
iseTi programebis dawyebas, romlebic saqarTvelo/ukrainis
SesaZleblobebis gasaZliereblad, usafrTxoebis sferoSi
TanamSromlobas gaaumjobesebs da xels Seuwyobs saqarTve-
lo/ukrainis, rogorc natoSi gawevrianebis kandidatebis, po-
ziciis ganmtkicebas~∗.
orive qartia Seicavs paragrafs, sadac naTqvamia, rom
unda warimarTos muSaoba `saqarTvelo/ukrainisa da natos Se-
saZleblobebis funqciuri Tavsebadobisa da koordinaciis~
gansamtkiceblad, rac gulisxmobs saqarTvelosa da ukrainis
SeiraRebuli Zalebis wvrTnisa da aRWurvis gaumjobesebas,
magram qarTul qartiaSi damatebiTaa naTqvami, rom SeerTebu-
li Statebi mxars uWers saqarTvelos Zalisxmevas `uzrunvel-
yos usafrTxoebisa da Tavdacvis legitimuri saWiroebebi~. es
ki, rogorc bevri dasavleli analitikosi aRniSnavs imas gu-
lisxmobs, rom vaSingtoni aRar Seurigdeba saqarTvelos Seia-
raRebuli Zalebis araproporciul zrdas da afxazeTsa da
cxinvalis regionze konstituciuri wesrigis aRdgenis miz-
niT, axal omSi TavdasxmiTi SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebas.

gansxvavebuli prioritetebi

Sesabamisi qartiebis mesame nawilSi, romelic savaWro da


energetikul TanamSromlobas eZRvneba, orive qveynisTvis
daTqmuli pirobebi sakmaod gansxvavebulia. ukrainis doku-
mentSi arsebobs miniSneba: 2008 wlis maisSi ukrainis miRebaze
msoflio savaWro organizaciaSi da imaze, rom aucilebelia
`erToblivi muSaoba ukrainis gazis tranzitis infrastruq-
turis modernizaciasa da reabilitaciaze~. rac Seexeba sa-


igulisxmeba buqarestis natos samitis mier miRebuli finaluri
dokumenti, romelSic dadasturebulia, rom orive qveyana `gaxdeba
natos wevri~, Tumca TariRi daTqmuli ar yofila.
310
qarTvelos, masTan dakavSirebiT qartia vaWrobis liberala-
zaciisTvis aucilebeli zomebis dadgenaze da `Tavisufali
vaWrobis SeTanxmebis SesaZleblobebis kvlevaze~ miuTiTebs.
aRsaniSnavia, rom vaSingtoni adasturebs, mzaobas daexmaros
saqarTvelos omis Semdgom rekonstruqciaSi da ganaviTaros
azerbaijanuli navTobisa da gazis transportirebis SesaZ-
leblobebi, Seqmnas `axali derefani samxreTiT, romelic da-
exmareba saqarTvelosa da evropas bunebrivi airis resurse-
bis diversificirebaSi~.
qartiis meoTxe nawili `demokratiis ganmtkicebas~ eZ-
Rvneba da aseve gansxvavebul prioritetebs gvTavazobs. ori-
ve dokumentSi xazgasmulia sasamarTlo sistemis damoukideb-
lobis ganmtkicebis da policiis profesionalizmis amaRle-
bis aucilebloba. ukrainul dokumentSi aRniSnulia, rom sa-
Wiroa antikorufciul brZolaSi, sazogadoebrivi monito-
ringis rolis intensifikacia da Sida sagamoZiebo erTeuleb-
Si eTikuri standartebis daweseba. saqarTvelos qartiaSi, ki
ukrainuli dokumentisgan gansxvavebiT, xazgasmulia, rom au-
cilebelia Tavisufali mediisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis
mxardaWera, obieqturi informaciis xelmisawvdomobis uz-
runvelyofa (rac ukrainul dokumentSi naxsenebi araa);
politikuri pluralizmis ganmtkiceba da `sajaro poli-
tikis ganviTarebisa da analizis, aseve, kanonSemoqmedebiT
procesSi qarTuli samoqalaqo sazogadoebis monawileobis
intensifikacia, sajaro moxeleTa saqmianobis zedamxedvelo-
ba~. dokumentis finaluri nawili `kulturul urTierTobeb-
sa da adamianur kontaqtebs~ eZRvneba. ukrainuli dokumentis
am nawilSi aRniSnulia, rom vaSingtoni simferopolSi diplo-
matiuri warmomadgenlobis gaxsnis mzaobas gamoxatavs, xolo
dokumentis qarTul versiaSi naTqvamia, rom aucilebelia `sa-
fuZveli Caeyaros afxazeTis da cxinvalis regionis (`samxreT
oseTis~) mcxovrebTa da danarCen saqarTvelos Soris uwyvet
kontaqtebs~.
sayuradReboa, rom rogorc dasavluri media, ise qar-
Tveli eqspertebis umravlesoba qartiis SezRudulobasa da
garkveul limitebze miuTiTeben da aRniSnaven, rom dokumen-
ti saqarTveloze Tavdasxmis SemTxvevaSi, vaSingtons saqar-
Tvelos dacvas ar avalebs. qarTveli analitikosi Tornike Sa-
raSeniZe varaudobs, rom dokumenti, agvistos omis, afxazeTi-
311
sa da oseTis dakargvis, natos sagareo saqmeTa samitze dekem-
berSi MAP-is miniWebaze uaris Tqmis Semdeg, upirveles yov-
lisa, saqarTvelos xelmZRvanelobis fsiqologiur gamxneve-
bas isaxavda miznad [4].
amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saxelmwifo mdivnis yo-
filma moadgilem meTiu braizam ki Tavis araerTgzis gancxa-
debaSi aRniSna, rom: `dokumenti ar Seicavs saqarTvelos uSiS-
roebis garantiebs~. Tumca yvelaze mniSvnelovania, rom (da
amaze dasavleli eqspertebi miuTiTeben) qartiam kidev er-
Txel daadastura saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi aSS-s politi-
kis orive fundamenturi principi — saqarTvelos suverenite-
tisa da teritoriuli mTlianobis mxardaWera da is, rom Se-
erTebuli Statebi kvlav dainteresebulia samxreT kavkasiis
regioniT iseve, rogorc kaspiis zRvis naxSirwyalbadis saeq-
sporto derefniT.

ruseTis reaqcia qarTul-amerikuli qartiis xelmoweraze

ramdenadac gasakviri ar unda iyos, saqarTvelo-amerikis


strategiuli partniorobis Sesaxeb qartiis xelmoweras ru-
seTSi metnaklebad civad Sexvdnen da is araviTar reaqcias ar
iwvevs. gansxvavebiT imisgan, rogoric gamoiwvia informaciam
saqarTvelosTvis natoSi gawevrianebis samoqmedo gegmis mini-
Webis SesaZleblobam. rogorc moskovSi acxadeben, qartia
mxolod deklaraciaa da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis axali
administracia savaraudod ar wava ruseTTan konfrontacia-
ze saqarTvelos gamo. meore mxriv, dokumenti SeiZleba aRmoC-
ndes saxifaTo moskovisTvis, Tu momavalSi is daiwyebs `gaz-
rdas~ axali da ruseTisTvis arasasurveli mimarTulebiT,
gansakuTrebiT ki saqarTvelo-amerikis samxedro TanamSrom-
lobis sferoSi. Tumca dRevandeli gadasaxedidan aseTi per-
speqtivebi metad saeWvod Cans. vaSingtoni am etapze koncen-
trirebulia qarTuli armiis eqspediciuri SesaZleblobebis
gaZlierebiT da iseT „cxel` regionebSi gagzavniT, rogori-
caa avRaneTi da erayi.
am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mTavari intriga da, SeiZleba,
mTavari sakiTxic ruseTisTvis da ara mxolod misTvis, aris
saqarTvelos teritoriaze amerikis samxedro bazebis ganTav-

312
sebis SesaZlebloba. bevri qarTveli politikosi da mkvleva-
ri ar gamoricxavs aseT perspeqtivas da miesalmeba kidec mas,
Tumca qartia, rogorc aseTi, msgavs valdebulebebs ar Sei-
cavs, da saerTod es sakiTxi saqarTvelos parlamentis kompe-
tenciaSi Sedis. mniSvnelovania, rom, am sakiTxze zedmetad
mgrZnobiared reagirebs iranis dRevandeli xelisufleba,
romelsac isedac garTulebuli urTierTobebi aqvs vaSin-
gtonTan da ruseTis xelisuflebis msgavsad, saqarTvelos ga-
nixilavs amerikis forpostad kavkasiaSi.
amasTanave, sayuradReboa is faqtic, rom 2008 wlis 8
marts aSS-is senatis sagareo urTierTobaTa komitetis sxdo-
maze gamosvlisas, jon teftma, aSS-s yofilma elCma saqarTve-
loSi, ganacxada, rom amerikis SeerTebul Statebs ara aqvs ra-
ime gegmebi saqarTveloSi amerikuli bazebis ganlagebis Tao-
baze. Tavis gamosvlaSi man ganacxada rom: `moskovs kvlav mwva-
ve reaqcia aqvs regionSi aSS-is samxedro rolis SesaZlo gaz-
rdis Taobaze. amas adasturebs is zewolac, romelsac ruseTi
saqarTveloze axdens, rodesac avaldebulebs qveyanas CarCo
xelSekrulebaSi Seitanos debuleba ucxouri bazebis saqar-
TveloSi ganlagebis akrZalvis Taobaze, aseve is ukmayofile-
ba, romelsac ruseTi gamoxatavs saqarTveloSi amerikis mier
dafinansebuli `wvrTnisa da aRWurvis programis~ da `stabi-
lurobis SenarCunebis programis~ ganxorcielebasTan dakav-
SirebiT. Cven naTlad avuxseniT ruseTs yvelaze maRal done-
ebze, rom ar vapirebT amerikuli bazebis ganlagebas saqar-
TveloSi~ [5],- aRniSna jon teftma.
daaxloebiT msgavsi Sefaseba misca am faqts saqarTve-
los xelisuflebam. `amerikis SeerTebul Statebs ar sWirdeba
bazebi saqarTveloSi. sakiTxi exeba imas, rom saqarTvelos un-
da SeeZlos Tavad daicvas Tavisi Tavi. Tu ra meTodebiT mox-
deba `es calke saubris Temaa~, — ganacxada saqarTvelos sa-
xelmwifo ministrma reintegraciis sakiTxebSi Temur iakobaS-
vilma. sxvaTa Soris, man daumata agreTve, rom `unda vifiq-
roT da gadavwyvitoT, saWiroa Tu ara amisTvis saqarTveloSi
amerikeli samxedroebis yofna~ [6].
qartiis mTavari datvirTva aseve mdgomareobs imaSi, rom
am dokumentze xelmoweriT amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma
ruseTs gaugzavna signali, — miuxedavad misi araerTi oficia-
luri gancxadebisa, rom saqarTvelo imyofeba ruseTis fede-
313
raciis strategiuli interesebis sferoSi da rom ruseTi ar
dauSvebs Tavisi yofili satelitebis Crdilo-atlantikuri
aliansis orbitaze yofnas. am dokumentiT kidev erTxel da-
fiqsirebulia saqarTvelos da amerikis strategiuli intere-
sebis erToblioba, rac safuZvelSive gamoricxavs ruseTis
erTpirovnul dominirebas kaspiispira regionSi. aseve mniS-
vnelovania, rom es strategiuli partnioroba Tbilissa da
vaSingtons Soris xels Seuwyobs ara mxolod Tavad saqarTve-
los, aramed mTeli samxreT kavkasiis regionis uSiSroebas.

qarTul-amerikuli strategiuli TanamSromlobis qartia


xelmoweridan erTi wlis Semdeg

qartiis xelmoweridan sul ramdenime TveSi 2009 wlis 22


ivniss amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma da saqarTvelom er-
Toblivi sabWo daafuZnes, romelic or qveyanas Soris 2009
wlis 9 ianvars xelmowerili strategiuli partniorobis Se-
saxeb qartiaSi mocemuli debulebebis ganxorcielebaze imu-
Savebs. sabWos pirveli Sexvedra vaSingtonSi saqarTvelos sa-
gareo saqmeTa ministris grigol vaSaZis da aSS-is saxelmwifo
mdivnis moadgilis jeims steinbergis TavmjdomareobiT gai-
marTa. Sexvedris Semdeg vaSaZesTan erTad gamarTul erTob-
liv preskonferenciaze steinbergma ganacxada, rom sabWo
aris `Cven or qveyanas Soris xangrZlivi da Rrma megobrobis
axali etapi da es Sexvedrebi xazs usvams im valdebulebas,
romelic Cven gagvaCnia am mniSvnelovani SeTanxmebis — saqar-
TvelosTan Cveni qartiis ganxorcielebis kuTxiT, radganac
Cven vaRrmavebT am strategiul partnorobas da Cven ganvag-
rZobT saqarTvelosTan muSaobas, raTa gavaZlieroT misi de-
mokratia da reformebi~ [7]. Tumca iqve dasZina rom SeerTe-
bul Statebs mtkiced swams, rom saWiroa ruseTTan ukeTesi
urTierTobebis Camoyalibeba da TeTri saxli ver xedavs ru-
sul-amerikuli urTierTobebis gaumjobesebaSi regionis ro-
melime qveynis an romelime partnioris usafrTxoebis an ke-
TildReobis Semcirebis safrTxes.
rogorc cnobilia, strategiuli partniorobis qartia
TanamSromlobis oTx sferos moicavs, maT Soris Tavdacva da
usafrTxoeba, vaWroba da ekonomika, demokratia da xalxebs
Soris kontaqtebi da kulturuli gacvla. Sesabamisad Seiqmna
314
oTxi samuSao jgufi, romlebic TanamSromlobis am oTx sfe-
roze imuSavebs. pirveli Sexvedrebi xalxebs Soris kontaqte-
bis da kulturuli gacvlis programebis gafarToebis mimar-
TulebiT saqarTvelos da aSS-is xelisuflebis warmomadgen-
lebma 21 ianvars, TbilisSi gamarTul Sexvedraze ganixiles,
rogorc amas or qveyanas Soris xelmowerili qartia iTvalis-
winebs.
Sexvedraze ganixiles ganaTlebis sferoSi gacvliTi
programebis da inglisurenovani treningebis gafarToebis
sakiTxebi, aseve saqarTvelos masStabiT mcxovrebi eTnikuri
umciresobebis ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturuli in-
tegraciis xelSewyobis sakiTxebi. am sakiTxebis garda, Sex-
vedris monawileebi aseve Seexnen saqarTvelos strategias se-
paratistul regionebTan mimarTebaSi, romelis erT-erTi mi-
zani administraciuli sazRvrebis orive mxares mcxovreb mo-
saxleobas Soris kavSirebis xelSewyobaa. samuSao jgufis Sex-
vedraze mxareebma aseve ganixiles saqarTvelos axali stra-
tegia separatistul regionebTan mimarTebaSi, romelic sxva
sakiTxebTan erTad, administraciuli sazRvrebis orive mxa-
res mcxovreb mosaxleobas Soris kavSirebis gamyarebis sakiT-
xsac moicavs.
am etapze adrea im konkretul meqanizmze saubari, Tu
rogor moxerxdeba separatistuli regionebis mosaxleobis-
Tvis sxvadasxva saganmanaTleblo programebSi monawileobis
SesaZleblobis uzrunvelyofa. miuxedavad amisa, aSS-s axalma
elCma saqarTveloSi jon basma ganacxada, rom SeerTebuli
Statebi mxars uWers saqarTvelos xelisuflebis axal stra-
tegias, romlis ZiriTadi mizania, saqarTvelos yvela moqala-
qe msoflios nawili gaxdes da maTi xelmisawvdomoba danarCen
msofliosTan mtkiced iyos uzrunvelyofili [8].
strategiuli partniorobis qartiis farglebSi demok-
ratiis sakiTxebze momuSave jgufis SexvedraSi, romelsac
amerikis mxridan aSS-is saxelmwifo mdivnis TanaSemwe demok-
ratiis, adamianis uflebaTa da Sromis sakiTxebSi maikl poz-
neri xelmZRvanelobda saqarTvelos xelisuflebis warmomad-
genlebTan ganxilul mTavar sakiTxebs Soris iyo mTeli rigi
RonisZiebebi, rac uzrunvelyofs `Tanabar SesaZleblobebs~
yvela partiisTvis momaval adgilobriv arCevnebze. im sfero-
ebs Soris, romelSic, pozneris TqmiT, vaSingtoni saqarTve-
315
los mTavrobas `Semdgom winsvlas~ urCevs, aris ~media saSua-
lebebis da mediis mflobelebis diversificireba; samoqalaqo
sazogadoebis CarTvis xelSewyoba da policiis da sxva samar-
Taldamcavi struqturebis angariSvaldebulebis uzrunvel-
yofa~ [9].
garkveuli winsvla SeiniSneba Tavdacvis sferoSi Tanam-
Sromlobis mimarTulebiT, Tumca ara iseTi dinamikiT ro-
gorc omis Semdgomi saqarvelos mdgomareoba moiTxovs. aSS
ganagrZobs saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis profesiona-
lizmis amaRlebis mxardaWeras da cdilobs daexmaros saqar-
Tvelos ganaxorcielos is aucilebeli reformebi, romlebic
natoSi gawevrianebisTvisaa saWiro. rogorc natos SeiaraRe-
buli Zalebis da evropaSi aSS-is sardlobis (EUCOM) meTaur-
ma, admiralma jeims stavridisma ganacxada, saqarTvelosTvis
mizanSewonilia, rom hyavdes samxedro Zala, romelsac aqvs
Tavdacvis saSualeba da aseve SesaZlebloba monawileoba mii-
Ros koaliciur operaciebSi.
amasTanave saqarTvelos xelisuflebis Txovnaze Tav-
dacviTi SeiaraRebis, kerZod ki tanksawinaaRmdego da haersa-
winaaRmdego sistemebis miwodebis Sesaxeb, romelzec prezi-
denti saakaSvili vice-prezident jo baidenis TbilisSi vizi-
tamde saubrobda, aSS-is Tavdacvis mdivnis moadgilis Tana-
Semwem ruseTis, ukrainisa da evraziis sakiTxebSi selest ua-
landerma, warmomadgenelTa palatis sagareo urTierTobaTa
komitetis evropul sakiTxTa qvekomitetSi gamosvlisas ga-
nacxada, rom saqarTvelo ar aris mzad im tipis SeiaraRebis
SesaZenad, Tumca iqve aRniSna, es ar niSnavs imas, rom samomav-
lod es sakiTxi dRis wesrigSi ar gaCndeba [10].

daskvna

miuxedavad am dokumentTan dakavSirebuli arsebuli


sxvadasxva interpretaciebisa erTi ram faqtia: SeerTebul
Statebs dsT-s sxva qveynebTan aseT dokumentze xeli ar mou-
weria da araa cnobili, rom msgavsi ram vinmesTan dakavSire-
biT ganixilebodes. miuxedavad imisa, rom dokuments arasa-
valdebulo xasiaTi aqvs, is mainc asaxavs erT mniSvnelovan
moments — SeerTebul Statebs surs, rom kievsa da Tbiliss im

316
sistemur naklovanebaTa aRmofxvris survili aRuZras, ro-
melTa safuZvelzec natos evropeli wevrebi orive qveyanas
`mapis~ miniWebaze uars eubnebian. magram, amave dros, swored
imitom, rom es dokumentebi SesrulebisTvis arasavaldebu-
loa, qartiebi verc ukrainas da verc saqarTvelos ruseTis
SantaJisa da muqarisagan ver daicavs.
mTlianobaSi unda iTqvas, rom aSS-saqarTvelos strate-
giuli TanamSromlobis dokumenti pasuxobs qveynis strate-
giul interesebs da srul SesabamisobaSia mis sasicocxlo
erovnul interesebTan. am dokumentze xelmoweriT urTier-
Tobebi saqarTvelosa da amerikis SeerTebul Statebs Soris
gadadis sruliad axal etapze. ori qveynis megobrul urTier-
TobaSi adre arasdros ar yofila naxsenebi termini `strate-
giuli~. Tu istorias gadavxedavT, SeerTebuli StatebisTvis
am termins konkretuli da mniSvnelovani politikuri dat-
virTva aqvs da amitomac iSviaTad iyenebs Tavis sagareo poli-
tikur ritorikaSi. Tumca mniSvnelovania isic, rom strategi-
uli partnioroba ar niSnavs mokavSireobas da am kuTxiT am
dokumentis ganxilva politikuri sibece iqneboda.
umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria isic, rom es SeTanxmeba ey-
rdnoba saerTo erovnul konsensuss da mTeli qarTveli xal-
xi am dokuments konsolidirebulad uWers mxars. yvelaze
mniSvnelovani miRwevaa isic, rom opoziciuri partiebis um-
ravlesobam ganacxada, rom isini miesalmebian qartiis xelmo-
weras aSS-sTan, rac kidev erTxel miuTiTebs, rom ukrainisgan
gansxvavebiT qarTuli sazogadoeba mtkiced uWers mxars qar-
Tuli saxelmwifos Semdgom integracias evroatlantikur
sivrceSi, rac albaT yvelaze didi monapovaria. Tumca qar-
Tul politikur speqtrSi bolo dros mimdinare geopoliti-
kuri ryevebi, sagareo-politikuri veqtoris ruseTis sasar-
geblod gadawonis TvalsazrisiT, uamrav kiTxvas badebs da
garkveuli eWvebis safuZvels iZleva.
miuxedavad yovelive zemoTqmulisa, am dokumentis xel-
mowera aris saqarTvelos nato-sa da evroatlantikur siv-
rcesTan daaxloebis kuTxiT udavod wingadadgmuli nabiji.
ufro metic, igi SeZleba gaxdes kidec axali, mniSvnelovani
etapi saqarTvelos evroatlantikur sivrceSi integraciis-
ken. Tumca es ar unda gaxdes ararealuri politikuri molo-
dinebis safuZveli, vinaidan es gza rTuli, winaaRmdegobebiT
317
aRsavse procesia da saqarTvelos win jer kidev bevri dab-
rkoleba aqvs gadasalaxi. amasTanave, aravis ar unda hqondes
imis iluzia, rom es an raime sxva dokumenti erTjeradad,
swrafad da erTbaSad gadawyvets Cvens problemebs. am doku-
mentis am konteqstSi gaazrebac ki ZirSive mcdaria.
da bolos daskvnis saxiT aRvniSnavT, rom maSin rodesac
saqarTvelo udidesi sagareo politikuri gamowvevebis winaSe
imyofeba, am dokumentis arseboba gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria
qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobis uzrunvelyofis, misi po-
litikuri da ekonomikuri warmatebebis TvalsazrisiT. gansa-
kuTrebiT am etapze rodesac qveynis teritoriis 20% okupi-
rebulia ucxo, agresiuli Zalis mier da es Zala agrZelebs ag-
resiul qmedebebs saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi.
rogorc dRevandeli gadasaxedidan Cans, mxolod Zlieri
demokratia warmoadgens saqarTvelos ganviTarebis swor
gzas, magram es SeuZlebeli iqneba politikuri stabilurobis
SenarCunebis gareSe. amasTanave saqarTvelos sagareo poli-
tikaSi unda gadaidgas qmediTi nabijebi iseTi mimarTulebe-
biT rogoricaa: meti integracia demokratiul samyarosTan,
samSvidobo misiebis internacionalizacia da saerTaSoriso
institutebis maqsimaluri CarTuloba saqarTvelos suvere-
nitetis pativiscemisa da ganmtkicebis mimarTulebiT; Cveni
daaxloeba evropasTan da natosTan; saqarTvelos saerTaSo-
riso diplomatiuri mxardaWeris kidev ufro ganmtkiceba.
rac ufro warmatebuli iqneba saqarTvelos sagareo politi-
ka am mimarTulebiT, miT ufro meti Sansia SevinarCunoT is
demokratiuli monapovrebi, romelic bolo oci wlis ganmav-
lobaSi daagrova saqarTvelom.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. sivil jorjia, saakaSvili miesalma aSS-saqarTvelos strategi-


uli partniorobis qartias, 2009, 9 ianvari.
http://www.civil.ge/geo/article.php?id=20342&search=
2. informacia saqarTvelosa da aSS-s Soris strategiuli partni-
orobis qartiis xelmoweris Sesaxeb, saqarTvelos sagareo
saqmeTa saministros presisa da informaciis departamenti,
2009, 9 ianvari. http://www.mfa.gov.ge

318
3. United States-Ukraine Charter on Strategic Partnership, Embassy of Ukraine in
United States of America, http://www.mfa.gov.ua/usa/en/publication/con-
tent/23512.htm
4. Molly Corso, GEORGIA: WASHINGTON AND TBILISI SIGN STRATEGIC
PACT SURE TO IRK THE KREMLIN, 1 seqtemberi, 2009
http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insightb/articles/eav010909b.shtml
5. aSS uaryofs gegmebs saqarTveloSi amerikuli bazebis ganlage-
bis Taobaze, sivil jorjia, Tbilisi, 2009, 9 mar.
http://www.civil.ge/geo/article.php?id=9102
6. gazeTi `24 saaTi~, 2009, 17 ianvari.
7. US department of State. Remarks With Georgian Foreign Minister Grigol Vas-
hadze.
http://www.state.gov/s/d/2009/125217.htm
8. sivil jorjia. aSS-saqarTvelos molaparakebebi xalxebs Soris
kontaqtebze. 22 ianvari 2010.
http://www.civil.ge/geo/article.php?id=22259&search=qartia
9. sivil jorjia. amerikul-qarTuli molaparakebebi demokrati-
ul reformebze. 9 noemberi 2009
http://www.civil.ge/geo/article.php?id=22010&search=qartia
10. aSS saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis miwodebas jer ar apirebs. 9 iv-
lisi 2009.
http://civil.ge/geo/article.php?id=21584&search=baidenis

Kornely Kakachia
Associate Professor, Department of Political
Science, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State
University

United States-Georgia Charter on Strategic Partnership:


Does it protect Georgia’s Sovereignity?

Summary

United States-Georgia Charter on Strategic Partnership signed on the


9th of January 2009 in Washington D.C. is an important document, the signa-
ture and complete activation of which is essential for the territorial integrity
and political and economic success of Georgia. Bilateral Charter on Strategic
Partnership aims at increasing cooperation in defense, trade, energy, cultural
exchange among peoples and other areas. Georgian President Mikheil Sa-

319
akashvili named the Charter as the beginning of the `New Phase~ in the inter-
national relations of Georgia and the end of Russia’s two century dominance.
Many consider in Georgia that the Charter is unique and `historic~
document which underlines Washington’s strong support for Georgia and its
government, and can also be considered as the substitute guarantee of
Georgia’s hastened membership in NATO. But it is important to notice that
the phraseology of the text is identical to that analogical charter between
United States and Ukraine signed little earlier on the 19th of December 2008.
The western media as well as the majority of Georgian experts point to the
certain limitations of the Charter and note that the Charter does not oblige
Washington to defend Georgia militarily in case it is attacked.
The Charter was taken more or less unemotionally in Russia. As they
declare in Moscow, the Charter is only a declaration and United States new
administration is less probable to confront Russia because of Georgia. It is
also important to mention that the strategic partnership between Tbilisi and
Washington will benefit not only Georgia but also the security of the whole
South Caucasian Region. The paper deals with the significance of the United
States-Georgia Charter on Strategic Partnership and identifies to what extent
it can be considered as the security guarantee for Georgia.

320


mzia tyavaSvili
istoriis doqtori, ivane javaxiS-
vilis istoriisa da eTnologiis
institutis axali da uaxlesi is-
toriis ganyofilebis mecnier-Ta-
namSromeli

SotlandielTa axalSenis istoriidan Crdilo


kavkasiaSi
(XIX saukunis dasawyisi)

1802 wels edinburgis protestantuli sazogadoebis di-


reqtoriam ruseTis xelisuflebas imperiis samxreTSi filia-
lis daarsebis nebarTva sTxova. imperatorma aleqsandre I-ma
SotlandielTa Txovna daakmayofila.
amave wels ruseTis adgilobrivma xelisuflebam edin-
burgis misioneruli sazogadoebis wevrebTan: henrix bron-
tonTan da aleqsandr patersonTan erTad abazineli TaTre-
bis garemocvaSi, beSTis mTis siaxloves, axalSenisTvis Sear-
Cia adgili, romelic georgievskidan 36 da konstantinogor-
skidan 6 versiT iyo daSorebuli. cota xnis Semdeg brontons
da patersons SeuerTda TanamemamuleTa ramdenime ojaxi. aq
mcxovrebi, momTabare abazineli TaTrebis nebarTviT, maT ga-
moeyoT sakmarisi raodenobis sakarmidamo nakveTebi, romel-
zedac aaSenes sacxovrebeli saxlebi [5, 930].
SotlandielTa CamosaxlebiT ruseTis xelisufleba
Crdilo kavkasiaSi miwaTmoqmedebis, xelosnobisa da safabriko
mrewvelobis ganviTarebas gegmavda. SotlandielTa mTavari
amocana mezobeli baris da mTis, mahmadiani da warmarTi mosax-
leobis, gaqristianeba iyo. misionerebs erTob keTilSobiluri
miznebi hqondaT. maT surdaT: yabardoelebisa da sxva mTiele-
bisgan eyidaT motacebuli da gasayidad gamoyvanili bavSvebi,
isini qristianulad aRezardad, eswavlebinaT wminda werili da
miecaT cxovrebisTvis sxva aucilebeli codna [3, 911].
Sotlandielebma male yabardoelebisgan gamoisyides 16

321
biWi, 7 gogo, 3 qali da 2 kaci. aqedan ramdenime gardaicvala. 6
adamiani isev yabardoelebma moitaces. danarCenebi ki qristi-
anulad monaTles. [3, 911]. 1813 wlisTvis koloniaSi sul 17
adamiani iyo. monaTlulTagan erTi daojaxda da hyavda ori
bavSvi [3, 911].
Sotlandiel misionerebs did daxmarebas uwevda ruse-
Tis xelisufleba. miuxedavad amisa evropuli axalSenis cxov-
reba kavkasiaSi sakmaod daZabulad warimarTa. mahmadian mTi-
elTa nawili mtrulad Sexvda axalmosaxleebis gamoCenas. xSi-
ri iyo Tavdasxmebi, romlis drosac tyved waiyvanes ramdenime
mcxovrebi. itacebdnen saqonelsac.
axalSeni TiTqmis mTlianad ganadgurda 1804 wels mis Se-
mogarenSi Savi Wiris epidemiis gaCenis Semdeg misi mcxovreb-
lebi iZulebulni gaxdnen mietovebinaT kolonia da konstan-
tinogorskSi gadasaxlebuliyvnen [3, 912]. maT wasvlas mezobe-
li mTielebisgan axalSenis gaZarcva mohyva. mTlianad iqna ga-
nadgurebuli Senobebi da naTesebi.A amave wlis seqtemberSi ko-
lonistebi konstantinogorskidan sacxovreblad georgiev-
skSi gadavidnen [3, 912].
ruseTis xelisuflebis mier gatarebuli RonisZiebebis
Sedegad centralur kavkasiaSi droebiT mSvidoba Camovarda.
Sotlandielebma gadawyvites axalSeni isev Zvel adgilze
aRedginaT, rac Seasrules kidec. Tumca amis Semdeg yabardo-
elebis mxridan Tavdasxmebi kvlav gagrZelda [3, 912].
ruseTis imperatoris 1806 wlis 25 dekembris brZanebiT
Sotlandiur kolonias mTeli rigi uflebebi da privilegiebi
mieniWa. kerZod ki, kolonistebs hqondaT rwmenisa da wes-Cve-
ulebebis Tavisufleba. misi wevrebi Tavisufldebodnen pira-
di Tu sazogado gadasaxadisa da valdebulebisgan, sarekru-
to Tu saxelmwifo samsaxurisgan. Sotlandielebs SeRavaTebi
hqondaT miwiT sargeblobaSic: kerZod ki, nakveTis miRebidan
30 wlis ganmavlobaSi desetina miwaSi unda gadaexadaT mxo-
lod 15 kapiki; kolonia damoukidebeli iyo saSinao mmarTve-
lobaSic, axalmoSeneebs hyavdaT TavianTi wridan arCeuli
ufrosebi. savaWro, sameurneo Tu sayofacxovrebi davebis
gansaxilvelad hqondaT sakuTari sasamarTlo, romelsac mxo-
lod sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebis warmoeba ekrZaleboda. ko-
loniis wevrebs hqondaT yvelanairi xelosnobis, mrewvelobi-
sa da vaWrobis ufleba, oRond ar unda Caweriliyvnen cexebsa
322
da gildiebSi. ekrZalebodaT TavianT teritoriaze xorblis
aryis gamoxda da gayidva.
misionerebs hqondaT warmarTi da mahmadiani mTielebis
TavianT rwmenaze moqcevis, maTgan tyveebis yidvisa da kolo-
niis wevrad miRebis ufleba. gansazRvruli iyo, rom nayidi
tyveebi mxolod garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi darCebodnen
koloniis Zveli mcxovreblebis daqvemdebarebaSi. Semdeg isi-
ni danarCeni wevrebis Tanasworni xdebodnen da dawesebuli
privilegiebiTa da uflebebiT isargeblebdnen. koloniaSi da-
badebuli yvela bavSvi unda yofiliyo Tavisufali. yvela wev-
ri, iqneboda is nayidi da Semdgom TavisuflebamiRebuli, Tu
sazRvargareTidan mosuli, SotlandielTa sazogadoebaSi mi-
Rebis Semdeg, isargeblebda koloniaSi arsebuli yvela privi-
legiiT. koloniis wevrebs SeeZloT nebismier dros daetove-
bina ruseTis sazRvrebi [5, 930].
amave sigeliT Sotlandielebs memkvidreobiT sakuTre-
baSi gadaecaT xelisuflebisgan gamoyofili Tu kanonierad
mierTebuli yvela miwa [5, 930]. Sotlandielebs gamouyves 7000
desetinaze meti miwa. aqedan kolonistebma sakuTrebaSi mxo-
lod 2500 desetina daitoves.
Tavdapirvelad koloniis mamasaxlisebad arCeul iqnen
misi damaarseblebi: henrix brontoni da aleqsandr paterso-
ni. brontonis gardacvalebis Semdgom axali mamasaxlisis ar-
Cevisas sxvebTan erTad irCevdnen patersonsac. 20 wlis gan-
mavlobaSi igi (daaxloebiT ori wlis garda) yovelTvis iyo
koloniis mTavari mamasaxlisi. [5, 930].
koloniis wevrTa Tavdauzogavi Sromisa da ruseTis xe-
lisuflebisgan miniWebuli privilegiebis Sedegad axalSeni
male keTilmowyobil dasaxlebul punqtad gadaiqca. mis
mcxovreblebs hqondaT kargi saxlebi, movlili yanebi, baR-
bostnebi, TuTis plantaciebi, zvrebi, romlisaTvisac axal-
mosaxleebi evropidan iwerdnen vazis nergebs; aseve, sakuTari
wisqvili da bambis qsovilebis saqsovi fabrika [3, 912]. Ycxov-
rebis saukeTeso pirobebis gamo axalSenis mosaxleoba raode-
nobrivad gamudmebiT izrdeboda samxreT ruseTis teritori-
aze arsebuli sxva evropuli koloniebidan gadmosulTa xar-
jze [1, 315; 7].
1809-1810 wlebSi saratovis germanuli axalSenidan Sot-
landielebTan TviTneburad gadavida ramdenime ojaxi [5, 930].
323
isini cdilobdnen gamxdariyvnen koloniis wevrebi. mogviane-
biT maTi nawili, sakuTari surviliT, ministrTa komitetis
1817 wlis 29 seqtembris gadawyvetilebis Semdeg, sacxovreb-
lad gadavida sviatoi krestSi, sadac gamouyves ojaxze 60 de-
setina miwis nakveTi (5, 930]. danarCenebi kvlav Sotlandie-
lebTan darCnen. momdevno wlebSi Sotlandielebs germanel-
Ta koloniidan kvlav miematnen axali wevrebi.
XIX saukunis 10-iani wlebis dasawyisSi Crdilo kavkasiaSi
gaaqtiurdnen mahmadiani sasuliero pirebi. daiwyo Crdilokav-
kasielTa masiuri gamahmadianeba [4, 510]. SeiZleba amas ukavSir-
debodes axalSenze mTielTa Tavdasxmebis gansakuTrebuli gax-
Sireba. 1813 wlis zafxulSi Sotlandiuri koloniis mamasaxli-
si patersoni werda kozodavlevs, rom yabardoelebTan siax-
lovis gamo kolonia ganicdida ganuwyvetel Tavdasxmebs, rom-
lis drosac mTielebi itacebdnen bavSvebs, mihyavdaT pirut-
yvi, dawves wisqvili, mokles erTi adamiani. mTielebi imuqre-
bodnen, rom kolonias mTlianad gaanadgurebdnen [3, 909]. pa-
tersoni sTxovda mTavrobas, rom aucilebeli iyo axalSenis
dacvisTvis zomebis saswrafod miReba, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
Sotlandielebi iZulebulni gaxdebodnen mTeli qoneba mieto-
vebinaT da sacxovreblad sxva adgilze gadasuliyvnen. 1813
wlis Semodgomaze moaxalSeneebma datoves kidec kolonia da
droebiT georgievskSi gadavidnen [3, 909]. ukan dabrunebulebs
sacxovreblebi gaZarcvuli daxvdaT [3, 909].
saqarTvelos mTavarmmarTeblis rtiSCevis 1813 wlis 5
dekembris brZanebiT, kolonias dauniSnes pristavi, romelsac
evaleboda, rogorc mTielTa Tavdasxmebisgan axalSenis dac-
vis organizeba, aseve Sida wesrigis uzrunvelyofac. prista-
vad iseTi adamiani unda SeerCiaT, romelsac ecodineboda in-
glisuri an germanuli ena, raTa koloniis wevrebTan urTier-
Toba SesZleboda. mas daeniSna xelfasi weliwadSi 400 maneTis
odenobiT. pristavi valdebuli iyo yovelTvis koloniaSi yo-
filiyo. igi kavkasiis samoqalaqo gubernators eqvemdebare-
boda [5, 913].
1813 wels imperatoris brZanebiT, mTielTa Tavdasxme-
bisgan koloniis dasacavad gamoiyo specialuri samxedro
razmi [5, 931].
Sotlandiuri koloniis mcxovreblebi miwaTmoqmedebi-
sa da mrewvelobis garda farTo kulturul-saganmanaTleb-
324
lo moRvaweobasac eweodnen. 1815 wels gaixsna tipografia,
sadac daibeWda da mahmadian da warmarT mosaxleobaSi gav-
rcelda bibliis 8000-mde egzemplari [5, 931].
1815 wels axalSenis ori wevri gaigzavna orenburgsa da
astraxanSi adgilobrivi mosaxleobis enebis Sesaswavlad. gan-
zraxuli iyo wminda werilis TaTrul enaze Targmna da gamo-
cema. amasTan erTad astraxanSi iqna gadatanili tipografia,
radganac aqedan ufro mosaxerxebeli iyo naTargmni wminda
wignebis sparseTSi gavrceleba. astraxanSi kvlav gagrZelda
qristianuli literaturis beWdva. aqedan mezobel raionebSi
gaavrceles qristianuli xasiaTis sxvadasxva wignebi, sul
6000-mde egzempliari [5, 931].
imperatoris mier 1819 wlis 14 aprils damtkicda minis-
trTa komitetis dadgenileba, romlis Tanaxmad orenburgSi
wasul Sotlandiel misionerebs qalaqis axlos dasasaxleb-
lad, sacxovrebeli saxlebisa da samlocvelos asaSeneblad,
gamoeyoT 90 desetina miwa. eklesiaSi RvTismsaxureba unda Ca-
tarebuliyo inglisur da TaTrul enebze. ganzraxuli iyo
skolis aSenebac, sadac unda eswavlebinaT yirgizi bavSvebis-
Tvis [5, 931].
1825-1826 wlebSi Sotlandielebma avadmyofobis gamo
datoves orenburgi da SotlandiaSi gaemgzavrnen. amave wleb-
Si (radganac aRar iyo bibliis beWdvis saWiroeba) edinburgis
sazogadoebam dafinanseba Seuwyvita astraxanis misionereb-
sac [5, 931].
Crdilo kavkasiaSi mcxovrebi Sotlandielebi aqtiur
misionerul moRvaweobas eweodnen axlomaxlo mcxovreb mTie-
lebSi, romelTa nawilis gaqristianebac SeZles. dokumentebi-
dan CvenTvis cnobili xdeba misioner bleis saqmianobis Sesa-
xeb. igi profesiiT eqimi iyo, mkurnalobda avadmyof mTie-
lebs, ris gamoc mosaxleobaSi siyvaruliT sargeblobda. mas
warmatebebi hqonda mTielTa gaqristianebaSic. misi samoRva-
weo areali inguSur Temebs moicavda [4, 507].
adgilobriv mcxovreblebSi Sotlandielebis popularo-
baze miuTiTebs XIX saukunis 10-iani wlebis dasawyisiT daTari-
Rebuli mTielTa werilebi, romlebSic isini xelisuflebisgan
iezuiti misionerebis gagzavnas iTxovdnen. aman gvarianad SeaS-
foTa rusuli xelisuflebis mesveurebi. swored Tagauris xe-
obis mcxovrebTa werilebis miRebis (iezuiti misionerebis maT-
325
Tan gagzavnis Sesaxeb) Semdgom [4, 419], 1810-iani wlebidan, ga-
dawyvita ruseTis xelisuflebam iezuiti misionerebis ber-
Znul-rusuli aRmsareblobis mRvdlebiT Canacvleba [4, 48, 427,
501]. 1814 wels mTielTa marTlmadideblobaze mosaqcevad Seiq-
mna `oseTis sasuliero komisia~[2, 294, 295; 3, 406, 407; 6, 79]. ro-
gorc dokumentebidan Cans, Semdgom periodSi nel-nela Seiz-
Ruda SotlandielTa moRvaweobis arealic.
Crdilo kavkasiaSi SotlandielTa Seviwroveba gansa-
kuTrebiT gaZlierda ermolovis mmarTvelobisas. 1821 wels
ermolovi da ruseTis sasuliero saqmeTa ministri SeTan-
xmdnen, rom ucxo qveynisa da aRmsareblobis misionerebis-
Tvis saqmianobis ufleba miecaT mxolod iq, sadac ar iqnebod-
nen berZnul-rusuli sasuliero pirebi [4, 479].
XIX saukunis 20-iani wlebidan Sotlandielebi Crdilo
kavkasias masiurad tovebdnen. erT-erTi misioneris jon mit-
Celis azriT, maT umizezod aviwrovebda adgilobrivi xeli-
sufleba [4, 476].
1822 wels, ermolovis brZanebiT, nazranidan gamoaZeves
misioneri blei. ermoloviG1822 wlis 19 seqtembers golicini-
sadmi miweril werilSi Tavis gadawyvetilebas Semdegnairad
asabuTebda: `Ингуши принять крещение не желають и хотя немногие
из старшинь на то согласились, думая что все вообще к тому понуждае-
мы будуть, но когда простой народ, совершенно тому противящися, хо-
тель удалиться на прежнее жительтство в горы, то старшины оставили
принятый ими законь и мне лично объявили, что понуждение к кре-
щению лищить их средств удержать народ в повиновений и спокойсвий~
[4, 507].
al. ermolovisTvis gansakuTrebiT miuRebeli iyo iezu-
itTa moRvaweoba strategiulad mniSvnelovan adgilebSi. igi
ruseTis saSinao saqmeTa ministr lanskois Semdegs werda: `По
важности места, занимаемого ингушами, которые, быль до сего преданы
России, по положению их селения при Назране служать наилучшим
сторожевым постом нашим и оградою с сей стороны от непрязненных
чеченцев и карабулаков, не мог я не предвидеть, сколь непрятныя
последствия могли бы произоити, если бы народ сей самыи
воинственныи, мужественныи из всех горцев, быв доведень до
возмущения, решиться удалиться в горы [4, 481].

326
dokumentebidan irkveva, rom ermolovis saqciels wmin-
da politikuri interesebi edo safuZvlad. igi werda:
`шотландское обществ миссионеров, принимая к себе на воспитание
молодых людей, научасть их языку своего отечества, а не всеми
усилиями старается образовать их добрыми нам подданными. Я
признаюсь, что не желая сих воспитанников в свою очередь иметь
проповедниками между многочисленными обитательями горь, не
допускаю я Карраских колонистов приобретать таковых~ [4, 507].
1826 wlis noemberSi ermolovis miTiTebebze dayrdno-
biT kavkasiis olqis mmarTvelma gorCakovma Semdegi cvlile-
bebi gaatara: `Дабы оградить колонию от вляния и помещательства в
распоряжениях ея со стороны Эдинбургского мисс. Общества и чтобы
она управляема была не по иным узаконениям, как только по
Российским и сообразно правилам, кн. Горчаков полагаль, оставя в оной
существующую управу и уничтожа все чуждыя учреждения
Эдинбургской директории, подчинить управу и самую колонию по
части полиции коменданту Кавк. Минеральных вод и предписать ему в
непременную обязанность наблюдать за всеми поступками
приезжающих в колонию иностранцев, доводия о сем до сведения
областного начальника~[4, 931].
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, 1825-1826 wlebSi ruseTis impe-
riaSi mcxovrebi SotlandielTa umetesoba samSobloSi gaem-
gzavra. am faqtis Sesaxeb al. ermolovi acxadebda: garda imi-
sa, rom Crdilo kavkasiaSi ucxo qveynis misionerebis moRvawe-
oba dauSvebulia politikuri mosazrebebiT, Sotlandiele-
bis wasvla am mxarisTvis ar warmoadgens did danakliss, rad-
ganac maT arc qristianobis gavrcelebaSi, arc soflis meur-
neobisa da mrewvelobis ganviTarebaSi ar miuRweviaT mniSvne-
lovani warmatebebisTvis [4, 932].

Ddamowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

1. Акты Кавказской Археографической Коммиссии, под ред. Ад.


Берже, VI, I, Тифлис, 1874.
2. m. tyavaSvili, qsnis erisTavebis mamulebis sakiTxi dosi-
Teos ficxelauris `oseTis sasuliero komisiis~ proeq-
tSi, kr.: axali da uaxlesi istoriis sakiTxebi, red. av.
sonRulaSvili, 2 (6) 2009.
327
3. Акты Кавказской Археографической Коммиссии, под ред. Ад.
Берже, V, Тифлис, 1873.
4. Акты Кавказской Археографической Коммиссии, под ред. Ад.
Берже, VI, II, Тифлис, 1875.
5. Акты Кавказской Археографической Коммиссии, под ред. Ад.
Берже, VII, II, Тифлис, 1878.
6. История грузинской иерархий, с присовокуплением обращения в
христианство Осетии и других горских народов, по 1-го Генвария
1825 года., М., 1853.
7. saqarTvelos centraluri saxelmwifo saistorio arqivi,
f. 2, aR. 1, saqme #341.

Mzia Tkavashvili
Doctor of History, Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of
History and Ethnology, Research scientist of the
Department of Modern and Contemporary History

From the History of the Scots’ Colony in the North Caucasus


(The beginning of the 19th century)

Summary

In 1802 the directory of the Protestant society in Edinburgh asked the


Russian government a permition for founding an office in the South of the
empire. Emperor Alexander I satisfied the requirement of Scots. The main
goal of Scots was the conversion of the neighboring mountain and plain
Muslim and pagan population into Christianity. The Russian government
greatly supported Scots.
Besides developing agriculture and industry they were actively
involved in cultural and educational work. In 1815 the typography was
opened, where 8000 copies of Bible were printed and spread among the
Muslim and pagan population.
In the 20es of the 19th century Scots were actively living the North
Caucasus. From the point of view of the missioners the native government
was oppressing them without any reason.

328


Tamar anTaZe
Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxe-
lobis universitetis asistent-
profesori

Uuiliam III oraneli

uiliam oranelis kolorituli figuris gaxseneba, cxa-


dia SemTxveviTi araa. uwinaresad xazi unda gavusvaT imas, rom
uiliam oranelis saxels ukavSirdeba parlamentarizmis prin-
cipebis formireba inglisSi XVII saukunis miwuruls. am rangis
politikuri moRvawe, reformatori, Cveni Rrma rwmeniT, hae-
riviT Wirdeba Tanamedrove saqarTvelos. Aamitom, vfiqrobT,
uiliam oranelis moRvaweobis gacnobia, qarTveli mkiTxveli-
saTvis interesmoklebuli ar unda iyos da bolos, uiliam
oranelze sityvis Tqmas umTavresad is garemoeba gvabedinebs,
rom masze qarTul enaze dRemde TiTqmis araferi dawerila.
Eevropul, pirvel rigSi ki, cxadia, inglisur istoriog-
rafiaSi uiliam oranelis moRvaweobis dadebiTi Sefaseba do-
minirebs. Mmis erT-erT mTavar tonis mimcemad franguli ganma-
naTleblobis patriarqi volteri gvevlineba. misi azriT, `in-
glisis namdvili demokratia swored uiliam oranelis mmar-
Tvelobidan iwyeba~ [1, 85-86]. uiliam oranelis moRvaweobis
maRali Sefaseba savsebiT marTlzomieria, magram misi usaSve-
lod gandideba, gaidialeba, rac Seiniშneba zogierTi istori-
kosis (magaliTad t. makoleis) SromebSi, cxadia, ar Rirs, zed-
metia.
qarTul enaze sagangebo naSromi uiliam oranelze dRem-
de ar gagvaCnia, magram axali istoriis qarTul saxelmZRvane-
loebSi, bunebrivia, gakvriT exebodnen mis moRvaweobas da
amis wayrueba, gverdis avla, albaT, marTebuli ar unda iyos.
uiliam oranelis moRvaweobisadmi qarTuli istoriog-
rafiis damokidebulebas mkveTrad gamokveTilad sami perio-
di gaaCnia. damoukidebeli saqarTvelo 1918-1921 wlebi, sab-
WoTa periodis qarTuli istoriografia 1921-1991 wlebi da
uaxlesi qarTuli istoriografia.

329
Uuiliam oranelis moRvaweobisadmi dainteresebis pir-
velma simptomebma Tavi iCina XX saukunis dasawyisSi. aq, cxa-
dia, vgulisxmobT a. bikovis wigns `ambebi inglisis istorii-
dan, me-11 saukunidan me-XIX saukunemde~ [2] , sadac is bunebri-
via, exeba uiliam oranelis moRvaweobas da mcire informacias
awvdis qarTvel mkiTxvels masze [2, 271-277]. es sporaduli
cnoba friad saintereso da mniSvnelovani Cans. Cveni azriT,
es monakveTi 1901-1918 wlamde qarTul realobaSi uiliam ora-
nelis moRvaweobiT dainteresebis winare istoriad SeiZleba
miviCnioT.
savsebiT kanonzomieri unda iyos, rom dasavleT evropis
axali istoriis problemebiT da saxeldobr, uiliam oranelis
moRvaweobiT dainteresebis akvani damoukidebel saqarTve-
loSi 1918-1921 wlebSi dairwa. Amas mZlavri stimuli misca or-
ma garemoebam: 1918 wlis 26 ianvars ivane javaxiSvilis mier
Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis daarsebam da 1918 wlis
26 maisss saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamocxadebam. Aam
TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa damoukidebel saqarTveloSi ga-
mocemuli axali istoriis pirveli erovnuli saxelmZRvane-
loebi, sadac bunebrivia, gakvriT exebodnen uiliam oranelis
moRvaweobas. Ees sainteresoa da misTvis dumiliT gverdis av-
la swori ar iqneboda. Pupirveles yovlisa xazi unda gausvaT
saxelmZRvaneloebis koncefcias, romelsac mkveTrad gamok-
veTili progresuli elferi dakravs da upiratesad evropul
realiebzea orientirebuli. saxelmZRvaneloebSi uiliam ora-
nelis moRvaweobis maRali Sefaseba savsebiT marTlzomieri
unda iyos. saxelmZRvaneloebis avtorebi uiliam oranelis Se-
fasebisas progresul liberalur poziciebze dganan, rac im-
droindeli qarTuli istoriografiis fonze seriozul win-
gadadgmul nabijs warmoadgenda.
saxelmZRvaneloebSi uiliam oranelze arsebuli mcire
informacia sainteresoa da igi qarTvel mkiTxvels, pirvel
rigSi, moswavleebs, uiliam oranelis moRvaweobaze saerTo
warmodgenas Seuqmnida. mkafiod aris xazgasmuli uiliam ora-
nelis wvlili inglisSi parlamentarizmis principebis formi-
rebis saqmeSi da safrangeTTan dapirispireba, romelic uSua-
lod gamomdinareobda inglisis erovnuli interesebidan. in-
glisis mTavar metoqed msoflio hegemonobisaTvis brZolaSi,

330
swored, safrangeTi gvevlineba [3, 45-146; 4.67; 5, 105-106; 6,
116; 7,127; 8, 52].
saxelmZRvaneloebSi uiliam oranelis moRvaweobisadmi
miCenili adgili mTlad damajereblad ar migvaCnia. Aaq ra Tqma
unda, vgulisxmobT imas, rom ZalianN kargi iqneboda uiliam
oranelis mmarTveloba mkveTrad yofiliyo gamijnuli stiu-
artTa xanisagan da mas erTi calke monakveTi daTmoboda.
vfiqrobT, es ufro adekvaturi iqneboda.
Pprof. gr. naTaZis midgoma uiliam oranelis moRvaweobi-
sadmi metad Taviseburia [9]. amgvari damokidebuleba, cxadia,
SemTxveviT ar yofila da misi gasaRebi gr. naTaZis msof-
lmxedvelobaSi Zevs. saqme isaa, rom gr. naTaZe istoriis soci-
ologiuri gaSuqebis momxrea da did yuradRebas uTmobda in-
glisis social-ekonomiur istoris warmoCenas, xolo poli-
tikur istorias ganixilavda SedarebiT ufro mkrTalad, sus-
tad. uiliam oranelisadmi prof. gr. naTaZis gulgrili damo-
kidebuleba amis logikuri Sedegia. iyo amis gamomwvevi sxva
mizezebi [10, 46-48].
Aamrigad, Tavdapirvelad, uiliam oranelis moRvaweobis
Sefasebisas qarTul istoriografias garkveuli mecnieruli
kursi hqonia aRebuli. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa damouki-
debel saqarTveloSi gamosuli axali istoriis pirveli erov-
nuli saxelmZRvaneloebi.
SemdegSi xdeba mkveTri saxecvlileba, rac umTavresad
politikuri kataklizmebiT iyo ganpirobebuli. 1921 wlis 25
Tebervals moxda saqarTvelos gasabWoeba. uiliam oranelis
moRvaweobiT dainteresebam marqsistul-leninuri ideolo-
giis CarCoebSi aRmoCnda moqceuli. es upiratesad imiT gamoi-
xata, rom uiliam oranelisadmi damokidebuleba metad poli-
tizirebuli da ideologizirebuli iyo da ZiriTadad kla-
sobrivi poziciebidan ganixileboda. aseTi midgoma ki nebsiT
Tu uneblieT akninebda uiliam oranelis mmarTvelobis isto-
riul mniSvnelobas. aq aisaxa savsebiT realuri viTareba. re-
formatorebi sabWoTa istoriografiisaTvis miuRebeli iyo.
maT moswondaT mxolod fanatikosi revolucionerebi. es ten-
dencia dominirebda saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebSic [11]. sau-
niversiteto programebSi [12]. Ffaqtobrivad uiliam oranelze
qarTul enaze TiTqmis araferi dawerila. es SemTxveviTi ar
iyo da nawilobriv imiT aixsneba, rom sabWoTa periodSi ru-
331
sul enaze arsebuli literatura MmSobliurad aRiqmeboda
[13]. istoriis popularizacia aSkarad moიkoWlebda.
Uuiliam oranelis moRvaweobiT dainteresebis morigi
mkveTri metamorfozi dakavSirebulia 1991 wels sabWoTa kav-
Siris daSlasTan. qarTulma istoriografiam SvebiT amoisun-
Tqa. Mmas sakuTari arCevanis gakeTebis Sansi gauCnda. amas Zal-
ze didi mniSvneloba hqonda.
Uuiliam oranelis reabilitaciis saqmeSi gadadgmul pir-
vel nabijad axali istoriis saskolo saxelmZRvanelo mიgvaC-
nia [14]. Ees tradicia gagrZelebuli iqna inglisis istoriis
[15, 16, 17] da axali istoriis [18, 19] sauniversiteto saxel-
mZRvaneloebSi, Tumca zogierT saxelmZRvaneloSi am Temaze
msjelobis Semdgomi daxvewa, srulyofa, gamoricxulad ar
migvaCnia. vimedovnebT, rom momavalSi uiliam oranelis moR-
vaweobas gacilebiT meti yuradReba daeTmoba. winamdebare
naSromi am xarvezebis Sevsebis erT-erT mokrZalebul mcde-
lobas warmoadgens. U
ingliseli istorikosebi inglisis swraf aRzevebas da
msoflios erT-erT uZlieres saxelmwifod gadaqcevas xSirad
ukavSireben uiliam oranelis moRvaweobas.
uiliam oraneli daibada 1650 wlis 14 noembers haagaSi.
Mmisi mama iyo uiliam II oraneli. deda — inglisis mefis Carlz I
(1625-1649) qaliSvili meri stiuarti.
uiliam oraneli politikur sarbielze gamoCnda 1667
wels, rodesac man miiRo ufleba monawileoba mieRo saxel-
mwifo sabWos muSaobaSi. respublikis momxreebi mas undoblad
uyurebdnen da SiSobdnen, rom ar moexdina saxelmwifo gadat-
rialeba monarqiis aRdgenis mizniT. am dros niderlandi res-
publika iyo, romelsac saTaveSi edga ian de viti.
TandaTanobiT uiliam oranelis avtoriteti sazogadoe-
basa da armiaSi izrdeboda, xolo respublikelebis prestiJi
ecemoda. 1672 wels safrangeTთan dawyebulma omma kataliza-
toris roli Seasrula. daaCqara movlenebi. omisaTvis nider-
landi moumzadebeli aRmoCnda. safrangeTis armia swrafad
miiwevda win. Mmdgomareoba kritikuli Seiqmna. Nniderlandebis
saxelmwifoebrioba yofna-aryofnis winaSe dadga. Aam kriti-
kul momentSi wina planze gamodis uiliam oraneli. misi miTi-
TebiT jebirebi gaxsnes da qveynis teritoriis erTi nawili

332
წყალმა dafara. Fფrangebis winsvla SeCerebuli iqna. Mmeomari
mxareebi molaparakebis magidas miusxdnen., niderlandi mzad
iyo yovelgvar daTmobebze wasuliyo, magram safrangeTma me-
tismeti moindoma. Mმas surda ara niderlandis damarcxeba,
aramed sruli ganadgureba. Hholandielebis moTminebis fiala
aivso. ifeTqa saxalxo mRelvarebam. saxelmwifo gadatriale-
bis Sedegad იან de ვitis mTavroba daemxo, xolo TviT is mok-
luli iqna. Hჰolandiis Stathalteris postze arCeuli iqna 21
wlis uiliam oraneli. Mman Sewyvita samSvidobo molaparakeba
da ganaaxla omi. aseTi iyo safrangeTis samxedro ministris
luvuas ambiciebis savalalo Sedegi [20, 132-133].
Aam rTul viTarebaSi uiliam oranelma Tavi gamoamJRavna
rogorc ara marto kargma mxedarTmTavarma, aramed Cinebulma
diplomatma. man moaxerxa moeZebna safrangeTis winaaRmdeg
brZolaSi mokavSireebi: espaneTi, brandenburgi, avstria da
dania. Aaman saSualeba misca uiliam oranels gardatexa Seeta-
na omis msvlelobaSi. 1679 wels xelmowerili nimvegenis zavis
Tanaxmad holandiam SesZlo damoukideblobis da teritoriu-
li mTlianobis SenarCuneba. es uiliam oranelis politikis
didi warmateba iyo.
1677 wels man colad SeirTo inglisis momavali mefis
jeimz II (1685-1688) qaliSvili mari stiuarti. es iyo Cveuleb-
rivi politikuri qorwineba. is uiliam oranels inglisis tax-
tis dakavebis Sans aZlevda. Aaqedan moyolebuli iwyeba uiliam
oranelis pirveli kontaqtebi liberalur opoziciasTan in-
glisSi. is cdilobda inglisSi Seeqmna dasayrdeni. SemTxvevi-
Ti ar iyo, rom stiuartebis mier devnili opoziciurad gan-
wyobili liberalebi politikur TavSesafars, swored, uili-
am oranelTan holandiaSi povebdnen.
1688 wels 55 wlis jeimz II SeeZina taxtis memkvidre vaJi,
uelsis princi. Aman pirdapir civi Sxapi gadaasxa liberalur
opozicias da mis kandidats uiliam oranels. Oopozicias sxva
gamosavali ar rCeboda: an unda Segueboda Seqmnil viTarebas,
an unda emoqmeda. man meore gza airCia. opoziciam TxovniT mi-
marTa uiliam oranels exsna inglisi jeimz II stiuartis tira-
niisagan. sul ufro mkafiod ikveTeboda saxelmwifo gadatri-
alebis konturebi. Mmcire fiqris Semdeg uiliam oranelma mza-
oba ganacxada daekavebina inglisis taxti. man gamosca specia-

333
luri deklaracia, sadac is pirobas debda, rom daexmareboda
inglisis xalxs. 1688 wlis 19 oqtombers uiliam oranelis
flotma kursi nisliani albionisaken aiRo. 5 noembers igi in-
glisis napirebze gadavida. oranelis gankargulebaSi iyo
15000 jariskaci. jeimz II gacilebiT ufro mravalricxovani
armia hyavda, magram gadamwyveti brZolis gamarTva mainc ver
gabeda. Mmas armiis imedi ar hqonda. Aarmiis sabrZolo ganwyobi-
leba, Zalian dabali iyo. maTi didi nawili uiliam oranelis
mxareze gadadioda. 12 dekembers uiliam oraneli londonSi
Sevida. Mmefe daakaves. 23 dekembers mefe cixidan gaiqca da po-
litikuri TavSesafari safrangeTSi hpova [21, 22, 23, 24]. 1689
wlis 12 Tebervals uiliam oraneli inglisis mefed gamoacxa-
des.
uiliam III oranelis saxeliT stiuartTa abslolitur
monarqias wertili daesva. inglisSi yalibdeba konstituciu-
ri monarqia. Ffaqtobrivad amiT mTavrdeba uiliam oranelis
erTi holandiuri etapi da iwyeba meore inglisuri periodi.
inglisis mefis uiliam III oranelis saSinao politika: ui-
liam III oranelis (1689-1702) mmarTvelobis xanaSi, inglisSi
gatarebuli iqna seriozuli reformebi, romelmac mtkice sa-
Zirkveli Cauyara qveynis politikur da sameurneo sistemas.
1688 wlis sasaxlis gadatrialebas Tanamedroveebma da
istorikosebma `usisxlo~ anu `saxelovani revolucia~ uwo-
des da devid iumidan, jon lokidan da volteridan moyole-
buli gansakuTrebul pativs miageben mas.
1688 wlis gadatrialebis Sedegad, inglisSi yalibdeba
konstituciuri monarqia. stiuartTa absolutizmis Semdeg
es iyo seriozuli wingadadgmuli nabijia samefo xelisufle-
basa da parlaments Soris kompromisi miRweuli iqna. Amas Zal-
ze didi mniSvneloba hqonda. mkafiod ikveTeba samarTlebrivi
saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis konturebi.
mmarTvelobis saparlamento-demokratiuli formis ma-
mamTavrad didi ingliseli filosofosi jon loki gvevline-
ba. am TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa misi naSromi `ori traqta-
ti mmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~. SesaZloa, Tavdapirvelad xalxma
gulubryvilod gadasces Zalaufleba erT karg, SesaniSnav
adamians, magram misi memkvidreebi sul sxvanairebi aRmoC-
ndnen. xalxi mixvda, rom mis sakuTrebas seriozuli saSiSroe-
ba emuqreboda. am rTuli situaciidan gamosavals jon loki
334
umTavresad imaSi xedavs, rom sakanonmdeblo xelisufleba
unda gadaeces koleqtiur organos — parlaments.
kanonSemoqmedebiT saqmianobaSi CarTuli aRmoCndeba sa-
zogadoebis farTo socialuri fenebi. Nnebismier adamians Se-
uZlia gaxdes parlamentis wevri. aravis ar aqvs ufleba kano-
nis moqmedeba sadme an rodesme SeaCeros. Ees aris suspensiuri
ufleba,. aravis ar aqvs ufleba romelime moqalaqe, vinc ar
unda iyos is kanonis asrulebisagan gaaTavisuflos. Ees aris
dispensiuri ufleba. `samoqalaqo sazogadoebis arc erTi
wevrisaTvis ar SeiZleba daSvebuli iqnas gamonaklisi am sazo-
gadoebis kanonebidan~ [25, 316-317]. jon loki Tavisuflebis,
Tanasworobis da sxva samoqalaqo uflebebis damuSavebis
dros im postulatidan amodioda, rom sazogadoebis bunebriv
mdgomareobas warmoadgens patiosani konkurencia. samoqala-
qo sazogadoebaSi adamianis uflebebi da Tavisufleba, ro-
gorc is isaxeboda XVII saukunis dasasruls, viTardeboda mxo-
lod konkretul gacvliT urTierTobebis konteqstSi da mas-
Tan mWidrod dakavSirebuli kerZo sakuTrebasTan [26, 151-152,
154-157]. jon lokis moZRvrebas samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Se-
saxeb safuZvlad edo Cveulebrivi savaWro gacvliTi urTier-
Tobebi, romelSic erTveba ubralo saqonlis mflobeli.
stiuartebisagan gansxvavebiT uiliam III oranels nakle-
bad awuxebda piradi ambiciebi da didad ar cdilobda samefo
prerogativis dacvas. 1689 wlis 13 Tebervals miRebuli iqna
inglisis istoriaSi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani kanoni `aqti uf-
lebaTa Sesaxeb~, romelic inglisis konstituciuri uflebe-
bis erT-erT mTavar qvakuTxeds warmoadgens. Ppirvel yovlisa,
is iyo xelisuflebasa da parlaments Soris kompromisis lo-
gikuri Sedegi. Mmefis uflebebi izRudeba. parlamentis ufle-
bebi farTovdeba. Mmefe xels iRebs gadasaxadebis akrefaze.
Aamieridan es parlamentis kompetenciaSi Sedis. Ggarantirebu-
li iyo saparlamento debatebis Tavisufleba. Pparlamenti sam
weliwadSi erTxel unda moewviaT. Mmisi uflebamosileba gani-
sazRvra sami wliT. Mministrebs niSnavda da anTavisuflebda
mefe, magram isini pasuxismgebelni iyvnen parlamentis winaSe.
amave xanebSi miiRes kanoni `aqti rjulSemwynareblobis Sesa-
xeb~. Uuiliam oraneli rjulSemwynareblobis politikas ata-
rebda, Tumca kaTolikebis interesebis mcire SebRalva mainc
igrZnoboda.
335
jeimz II stiuartis momxreebi, jekobitebi far-xmals ar
yridnen da ar eguebodnen axal reJims. maT mxars uWerda saf-
rangeTis mefe lui XIV. saWiro iyo maT winaaRmdeg zomebis mi-
Reba. 1690 wlis ivnisSi ingliselebma mdinare boinis napiras
daamarcxes `jekobitebis~ laSqari. amas Tan moyva irlandiis
miwebis xelaxali konfiskacia da maTi mosaxleobis Cagvris
gaZliereba.
1694 wels daarsebuli iqna inglisis banki. inglisuri de-
mokratiis ganmtkicebis saqmeSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda
1696 wels cenzuris gauqmebas. es seriozuli wingadadgmuli
nabiji iyo samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis gzaze
[17,125].
mkveTrad gamokveTili progresuli elferi dakravs 1696
wels ganxorcielebul fulis reformas. Mmisi istoriuli
mniSvneloba imaSi mdgomareobda, rom cdilobda TiTqosda
Seurigebelis Serigebas. xazinis da mosaxleobis interesebs
Soris saerTo enis gamonaxvas. Mmisi dedaazri miznad isaxavda
ekonomikis gajansaRebas mosaxleobis msiyidvelobiTi unaris
gazrdis xarjze. sainteresoa, rom xazinaSi ramdenime wlis
Semdeg imaze gacilebiT ufro didi Tanxa Sevida, vidre Tav-
dapirvelad iqna Cadebuli reformaSi [27, 288-291].
1701 wels miiRes `aqti taxtis memkvidreobis Sesaxeb~ Ta-
vis sicocxlis dasasruls uiliam III oraneli Seecada moegva-
rebina kidev erTi mwvave sakiTxi. vin iqneboda inglisis tax-
tis memkvidre misi gardacvalebis Semdeg. saqme isaa, rom ui-
liam oraneli uSvilo iyo. Uuiliam III oranelis Semdeg ingli-
sis taxts daikavebda misi colisda jeimz II-s umcrosi qaliS-
vili eni (ana). enic uSvilo iyo. Mmisi gardacvalebis Semdeg in-
glisis taxtze avidoda stiuartTa Soreuli naTesavi, germa-
neli hanoverTa dinastiis warmomadgeneli. es dinastia iyo
inglisis mefis Carlz I-s dis meris da misi qmris fridrix
pfalcelis STamomavali.
amave dros gadawyda, rom yvela dokuments, kanons, cir-
kuliars, xels unda awerdes ara marto mefe, aramed premier-
ministri. Aamas didi mniSvneloba hqonda. axla premier-minis-
tri pasuxismgebeli iyo parlamentis winaSe [28, 15, 16,17].
uiliam oranelis sagareo politika: sainteresod axasia-
Tebs uiliam III oranels frangi istorikosi akad. pier gaqsto-
ni. `is iyo xelmZRvaneli, ara genialuri, magram mtkice, Seu-
336
povari, romelmac ar icoda ra iyo SiSi da apaTia. Rrma cod-
niT, ZaluZda gaeerTianebina adamianebis goneba. SeeZlo Cae-
fiqrebina didi saqmeebi da mas mizanmimarTulad axorcieleb-
da. Uuiliami warsdga evropis winaSe rogorc meTauri, romlis
daniSnulebas warmoadgenda saTaveSi Cadgomoda antifran-
gul koalicias~ [20,156].
uiliam oraneli, jer rogorc holandiis Stathalteri,
xolo Semdeg ki rogorc inglisis mefe, win aRudga safrange-
Tis mefis lui XIV (1643-1715) hegemonistur miswrafebebs. is
iyo lui XIV yvelaze ufro seriozuli politikuri mowinaaR-
mdege, romelic mzad iyo safrangeTTan brZola ewarmoebina
sisxlis ukanasknel wveTamde. frangi istorikosis emil bur-
Juas TqmiT `es iyo ori adamianis dueli-ori tipis politiku-
ri principis, ori religiis~ [20, 156]. am dapirispirebas kidev
ufro saintereso elfers sZenda is garemoeba, rom faqtobri-
vad is warmoadgenda sagareo politikis da diplomatiis ori
sruliad gansxvavebuli principis Sejaxebas. unda iTqvas, rom
am uSeRavaTo brZolaSi uiliam oranelma seriozul warmate-
bas miaRwia da amiT praqtikulad Seamzada niadagi XVIII sauku-
nis dasawyisSi inglisis msoflio hegemoniis damyarebisaTvis.
wertili dausva safrangeTis hegemonias. Znelia daeTanxmoT
amerikel mecnieris j. modelskis, romelic Tavis msoflio
batonobis grZeli ciklebis TeoriaSi ugulvebelyofs saf-
rangeTis hegemonias [29].
stiuartebis uiliam oraneliT Canacvleba ar iyo mxo-
lod Cveulebrivi dinastiuri cvlileba, rodesac erTi ara-
popularuli mmarTvelis adgils ikavebs meore ufro popula-
ruli pirovneba. amas principuli mniSvneloba hqonda, ramac
Secvala inglisis saSinao da sagareo politika. inglisi ganvi-
Tarebis sul sxva gzaze gaiyvana, da bolos da bolos XIX sau-
kunis dasawyisSi `msoflio saxelosnod~ aqcia.
uiliam oranelma Zirfesvianad Secvala inglisis saga-
reo politika. man uari Tqva stiuartTa profrangul orien-
taciaze da saTaveSi Caudga antifrangul koalicias. amieri-
dan igi safrangeTis winaaRmdeg brZolis medroSed da lide-
rad iqca. aqedan moyolebuli iwyeba inglis-safrangeTis xan-
grZlivi dapirispireba, romelic 1815 wels dasrulda. ser
uinston CerCilis TqmiT `Tavisi brZolebidan inglisi yovel-
Tvis igebs erTaderTs — gadamwyvets~. Aam or saxelmwifos So-
337
ris aseT xangrZliv dapirispirebas istorikosebi xSirad `me-
ore aswlian oms~ uwodeben. Uuiliam III oranelis antifranguli
kursi kargad Seesatyviseboda inglisis erovnul interesebs.
gasaRebis bazrebis da pirvelobisaTvis uSeRavaTo brZolaSi,
swored, safrangeTi iyo inglisis mTavari mowinaaRmdege.
jer kidev 1686 wels holandiis Stathalteris uiliam
oranelis ZalisxmeviT yalibdeba augsburgis liga. mis Semad-
genlobaSi gaerTiandnen: holandia, espaneTi, avstria, bran-
denburgi, savoia. Mmas mere, ki rac 1688 wlis revoluciis Sem-
deg, uiliam oraneli inglisis mefe Seiqmna koalicias, buneb-
rivia, nisliani albionic SeuerTda.
1688 wels lui XIV wamoiwyo mesame didi omi, romelsac
orlianisturs uwodeben. Mmas surda pfalcis kurfiustad ga-
eyvana Tavisi Zma orleanis hercogi, romelsac colad hyavda
ukanaskneli kurfiurstis qaliSvili, magram umTavresad ui-
liam oranelis diplomatiis ZalisxmeviT safrangeTis mmar-
Tveli izolaciaSi aRmoCnda. marTalia, safrangeTis jarebma
moipoves ramdenime gamarjveba: 1690 wels fleriusTan, 1692
wels stenkerkTan, 1693 wels nervindenTan, magram zRva aSka-
rad ingliselebis xelSi iyo. Lle-gogTan brZolaSi 1692 wels
maT gaimarjves. 1697 wels xelmowerili iqna risvikis zavi.
Llui XIV iZulebuli iyo ecno uiliam oraneli inglisis mefed,
magram mas xeli ar auRia arc stiuartTa pretenziebis mxar-
daWeraze.
espaneTis memkvidreobisaTvis omisaTvis mzadebam uili-
am III oranelis sagareo politikis daskvniT akordad gaiJRe-
ra. 1700 wlis 1 noembers gardaicvala espaneTis mefe karlos
II. Mmas memkvidre ar darCenia. dRis wesrigSi dadga sakiTxi, Tu
vin daikavebda vakantur adgils. erT-erTi pretendenti saf-
rangeTi iyo. Llui XIV-s colad hyavda espaneTis infanta. Kkar-
los II anderZis Tanaxmad, espaneTis taxti unda daekavebina
frang princs, lui XIV-is erT-erT memkvidres. frangul-espa-
nuri zesaxelmwifos Seqmnam seriozulad Caafiqra evropis
didi saxelmwifoebi. maT aSinebdaT safrangeT-espaneTis hege-
moniis damyareba, amis albaToba ki, marTlac sakmaod didi
iyo. Aam mwvave situaciaSi lui XIV-m pirdapir cecxlze navTi
daasxa. Ees imiT gamoixata, rom man kidev ufro gaamwvava in-
glisTan urTierToba. jer iyo da 1701 wels jeimz II-s gardac-
valebis Semdeg man mefed scno misi vaJi jeimz III. lui XIV-m
338
frang vaWrebs mianiWa privilegiebi amerikaSi espaneTis ko-
loniebTan vaWrobaSi. aman bunebrivia, Selaxa inglisis da ni-
derlandis ekonomikuri interesebi. mkveTrad Seicvala in-
glisis sazogadoebis ganwyobileba. evropa or banakad gaiyo:
erTis mxriv dgas inglisi, holandia, avstria, prusia, dania,
maT upirispirdeba safrangeTi, espaneTi da wvrili germanuli
saxelmwifoebi. evropaSi denTis suni datrialda. omisaTvis
gaxurebuli samzadisis dros, 1702 wlis 8 marts, uiliam III
oraneli gardaicvala. is dasaflavebulia inglisis monarqTa
tradiciul ZvalTSesanaxSi vestministeris saabatoSi.

damowmebuli wyaroebi da literatura:

26. И.Сиволан, Социальные идеи Вольтера, М., 1978.


27. a. bikovi, ambebi inglisis istoriidan, XI saukunidan me-XIX
saukunemde, baTumi, 1901.
28. s. avaliani, msoflio istoriis saxelmZRvanelo, Tb. 1920.
29. e. lavisi, axali istoria, QquTaisi, Tb., 1920.
30. vulfiusi, axali istoria, quTaisi, 1918.
31. T. WumburiZe, axali istoria, quTaisi, 1919.
32. d. uznaZe, i. gvelesiani, axali istoria (XV-XVII ss.) Tb.,
1920. i .gvelesiani, axali istoria (XVIII-XIX saukuneebi),
Tb., 1920.
33. al. wereTeli, msoflio istoria, nawili 3, axali istoria,
Tb., 1920.
34. gr.naTaZe, inglisis mokle istoria, Tb., 1919.
35. m. kalandaZe, dasavleT evropis Sua saukuneebis da axali
istoriis Seswavla saqarTveloSi XX saukunis pirvel naxe-
varSi, Tb., 1999.
36. a. efimovi, axali istoria, Tb., 1970, axali istoria, a. nari-
oCnickis redaqciiT, Tb., 1988.
37. axali istoriis kursis programa, redaqtori. Pprof. a. na-
moraZe, Tb., 1953. axali istoriis programa, redaqtori
prof. givi kiRuraZe, Tb., 1970.
38. К. Татаринова, Очерки по истории Англии 1640-1815 гг., М., 1958.
39. А. Мортон, История Англии, М., 1950.
40. Кертман, География, история и култура Англии, М., 1968. очерки по
истории Англии , М., 1959.

339
41. Дж. Тревельян, социальная история Англии, М., 1959.
42. n. mamukelaSvili, axali istoria, VIII klasis saxelmZRvane-
lo, Tb., 2005.
43. r. gaCeCilaZe, inglisis geografia, istoria da kultura,
Tb., 1994.
44. iv. menTeSaSvili, inglisis istoria, Tb., 2004.
45. m. kalandaZe, inglisis istoria, Tb., 2005.
46. v. TvalavaZe, axali istoria, nawili III, Tb., 1998.
47. d. lomsaZe, evropis da amerikis qveynebis axali istoria,
nawili 1, Tb., 1998.
48. Ю. Борисов, Дипломатия Людовика XIV, М., 2002.
49. Всеобшая история С IV столетия до нашего времени составлена
под.ред. Э. Лависс и А Рамбо, том VI, м., 1899. М. Тетров, Лекции
по всемирной истории, т. IV, М.,1913. Маколеи, история Англии, т.
VIII, М.,1863.
50. `Англиская буржуазная революция XVII века~, под. ред., Е.Кос-
минского и Л. Левицкого т.2.М., 1954 в. Лавровский, М. Барг,
англиская буржуазная революция XVII в., М., 1958.
51. А. Савин, лекции по истории Англиского революции, М., 1937.
52. g. kiRuraZe, XVII saukunis inglisis burzuaziuli revolu-
cia, naw. 2, Tb.,1983.
53. Дж.Локк, два трактата для правление-соч. 3 томах, М., тг.1988.
54. Э.Салавьев, очерки по истории философии и культури, М., 1991.
55. В кирсанов, Научная ревалюция XVII века, М., 1987.
56. Р. Гнетст, история государственных учереждении Англии, М., 1885.
57. m.kalandaZe `grZeli ciklebi msoflio politikaSi~, (ame-
rikeli mecnieris j. modelskis Teoriis irgvliv) — qar-
Tuli diplomatia, weliwdeuli, XII, Tb., 2005.

340
Tamar Antadze
Assistant Professor of the Ivane
Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

William III of Orange

Summary

This work has an honorable aim and has a pure cognitive character.
Actually it is the first serious work in Georgian reality, which is about
William III of Orange’s life and activities.
Picturesque figure of William III of Orange is not brought forward
accidentally; it is stipulated by the fact, that nowadays forming principles of
parliamentarianism is very urgent in Georgia. That’s why we think that
Georgian reader will show interest in knowing activities of William Orange.
We tried to put a scientific element in the work and devoted attention to
considering activities of William III of Orange in Georgian historiography.

341
vasil kaWarava
istoriis doqtori, ivane javaxiSvi-
lis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo
universitetis da Savi zRvis saerTa-
Soriso universitetis profesori

1952 wlis saprezidento arCevnebi amerikis


SeerTebul StatebSi

rogorc dapirispirebuli partiebis platformebis Se-


darebam gvaCvena, respublikelTa platforma SedarebiT uf-
ro Seefereboda qveynaSi mzard konservatiul tendenciebs,
magram aRniSnul arCevnebSi gadamwyveti roli albaT Tavad
prezidentobis kandidatebis pirovnulma Tvisebebma da avto-
ritetma iTamaSa. respublikur partias meore msofilo omis
sayovelTaod cnobili gmiri, evropaSi dasavleTis jarebis
mTavarsardali generali duaiet eizenhaueri warmoadgenda,
xolo demokratebs — ilinoisis gubernatori adlai stivenso-
ni, romlis brwyinvale erudiciam da oratorulma niWma mniS-
nelovani roli iTamaSa am dapirispirebaSi da gansakuTrebu-
li xibli SesZina arCevnebs.
saerTod, rogorc metad popularul, zogaderovnul da
msoflio masStabis gmirze, eizenhauerze orive partia nadi-
robda. 1948 wels trumeni eizenhauers jer vice-prezidento-
bas sTavazobda, mere ki saerTod prezidentobasac uTmobda
da Tavad ki vice-prezidentobas sjerdeboda. magram eizenha-
ueeri ar daTanxmda am keTilSobilur winadadebas. mas arc
trumeni da arc misi politika moswonda. erTxelEeizenhauerma
gaRizianebiT aRniSna — `ar SeiZleba romelime partiis wevri
gaxde, raTa prezidentis posti moipovo. ra gafiqrebinebT,
rom odesme demokrati viyavi? xom iciT, mTeli cxovreba res-
publikeli viyavi da Cemi ojaxis wevrebic yovelTvis respub-
likelebi iyvnen~ [9, 117].
marTlac, igi mudam respublikelebs aZlevda xmas, iyo es
1932, 1936 Tu 1940 wlebi. mxolod 1944 wels misca xma fran-
klin ruzvelts da isic mxolod imitom, rom amerika omobda.
SemdgomSic igi trumenis winaaRmdeg aZlevda xmas respubli-
kel kandidat Tomas diuis. 1951 wels man megobrebs isic ga-
nucxada, rom `kaci, romelic prezidentobisTvis ibrZvis nam-
342
dvili sulelia. kargavT Tqveni cxovrebis saukeTeso wlebs.
RmerTmani, es sakuTari Tavis gawirvaa. zogierTs hgonia, es
samuSao didi Zalauflebis da didebis momtania. sinamdvile
ki sruliad sapirispiroa da demokratiuli sistema am Tanam-
debobas Zalze mcire Zalauflebas aniWebs~ [13, 210].
Tumca, rodesac eizenhaueri ase iTrevda fexs preziden-
tobaze amas sakmaod gamiznulad akeTebda. Tavis megobars
bil robinsons, romelic aiks saprezidento maraTonSi aqti-
ur CarTavs sTxovda, man uTxra — `Tanamdebobis maZiebeli
arasodesaa iseTi popularuli, rogorc goniaT. xalxs yovel-
Tvis is unda, risi miRebac ar SeuZlia~ [13, 209].
asea Tu ise, magram, rodesac 1952 wlisTvis eizenhaueri
sabolood daTanxmda wamoeyenebina Tavisi kandidatura res-
publikur partiisgan, igi Sida partiuli praimersisTvisac ki
ar Cavida amerikaSi da natoSi ganagrZobda muSaobas. miuxeda-
vad amisa, 11 marts, niu hempSiris praimersSi man didi upira-
tesobiT daamarcxa Tavisi konkurenti, metad gavleniani po-
litikosi robert tafti.
Tumca respublikelTa konventze viTareba arcTu er-
TmniSvnelovani aRmoCnda. konventis muSaobis dasawyisSi
TiTqos tafts ufro meti momxre hyavda, magram kenWisyra ma-
inc eizenhaueris sasargeblod dasrulda — man 595 xma miiRo,
taftma ki, 500. arada gamarjvebisTvis eizenhauers 604 xma
sWirdeboda. uecrad minesotas Statis delegaciam didi xmau-
riTa da zar-zeimiT Tavisi xmebi eizenhauers gadasca, mas sxva
meryevi Statebic mihyvnen da, sabolood, pirvelive oficia-
luri daTvlis Semdeg eizenhauerma 845, taftma ki mxolod
280 xma miiRo.
taftis momxreebi Zalze ganicdidnen am marcxs. maT mos-
wondaT ara marto taftis izolacionozmi, aramed misi pirov-
nebac, rogorc respublikuri konservatizmis simbolo da ub-
ralod SeCveulebic iyvnen mas. eizenhaueri ki partiisaTvis
axali kaci iyo, zogierTis azriT, arastandartuli respub-
likeli, liberali da internacionalisti Dda vin icis, gulis
siRrmeSi, SeiZleba demokratic ki [10, 1256].
magram saqmec is iyo, rom zomier respublikelebs eizen-
haueri partiaSi, swored, rom uaRresad konservatori sena-
torebis taftisa da makartis alternativad esaxebodaT. maTi

343
azriT, aiki ufro zomieri uilkisa da diuis poziciisaken ix-
reboda. isini safuZvlianad Tvlidnen, rom senator taftis
udreki izolacionizmi aRar esadageboda amerikis omis Sem-
dgom internacionalizms [3, 63].
kenWisyrisa da nominaciis Semdeg gamarjvebuli eizenha-
ueri tafts mis StabbinaSi eaxla raTa sakuTari pativiscema
da megobruli grZnobebi gamoexata `didi amerikelisaTvis~.
telekamerebis winaSe eizenhauerma ganacxada, rom `taftis
TanamSromlobis survili absoluturad aucilebelia res-
publikuri partiis warmatebisaTvis~. rogorc jentlmenma
jentlmens taftmac gulTbilad miuloca aiks gamarjveba.
Tumca 62 wlis politikosi nawyeni iyo da grZnobda, rom pre-
zidentobis bolo Sansi gauSva xelidan. SemdgomSi specialur
memorandumSi man dawera, rom misi marcxi niu-iorkis finansu-
ri jgufebis interesebma, presaSi antitafturma propagandam
da respublikel gubernatorTa umravlesobam ganapiroba [3,
1257]. vice-prezidentobis kandidatad respublikelebma air-
Cies 39 wlis senatori kaliforniidan riCard niqsoni, cnobi-
li Tavisi daudgromeli antikomunizmiT da antiamerikuli
qmedebebis Semswavlel komisiaSi aqtiuri saqmianobiT.
robert diuim, romelic aqtiurad exmareboda eizenhau-
ers saarCevno kampaniaSi, niqsons jer 1952 wlis maisSi daadga
Tvali, mas niqsoni niWier, gamocdil kacad miaCnda, romelmac
`icis rom dedamiwa mrgvalia~. mas Semdeg rac niqsons vice-
prezidentoba SesTavaza, isic daamata `nu gaibRinZebi, nu da-
kargav Sens gulmodginebas da erT mSvenier dRes Tavad gaxde-
bi prezidenti~ [13, 212].
ase rom, konventze, e.w. `aRmosavleTis internacional-
stebma~ gaimarjves. gansakuTrebiT kritikulad ganwyobili
konservatorebi maT `respublikel axalkurselebsac~ ki uwo-
debdnen [10, 1256].
magram saprezidento kampanias partiis erTianoba sWir-
deboda da internacionalistma eizenhauerma da izolacio-
nistma taftma miuxedavad arsebuli mniSvnelovani uTanxmoe-
bisa, romlsac `Cikago tribiunma~ 1952 wlis 19 ivniss mtrobac
ki uwoda sagareo politikis sakiTxebze moaxerxes kompromi-
sis gamonaxva da saerTo lozungic SeimuSaves — `Tavisufleba
mcocavi socializmis winaaRmdeg~.

344
saSinao sakiTxebze SedarebiT advilad morigdnen. 1952
wlis 12 seqtembers niu-iorkSi Tavis gamosvlaSi taftma daaw-
ynara gansakuTrebiT konservatori respublikelebi, rom ei-
zenhauerTan saubrisas igi darwmunda generlis mtkice res-
publikelobaSi da rom generali araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar Ca-
moacilbda aqtiur saqmianobas partiis Zvel aqtivistebs anu
konservatorebs, romlebic, taftis azriT, partiis wevrTa
naxevars warmoadgendnen da rom Tanamdebobaze daniSvnisas am
xalxisadmi, maT Soris taftis momxreebisadmi, araviTari dis-
kriminacia ar ganxorcieldeboda.
am saubrisas tafti darwmunebula, rom eizenhaueri er-
Tgulebda federaluri mTavrobis konstituciur SezRud-
vebs da ar dauSvebda trumeniseul gadacdomebs, romelmac
foladis qarxnebis marTvis uflebebi miitaca. taftma Tana-
moazreebs isic axara, rom generali eTanxmeboda taft-har-
tlis kanonis ZiriTadi punqtebis da aseve, samxedro biujetis
Semcirebis aucileblobasac.
sagareo problemebTan dakavSirebiT taftma aRniSna,
`ver vityvi rom aq yvelaferSi veTanxmebi, magram Cveni uTan-
xmoeba mxolod garkvul donemdea~ [4, 3212-3313].
Tumca, yvelaferi SedarebiTia da eizenhauers taftze
ufro memarjveneebTanac mouwia TanamSromloba, iseTebTan,
rogorebic iyvnen antikomunisturi gamoZiebebiT cnobili se-
natori indianidan uiliam jeneri da viskonsineli senatori
josef makarti. Tavad eizenhaueric, iseve rogorc amaerikel-
Ta umravlesoba, antikomunisti iyo, magram am senatorebma da
maTma momxreebma antikomunizmis talRaze mTeli amerika aa-
foriaqes da nebismier liberals komunistobas swamebdnen.
aman ki mravali udanaSaulo amerikelis Rirseba da samoqala-
qo uflebebi Selaxa. maT ise Setopes `kudianebze nadirobaSi~
rom, Tavad gaxdnen miuRebelni mravali amerikelisTvis. am
movlenaze romelic `makartizmis~ saxeliT aris cnobili, uf-
ro dawvrilebiT Semdeg visaubrebT.
sxvaTa Soris, rodesac trumeni eizenhaueris damarcxe-
bas winaswarmetyvelebda, amas imiTac asabuTebda, rom is gar-
Semortymuli iyo iseTi adamianebiT, rogorebic tafti, ma-
karti, jeneri da kemi iyvnen [1, 714].

345
indianaSi gamosvlisas senatori jeneri gadaexvia kidec
eizenhauers da Tumca Semdeg generalma Tqva — `gasvrilad
vigrZeni Tavi am kacs rom Sevexeo~, magram ukve gvian iyo. ki-
dev ufro uaresi moxda makartis mSobliuri viskonsinis Sta-
tis udides qalaq miliuokiSi. antikomunizmis talRaze makar-
ti aravis indobda da Tavad jorj marSals, amerikis gamarjve-
bis erT-erT mTavar mWedels da eizenhaueris uaxloes adami-
ansa da mfarvels, moRalate uwoda. eizenhaueri amas mwared
ganicdida da swored miliuokiSi gamosvlisas apirebdaM marSa-
lis Rirsebis dacvas. eizenhaueris mier momzadebul sityvaSi
ewera — `vici, rom mas araloialobas abraleben, magram 35
wlis manZilze mqonda privilegia vicnobde mas. piradad me
vicnob mas, rogorc kacsa da jariskacs, romelic TavdadebiT
da udidesi patriotizmiT emsaxureboda amerikas~. rodesac
es teqsti viskonsinis gubernatorma valter kohlerma naxa, am
nawilis amoReba moiTxova, vinaidan es makartis Seuracyofad
CaiTvleboda misive StatSi, sxvebmac urCies amis gakeTeba da,
pragmatuli politikuri interesebidan gamomdinare eizenha-
uerma, marTlac aRar gariska am nawilis wakiTxva. rasakvirve-
lia, es ar iyo vaJkacuri saqcieli, miT umetes, ar ekadreboda
igi did generalsa da gmirs. magram politika xSirad arcTu
jentlmenur kopromisebs moiTxovs. eizenhaueris didma gul-
Sematkivarma, `niu-iork Taimsis~ gamomcemelma artur zul-
cbergerma depeSa gaugzavna generals — `albaT ar mWirdeba
imis Tqma, rom guli matkina am ambavma~. miuxedavad imisa, rom
ori kviris Semdeg sxva gamosvlaSi eizenhauerma jorj marSa-
li did amerikel patriotad moixsenia, xolo prezidentobi-
sas mwared dasaja makarti, es dReE mainc samarcxvino laqad
darCa mis biografiaSi [6, 3245-3246].
saprezidento kampania grZeldeboda da zedmeti emocie-
bis dros aRar tovebda. Tumca aiki mainc axerxebda iumoris
grZnobis SenarCunebas. Tavisi saprezidento kampaniis orga-
nizatorebze xumrobda: `isini ZiriTadad, imaze saubrobdnen,
Tu rogor SeeZloT gamarjveba Cemi popularobis meSveobiT
da aravin ambobda, rom mec maqvs cotaodeni tvini TavSi~ [7,
282]. isic uTqvams, rom — `demokratebi sityvier cecxls miSe-
nen, magram amas rogorme gadavitan, me xom artileristebis mi-
er gaxsnili cecxlic maxsovs~ [12, 234].

346
swored, am periodSi daiwyo `didi satelevizio revolu-
cia~, romelmac sruliad Secvala amerikis yofa da 1952 wlis
saprezidento kampaniis organizatorebmac marjved gamoiye-
nes komunikaciis es axali da efeqturi saSualeba. Aam saqmeSi
aqtiurad Caeba erT-erTi cnobili sareklamo saagento
BBD&O, romlis xelmZRvaneli ben dafi eizenhaueris piradi
megobari iyo. man es saqme cnobil specialists Ted Bates Agency-
is warmomadgenels roser rivzs miando, romelic male eizen-
haueris umniSvnelovanes mrCevlad iqca am sferoSi da sruli-
ad axleburad miudga politikuri sareklamo rgolebis Seq-
mnas. kerZod ki, prezidentis imijis ukeT `gasayidad~ gamoiye-
na ukve aprobirebuli sayofacxovrebo produqciis reklamis-
Tvis gankuTvnili meTodebi. igi maqsimalurad mokle klipebs
amzadebda, naTeli, uaRresad ubralo da yvelasTvis gasagebi
gzavnilebiT. magaliTad, `eizenhaueri — mSvidobis kaci~. zo-
gierTi klipi mxolod 15-wamian frazebsac ki gulisxmobda.
rivzi amas imiT asabuTebda, rom ruzveltis 1933 wlis sainau-
guracio gamosvlidan umravlesobas misi, mxolod, erTi fra-
za axsovda yvelaze kargad, kerZoT ki, rom `erTaderTi risic
unda gveSinodes es Tavad SiSia~. 1947 wels uinston CerCilis
cnobili gamosvlidan fultonSi yvelas axsovda fraza `rki-
nis fardis~ Sesaxeb, romelic evropas Camoefara an kidev misi-
ve lakonuri xotba britanul aviaciaze, romelmac 1940 wels
germanuli `luftvafesagan~ gadaarCina inglisi— `jer aras-
dros ar umadldodnen aseT didi raodenobis adamianebi Tavis
gadarCenas adamianTa aseT mcire jgufs~ [13, 229-232].
erT-erT aseT rgolSi eizenhauers ekiTxebian, `ras it-
yviT cxovrebis maRal Rirebulabaze~, razec mas unda epasuxa
— `Cemi coli memic Relavs amaze da me uTxari, rom Cveni valic
swored is aris, rom 4 noembris Semdeg SevcvaloT arsebuli
viTareba~. sxvaTa Soris, ukve 1953 wlis martSi, rodesac memi
pirveli ledis rangSi pirvel preskonferencias atarebda,
man siciliT ganacxada, rom yvelaze metad gadasaxadebis Sem-
cirebis kanonis miRebaSia dainteresebuli [14, 101]. Semdeg
rgolSi Tanamosaubre ekiTxeba aiks, `miWirs gadasaxdis ga-
daxda, roca vkiTxulob, rom gadasaxadis amkrefebs samsaxu-
ridan TaRliTobisTvis agdeben~. amaze aiki pasuxobs — `jer-
jerobiT ar vici ramdeni gadasaxadis gadamxdelia SeSfoTe-

347
buli da ramdeni TaRliTi dausxlta marTlmsajulebas, mag-
ram aucileblad gavigeb amas momaval ianvarSi~ [7, 282]. erT-
erTi aseTi rgolis momzadebisas, grimiorma sevdianad uTxra
eizenhauers, `rogorc medesante, TqvenTan erTad vibrZodi
safrangeTSi, axla am saqmiT var dakavebuli. maSin Tqvenc xuT
varskvlaviani generali iyaviT, axla ki mxolod politikosi
xarT, RmerTo sadamde daveciT~ [7, 287].
Tavis mxriv, demokrati kandidati, inteleqtuali adlai
stivensoni ukadrisobda aseT sareklamo rgolebs da albaT,
didi Secdomac dauSva [13, 232]. rodesac eizenhauerma, garkve-
ulwilad, am rgolebis wyalobidac daimkvidra ubralo adami-
anis imiji, romelic amerikelebs esoden moswondaT. erTxel
roca sityva `status-qvo~ gamoiyena, maSinve moibodiSa `mgoni
ar unda viyo metismetad ganaTlebuli kandidati~.
amerikelTa did nawils isic moswonda, rom eizenhaueri
RvTismoSiSi adamiani iyo da eTanxmeboda mis sityvebs rom `sa-
bolood yvela sakiTxi sulierebamde dadis~. es xalxi eizen-
haueris ocnebasac endoboda — rom masze eTqvaT — `is iyo pa-
tiosani kaci, is iyo Cemi megobari~ [12, 234].
arCevnebi eizenhauerisTvis warmatebulad mimdinareob-
da da respublikelTa lozungi `korufcia, korea, komunizmi~
anu, rom respublikelebi demokratTa wyalobiT warmoqmnil
am sam problemas moagvarebdnen, sakmaod efeqtianad muSaob-
da. komunizmis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi orive kandidati tols
ar udebTda erTmaneTs, magram rac Seexeba korufciasa da ko-
reas aq demokratebs marTlac, seriozuli problemebi hqon-
daT da respublikelebic galaRebulni utevdnen. vinaidan es
sakiTxebi marTlac, damokles maxviliviT emuqreboda demok-
ratTa popularobas. eizenhaueris gamarjveba lamis ganaRde-
buli Canda. Tumca, rogorc es xSirad xdeba, respublikelTa
uRrublo caze uecrad didi Savi Rrubeli gamoCnda. koruf-
ciis winaaRmdeg mebrZol `umwikvlo~ respublikelTa banakSi
Tavad gaCnda korufciasTan dakavSirebuli seriozuli prob-
lema, romelmac didi riskis qveS daayena maTi saarCevno kampa-
nia. kerZodD, respublikuri partiis vice-prezidentobis kan-
didats riCard niqsons Tavad dasdes brali korufciaSi, TiT-
qos igi kalifornieli milionerebis mier Segrovebuli .e.w.
saidumlo fondis TanxebiT sargeblobda. magram niqsonma es

348
braldeba brwyinvaled gaabaTila Tavis telegamosvlaSi, ro-
melic e.w. Cekersis sityvis saxeliT aris cnobili [2]. misi ga-
mosvla imdenad STambeWdavi aRmoCnda, rom mowinaaRmdegeebis
nacvlad axali momxreebi SesZina eizenhauerisa da niqsonis
tandems [15, 249].
rac SeexebaT demokratebs, hari trumenma, mxolod, 1952
wlis aprilSi ganacxada uari arCevnebSi monawileobaze Dda
rogorc cnobili amerikeli istorikosi, stenfordis univer-
sitetis profesori barton bernsteini aRniSnavda, amiT mniS-
vnelovnad gamoaswora Tavisi partiis politikuri mdgomare-
oba, vinaidan misi piradi popularaoba am droisTvis umdab-
les doneze iyo [6,3215].
demokratiuliP partiis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani kandi-
dati iyo tenesis senatori estes kefaveri, romelic cnobili
iyo satelivizio mosmenebiT organizebul danaSaulze da de-
mokratiuli partiis konventze mas yvelaze meti momxre hyav-
da. sxva kandidatebi iyvnen: Nniu-iorkis gubernatori averel
harimani, vice-prezidenti alben barkli, senatori jorjii-
dan riCard raseli da ilinoisis gubernatori adlai stiven-
soni.
trumens yvelaze ufro stivensonis kandidatura mos-
wonda, magram saqme imaSi iyo, rogorc Tavis droze eizenhaue-
ri, stivensonic fexs iTrevda prezidentobaze — `am ofisis
araviTari survila ar maqvs, arc gonebrivad, arc fizikurad
da arc Cemi temperamentidan gamomdinare~. ki magram, mainc
rom SemogTavazon prezidetoba, ras izamTo — hkiTxes mas `al-
baT Tavs moviklav~ — iyo pasuxi [7, 281].
trumeni mainc ar cxreboda da erT-erTi saubris dros
Cveuli TavmdablobiT isic ki uTxra — `Tu Cemnairma ubralo
kacma SeZlo prezidentoba da arc Tu Zalian cudad moaxerxa
es, warmoidgine, namdvilad ganaTlebuli da gonieri kaci ras
gaakeTebs am Tanamdebobaze~ [13, 222] .
sabolood, stivensoni, aseTi keklucobis miuxedavad,
mainc daiTanxmes da demokratiuli partiis konventma mesame
kenWisyrisas swored is airCia prezidentobis kandidatad.
aseTi ndobiT aRfrTovanebulma stivensonma konventze dide-
buli samadlobeli sityva warmoTqva, romlic demokratiuli
partiisadmi sadRegrZelos msgavsi diTirambiT daasrula —

349
`xalxi brZenia, is gacilebiT ufro brZenia, vidre respubli-
kelebs hgoniaT da swored demokratiuli partiaa xalxis par-
tia da ara Sromis partia, fermerTa partia an damqiravebelTa
partia — es aravis partia ar aris, es yvelas partiaa~[4,.3295].
1900 wels dabadebulma adlai stivensonma bavSvoba ili-
noisis patara qalaq blumingtonSi gaatara, sadac misi winap-
rebi saxlobdnen. winaprebi ki marTlac sasiqadulo hyavda.
babuamisi mamis mxridan 1893-1897 wlebSi amerikis vice-prezi-
denti iyo grover klivlendis administraciaSi. babua dedis
mxridan ki — abraham linkolnis axlo megobari da misi sapre-
zidento kampaniis menejeri. Tumca Tavad adlais mSoblebi
aseTi RirsebebiT ar gamoirCeodnen, magram Statis maRal sa-
zogadoebas ekuTvnodnen da Svilsac Sesaferisi ganTleba
misces. stivensonma harvardis universitetis samarTlis sko-
la daamTavra da 1941 wlamde iuridiuli praqtika hqonda Ci-
kagoSi. omis dros samxedro sazRvao flotSi, mere ki saxel-
mwifo departamentSi msaxurobda. 1948 wels igi ilinoisis
Statis istoriaSi yvelze didi umravlesobiT airCies guber-
natorad. stivensoni aqtiurad ibrZoda korufciisa da azar-
tuli TamaSebis biznesis winaaRmdeg da mniSvnelovnad daxvewa
Statis mmarTveli struqturebis saqmianoba. amave dros, igi
uaRresad ganaTlebuli adamiani da brwyinvale oratoric
iyo. ase rom, rogorc ojaxiSvilobiT, aseve ganaTlebiTa da
politikuri warsuliT igi marTlac, rom Rirseuli kandida-
ti iyo.
mravali politikosisTvis damaxasiaTebeli umaduroba
da cinikuri praqticizmi arc stivensonisTvis yofila ucxo
da prezidentobis kandidatad arCevis Semdeg erT-erTi pir-
veli, rac gaakeTa iyo trumenisgan gamijnvis mcdeloba. pre-
zidentisTvis samwuxarod, stivensonmac CaTvala, rom trume-
ni ukve metismetad arapopularuli iyo da masTan zedmeti si-
axlove xels SeuSlida mis saprezidento ambiciebs. amitomac
demokratiuli partiis erovnul komitetSi, rom aRaraferi
vTqvaT Tavis arCevnebis saorganizacio jgufze, man e.w. tru-
menis xalxis sakuTari kadrebiT Secvla daiwyo. maT Soris,
partiis erovnuli komitetis Tavmjdomared Tavisi Cikagoe-
li megobari stven miceli daniSna. stivensonis saarCevno
Stabbinis vaSingtonidan springfildSi gadatana aseve trume-

350
nisgan gamijvnis mizniT moxda. sxvasTan erTad, stivensonma
saarCevno kampaniisTvis prezidentis TviTmfrinavis gamoye-
nebazec ki uari Tqva [14, 96].
Tavis gamosvlebSi stivensoni ufro principuli iyo da
arasdros cdilobda auditoriis gemovnebas misadageboda. ma-
galiTad, amerikis legionis winaSe, romelic makartis aqtiu-
ri momxre iyo, patriotizmis Temaze gamosvlisas ar moerida
patriotizmis makartiseuli gagebis mZafr kritikas. virjini-
aSi, samoqalaqo omis dros samxreTis konfederaciis dedaqa-
laq riCmondSi, stivensoni swored, rasizmisa da segregaciis
politikis winaaRmdeg gamovida, eizenhaueri ki ToTxmet sam-
xreTul StatSi gamosvlisas arc erTxel ar Sexebia rasizms.
Sromis dRes detroitSi, profkavSiris mravali wevris winaSe
bolomde ar gaukritikebia taft-hartlis kanoni, rac ase moe-
woneboda im audtorias. axal orleansa da texasSi aRniSna,
rom kontroli sanapiro navTobis sar