You are on page 1of 43

| 

  




  
   ! "

 !
# $  !% $  ! 


! &'
%   

K 1900-1929: Scientific Management


K 1930-1964: Human Relations
K 1965-1980: Systems/Situational
K 1981-present: Emerging Theories
| 
'
(

)| 
    
* 
+
K institutions failed people.
K people were treated as if superfluous and
expendable.
K having to do without was commonplace.
)  

,'   '

| 


Scientific Management
± 
' 

 ' - 

 
± +
. + - +  OUTCOME
(
 
  
  
'  


' 
±  /

     


±  

+
.   +
. 
!

!
+
'  - !+ 
  
'
| 
 )

 
'

K þeaders need to understand workers as


human beings with social and emotional
needs.
# ' 

K Employee satisfaction increases productivity.


# ' 

K Employee satisfaction increases productivity.


K A network of human relations exists in any
workplace environment.
# ' 

K Employee satisfaction increases productivity.


K A network of human relations exists in any
workplace environment.
K The workplace environment should focus on
needs of employees.
# ' 

K Employee satisfaction increases productivity.


K A network of human relations exists in any
workplace environment.
K The workplace environment should focus on
needs of employees.
K The feelings of people are as important as
the logical and economic aspects of an
organization.
# ' 

K Employee satisfaction increases productivity.


K A network of human relations exists in any
workplace environment.
K The workplace environment should focus on
needs of employees.
K The feelings of people are as important as
the logical and economic aspects of an
organization.
K Management requires effective social skills.



K Human beings are motivated by needs.





K Human beings are motivated by needs.


K Human beings are not always logical.



K Human beings are motivated by needs.


K Human beings are not always logical.
K Human beings are interdependent and
behavior is shaped by the social context.



K Human beings are motivated by needs.


K Human beings are not always logical.
K Human beings are interdependent and
behavior is shaped by the social context.
K The informal group impacts job roles.



K Human beings are motivated by needs.


K Human beings are not always logical.
K Human beings are interdependent and
behavior is shaped by the social context.
K The informal group impacts job roles.
K There is no automatic correlation between
the individual and organizational needs.



K Human beings are motivated by needs.


K Human beings are not always logical.
K Human beings are interdependent and
behavior is often shaped by the social context.
K The informal group has a strong impact on job
roles.
K There is no automatic correlation between the
individual and organizational needs.
K Teamwork is essential.
| 
 )


K Mary Parker Follett


K Elton Mayo
K Abraham Maslow
K Douglas McGregor
K Chester Barnard
K Frederick Herzberg
  . 0


K 1868-1933
K Known as a visionary genius
K Creative Experience (1924)
K Influenced theorists of the Human
Relations Era and beyond
4  
 

 
 

  





 




  
| -
 
 1

K Relationships matter. Mutual influence is


developed when people work together.
K Management is a function, not a toolbox.
K þeadership is a dynamic force between and
among people.
K Do not try to control people. Control the
situation together.

| ) 

6 Conflict can be constructive. There is


no progress without conflict.
6 All organizations are social
organizations including business and
government.
6 The individual in the organization must
have a measure of control.

 
  . 0


K 4 hereas power usually means power-over,


«it is possible to develop the conception of
power-with.´

K 4The best leader has no followers, but men


working with him. The great leader wants to
be a leader of leaders.´
$
 


K 1880-1949
K Successful Academic
K Clinical Psychologist
K Public Speaker
K Hawthorne Studies
|+
,  

K 1927-1932
K estern Electric Hawthorne orks in Chicago
K Purpose: to study productivity and work conditions
K Researchers desired to find what kind of changes
would influence productivity
K Six women from assembly line were segregated with
friendly supervisor so they could be evaluated for
productivity using the following work condition
variables: breaks, temperatures, hours, humidity
  
,  

K The women became a team


K Developed an increased sense of
responsibility
K Greater productivity

)| | 2)|34  00 )
The need for recognition, security and sense of
belonging is more important than the physical
conditions under which the employee works.

)) 4)13453*6)171)8

9 
  


K Mayo had discovered a fundamental


concept. orkplaces are social
environments and within them, people are
motivated by much more than self-interest.
Thus,

THE HUMAN REþATIONS ERA


HAD BEGUN!
  
+

K 1908-1970
K Neo-Human Relation
Theorist
K Investigations of human
behavior occurred between
1939 and 1943
K Individuals are born with
innate needs

)|   '


 '

 
|   '
4 )


K Characteristics of needs
K 

 ' K hen lower-order need
is satisfied, a higher-order
K , need appears that needs
K %
- to be satisfied
K Order of needs from lowest to
K  highest
K , '  :
 K The lower the need, the > its
strength, potency, or priority
K Higher needs also appear
later in one¶s life
|   '
4

K Basic Needs K þove Need


K Hunger, thirst, sleep« K Gregariousness
K Safety Needs K Esteem Need
K Protection against K Desire for self-respect
danger K Self-Actualization
K Job satisfaction

  


K In the past, management reward systems have


attempted to satisfy an individual¶s lower level
needs, safety, psychological, and the threat to a
worker or his family
K Management reward systems are now
endeavoring to satisfy the individual¶s high level
needs for esteem and self-fulfillment
*
 '$ 

K 1906-1964
K rote The Human Side
of Enterprise (1960)
K Coined the terms
Theory X and Theory Y:
ays of viewing people
and their motivation

  


Theory X Assumptions:
K ork is inherently distasteful to most people; will
avoid it if at all possible
K Most people must be controlled and threatened
before they will work hard enough
K Most people prefer to be directed, dislike
responsibility, are unambiguous, desire security

  


Theory Y Assumptions:
K ork is as natural as play if conditions favorable
K People will direct themselves if committed to the
aims of the organization
K If a job is satisfying, the result will be commitment to
the organization
K The average person learns and seeks responsibility
K Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be used to
solve problems; the average mind is underutilized
  ;  

K 1886-1961
K Sociological Theorist
K The Functions of the
Executive
K Progressive Contributions
on the Organization
;  9 1 '
 ('  -
 '


K Role of the Executive


K Theory of Authority
K Zone of Indifference
K Reinventing þeadership
K Unforeseen Outcomes of the þiberal Arts
Educational Approach
| 
  

K Role of the Executive (superordinate) and the


employee (subordinate)
K Human Relations Management
± advancing democratic ideals
± advantages and problematic issues
;  9  
 
0  
3  :


K In His Own ords. . .


± Human and cultural diversity awareness
± Abnormality of organizational success
± Constraints on the 4executive art´
± Teachings applied to modern education (K-12)
0  '.| : 

K 1923 ± 2000
K Pioneer of Motivation
K ork itself can be a
motivator

4! 
 
 

 



''
 

Originator of Motivation-Hygiene Theory


Researched work-related motivations of thousands of
employees
Father of Job Enrichment
Authored influential books and articles:
- The Motivation to ork
- ork and the Nature of Man
- 4One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?´
- 4Managers or Animal Trainers?´
| : 9

 -
| )


|  
   

(Job Environment/Animal Needs/Extrinsic) (Job Content/Human Needs/Intrinsic)

K Company Policy & Achievement


Administration Recognition
K Supervision ork Itself
K Interpersonal Relations Responsibility
K orking Conditions Advancement and Growth
K Salary, Status, and Security
| : 9 
  


K Two Factor Theory: hygiene and motivation


K Satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work arose from different
factors; were not opposing reactions to same factors
K Shaped modern thinking about reward and recognition in the
workplace
K Motivation comes from job content
K Job Enrichment versus Job Rotation (management by motivation
v. management by movement)

4" #
 $    
#

'
  
 

K %  1'   ' 


± management had a positive too concerned with worker
attitude towards workers satisfaction
± efforts to enrich jobs to keep not much actual evidence
them interesting supporting it, although it
± gave rise to the Human held popular appeal
Resources approach sometimes implemented
superficially

'
  
 

K <3 +=
' 


 +
Scientific = focus on production
Human Relations = focus on personnel

,
' ,  /,  
 
  '


 
 '

  
    '
 

'