YNAMIC
NCREMENTAL
ONLINEAR
NALYSIS
October 2005
ADINA R & D, Inc. owns both this software program system and its documentation. Both the
program system and the documentation are copyrighted with all rights reserved by ADINA R & D,
Inc.
Trademarks
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Copyright Notice
Table of contents
1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Objective of this manual.................................................................................. 1
1.2 Supported computers and operating systems .................................................. 2
1.3 Units ................................................................................................................ 2
1.4 ADINA System documentation....................................................................... 4
2. Elements ............................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Truss and cable elements................................................................................. 7
2.1.1 General considerations ............................................................................. 7
2.1.2 Material models and formulations............................................................ 9
2.1.3 Numerical integration............................................................................... 9
2.1.4 Mass matrices ......................................................................................... 10
2.1.5 Element output ....................................................................................... 11
2.1.6 Recommendations on use of elements.................................................... 11
2.1.7 Rebar elements ....................................................................................... 12
2.2 Twodimensional solid elements................................................................... 15
2.2.1 General considerations ........................................................................... 15
2.2.2 Material models and formulations.......................................................... 21
2.2.3 Numerical integration............................................................................. 22
2.2.4 Mass matrices ......................................................................................... 24
2.2.5 Element output ....................................................................................... 25
2.2.6 Recommendations on use of elements.................................................... 30
2.3 Threedimensional solid elements................................................................. 34
2.3.1 General considerations ............................................................................ 34
2.3.2 Material models and nonlinear formulations.......................................... 42
2.3.3 Numerical integration............................................................................. 44
2.3.4 Mass matrices ......................................................................................... 47
2.3.5 Element output ....................................................................................... 47
2.3.6 Recommendations on use of elements.................................................... 53
2.4 Beam elements .............................................................................................. 54
2.4.1 Linear beam element .............................................................................. 58
2.4.2 Large displacement elastic beam element .............................................. 64
2.4.3 Nonlinear elastoplastic beam element................................................... 65
2.4.4 Momentcurvature beam element........................................................... 70
2.4.5 Beamtied element.................................................................................. 80
2.4.6 Bolt element ........................................................................................... 82
2.5 Isobeam elements; axisymmetric shell elements.......................................... 84
2.5.1 General considerations ........................................................................... 84
1. Introduction
1.3 Units
When using the ADINA system, it is important to enter all
physical quantities (lengths, forces, masses, times, etc.) using a
consistent set of units. For example, when working with the SI
system of units, enter lengths in meters, forces in Newtons, masses
in kg, times in seconds. When working with other systems of units,
all mass and massrelated units must be consistent with the length,
force and time units. For example, in the USCS system (USCS is
an abbreviation for the U.S. Customary System), when the length
unit is inches, the force unit is pound and the time unit is second,
the mass unit is lbsec2/in, not lb.
Table 1.31 gives some of the more commonly used units
needed for ADINA input.
Installation Notes
Describes the installation of the ADINA System on your
computer.
2. Elements
Z l
l
l
l
Y
X (u, v, w) are global displacement
degrees of freedom (DOF)
Z
i vi
l
Y
(b) 1node ring element
ref. KJB ! Note that the only force transmitted by the truss element is the
Sections longitudinal force as illustrated in Fig. 2.12. This force is constant
5.3.1, in the 2node truss and the ring element, but can vary in the 3 and
6.3.3
4node truss (cable) elements.
Z P
Y
X
area A
s
Stress constant over
P crosssectional area
Young's modulus E
Z area A
P
R
R
Z 1 radian Y
l
Y
s (hoop stress)
X
Hoop strain = v/R Elastic stiffness = EA/R (one radian)
Circumferential force P = sA
! The local node numbering and natural coordinate system for the
2node, 3node and 4node truss elements are shown in Fig. 2.13.
r r=0 r
r=1 r=+1 r=1 r=+1
l l l l l
1 2 1 3 2
2node element 3node element
r=1/3 r r=1/3
r=1 r=1
l l l l
1 3 4 2
4node element
r r
l l l l
1 1 2
Onepoint integration Twopoint integration
r r
l l l l
1 2 3 1 2 3 4
Threepoint integration Fourpoint integration
See Section 12.1.1 for the definitions of those variables that are not
selfexplanatory.
! The AUI can generate truss elements that are connected to the
2D or 3D solid elements in which the truss elements lie. There are
several separate cases, corresponding to the type of the truss
element group and the type of the solid element group in which the
truss elements lie.
l l
l l l l l l
l
l l
l l l l l l
(a) Before data file generation (b) After data file generation
Figure 2.16: Rebar in 3D truss, planar 2D solid elements
l l l l
l
l l l l l l
l
l l l l l l
l
l l l l
l
3D solid element l Truss element
(a) Before data file generation (b) After data file generation
Figure 2.17: Rebar in 3D truss, 3D solid elements
AUI: Click the Define Element Group icon to open the Define
Element Group window. In this window, check that the Element
Type has been set to “Truss”. Click on the Advanced tab. Select
the “Use as Rebars” option from the Element Option dropdown,
and then fill in the RebarLine Label box below the Element
Option dropdown box.
l
l
l
l l
l
L
l
l
Recommendation:
l
l l
l
l l
l
l l l
l
l l
l l l
l l l l l
l l
z l l s xx = 0 l l e xx = 0
z
y s xy = 0 g xy = 0
x y
l l s xz = 0 x l l g xz = 0
exx = u/y ¶e ij
l l
(linear analysis) l l = constant
z z ¶x
g xy = 0 g xy = 0
x y y
l l
g xz = 0 x l l
g xz = 0
Z l l s xx = 0 (Stresses computed
s xy = 0 in element local
X Y l l s xz = 0 coordinate system)
! The basic finite element assumptions are, see Fig. 2.23, for the
coordinates
q q
y = ∑ hi yi ; z = ∑ hi zi
i =1 i =1
Z
s
2l l
5 1
l
w4
3l l
7 4 v4
l
z4
X Y
y4
Np Fyp
Up
Z, w w4 w3
4 v4 3 v3
Y, v
w1 v w2 v2
X, u 1
1 2
q q
v = ∑ hi vi ; w = ∑ hi wi
i =1 i =1
u = xU p − x( y − y p )Φ zp + x( z − z p )Φ yp
q
1 2 p
v = ∑ hi vi + x Φz
i =1 2
q
1 2 p
w = ∑ hi wi − x Φz
i =1 2
where
4node elements,
134.5 Hz 358.0 Hz
no incompatible modes
4node elements, 108.6 Hz 294.0 Hz
incompatible modes
107.1 Hz 279.9 Hz
8node elements
These element types are described on pp. 369370 of ref. KJB. The
strain singularities are obtained by collapsing one side of an 8node
rectangular element and not correcting the interpolation functions.
The 6node spatially isotropic triangle is obtained by correcting
the interpolation functions of the collapsed 8node element. It then
uses the same interpolation functions for each of the 3 corner nodes
and for each of the midside nodes. Note that when the corrections
to the interpolation functions are employed, only the element side
with end nodes 1 and 4 can be collapsed.
The 3node triangular element is obtained by collapsing one
ref. KJB
! The basic continuum mechanics formulations are described in
Sections 6.2 and ref. KJB, pp. 497537, and the finite element discretization is given
6.3.4 in ref. KJB pp. 538542, 549555.
ref. KJB ! Note that all these formulations can be mixed in one same finite
Section 6.8.1 element mesh. If the elements are initially compatible, then they
will remain compatible throughout the complete analysis.
s
INR=2 INS=2 s INS=3
INR=3
INR=1 INR=2
INR=1 INS=2
r r
INS=1
INS=1
a) Rectangular elements
2
1
1 4
3
r
1point 4point
3 3 4
2 6 7 8
5 2 10
6 12
1 7
4 1 11 13
5 9
7point 13point
b) Triangular elements
You can request that ADINA either print or save stresses or forces.
Figure 2.26: Local coordinate system for 3D plane stress element
with similar definitions for the other abbreviations used above. But
the variable DEFORMATION_GRADIENT(XYZ) is interpreted as
follows:
DEFORMATION_GRADIENT(XYZ) =
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTYY,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTZZ,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTXX,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTYZ,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTZY
! You can also request that strain energy densities be output along
with the stresses.
F = ∫ BT τ dV
V
Axis of revolution
l l l
p
l l
CL l l l
l
l
l
l l
l
1 unit
l
l
l
l
p
Mz p
My
Z
Np
Y Fp
X
1 radian 1 radian
l
l l
l l
l l
l l
l
l
l l
l l l
L
t
a) Axisymmetric idealizations
¥
P
l l l
l l l l l
l l l 1 unit l l t
l l l
L
¥
b) Plane strain idealization (long plate) c) Plane stress idealization (cantilever)
l l
l l l l l l l l
l
l l l l l l l
l
l l l
l l l l l l l
l l l l l l l
l l l l
l
l l l l l l l
l l l l l l l l l
l l l l l l l
l
l l l l l l l l l
l l l l
l l
l ll l
l l
l
l l l
l l
l l l l
l l l l
l l l l
l l l l l l
l l
l
l l
l l l
l
l l
l
l l l
l
l
l l
l l
l
l l
l l
l
l
l
l
l l l
l
l l l
l l
l
l l l
l l
l
l
l
l l
l l
l l l l
l
l
l l
l
l l
1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4,
9,10,1 1,12 9,10,1 1,12
19
19 18 18
20
20
7 7
14 14
15 15 17
17
6 6
27
8 13 8 13
16 16
5 5
q q q
x = ∑ hi xi y = ∑ hi yi z = ∑ hi zi
i =1 i =1 i =1
E,A
P
P
Plane sections do
B not remain plane.
A dB dA ¹ dB
L
dA
(c) 3D model
q q q
u = ∑ hi ui v = ∑ hi vi w = ∑ hi wi
i =1 i =1 i =1
where
No axial displacement
should be possible Line loads One quarter of
(uniform) the structure
is modeled
l
l l
l
l
l l
l
l l
l
l
Y Z
X
Z 2D model
Y
a) Plane strain 2D analysis applicable
l
l l
l l l l
l l l
l l l
l
l l
l
l l
l l
Fixed end
Z 3D model
Y
l l
l l l
l l 1 radian
Z l l l
l l
l l l of structure
is modeled
X
Y
Z Axisymmetric model
Y
c) Axisymmetric analysis applicable
Structure axisymmetric,
loading nonaxisymmetric 3D elements
l
l l l l l
l l
l l
l l l
l
l l
l
l l
l l
One quarter
Z
of structure
Y is modeled
d) Threedimensional model is used
t
Z 3
l
W4 l
10
11
l
l 26 2
4 V4 19 l
l l 23
12 l l
l l 9
24 21 l 1 18
l l l
U4 l 20 22
7 l
l
l l 14
15 25 l 17 l
8l l 6
27 s
l
l 13
Z8 r 16
l
5
X8 Y
Y8
X
Figure 2.34: Conventions used for the nodal coordinates
and displacements of the 3D solid element
20 8
x p ( r * , s* , t * ) = ∑ h (r , s , t ) x
i =1
i
* * * i
= ∑ h (r , s , t ) x
i =1
i
' * * * i
t
Z (r*,s*,t*) l
l l
l l
l
l
l l
l
l l
l l
l
l
l l
l
l
Y l
l l
l s
X l
l l
l l
l
l r l
l
All midside nodes are l
l l
l l
l
a) 20node element
Z (r*,s*,t*) t
l
l l
l
l l
l
Y l
X s
l
l l
l
r
l
l l
l
b) 8node element
1
< As a 20node triangular prism with the strain singularity
r
(see also Chapter 9);
ref. KJB ! Note that all these formulations can be used in one finite
Section 6.8.1 element mesh. If the elements are initially compatible, then they
will remain compatible throughout the analysis.
INR=1,INS=1,INT=3
s
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä Ä
Ä
Ä Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä
INR=1,INS=1,INT=1
r
INR=2,INS=1,INT=1
t t
5
1 1 4
s 2 s
1point r r 5point
3
16 17
4 15 5
4 13
5 5
4 s r
8 6 12 14 9 10
3 2 2 3
7 2 11
t t
FE_EFFECTIVE_STRESS, YIELD_STRESS,
EFFECTIVE_CREEP_STRAIN
with similar definitions for the other abbreviations used above. But
the variable DEFORMATION_GRADIENT(XYZ) is interpreted as
follows:
DEFORMATION_GRADIENT(XYZ) =
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTXX,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTXY,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTXZ,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTYX,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTYY,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTYZ,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTZX,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTZY,
DEFORMATION_GRADIENTZZ,
See Section 12.1.1 for the definitions of those variables that are
not selfexplanatory.
ref. KJB ! In ADINA, the stresses are calculated using the strains at the
Section 4.2.1 point of interest. Hence, they are not spatially extrapolated or
smoothed. The AUI can be employed to calculate smoothed
stresses from the results output by ADINA.
! You can also request that strain energy densities be output along
with the stresses.
F = ∫ BT τ dV
V
The nodal forces are accessible in the AUI using the variable
names NODAL_FORCEX, NODAL_FORCEY,
NODAL_FORCEZ.
Dam
Vessel
Tunnel
_
K qs
l

_ qr
s v _u
r l
_
Z 2 w _
l t qt
1
X Y
S11
S 10
S5 S8
S7
s
l
r
S2
S 2 S9
Z S4 1 l
t S12
1 S3
S6 Neutral axis
X Y
! You can create offcentered beam elements using the rigid link
(see Fig. 2.42 and Section 5.112).
Beam element
Rigid links
Hollow square section
Shear force
Internal hinge released
l l
r r r r
Element 1 Element 2 Element 1 Element 2
Beam element
Rigid end
< The mass of the rigid ends is taken into account in the mass
matrix calculations.
E = Young's modulus
ν = Poisson's ratio
L = length of the beam
I r , I s , I t = moments of inertia about the local principal axes r,
s, and t
A = crosssectional area
Assh , Atsh = effective shear areas in s and t directions
! You can enter either the section areas and moments of inertia, or
the dimensions for various sections (see Fig. 2.45 and Table
2.41).
! The x' and y' axes are the principal axes of the crosssection,
and have their origin at the centroid of the crosssection.
Note that the x' and y' axes are oriented relative to the element
local s and t coordinate axes according to Fig. 2.46, and that the
element s and t coordinate axes directions are controlled by the
location of the auxiliary node K (Fig. 2.41). The x' and y' axes
can be offset from the element s and t coordinate axes using
parameters SOFFSET, TOFFSET.
! When offsets are used they affect the moments of inertia Is and
It of the crosssection as follows
1⎛ H1 ⎛ H14 ⎞ ⎞ 3
Rectangular ⎜1 − 0.63 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎟ H1 H2, H1 ≤ H2
3⎝ H2 ⎝ 12H24 ⎠ ⎠
π
Pipe (H14 − H24 )
32
2 H3 H4 (H1  H3)2 (H2  H4)2
Box
H1 H3 + H2 H4  H32  H42
1
I
3
( H43 H1 + H63 H3 + H53 (H2  H4  H6) )
1
U
3
( 2H43 H1 + H33 (H2  2H4)) )
1
L
3
( H33H2 + H43 (H1  H3) )
y¢
y¢ THICKNESS
HEIGHT C.G. x¢
C.G. x¢
(H2)
WIDTH H2
(H1)
DIAMETER
(H1)
a) Rectangular section b) Pipe section
THICK 2 WIDTH 2
(H4) (H3)
y¢
y¢ THICK 3
(H6)
HEIGHT THICK 2
HEIGHT x¢ x¢ (H5)
(H2) (H2)
THICK 1 THICK 1
(H3) (H4)
WIDTH WIDTH
(H1) (H1)
THICK 2 THICK 1
(H4) (H3)
y¢
H5=H2H4
x¢ HEIGHT y¢
HEIGHT (H2) x¢
(H2) THICK 2
THICK 1
(H4)
(H3)
WIDTH WIDTH
(H1) (H1)
e) U section f) L section
y¢
t
C.G. x¢
TOFFSET
s
Node 1 Auxiliary
(or 2) node K
SOFFSET
Beam #2
Offset #1 Offset #2
Offset #3
Beam #1
Beam #3
One node at centroid
Figure 2.47: Using offsets to model offcentered beams
2
I xx + I yy ⎛ I xx − I yy ⎞
I x′x′ = + ⎜ ⎟ + I xy
2
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
2
I xx + I yy ⎛ I xx − I yy ⎞
I y′y′ = − ⎜ ⎟ + I xy
2
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
where the moments and products of inertia with respect to the axes
x and y are:
3 2 2
H 4 H13 ⎛H ⎞ H H ⎛ H ⎞
I xx = + H1 H 4 ⎜ 1 − C x ⎟ + 5 3 + H 5 H 3 ⎜ C x − 3 ⎟
12 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 12 ⎝ 2 ⎠
2 2
H1 H 43 ⎛ H 4 ⎞ H 3 H 53 ⎛H ⎞
I yy = + H1 H 4 ⎜ C y − ⎟ + + H5 H3 ⎜ 5 + H 4 − Cy ⎟
12 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 12 ⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛H ⎞⎛ H ⎞
I xy = H 5 H 3 ⎜ 3 − Cx ⎟ ⎜ 5 + H 4 − C y ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛ H ⎞⎛ H ⎞
+ H1 H 4 ⎜ −C y + 4 ⎟ ⎜ 1 − Cx ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠
In this case, the angles between the principal axes x’ and y’ and
the horizontal (according to Figure 2.45) are
These two angles are always 90o apart. For this Lshaped geometry,
the angle defining the major principal axis θx’ will always be the
angle between 0 o and 90o.
! The calculated quantities for this beam element are only the
element end forces/moments, and the output is as for the linear
elastic beam element.
DI t t
(HEIGHT) s s
DO DI
(WIDTH)
DO
Figure 2.48: Possible crosssections for nonlinear analysis
! The element can either be used using a 2D action option (in
which case the element must be defined in the global XY, XZ or
YZ planes) or a 3D action option (in which case the element can
have an arbitrary orientation).
⎡ r s t r s
⎢1 − L 6Ψ1 6Ψ1 0 Ψ 2t −Ψ 2 s −6Ψ1
L L L L
⎡ h ur ⎤ ⎢
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎛ r⎞
⎢ h us ⎥ = ⎢ 0 Ψ4 0 − ⎜1 − ⎟ t 0 Ψ5 L 0 Ψ6
⎢ hu ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ L⎠
⎣ t⎦ ⎢
⎛ r⎞
⎢ 0 0 Ψ4 ⎜1 − ⎟ s −Ψ 5 L 0 0 0
⎢⎣ ⎝ L⎠
t ⎤
−6Ψ1 0 −Ψ 3t Ψ3 s −(1 − 6Ψ1 )t (1 − 6Ψ1 ) s ⎥
L
⎥
r
0 − t 0 −Ψ1r 0 (r −Ψ 7 L) ⎥
L ⎥
r ⎥
Ψ6 s Ψ1r 0 (r −Ψ 7 L) 0 ⎥
L ⎥⎦
in which
2 2 2
r ⎛r⎞ r ⎛r⎞ r ⎛r⎞
Ψ1 = − ⎜ ⎟ ; Ψ 2 = 1 − 4 + 3 ⎜ ⎟ ; Ψ3 = 2 − 3 ⎜ ⎟
L ⎝L⎠ L ⎝L⎠ L ⎝L⎠
2 3 2 3
⎛r⎞ ⎛r⎞ r ⎛r⎞ ⎛r⎞
Ψ 4 = 1 − 3 ⎜ ⎟ + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ; Ψ5 = − 2 ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟
⎝L⎠ ⎝L⎠ L ⎝L⎠ ⎝L⎠
2 3 2 3
⎛r⎞ ⎛r⎞ r ⎛r⎞ ⎛r⎞
Ψ6 = 3 ⎜ ⎟ − 2 ⎜ ⎟ ; Ψ7 = − 3 ⎜ ⎟ + 2 ⎜ ⎟
⎝L⎠ ⎝L⎠ L ⎝L⎠ ⎝L⎠
r r
Integration points
s
equally spaced
... 3 1 2 4 ...
Ä Ä Ä Ä r
r = 1 r=0 r=1
t
a) Integration point locations in rdirection
Integration s
points
equally
spaced t Ä2
Ä1
q Ä3
HEIGHT s
Ä
Ä
Ä
312
WIDTH
...
Integration
ÄÄÄ
points 2
1 s
equally 3
spaced
...
Rectangular section
1 2 1
2 Ä
Äa Ä aÄ
3 a 3 a
Ä Ä
q
q
! The flexural and the torsional behavior of the beam element are
respectively described by "bending moment vs. curvature" and
"torsional moment vs. angle of twist" relationships. These
relationships are input in ADINA in the form of multilinear
functions (see Figure 2.411).
F3
F4 Curvature
(or twist angle per
F5 unit length)
Axial force
! Note that the beam element does not include any shear
deformation when the momentcurvature description is used.
! Note also that warping effects must be taken into account in the
definition of the "torsional moment vs. twist" input curve if
necessary.
Last input
data point
Curvature
(or twist angle per
unit length)
0
yyield
2´yyield
1: kinematic hardening
0
2: mixed hardening
3: isotropic hardening
x
2´yyield
y
yrupture
Rupture:
last input
Slope must data point
decrease as
x increases
yyield
Yielding:
First input
data point
x
xyield xrupture
! The same element section can be plastic with respect to the axial
deformation, but still elastic with respect to bending or torsion.
The same remark applies for rupture.
y
ypositive
rupture
x negative xnegative x
rupture yield x positive
x positive
yield rupture
ynegative
yield
Curve cannot
pass through
this quadrant
ynegative
rupture
y
yu¢
yi ¢
yu¢
>1
yu¢ yi ¢
yi ¢
x
Plastic strain
Figure 2.416: Typical material curve with a cyclic rigidity different than
the initial rigidity
Node 1
Momentr
Momentt
Moments
Plasticmultilinear: PLASTIC_FLAG_AXIAL,
PLASTIC_FLAG_TORSION, PLASTIC_FLAG_BENDINGS,
PLASTIC_FLAG_BENDINGT, AXIAL_FORCE,
TORSIONAL_MOMENT, BENDING_MOMENTS,
BENDING_MOMENTT, AXIAL_STRAIN, TWIST,
CURVATURES, CURVATURET,
PLASTIC_AXIAL_STRAIN, PLASTIC_TWIST,
PLASTIC_CURVATURES, PLASTIC_CURVATURET,
ACCUM_PLASTIC_AXIAL_STRAIN,
ACCUM_PLASTIC_TWIST,
ACCUM_PLASTIC_CURVATURES,
ACCUM_PLASTIC_CURVATURET, YIELD_AXIAL_FORCE,
YIELD_TORSIONAL_MOMENT,
YIELD_BENDING_MOMENTS,
YIELD_BENDING_MOMENTT
! In the case of beam elements with rigid ends, the element stress
resultants are computed at the integration point locations
corresponding to the flexible part of the element, excluding the
rigid ends.
! The beamtied element must have a finite length, i.e. the end
nodes must be further apart than a minimum distance. This
minimum distance can be relative (proportional to the model
dimensions) or absolute. For nodes that are closer than this
minimum distance, the springtied element should be used instead,
see Section 2.9.3.
! During the solution for the first, second and successive solution
steps, the bolt force can vary depending on the loads applied to the
model.
! The formulation used for the bolt elements can either be small
displacements or large displacements. Any crosssection available
for the beam element can be used, but only the isotropic elastic
material model can be used. For the pipebolt option, only a
circular crosssection is applicable.
0
K (i −1) ∆U ( i ) = R (Ii −1) − 0 F ( i −1)
and
0
U (i ) = 0 U (i −1) + ∆U (i )
where R (Ii −1) is the consistent nodal point force corresponding to the
forces in the bolt elements.
R m − R 0m
< TOLL
R 0m
( i −1)T
R (Ii −1) = ∫B
0
τ ( i −1) dV
V
R 0m
where τ m0 = , Am = crosssectional area of bolt element m
Am
and α is a stresslevel based factor.
! The plane stress 2D beam element is identical to the 3D beam
element but constrained to act only in the YZ plane. Hence, all
motion of the 2D plane stress beam element must occur in the YZ
plane (see Fig. 2.52).
! The difference between the plane strain and the plane stress 2D
beam elements is that for the plane strain element, it is assumed
that the outofplane strain εxx is equal to zero whereas the outof
plane stress σxx is equal to zero for the plane stress element.
Axisymmetric shell:
Z
1 radian
Y
Plane stress beam: Plane strain beam:
Z l
Z l
l
sxx=0 l exx=0
l
l
l Y
X l Y
X
Figure 2.51: 2D beam, axisymmetric shell, and 3D beam elements
s
r 2
l
1l
Z Element has constant
rectangular crosssection
1
l
3 s
Axis of l
symmetry r
Z 4
Element has varying l
thickness crosssection
l
Y Element can have 2, 3
or 4 nodes 2
s 2 2node isobeam
1 r
3 2
1
rs plane
3node isobeam
Auxiliary node
4 2
3
rs plane
1
Auxiliary node
4node isobeam
ref. KJB ! The element matrices and vectors are formulated using the
Sections 5.4.1 isoparametric interpolation, and Gauss or NewtonCotes numerical
and 6.5.1 integration is used to evaluate these matrices in all analyses. For the
2D beam and axisymmetric shell elements, numerical integration
is only performed in the rs plane, hence these elements are
considerably less expensive in terms of computer time than the
general 3D element. The locations and labeling of the integration
points are illustrated in Fig. 2.53.
31 Ä
32 Ä 31Ä
r 21 Ä
r
33 Ä Ä 32
22 Ä
23 Ä Ä 21
s Ä
22
s
12Ä 11
Ä
Ä Ä Ä
13 12 11
label = 10(INR) + INS label = 10(INR) + INS
! For the 3D beam element, you can choose either 4×4 Gauss or
7×7 NewtonCotes integration over the beam crosssection (along s
and t).
113
Ä Ä Ä
133
213 t Ä 132
Ä Ä
Ä Ä
Ä
111 121
Ä Ä
Ä Ä
313Ä 323 Ä Ä
Ä Ä s
rÄ
322 Ä Ä
Ä Ä 231
Ä
t 112
Ä Ä 122
312 s
Ä Ä Ä Ä
r 221
Ä Ä
321 label = 100(INR) + 10(INS) + INT
d) Gauss integration (3 2 2)
l l
l
l l
l
l Shell node
l Isobeam node
a) Stiffened plate
l
l
l l
l l
l l l l
l
l l l
ll l
l l
l l
l l
l
b) Stiffened shell
F = KU
ref. KJB ! The element matrices are evaluated using Gauss or Newton
Section 6.6.3 Cotes numerical integration. In elasticplastic analysis, the stress
strain matrix is modified to include the effects of plasticity. This
stressstrain matrix is based on the classical flow theory with the
von Mises yield condition and is derived from the three
dimensional stressstrain law with the appropriate stresses and
strains set to zero.
ref. KJB ! The consistent mass matrix is calculated using the isoparametric
Section 5.4.1 formulation with the displacement interpolations given on p. 408 of
ref. KJB.
⎛ !i ⎞
! The lumped mass for degree of freedom i is M ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ , where M
⎝L⎠
is the total mass, L is the element length and ! i is a fraction of the
length associated with node i. The rotational mass is
1 ! ⎛1 ⎞
⋅ M ⋅ i ⎜ ( b 2 + d 2 ) ⎟ . For a 2node isobeam element
3 L ⎝6 ⎠
L L
!1 = ! 2 = , while for a 4node isobeam element !1 = ! 2 = and
2 6
L
! 3 = ! 4 = (see Fig. 2.56).
3
a) 2node element
M M M
4 2 4 Note: M = total mass
l l l of element (2D or 3D
beam elements)
b) 3node element
M M M M
6 3 3 6
l l l l
c) 4node element
FE_EFFECTIVE_STRESS, THERMAL_STRAIN,
ELEMENT_TEMPERATURE
ref. KJB Nodal forces: Nodal point forces are obtained using the relation
Section 6.3
∫
t +∆t t +∆t t +∆t
F= BT τ dV
t +∆t
V
ref. J.L. Batoz, K.J. Bathe, and L.W. Ho, "A Study of
ThreeNode Triangular Plate Bending Elements", Int. J.
Num. Meth. in Eng., Vol. 15, pp. 17711812, 1980.
ref. K.J. Bathe and L.W. Ho, "A Simple and Effective
Element for Analysis of General Shell Structures", J.
Computers and Structures, Vol. 13, pp. 673681, 1981.
( )
Kθ z = a value of kθ x , kθ x × 104
in order to remove the zero stiffness but yet not affect the analysis
results significantly.
! In the linear analysis of flat plates that lie parallel to the global
coordinate planes, the rotational degrees of freedom normal to the
1 qz qy
l
w v
Z l
3
u
Y qx
X l
2
x
z z z
qz
y + w y = wy
v qy u v qy
x u x qx x
qx
KM KB K
< The element does not model shear deformations and is only
applicable to the analysis of thin plates and shells.
< The element does not contain any spurious zero energy
mode.
Z Beam
X Y
Note: Torque is taken by the beam only (except for the very
small value resisted by the Kqz stiffness of the plate).
P
Z
Y P
X d2
d1
P
Z
Y
X P d2
d1
P
Z
Y P
d2
X
d1
(c) Cantilever plate model, d1 ¹ d2
Z Z
Y Y
X X
(a) Model of clamped plate. Corner (b) Model of clamped plate. Corner
element shows zero response. region shows nonzero response.
Z
Y
M
! The translational lumped mass assigned to each node is and
3
M t2
the rotational lumped mass is ⋅ , in which t is the thickness of
3 6
the plate element.
MEMBRANE_STRAINYL, MEMBRANE_STRAINXLYL,
CURVATUREXL, CURVATUREYL, CURVATUREXLYL
The indices XL and YL indicate that the results are output with
respect to the element local coordinate system.
See Section 12.1.1 for the definitions of those variables that are
not selfexplanatory.
ref. KJB ! The basic equations used in the formulation of the element are
Sections 5.4.2 given in ref. KJB.
and 6.5.2
! The shell element is formulated treating the shell as a three
dimensional continuum with the following two assumptions used in
the Timoshenko beam theory and the Reissner/Mindlin plate
theory:
For the Timoshenko beam theory, the structure is the beam, and
for the Reissner/Mindlin plate theory, the structure is the plate
under consideration. In shell analysis, these assumptions
correspond to a very general shell theory.
< The coordinates of the node k that lies on the shell element
midsurface at t xk , t yk , t zk (see Fig. 2.73); (the left
superscript denotes the configuration at time t)
a) Midsurface description
c) Topbottom description
b) Triangle
e) Multilayered shell
ref. KJB < The shell thickness, ak , at the nodal points measured in the
Fig. 5.33
page 437
direction of the director vectors t Vnk (see Fig. 2.74 and
Section 2.7.2).
t
For the 9node shell, the
2 midsurface center node
is local node number 13.
6 9 s
10 14 5
15 1
3 13
12
16
7 r
8
11
26 15 30 21 1
13
3 31 17
29 12
16
19 7
32 28
8
23 11
r
24
27 4
b) Topbottom nodes 20
q
t q
x = ∑ hk xk + ∑
t t t
ak hk Vnxk
k =1 2 k =1
q
t q
y = ∑ hy yk + ∑
t t t
ak hk Vnyk
k =1 2 k =1
q
t q
z = ∑ hk zk + ∑ ak hk Vnzk
t t t
k =1 2 k =1
where q is the number of element nodes and t Vnxk , tVnyk , tVnzk are
the direction cosines of the shell director vector t Vnk .
l k
element 1 l
element 2
The configuration shown
corresponds to time t=0.
0 k 0 k
Vn Vn
elt.1 elt.2
l
k kl
l
element 1 l
element 2
! Note that if the nodal point midsurface director vectors are input
or generated (see Section 2.7.3) to be initially "exactly" normal to
the midsurface of the shell element (the coordinates of this
midsurface are obtained by interpolation from the nodal points on
the midsurface), then assumption 1 is also exactly satisfied in the
finite element solution, but assumption 2 is only approximately
fulfilled in geometric nonlinear analysis, because the directions of
the initially normal vectors are updated.
l k
element 1 l
element 2
0 k 0 k
Vn Vn
l
k kl
l
element 1 l
element 2
l k
element 1 l
element 2
0 k 0 k
Vn Vn
l
k kl
l
element 1 l
element 2
( L1 L+2L2 ) a
0 k+1
a Vn
0
0 k
Vn Vn
l l
k k+1
L1 L2
Angle = 90°
t
l
Vn
l
l
Z Final configuration
Angle ¹ 90°
Y
X
b) Change in direction of director vector due to
displacements and deformations (with shear)
t
s
t
s
s
r
r
s´t s= t ´ r
r=
s´t 2 t´r 2 r
t t
s
t
s
s
r
r
t= r´s , r=
s ´ t , s=t´r
(t = 0)
r´s s´t r
< The translations uk, vk, wk are referred to the global Cartesian
system (or to the skew system if such a system is defined at the
node)
Y × 0 Vnk
0
V =
1
k
Y × 0 Vnk
2
0
V2k = 0 Vnk × 0 V1k
For the special case when the 0 Vnk vector is parallel to the Y
axis, the program uses the following conventions:
0
V1k ≡ Z 0
V2k ≡ X when 0
Vnk ≡ + Y
and
0
V1k ≡ −Z 0
V2k ≡ X when 0
Vnk ≡ −Y
No rotational
stiffness for k
Vn
this DOF
wk
l Z
l
l
vk bk
l
Y
X
uk ak
< The translations uk, vk, wk are referred to the global Cartesian
system or any skew system assigned to node k.
< A director vector would in general not be input for this node.
(Note that any director vector input is ignored for a shell node
with six degrees of freedom.)
4 3 2 1l
l l l
5 MZ FZ
6
l l
MY FX
9l 8 l
7 l l
l l
l l
l l
l l l
l
l
l
l
l l
l
l l
l
Transition nodes
l
Z wk vk
uk
Y
X
a) Example of a transition element
t DL uniform
over element
DL s
L
r
l l
l
l
l
l l
l l l
l
l l l
l l
l l l l l
l
ref. K.J. Bathe and L.W. Ho, "Some Results in the Analysis
of Thin Shell Structures," in Nonlinear Finite Element
Analysis in Structural Mechanics, W. Wunderlich et al
(eds.), SpringerVerlag, 1981.
ref. KJB ! Numerical integration is used for the evaluation of the element
Section 5.5 matrices, and the default integration or a higher order should
always be used; then no spurious zero energy modes are present.
t t t
Ä2 Ä3 Ä4
2 Ä3
Ä
1 Ä2
Ä Ä1 Ä1
Order = 5 Order = 6
t t t
3 5 7
Ä
Ä Ä 6
Ä
4
Ä 5
Ä
2 3
Ä Ä 4
Ä
2 Ä
3
1 Ä1 Ä
2
Ä Ä Ä
1
Order = 3 Order = 5 Order = 7
b) NewtonCotes integration in the thickness direction
3 3 2 Gauss integration: t s
INR=1,INS=1,INT=2 Ä Ä Ä
Ä ÄÄ ÄÄ Ä
INR=1,INS=1, r
INT=1 Ä ÄÄ ÄÄ Ä
Ä Ä Ä
INR=3,INS=1,INT=1
2 2 3 NewtonCotes integration:
t s
INR=1,INS=2,INT=3 Ä Ä
Ä Ä
Ä Ä
Ä Ä r
Ä Ä
Ä Ä
INR=2,INS=1,INT=1
4 3 integration: t
s
Ä
Ä
Ä
Ä Ä
Ä r
Ä
Ä Ä
Ä INS=4,INT=1
Ä
Ä INS=1,INT=2
INS=1,INT=1
7 2 integration:
t
s
Ä
INS=7,INT=2
Ä Ä
Ä Ä Ä Ä r
Ä ÄÄ Ä
Ä Ä
INS=7,INT=1
Ä
INS=4,INT=1
< Specify the data of each layer (or ply) in terms of the weight
per unit surface of the fiber Wf, the density of the fiber ρ f and
the fiber volume fraction of the fibermatrix compound φ f .
The AUI then computes the thickness of each layer
Wf
automatically using the formula h = , in which it is
ρ f φf
assumed that the ply is made of uniaxial fibers, so that the fiber
thickness fraction perpendicular to the plate midsurface is
proportional to the fiber volume fraction. The total thickness of
the multilayered shell is then the sum of the ply thicknesses.
This approach is especially useful when the layers are fiber
matrix composites.
1⎡ ⎛ n i⎞ n n ⎤
t = −1 + ⎢ 2 ⎜ ∑ ! ⎟ − ! (1 − t ) ⎥ (2.71)
a ⎣ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ ⎦
with
e3
l
3
Y t l
e2
e1 l
X l 2
s
r l
a4 4 l l 1
Vn
l
l 1
e2 ´ lV kn 1l V2
l k
V1 =
 e2 ´ lVnk  2 l 1 b1
V1 a1
l k
V 2 = lVnk ´ lV 1k
z,w
y,v
x,u
N ⎡
N
⎛ a n
!n ⎞ n ! nk ⎤ ! k
!
xi = ∑ hk ! xik + ∑ ⎢⎜ − k + ∑ !ik − k ⎟+t ⎥ hk Vni (2.72)
k =1 k =1 ⎣⎝ 2 i =1 2 ⎠ 2⎦
with
!
xi = coordinates of a point inside layer n
N = number of nodes
hk = interpolation functions
!
xik = Cartesian coordinates of node k
!
Vnik = components of normal vector ! Vnk
ak = total element thickness at node k
!ik = thickness of layer i at node k
! [ ] = 0 in the initial configuration, 1 in the deformed
configuration
ak n
!n
mkn = − + ∑ !ik − k (2.73)
2 i =1 2
N N
⎛ t n ! nk ⎞ 0 k
ui = ∑ hk uik + ∑ ⎜ mkn + ⎟ ( − V2i α k + V1i β k )
0 k
k =1 k =1 ⎝ 2 ⎠
(2.74)
with
I xx2
k xz = (2.75)
a a
g xz2
∫ ∫
2 2
Gxz dz dz
−a 2 −a 2 Gxz
and the transverse shear stress in terms of the shear strain value
γ xz is
I xx g xz ( z )
σ xz ( z ) = γ xz (2.76)
a
g
∫− a 2 Gxzxz dz
2
where
a
I xx = ∫ a Dxx ( z − z0 ) dz
2 2
− 2
Exxn
Dxxn =
1 −ν xyn ν yxn
Dxx = Dxxn in layer n
Exx = Young's modulus
The rotational lumped mass for all except explicit dynamic analysis
M 1
is, ⋅ ( tav2 ) where tav is the average shell thickness. The same
n 12
rotational mass matrix is assumed for 5 and 6degree of freedom
nodes, and is applied to all rotational degrees of freedom.
M 1 2
⋅ ( t + A2 ) , where tav is the average shell thickness and A is
n 12 av
the crosssectional area. The rotational masses are scaled up to
ensure that the rotational degrees of freedom do not reduce the
critical time step for shell elements. The same rotational mass
matrix is assumed for 5 and 6degree of freedom nodes and is
applied to all rotational degrees of freedom.
Xc < τa < Xt
Yc < τb < Yt
Zc < τc < Zt
− Sab < τ ab < Sab
− Sac < τ ac < Sac
− Sbc < τ bc < Sbc
The failure of the material occurs when any one of the following
inequalities is not satisfied anymore:
where (εa, εb, εc, γab, γac, γbc) is the strain vector referred to the
principal material directions.
The above conditions are applicable to 3D analysis. In plane
stress analysis, however, the parameters Zεt, Zεc, Sεac and Sεbc are not
used.
(G + H )τ a2 + ( F + H )τ b2 + ( F + G )τ c2 − 2 Hτ aτ b − 2Gτ aτ c − 2 Fτ bτ c
+ 2 Lτ bc2 + 2 M τ ac2 + 2 Nτ ab2 < 1
with
1⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞
F = ⎜− 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟
2⎝ X Y Z ⎠
1⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞
G= ⎜ 2
− 2+ 2⎟
2⎝ X Y Z ⎠
1⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞
H= ⎜ 2
+ 2− 2⎟
2⎝ X Y Z ⎠
1
L=
2 Sbc
1
M=
2 Sac
1
N=
2 S ab
where
In the case when plane stress conditions are used, the material
behavior with respect to failure is considered as transversely
isotropic (Y=Z), and the failure criterion reduces to
τ a2 τ aτ b τ b2 τ ab2
− + + <1
X2 X2 Y2 Sab2
In this case, the maximum allowable stresses Z, Sbc and Sac are not
used.
τ1 = τ a ; τ 2 = τ b ; τ 3 = τ c
τ 4 = τ ab ; τ 5 = τ ac ; τ 6 = τ bc
and with
1 1 1
F1 = + ; F11 = −
X at X ac X at X ac
1 1 1
F2 = + ; F22 = −
X bt X bc X bt X bc
1 1 1
F3 = + ; F33 = −
X ct X cc X ct X cc
F4 , F5 , F6 = 0
1 1 1
F44 = ; F55 = ; F66 =
Sab Sac Sbc
For plane stress conditions, the parameters Zt, Zc, Sbc, Sac, Fbc
and Fac are not used.
⎛ 1 1 ⎞
Fij = − ⎜ +
⎜ X it X ic X jt X jc ⎟⎟
⎝ ⎠
with i ≠ j and i, j = a, b, c
τ a2
+
(τ 2
ab + τ ac2 )
<1 (if τ a > 0) (2.77)
X t2 Sab2
τa
<1 (if τ a < 0) (2.78)
Xc
(τ b + τ c )
2
(τ 2
− τ bτ c ) (τ 2
+ τ ac2 )
Yt 2
+
bc
Str2
+
ab
S ab2
<1 ( if (τ b + τ c ) > 0)
(2.79)
⎡ ⎛ Yc ⎞ ⎤
2
(τ b + τ c ) ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 Str ⎠ ⎥⎦ (τ b + τ c ) (τ b − τ bτ c ) (τ ab + τ ac )
2 2 2 2
+ + + <1
Yc 4Str2 Str2 S ab2
( if (τ b + τ c ) < 0)
(2.710)
with
6
Fiτ i + Fijτ iτ j = 1 if ∑α τ
i=1
i i >0
with
τ1 = τ a ; τ 2 = τ b ; τ 3 = τ c
τ 4 = τ bc ; τ 5 = τ ac ; τ 6 = τ ab
The material failure occurs when any one of the failure surfaces is
reached and the corresponding stress condition is satisfied at the
same time.
You can request that ADINA either print and save stresses or
forces.
( )
midsurface rˆ, sˆ, tˆ axes (see Fig. 2.76b). For the large
displacement/large strain ULH formulation, both the local and
( )
midsurface axes are the rˆ, sˆ, tˆ axes, so the results in both the
local and midsurface systems are identical. In addition, for
orthotropic material models, the results referred to the material axes
can be requested.
ACCUM_EFF_PLASTIC_STRAIN,
FE_EFFECTIVE_STRESS, YIELD_STRESS,
EFFECTIVE_CREEP_STRAIN
( )
when results are referred to the ( r , s , t ) or rˆ, sˆ, tˆ axes,
STRESS(XYZ) = STRESSRR, STRESSSS,
STRESSTT, STRESSRS, STRESSRT,
STRESSST
Hashin: FAILURE_FLAG_TENSFIBER,
FAILURE_FLAG_COMPFIBER,
FAILURE_FLAG_TENSMATRIX,
FAILURE_FLAG_COMPMATRIX,
FAILURE_CRITERION_TENSFIBER,
FAILURE_CRITERION_COMPFIBER,
FAILURE_CRITERION_TENSMATRIX,
FAILURE_CRITERION_COMPMATRIX
Usersupplied: FAILURE_FLAG_SURFACE1,
FAILURE_FLAG_SURFACE2,
FAILURE_FLAG_SURFACE3,
FAILURE_FLAG_SURFACE4, FAILURE_FLAG,
FAILURE_CRITERION_SURFACE1,
FAILURE_CRITERION_SURFACE2,
FAILURE_CRITERION_SURFACE3,
FAILURE_CRITERION_SURFACE4
See Section 12.1.1 for the definitions of those variables that are
not selfexplanatory.
Fig. 2.716 shows the convention used for positive forces and
moments. Table 2.71 contains the formulas used to evaluate the
stress and strain resultants and the neutral axes positions. They are
always referred to the local Cartesian system ( r , s , t ) (see Fig.
2.715).
s
´
Ä ´
B ´
Ä D
´ Point labels INR INS
A 1 1
B 1 2
r C 2 1
´
Ä
A
´ ´
Ä
C D 2 2
´
h/2
a) Point labeling for section results
(2 2 2 Gauss integration) E r zdz
h/2
Z 0r =
Layer number h/2
+ _h
5 2 E r dz
4 h/2
3 Z 0r
2 h/2
1
 h_ Es zdz
2
h/2
Z 0s =
h/2
b) Definition of the neutral axes Es dz
h/2
Note that the section results are given with respect to the local Cartesian system of
the shell elements.
t
s
Rss
Rrs
Rrs
r Rrr
t
s
Rst Mrr
Mss Rrt Mrs
r Mrs
Figure 2.716: Nomenclature for shell stress resultants
(positive)
ref. KJB Nodal forces: The nodal point force vector which corresponds to
Example 5.11 the element internal stresses can also be requested in ADINA. The
pp. 358359 procedure for the calculation of the force vector is given in ref.
KJB.
The nodal forces are accessible in the AUI using the variable
names NODAL_FORCEX, NODAL_FORCEY,
NODAL_FORCEZ, NODAL_MOMENTX, NODAL_MOMENT
Y, NODAL_MOMENTZ.
does not lock and has a high predictive capability and hence can be
used for effective analysis of thin and thick shells. See references:
r
l
l
t t
l s
l
l
l
s
l
l l
l l
l
l l l
l l
l
l l l
l
l
l
l l
r
l r
MITC16 MITC9
(b) 16node cubic shell element for thick and thin shells.
9node shell element for thick and thin shells.
ref. KJB ! The phenomenon of an element being much too stiff is in the
pp. 403408 literature referred to as element locking. In essence, the
phenomenon arises because the interpolation functions used for an
element are not able to represent zero (or very small) shearing or
membrane strains. If the element cannot represent zero shearing
strains, but the physical situation corresponds to zero (or very
small) shearing strains, then the element becomes very stiff as its
thickness over length ratio decreases.
Our MITC3, MITC4, MITC9 and MITC16 elements are
implemented to overcome the locking problem. When you choose
a 4node shell element, the MITC4 element is used for quadrilateral
elements and MITC3 is used for triangular elements. When you
choose a 3, 9 or 16node single layered shell element, the MITC3,
MITC9 and MITC16 elements are used.
3
l l
l
l
2 l
2
l
l
l l
l l
l
4
l
3 l
l
l
l l
l
l
l 1 and 4
1
a) Quadrilateral elements b) Triangular elements
tab
Convention for
pipe stresses Pipe global displacement
taa
degrees of freedom
tcc
Integration point
tac
b
3 4 c a
s
t r
1 2
f
q R
Z
Nodes 1 to 4
and KK must
lie in one plane
Y (rs plane).
X
Auxiliary node KK
ref. K.J. Bathe and C.A. Almeida, "A Simple and Effective
Pipe Elbow Element ─ Linear Analysis," J. Appl. Mech.,
Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 93100,
1980.
ref. K.J. Bathe, C.A. Almeida and L.W. Ho, "A Simple and
Effective Pipe Elbow Element ─ Some Nonlinear
Capabilities," Comp. & Structures, Vol. 17, No. 5/6, pp.
659669, 1983.
ref. K.J. Bathe and C.A. Almeida, "A Simple and Effective
Pipe Elbow Element ─ Interaction Effects," J. Appl.
Mech., Transactions of The ASME, Vol. 49, pp. 165171,
1982.
ref. K.J. Bathe and C.A. Almeida, "A Simple and Effective
Pipe Elbow Element ─ Pressure Stiffening Effects," J.
Appl. Mech., Transaction of the ASME, Vol. 49, pp. 914
916, 1982.
Rigid flange
Pipe centroidal axis
Pipe elements
R1
Junction
R2
∂ wξ
wζ =
∂φ
and
wξ sin φ − wζ cos φ ⎛ 1 ∂ 2 wζ ⎞
ov
eaa = −⎜ ⎟ζ
R − a cos φ ⎜ ( R − a cos φ )2 ∂θ 2 ⎟
⎝ ⎠
γ abov = 0 (2.81)
1 ∂ wζ
γ acov =
R − a cos φ ∂θ
t Pipe element
r
s Mt
Mt
(inplane moment)
Ms
Ms s
(outofplane moment)
1 ⎛ ∂ 2 wξ ⎞
e = − 2 ⎜⎜ wζ + ⎟⎟ ζ
ov
∂φ 2
cc
a ⎝ ⎠
⎛ cos φ ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ∂wη
w
eaa = ⎜1 − ζ ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ R − a cos φ ⎠ ⎝ R − a cos φ ⎠ ∂θ
γ abw = 0
1 ∂wη w sin φ
γ acw = − η (2.82)
a ∂φ R − a cos φ
eccw = 0
Here, a is the pipe mean radius, R is the bend radius and θ and
φ are the angles defined in Fig. 2.81.
! Note that the above equations for the pipebeam and pipeshell
elements give the same stress response if there is no ovalization.
Hence, the ovalization and warping of the pipeshell element can
be thought of as an additional kinematic mode to the pipebeam
response which results in an appropriate reduction of stiffness of
pipe bends.
Rδ
λ=
a 2
1 −ν 2
¶Wb
=0
¶a
Wb a Ovalization and warping
equal to zero at node j
for element i.
Node j
Element i
¶Wb
=0
¶a
Node j
ai+1 ai Ovalization and warping
equal to zero at node j
for elements i and i + 1.
Element i + 1 Element i
Wb
(a) Flange conditions
¶ Wb
Symmetry plane, =0
a ¶a
Node i Nonzero ovalization and
zero warping at node j
for element i.
Element i Wb
πai2
dFT = − p s dL
R
Fk = ∫ hk d FT
L
l
4
3l
(p) 2
dF T dL l
s Fa(p)
2
1l
R l Auxiliary node
(p)
Fa
1
RT
Ra MA Ra = RT = MA = 0
l
A
l
Internal
pressure p
RA RB
2a+d l l l l
A B
d/2 p
In elastic deformations:
RA =RB = paip(ai 2na) a = mean radius
ai = a  d/2 n = Poisson's ratio
= internal radius
< For the pipebeam element it is assumed that the hoop stress
t +∆t
σ cc is determined by the given pressure, t +∆tσ cc = t +∆tσ cc( p ) ,
where t +∆t
σ cc( p ) is the hoop stress equivalent to the pressure
t +∆t
p (using thinwalled cylinder theory). Then, using that the
normal stress through the pipe skin is equal to zero, the axial
stress t +∆tσ aa is obtained as
t +∆t
σ aa =t +∆t E ( t +∆t eaa − t +∆t eaaIN − t +∆t eTH ) + t +∆tν t +∆t
σ cc( p )
< For the pipeshell element the basic condition regarding the
deformation of the pipe skin is that the material is free to
deform in the circumferential direction. Hence, the total hoop
strain is
1 t +∆t IN
t +∆t
ecc = −t +∆tν ( t +∆t eaa − t +∆t eaa
IN
)− eaa + t +∆t OV
e
cc
2
⎛ 1 −ν 2 ⎞ ( p )
+ (1 + ν ) t +∆t eTH +⎜ ⎟ σ cc
⎝ E ⎠
! The element stiffness and mass matrices and force vectors are in
all formulations evaluated using Gauss or NewtonCotes numerical
integration in the axial and the thickness directions and the
composite trapezoidal rule along the circumference of the pipe
section. The locations and labeling of the integration points are
given in Fig. 2.87.
NewtonCotes formulas:
1 2 3
Order 3
Node 1 Node 2
1 2 3 4 5
Order 5
Node 1 Node 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Order 7
Node 1 Node 2
Gauss formulas:
1
Order 1
Node 1 Node 2
1 2
Order 2
Node 1 Node 2
1 2 3
Order 3
Node 1 Node 2
1 2 3 4
Order 4
Node 1 Node 2
s s
b
ÄÄ Ä b
Ä 23 ÄÄ 5
1 ÄÄ 3 4
12
t t
t t
3
Ä2 4 Ä 2
Ä Ä
3Ä 1 5Ä 1
Ä Ä
s s
Ä Ä
Ä
6 Ä 8
4 7
Order 4 Order 8
t
t
5 4 3 9 8 76
Ä
Ä Ä 10 Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä5 4
6 11 Ä Ä 3
Ä Ä2 Ä 2
1 12 ÄÄ Ä1
7Ä Ä 13 Ä
s Ä
14 Ä Ä 24 s
Ä Ä 12 Ä 23
8 15 Ä Ä
Ä
9 Ä
Ä
11 16 Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä 22
10 17 18 19 20 21
Order 12 Order 24
c) Integration point locations along circumferential direction (label INC)
< When no inelastic strain effects are considered, use the same
integration orders as in linear analysis.
! During the solution for the first, second and successive solution
steps, the bolt force can vary depending on the loads applied to the
model.
! Bolt elements are created in a pipe element group with the bolt
option activated. The initial force is entered either on the geometry
(e.g., AUI command LINEELEMENTDATA PIPE) or directly
specified on the elements (e.g., AUI command EDATA).
! The formulation used for the bolt elements can either be small
displacements or large displacements. But only the isotropic elastic
material model can be used.
ref. KJB
! The consistent mass matrix associates mass only with the pipe’s
Section translational and rotational degrees of freedom and is calculated
5.4.1 using the isoparametric formulation with the displacement
interpolations given on p. 408 of ref. KJB. Hence, no masses are
associated with the ovalization/warping degrees of freedom.
You can request that ADINA either print or save stresses or forces.
EQUIV_INTERNAL_AXIAL_PRESSURE,
EQUIV_INTERNAL_HOOP_PRESSURE,
EFFECTIVE_CREEP_STRAIN
with similar definitions for the other abbreviations used above. See
Fig. 2.81 for the pipe stress coordinate system convention.
See Section 12.1.1 for the definitions of those variables that are
not selfexplanatory.
ref. K.J. Bathe and C.A. Almeida, "A Simple and Effective
Pipe Elbow Element ─ Linear Analysis," J. Appl. Mech.,
Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 93100,
1980.
! General elements are linear elements which can have from one
node to as many nodes as there are in the structure.
matrix stiffness 1 4
1 0.5E8 0.5E7 0.1E8 0.5E7 0.1E8
2 0.5E8 0.5E7 0.1E8
3 0.5E8 0.5E7
4 0.5E8
dataend
Skew system input option: Either all matrices are input in the
global coordinate system and proper transformations are made by
ADINA if there are skew systems at the element group nodes, or all
matrices are input in the coordinate systems used at the nodes and
no transformations between global and skew systems are made in
ADINA (SKEWSYSTEMS = YES in the EGROUP GENERAL or
EGROUP SPRING command).
F=K U
σ=SU
u q ü
k
l
l
k m
.
u
c c
l l
Single Single
translational rotational
DOF damper DOF damper
k k m/2 0
K = Mlumped =
k k 0 m/2
k = spring constant
m/3 m/6
a) Stiffness matrix Mconsistent =
m/6 m/3
m = total mass
c c of element
C =
c c b) Mass matrix
c = damping constant
c) Damping matrix
U2 U2
1 1
U1 U1
FE ME
Nonlinear translational damping: Nonlinear torsional damping:
MD
FD
U = U2  U 1 2
2
U2 U2
1 1
FD U1 U1
MD
Time
Figure 2.94: Nonlinear stiffness, damping and mass
If the nodes are not initially coincident, then the element can be
used to define a translational spring along the direction given by
the vector from node 1 to node 2. Let U1 store only the
translational displacements, then the relative translational
displacement is given by U = (U 2 − U1 ) ⋅
( 0
x 2 − 0 x1 )
, i.e., the
( 0
x 2 − 0 x1 )
relative displacement is the difference in displacements in the
direction of the line (spring) element.
(resp. smaller) than the last (resp. first) point on the curve. Note
that this effect is reversible, as the force will be computed again
according to the curve if the displacement value comes back into
the curve displacement range.
! Note that the linear spring element and the nonlinear spring
element act quite differently: the linear spring element connects
specific degrees of freedom, whereas the nonlinear spring element
connects nodes and acts in a specified direction. Likewise the input
for these elements is also different.
Element output
Nodal forces: These are the elastic nodal forces (in the global
Cartesian reference system) equivalent to the axial elastic stress.
The forces are accessible in the AUI using the variable names
NODAL_FORCEX, NODAL_FORCEY, NODAL_FORCEZ,
NODAL_MOMENTX, NODAL_MOMENTY, NODAL_MOMENT
Z.
! Also see the remarks about modeling given for the beamtied
element, see Section 2.4.5.
< The element subtype (2D solid, 3D solid, beam or shell)
! These elements are defined within 2D and 3D fluid element
groups (in ADINA). Set the formulation of the element group to
either displacementbased without rotation penalty or
displacementbased with rotation penalty (if you are using the AUI
user interfaces, set the formulation with the Ainterpolation type@
field).
p = − K ev
! You can also request nodal force output. The nodal forces are
accessible in the AUI using the variable names NODAL_FORCEX,
NODAL_FORCEY, NODAL_FORCEZ (NODAL_FORCEX is
applicable only for 3D elements).
< Actual fluid flow with velocities below the speed of sound
(subsonic formulation) or no actual fluid flow (linear
infinitesimal velocity formulation)
ρ# + $i( ρ $φ ) = 0 (2.111)
and
h = Ω ( x ) − φ# − 12 ∇φ i∇φ (2.112)
Bounding surface S
Unknowns on S:
f = fluid potential Fluid region V
u = displacements n
Unknowns in V:
f = fluid potential
ρ p
= 1+ (2.113)
ρ0 κ
⎛ ρ0 h ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ ρ0 h ⎞ ⎤
ρ = ρ0 exp ⎜ ⎟ , p = κ ⎢ exp ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ (2.114a,b)
⎝ κ ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ κ ⎠ ⎦
δ Fφ = ∫ ( ρ# + $i( ρ $φ ) ) δφ dV = 0 (2.115)
V
h = Ω ( x + u ) − φ# − 12 v n i v n − 12 v t i v t (2.118)
on S .
⎛ ∂ρ ⎞
δ Fφ = ∫ ⎜ h# δφ − ρ∇φ i∇δφ ⎟ dV + ∫ − ρ u# inδφ dS (2.119)
V⎝
∂h ⎠ S
Fluid Structure
n
Pressure p Traction pn
( )
p = p (h) = p Ω ( x + u ) − φ# − 12 v n i v n − 12 v t i v t (2.1111)
ρ0 p#
ρ# + ∇i( ρ∇φ ) ≈ ρ# + ρ0∇ 2φ ≈ + ρ0∇ 2φ = 0 (2.1113)
κ
The momentum/equilibrium equation (2.112) becomes
p
h≈ ≈ Ω ( x ) − φ# (2.1114)
ρ
from which we see
( ) (
p ≈ ρ Ω ( x ) − φ# ≈ ρ 0 Ω ( x ) − φ# ) (2.1115)
− ρ 0 φ## + κ ∇ 2φ = − ρ0 Ω
# (2.1116)
− ∫ ρ 0 φ## δφ dV − ∫ κ ∇φ ⋅δ ∇φ dV − ∫ κ u# ⋅ n δφ dS
V V S
# δφ dV
= − ∫ ρ0 Ω (2.1117)
V
⎛ ∂Ω ⎞
δ Fu = ∫ pniδ u dS1 ≈ ∫ ⎜ ρ0 Ω + ρ0 iu − ρ 0φ# ⎟ niδ u dS1 (2.1118)
S1 S1 ⎝
∂x ⎠
⎡0 0 ⎤ ⎡U ## ⎤ ⎡ 0 # ⎤ ⎡( K UU )
CTFU ⎤ ⎡ U 0 ⎤ ⎡U ⎤
⎢ 0 −M ⎥ ⎢ ## ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥⎢ # ⎥+⎢ 0
S
⎥
⎣ FF ⎦ ⎣ φ ⎦ ⎣CFU 0 ⎦⎣φ⎦ ⎣ −K FF ⎦ ⎢⎣ φ ⎥⎦
(2.1119)
⎡( R ) ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤
= ⎢ UB S ⎥ + ⎢ # ⎥
⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ − R FB ⎦
where
∆p = ρ c∆v (2.1120)
p = p∞ + ρ c ( v − v ∞ ) (211.21)
At infinity
Direction of p=p¥
wave propagation v=v¥
a) Physical problem
so that the variation in mass flow rate is, in this special case,
ρφ#
δ Fφ B = − ∫ δφ dS (2.1125)
SB
c
p p
ρ v= + (2.1126)
c iω r
p ∫ p dt
ρ v= + (2.1127)
c r
− ρφ# ρφ
ρ v= − (2.1128)
c r
⎛ ρφ# ρφ ⎞
δ Fφ B = − ∫ ⎜ + ⎟ δφ dS (2.1129)
SB ⎝
c r ⎠
ref. L.G. Olson and K.J. Bathe, AAn infinite element for
analysis of transient fluidstructure interactions@,
Engineering Computations, Vol 2, pp 319329, 1985.
U = Ur + Ug (2.1131)
U g = ∑ u gk d k (2.1132)
k
⎡( K ) d ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤
− ⎢ UU S k ⎥ u gk − ⎢ ⎥ u# gk
⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ −CFU d k ⎦
h = Ω − φ# (2.1132)
δ Fφ = ∫ ρ# δφ dV − ∫ ρ u# inδφ dS (2.1133)
V S
t +∆t
ρ# = ( t +∆t ρ −t ρ ) / ∆t , t +∆t
u# = ( t +∆t u − t u ) / ∆t (2.1134a,b)
(
⎢
&
⎡ K UU )
S
&
K UF
⎤ ⎡ F& U
⎥ ⎡ ∆u ⎤ = ⎡0 ⎤ − ⎢
⎤
⎥ (2.1137)
⎥ ⎢⎣ ∆φ# ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦ ⎢F& F + F& F
⎢ K
⎢⎣
&
FU (& + K
− K FF (
&
FF ))
S ⎥⎦ ⎣ ( ) ⎥
S⎦
where we use the ~ to emphasize that the vectors and matrices are
different than the corresponding dynamic vectors and matrices,
along with the constraints φ# = constant (if there is more than one
fluid region in the problem, then φ# = constant in each fluid
⎡( K UU )S CTFU ⎤ ⎡ U ⎤ ⎡( R UB )S ⎤
⎢ ⎥ = (2.1138)
⎢⎣ CFU −M FF ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ φ# ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −R FB ⎥⎦
K FF φ = 0 (2.1139)
⎛ 2 ⎡M 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 CTFU ⎤ ⎡ K + ( K UU )S 0 ⎤ ⎞ ⎡ U ( j) ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤
⎜ −ω j ⎢ −ωj ⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥⎟ =
⎜
⎝
⎥
⎣ 0 M FF ⎦ ⎣CFU 0 ⎦ ⎣ 0 K FF ⎦ ⎟⎠ ⎢⎣ F ( j) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
(2.1140)
1
p( j ) = ρ ω j f ( j ) , u( j ) = ∇f ( j ) (2.1142)
ωj
⎡M 0 ⎤ ⎡U ## ⎤ ⎡ 0 # ⎤ ⎡ K + ( K UU )
CTFU ⎤ ⎡ U 0 ⎤ ⎡Ur ⎤
⎢ 0 M ⎥ ⎢ ## ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥⎢ # ⎥+⎢
r r S
⎥
⎣ FF ⎦ ⎣ φ ⎦ ⎣ −CFU 0 ⎦⎣ φ ⎦ ⎣ 0 K FF ⎦ ⎢⎣ φ ⎥⎦
⎡ R ⎤ ⎡( R ) ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡( K ) d ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤
= ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ UB S ⎥ + ⎢ # ⎥ − ⎢ UU S k ⎥ u gk + ⎢ ⎥ u# gk
⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ R FB ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣CFU dk ⎦
(2.1143)
n ξ j (j) n
Ur = ∑ U , φ# = ∑ −ξ j F (j) (2.1144a,b)
j =1 ω j j =1
ξ##j + ω 2j ξ j = Γ ( j ) (2.1145)
where
Γ ( j ) = − ( F (j) ) R φ + ω j ( U (j) ) R u
T T
(2.1146)
R u = R + ( R UB )S − ( K UU )S d k u gk
R φ = CFU d k u# gk (2.1147a,b)
n ξ j (j) # n ξ# n ξ ##
Ur = ∑ U , U r = ∑ U (j) , U r = ∑ U (j)
j j
j =1 ω j j =1 ω j j =1 ω j
(2.1149a,b,c)
n t n n
φ = ∑ ∫ −ξ j dt F (j) , φ# = ∑ − ξ j F (j) , ##
φ = ∑ − ξ# j F (j)
j =1 0 j =1 j =1
(2.1150a,b,c)
ξj
xj = (2.1151)
ωj
n n
U r = ∑ x j U (j) , φ# = ∑ − ω j x j F (j) (2.1152a,b)
j =1 j =1
x j + 2ω jζ j x# j + ω 2j x j = Γ ( j )
## (2.1153)
where
1
(F )
(j) T
R φ + ( U (j) ) R u
T
Γ ( j) = − (2.1154)
ωj
Γ ( j ) = ( U (j) ) R
T
(2.1155)
R u = − ( K UU )S d k u gk − Md k u##gk ,
R φ = CFU d k u# gk (2.1156a,b)
Hence
⎛ 1 ⎞
(F )
(j) T
CFU d k + ( U (j) ) Md k ⎟ u##gk
T
Γ ( j) = − ⎜
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ωj ⎠ (2.1157)
− ( U (j) ) ( K UU )S d k u gk
T
( ) (K )
T
We neglect the term U (j) UU S d k u gk (which is probably
small anyway) and observe that the ground motion modal
participation factor is then
1
(F )(j) T
CFU d k + ( U (j) ) Md k
T
Γ ( j) =
ωj (2.1158)
Fluid Fluid
n n
1 1
Solid Solid 3
2 2
a) 2D elements
Fluid Fluid
1 1
n n 8
4 5 4
9
2 7
2
3 6
Solid Solid 3
b) 3D elements
Structural element
Nodal unknown: u
Fluidstructure
interface element
Nodal unknowns: f, u
Fluid element
Nodal unknown: f Nodes circled by
share degrees of
Assumptions: u is small. freedom
Applied pressure
or no applied pressure
Free surface
interface element
Nodal unknowns: f, u
Fluid element
Nodal unknown: f
Assumptions: u.n is small.
un is small.
Applied tractions
from ADINAF
ADINAF
interface element
Nodal unknowns: f, u
Fluid element
Nodal unknown: f
Assumptions: u.n is small.
un is small.
Direction of
wave propagation
indicated by
Fluidfluid interface
Fluid element of element of element
element group 1 group 1
Nodal unknowns: f(2), un
Nodal unknown: f(1)
Massproportional loads
g k = MAGNITUDE × A(k) × TF
3
Ω = ∑ g k ( xk − xk0 ) (2.1159)
k =1
t t
u##gk = − g k , u# gk = ∫
tstart
u##gk dt , u gk = ∫
tstart
u# gk dt (2.1160a,b,c)
Centrifugal loads
1) The AUI loops over all fluid element sides on the boundary
of each fluid element region. If the fluid element side already has
an interface element, the side is skipped. If the fluid element side
has a potentialinterface, an interface element of the appropriate
type is generated. Otherwise, the side is checked to see if it is
attached to a structure (shares structural degrees of freedom with
structural elements), close to a structure (nodes coincident with
nodes of a structural element) or on a ADINAF fluidstructure
boundary; and, if any of the above conditions are met, an interface
element of the appropriate type is generated. The intent of this step
is to cover as much of the fluid boundary as possible with interface
elements.
Note that phi model completion relies on determining the nodes
that are “close” together. The tolerance used for this determination
is the same tolerance as is used in coincident node checking
6) The AUI then loops over all nodes with zero stiffness degrees
of freedom and defines fixities for each zero stiffness degree of
freedom.
Note that the model that results from the phi model completion
process is not stored in the AUI, but is immediately written to the
ADINA data file. Therefore the model that results from phi model
completion cannot be displayed during model definition. Phi
model completion does write some messages to the log file or user
interface, which you may find helpful. However, we recommend
that you also check the model by running the model through
ADINA, for example, for one load step; then use ADINAPLOT to
display the model.
Potentialinterface of type
free surface is defined on
this line
16 3 2 1 10 Potentialbased
Fluid nodes are at the same fluid elements
coordinates as structural nodes.
6 5 4 11
The fluid nodes and structural Beam elements
nodes are separated in this figure 15
for clarity. 9 8 7
30o
14 13 12
Interface elements
of type free surface
3 2 1
6 4
9 8 7
Interface elements of
type fluidstructure interface
surface, but the free normal for node 3 is modified by the presence
of the adjacent structure. A skew system is defined for node 3
because the free normal and structural normal are not aligned with
the global coordinate directions. The zero stiffness direction of
node 2 will be fixed in step 6 below.
b z z
y y
c 3 2 1
16 3 1 10
6 4 11
15
9 8 7
14 13 12
Node 1: uy=u10
y
o o
Node 3: uc=cos30 uy16  sin 30 uz16
Node 4: uy=u11 11
y , uz=uz Node 6: uy=u15 15
y , uz=uz
Node 7: uy=uz =fixed Node 8: uy=u13 13
y , uz=uz
Node 9: uy=uz =fixed
b z z
y y
c 3 2 1
Node 2: uz=u1z
o
Node 3: ub= uz1 / cos30
Step 4 is only performed in static analysis when
there are no body forces.
This motion affects the total mass of the fluid region, so that
there is no zero pivot in the system matrices.
If there are body forces, then step 4 is not necessary because all
boundary motions are given stiffness by the matrix ( K UU )S .
Step 5 of phi model completion is skipped because there are no
fluidfluid interfaces.
In step 6 of phi model completion, the zero stiffness direction at
node 2 is fixed (Figure 2.1112(f)). Vertical motions of the nodes
attached only to free surface interface elements are allowed, but
horizontal motions of these nodes are not allowed (because the
fluid does not provide stiffness, damping or mass to horizontal
motions).
z
y
2
Node 2: uy=fixed
3 2 1
6 5 4
9 8 7
Potentialinterface of type
free surface is defined on
this line
11 2 10 Potentialbased
3 1 fluid elements
6 5 4 Beam elements
9 8 7
30o
structural normal directions are not aligned with the global system.
n12 n23
1 2 3
n14 n36
4 5 6
n69
7 8 9
y
10 11 12 x
During step 6 of phi model completion, the AUI fixes the x and
y directions for nodes 5 and 8, because these directions are zero
stiffness directions, and there is no adjacent structure.
15 14 13 2D potentialbased
fluid elements, group 1
3 2 1
Beam elements
20 19 18
15 14 13
3 2 1
6 5 4
17 16
9 8 7
12 11 10
20 19 18
Node 1: uy=u13 13
y , uz=uz Node 2: uy=u14 14
y , uz=uz
Node 3: uy=u15 15
y , uz=uz Node 4: uy=u16
y
Node 6: uy=u17
y Node 7: uy=u16
y
Node 9: uy=u17
y Node 10: uy=u18 18
y , uz=uz
15 14 13
3 2 1
6 5 4
17 16
9 8 7
12 11 10
20 19 18
15 14 13
3 2 1
6 5 4
17 16
9 8 7
12 11 10
20 19 18
region. The initial values of φ# in the confined fluid region are that
from the static analysis, so the confined fluid region has the same
initial pressure as in static analysis.
The modeling process is schematically illustrated in Figure
2.1116.
Potentialinterface
of type inletoutlet
Applied pressure
Confined
fluid region Finite fluid
with nonzero elements
fluid pressure
Auxiliary
Constraint equations fluid element,
automatically generated in same fluid
by the AUI during phi element group
model completion
a) Physical problem b) Modeling in static analysis
Pressure at
beginning of Fix all degrees of freedom
restart analysis attached to the auxiliary fluid
= pressure at element.
end of static
analysis.
be interpreted as φ# , not φ .
2.11.17 Modeling: Considerations for dynamic analysis
Fixed to
ground
uz = constant ground motion
k k
uz is the absolute
Fluid Fluid displacement
No boundary uz = 0
condition
a) Finite element model b) Interpretation of f rigid body mode
3.1.1 Summary
Output:
For the shell elements, the following material models can be used,
provided that the elements are single layer elements described
using midsurface nodes:
A
´
A0 D
A0 = initial section area
A = final section area
F = applied force
0 = 0 +D
F
Figure 3.11: Rod under uniaxial tension
F
Engineering stress: σ=
A0
F σ A0
Cauchy stress: τ= =
A A
F!0 σ !0
2nd PiolaKirchhoff stress: S = =
A0 ! !
F! σ !
Kirchhoff stress: Jτ = =
A0 ! 0 ! 0
! When the strains are small, the 2nd PiolaKirchhoff stresses are
nearly equal to the Cauchy stresses from which the rigid body
rotations have been removed.
X = RU (3.11)
U = R L Λ R TL (3.12)
y R
(t) RL
(0)
x
E R = ln U = R L ln Λ R TL (3.13)
X= VR (3.14)
V = R E Λ RTE (3.15)
E L = ln V = R E ln Λ RTE (3.16)
X = XE XP (3.17)
XE = R E UE = V E R E (3.18a,b)
E ER = ln U E , E EL = ln V E (3.19a,b)
τ = ( R E ) Jτ R E
T
(3.110)
and when the left Hencky strain measure is used, the stress measure
is the (unrotated) Kirchhoff stress Jτ . J = det X is the volume
change of the material, and, using det X P = 1, J = det X E .
With theses choices of stress and strain measures, the stresses and
strains are workconjugate.
These assumptions are justified because they are used with material
models in which the plastic deformations are incompressible and
the plastic deformations are generally much larger than the elastic
deformations.
t
τ = C tt ε a
! This material model is available for the truss, 2D solid, 3D
solid, beam, isobeam, plate, shell and pipe elements.
1l b
Z
l 8
5l b
Y a l4
l
2l l 7
l
6 3
Figure 3.21: Principal inplane material axes orientation for the
orthotropic material model for 2D solid elements
Plane stress:
⎡ ea ⎤ ⎡ 1 ν ab ν ac ⎤ ⎡ σa ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − − 0 ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Ea Eb Ec
⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ eb ⎥ ⎢ ν ba 1 ν bc ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢− − 0 ⎥ ⎢ σb ⎥
⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ Ea Eb Ec
⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ν ca ν cb 1 ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ec ⎥ ⎢ − − 0 ⎥ ⎢σc = 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Ea Eb Ec ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ γ ab ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥ σ ⎥
⎢
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ Gab ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ ab ⎥⎦
Plane strain:
⎡ ea ⎤ ⎡ 1 ν ab ν ac ⎤ ⎡ σa ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − − 0 ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Ea Eb Ec
⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ eb ⎥ ⎢ νba 1 νbc ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢− − 0 ⎥ ⎢ σb ⎥
⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ Ea Eb Ec
⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ν ν cb 1 ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ec = 0 ⎥ ⎢ − ca − 0 ⎥ ⎢ σc ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Ea Eb Ec ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ γ ab ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢σ ⎥
⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ Gab ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ ab ⎦⎥
Axisymmetric:
⎡ ea ⎤ ⎡ 1 ν ab ν ac ⎤ ⎡ σa ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − − 0 ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Ea Eb Ec
⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ eb ⎥ ⎢ νba 1 νbc ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢− − 0 ⎥ ⎢ σb ⎥
⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ Ea Eb Ec
⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ν ca ν cb 1 ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ec ⎥ ⎢ − − 0 ⎥ ⎢ σc ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Ea Eb Ec ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ γ ab ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢σ ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ Gab ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ ab ⎥⎦
The seven material constants (Ea, Eb, Ec, vab, vac, vbc and Gab)
define the symmetric compliance matrix C!−1 .
⎡ 1 ν ν ac ⎤
⎢ − ab 0 −
Ea Eb Ec ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 1 νbc ⎥
⎢ 0 −
Eb Ec ⎥
C!−1 = ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 1 ⎥
⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ Gab ⎥
⎢ 1 ⎥
⎢symmetric ⎥
⎢⎣ Ec ⎥⎦
where the subscript " ! " in C!−1 indicates that the material law is
given in the local system of the material axes. Note that the
determinant of C!−1 must not be zero in order to be able to calculate
the inverse C! . This imposes the following restrictions on the
constants. The material constants must be defined so that the
stressstrain constitutive matrix is positivedefinite; i.e.:
1
⎛E ⎞2
ν ji <⎜ i ⎟⎟ , i, j = a, b, c
⎜E
⎝ j ⎠
⎛ Ea E E ⎞
ν abν bcν ca < 0.5 ⎜1 −ν ab2 −ν bc2 b −ν ca2 c ⎟ ≤ 0.5
⎝ Eb Ec Ea ⎠
ν ji ν ij
=
Ei Ej
εb
ν ba = −
εa
F eb F
b
a ea
In general,
εi
ν ij = − (i, j = a, b, c)
εj
εj
J
ν ij = − .
εi
ν ji = Jν ij
and the relationship
ν ji ν ij
=
Ei Ej
⎛ Ej ⎞ J
ν ij = ⎜ ⎟ ν ij
⎝ Ei ⎠
C = QT C ! Q
where
⎡ 1/ Ea −ν ab / Eb −ν ac / Ec 0 0 0 ⎤
⎢ 1/ Eb −ν bc / Ec 0 0 0 ⎥⎥
⎢
⎢ 1/ Ec 0 0 0 ⎥
C!−1 = ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 1/ Gab 0 0 ⎥
⎢ 1/ Gac 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢symmetric 1/ Gbc ⎦⎥
⎡ ea ⎤ ⎡ 1/ Ea −ν ab / Eb −ν ac / Ec 0 ⎤ ⎡ σa ⎤
⎢ e ⎥ ⎢ −ν / E 1/ Eb −ν bc / Ec 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ σb ⎥⎥
⎢ b ⎥ = ⎢ ba a
⎢ ec ⎥ ⎢ −ν ca / Ea −ν cb / Eb 1/ Ec 0 ⎥ ⎢σc = 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢ γ ab ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 0 1/ Gab ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ σab ⎦⎥
Note that the transverse normal strain ec is not calculated for the
plate elements.
z,c
b
The ab and xy planes 1
l
are coplanar. Nodes
1, 2 and 3 belong to
b y
the xy plane.
a
Z
l 3
2 l
Y
X
x
C = QT C ! QT
⎡ ea ⎤ ⎡ 1/ Ea −ν ab / Eb −ν ac / Ec 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ σa ⎤
⎢ e ⎥ ⎢ −ν / E 1/ Eb −ν bc / Ec 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ σb ⎥⎥
⎢ b ⎥ ⎢ ba a
⎢ ec ⎥ ⎢ −ν ca / Ea −ν cb / Eb 1/ Ec 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ σc = 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ γ ab ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 1/ Gab 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ σ ab ⎥
⎢ γ ac ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 1/ Gac 0 ⎥ ⎢ σac ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ γ bc ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 0 0 1/ Gbc ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ σbc ⎥⎦
t ,c
b
a
3
r
b
1
s d
r12
2
(a) 4node element
t, c
l l
b l
l
l
a
rl l
b 3
1
l l
l
r12 s d
l l
2
(b) 16node element
Stress
s6 l
s5 l
s4 l
e1 e2 e3
s3 e4
l
e5 e6 Strain
l s2
l s1
Stress
Point 3
4.32´104 ´
Point 1 Point 2
´ ´
1.0 1.0 Strain
Pipe (beam)
n
l
Gap D
Gap element L
m
l
Stress
D
_
L
Strain
Stress Stress
e2
´
e1 e2 e3 e4 e1 Strain
´ ´ ´ ´
Strain e3 e4
´
´
´
Compression Stress
cutoff limit
e6
´
e1 e2
´ ´ ´ ´
e7 e8 Strain
e5
e4 ´
e3 ´ ´ Tension
cutoff limit
< The von Mises yield condition (see p. 597, ref. KJB)
< An associated flow rule using the von Mises yield function
! These models can be used with the truss, 2D solid, 3D solid,
beam (plasticbilinear only), isobeam, shell and pipe elements.
Stress
0s
y
Bilinear stressstrain curve
Strain
Ö 23
0
sy
Ö 23
0
sy
s2 s1 s2
Elastic region
s1
a) Principal stress space b) Deviatoric stress space
Stress Stress
ET ET
0s ts 0s
y y y
E E 2 0sy
Strain E Strain
E ts
y E
E ET
ET
a) Bilinear isotropic hardening b) Bilinear kinematic hardening
Stress Stress
ts
0s y
0s 2 0sy
y y
Strain Strain
ts
y
! For the truss element, multilinear plasticity, you can only enter
up to 7 stressstrain points in the stressstrain curve. For other
elements, multilinear plasticity, there is no restriction on the
number of stressstrain points in the stressstrain curve.
1 t t 1
t
fy =
2
( s ⋅ s ) − tσ y2 = 0
3
stress at time t.
In the von Mises model with kinematic hardening, the following
yield surface equation is used:
1 t 1
t
fy =
2
( s − t α ) ⋅ ( t s − t α ) − 0σ y2 = 0
3
where t α is the shift of the center of the yield surface (back stress
tensor) and 0 σ y2 is the virgin, or initial, yield stress.
In the von Mises model with mixed hardening, the following
yield surface equation is used:
1 t 1
t
fy =
2
( s − t α ) ⋅ ( t s − t α ) − tσ y2 = 0
3
where
t
σ y = 0σ y + ME p e p
dα = C p (1 − M ) de p
2
Cp = Ep
3
M = M ∞ + ( M 0 − M ∞ ) exp ( −η e p )
The formulation for the von Mises model with mixed hardening
is given in the following reference:
Note that the convergence might not be good when the mixed
hardening parameter η ≠ 0 . Therefore, η = 0 is preferred.
The yield stress is a function of the effective plastic strain,
which defines the hardening of the material. The effective plastic
strain is defined as
t
P 2 p
t
e =∫ de ⋅ de p
0
3
∑
P
t
e = ∆e p
all solution steps
P 2 p
where ∆ e = de ⋅ de p and ∆e p is the tensor of plastic strain
3
increments in a solution step. Because of the summation over the
P
solution steps, we refer to the calculated value of t e as the
⎡ ⎛ ε# P ⎞⎤
σ y = σ ⎢1 + b ln ⎜1 +
0
⎟⎥
⎝ ε#0
y
⎣ ⎠⎦
where σ y0 is the static yield stress, ε#0 is the transition strain rate
and b is the strain rate hardening parameter.
The material parameter ε#0 must be directly specified. The
material parameter b can either be directly specified or can be
calculated using an additional userinput stressstrain curve for the
stressstrain behavior at a given strain rate.
For more information, see the following reference:
! The Mrozbilinear model can be used with the 2D solid and
3D solid elements.
Stress
C ETB
syB B
Bounding line ET 2 0s y
A E
0s
y
E
D
ET
O Strain
H F
ET
E Bounding line
2 0s y
F
G ETB
F¢
s1 s2 s1 G¢ s2
1 t 1
t
fy =
2
( s − t α ) ⋅ ( t s − t α ) − 0σ y2 = 0
3
1 t 1 2
t
f yB =
2
( s B − t β ) ⋅ ( t s B − t β ) − 0σ yB
3
=0
# ( ts − tα )
e# = t Λ
t P
s3
tf
y=0
tf = 0
yB
tn
t eP
0s
Ö2
y 3 R
ta tn
Ö
syB 2
3
T
ts tm
ta
tb ts
B
s2
s1
2 d te P t
t
α# = t C p m
3 dt
with
t
2 Ep
t
Cp = t t
3 m⋅ n
E t ET
t
Ep =
E − ET
d te P
Here represents the rate of the effective plastic strain,
dt
t
E p is the plastic modulus, E is the elastic modulus and t ET is
the hardening modulus. The variables tm and tn are unit
normals shown in Fig. 3.46. The above definition of the
modulus t C p is based on the assumption that the work per unit
time of the back stress corresponding to the plastic straining in
general loading conditions is equal to the same quantity in the
radial loading conditions. The direction of t α# is such that the
yield and bounding surfaces have the same normal at the contact
point.
< The bounding surface moves in the stress space only when
the yield surface is in contact with the bounding surface and the
loading continues in the direction of the then common normal
(see Figs. 3.45(b) and 3.46, i.e. t β# = t α# ).
< Note that when the tangent modulus of the bounding surface
ETB is equal to zero, the bounding surface does not move in the
stress space. In this case, the effective stress t σ remains
smaller than σ yB for any loading conditions.
! This model can be used with the 2D solid, 3D solid and shell
elements.
F (σ bb − σ cc ) + G (σ cc − σ aa ) + H (σ aa − σ bb )
2 2 2
1⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞
F= ⎜ 2+ 2− 2⎟
2⎝Y Z X ⎠
1⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞
G= ⎜ 2 + 2 − 2⎟
2⎝ Z X Y ⎠
1⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞
H= ⎜ 2+ 2− 2⎟
2⎝ X Y Z ⎠
1 1 1
L= 2 ; M = 2; N = 2
2Yab 2Ybc 2Yac
0
A B sbb
saa
X
< Enter the yield stresses, then ADINA computes the material
constants using the equations given above.
F=
r0
2L =
( r0 + r90 ) ⋅ ( 2r45 + 1)
r90 ⋅ ( r0 + 1) r90 ⋅ ( r0 + 1)
1
G= M = 1.5
( r0 + 1)
r0
H= N = 1.5
( r0 + 1)
in which r0 is the Lankford coefficient for the (rolling) direction,
r45 is the Lankford coefficient for the direction 45° to the rolling
direction and r90 is the Lankford coefficient for the direction 90°
to the rolling direction (the transverse direction).
< Enter the universal plastic modulus Eup . In this case the
plastic moduli for directions a, b, c and planes (a,b), (a,c), (b,c)
Eup
are given by E = E = E = E and E = E = E =
a
p
b
p
c
p
u
p p
ab
p
ac . p
bc
3
< Enter the independent moduli EaT , EbT , EcT for the a, b, c
directions and for the (a,b), (a,c), (b,c) planes. In this case, Eup
is equal to
(
1 ⎛ 1 p2 p2 p2 p2
)
p2 p2 ⎞
⎜ Ea + Eb + Ec + Eab + Eac + Ebc ⎟
2⎝3 ⎠
where
Ei EiT
Eip = i = a,b,c
Ei − EiT
and
Eij EijT
E =
p
ij ij = ab,ac,bc
Eij − EijT
σ = C ⋅ (ε 0 + ε )
n
t
f y = t QM + t QB + QMB γ − tσ y2 = 0
Node 3
tM tN
1 2
tN
12
tN
1
tM
tM 2
_ 12
x3 _
Node 2 x1
Node 1
(a) Element section forces and moments
t
M
2
t
syh
( 4 )
g=0
1.0 1_
g= _
Ö3
0 1.0 t_
N
(tsy h)
Figure 3.48: Ilyushin model for use with the plate element
t
QM =
1
h2
{( N ) + ( N ) − N ⋅ N + 3( N ) }
t
1
2 t
2
2 t
1
t
2
t
12
2
t
QB =
16
h4
{( M ) + ( M ) − M ⋅ M
t
1
2 t
2
2 t
1
t
2 + 3 ( t M 12 )
2
}
12 ⎧ 1 t 1 ⎫
3 ⎨ (
t
QMB = N1 ⋅ t M 1 + t N 2 ⋅ t M 2 ) + t N12 ⋅ t M 12 − ( t N1 ⋅ t M 2 + t N 2 ⋅ t M 1 ) ⎬
h ⎩3 6 ⎭
! The Gurson model is available for the 2D solid and 3D solid
elements.
2
⎛ q ⎞
⎝σ0 ⎠
⎛ 3 q p⎞
⎝ 2 σ0 ⎠
2
φ = ⎜ ⎟ + 2q1 f * cosh ⎜ − 2 ⎟ − 1 + q3 f * = 0( )
in which φ is the yield function, q is the von Mises stress, σ 0 is
the equivalent tensile flow stress, p is the pressure (positive in
compression), f * is based on the void volume fraction and q1,q2,
q3 are the Tvergaard constants. Note that this reduces to the von
Mises yield function when f * equals zero. f * is defined as
⎧ f for f ≤ f c
⎪
f =⎨
*
fu − f c
*
⎪ fc + f − f ( f − fc ) for f > f
⎩ F c
df = (1 − f ) d ε kkp + Ad ε p
fN ⎡ 1 ⎛ ε p − ε ⎞2 ⎤
A= exp ⎢ − ⎜ N
⎟ ⎥
S N 2π ⎢⎣ 2 ⎝ S N ⎠ ⎥⎦
in which f N is the volume fraction of void nucleating particles,
ε N is the mean void nucleation burst strain and S N is the
corresponding standard deviation.
! In the data input for the analysis, the nodal point temperatures
must be defined for all time steps (reading these temperatures from
a file created by ADINAT, reading these temperatures from a
mapping file or defining them by time functions). If the model
includes axisymmetric shell or shell elements, the nodal point
temperature gradients must also be defined for all time steps. See
Section 5.6 for more information on prescribing temperatures and
temperature gradients.
! For these models, the elastic moduli, the shear moduli, the
Poisson's ratios and the coefficients of thermal expansion are input
as piecewise linear functions of the temperature, as illustrated in
Fig. 3.51. Linear interpolation is used to calculate the material
properties between input points.
E n
l l
tn
t
E l l
l l l l
q1 tq q2 q3 q4 q1 tq q2 q3 q4
Temperature Temperature
a
l
ta
l
l l
q1 tq q2 q3 q4
Temperature
t TH
e
ij = tα ( tθ − 0θ ) δ ij (3.51)
where
t
α=
(
1
θ − θ)
t 0 (
α ( tθ )( tθ − θ REF ) − α ( 0θ )( 0θ − θ REF ) )
(3.52)
and where the temperatures θ and θ are obtained by
t 0
L
Secant to curve
Length, L
LREF
qREF q
Temperature, q
L − LREF
ε th =
LREF
ε th (θ )
α (θ ) =
θ − θ REF
t
ε th = α ( tθ )( tθ − θ REF ) − α ( 0θ )( 0θ − θ REF )
t
ε th = tα ( tθ − 0θ )
in which
t
α= t
1
θ−θ0 (
α ( tθ )( tθ − θ REF ) − α ( 0θ )( 0θ − θ REF ) )
Notice that if the mean coefficient of thermal expansion is
constant, then θ REF no longer enters into the definition of tα . In
general, when the mean coefficient of thermal expansion is not
constant, θ REF must be chosen based on knowledge of the
experiment used to determine α (θ ) (for the same material curve,
different choices of θ REF yield different values of α (θ ) ).
The materials that accept mean coefficients of thermal
expansion all accept the reference temperature as an input
parameter.
q
θ = ∑ hi θi
i =1
l
l
r
l
Integration points
l
ref. KJB
! The thermoelastoplasticity and creep models include the
Section 6.6.3 effects of
! These material models can be used with the truss, 2D solid,
3D solid, isobeam, shell and pipe elements, with the exception of
the creepirradiaion model whicn can only be used with 2D solid
and 3D solid elements.
! Note that the constitutive relations for the thermal, plastic and
creep strains are independent of each other; hence the only
interaction between the strains comes from the fact that all strains
affect the stresses. Figure 3.61 summarizes the constitutive
description for a onedimensional stress situation and a bilinear
stressstrain curve.
ref. M.D. Snyder and K.J. Bathe, "A Solution Procedure for
ThermoElasticPlastic and Creep Problems," J. Nuclear
Eng. and Design, Vol. 64, pp. 4980, 1981.
α J 3 ( t σ ) + β J1 ( t σ ) + (1 − α − β ) J 2 ( t σ ) ≤ σ u
Area A
l l
tP
Temperature tq
Stress
ts
ts (t q)
T( q)
tE t
yv
tE(tq)
Strain
teP (time independent)
teE (time independent)
Creep
strain
teC (time dependent)
t Time
! The plastic strains are calculated using the von Mises plasticity
model (see Section 3.4.1) with temperaturedependent material
parameters (Young's modulus, strain hardening modulus, Poisson's
ratio, yield stress, etc...). Figure 3.62 shows the assumptions used
for the dependence of the material parameters on temperature (in
the case of a bilinear stressstrain law). (Note that the plastic
modulus
EP = E · ET /(E ET)
1t t 1t 2
t
fy = s ⋅ s − σ yv
2 3
1 t 1
t
fy =
2
( s − t α ) ⋅ ( t s − t α ) − tσ y2v
3
dα ij = t CdeijP
2 t E t ET
t
C= t
3 E − t ET
q1
Stress
ET 1
syv1
q2
E1
syv2 ET2 .
.
. .
..
E2 qi
syvi
ETi
Ei
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