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Module

2

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method

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Lesson

8

The Force Method of Analysis: Beams

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Instructional Objectives

After reading this chapter the student will be able to

1. Solve statically indeterminate beams of degree more than one.

2. To solve the problem in matrix notation.

3. To compute reactions at all the supports.

4. To compute internal resisting bending moment at any section of the continuous beam.

8.1

Introduction

In the last lesson, a general introduction to the force method of analysis is given. Only, beams, which are statically indeterminate to first degree, were considered. If the structure is statically indeterminate to a degree more than one, then the approach presented in the previous example needs to be organized properly. In the present lesson, a general procedure for analyzing statically indeterminate beams is discussed.

8.2 Formalization of Procedure

Towards this end, consider a two-span continuous beam as shown in Fig. 8.1a. The flexural rigidity of this continuous beam is assumed to be constant and is taken as EI . Since, the beam is statically indeterminate to second degree, it is required to identify two redundant reaction components, which need be released to make the beam statically determinate.

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The redundant reactions at A and B are denoted by

respectively.

The released structure (statically determinate structure) with applied loading is

B and C due to

respectively. Throughout this

redundant due to

module

applied loads on the determinate structure.

R

1

and

R

2

shown in Fig. 8.1b. The deflection of primary structure at

applied loading is denoted by (

Δ

L

)

1

and

(

Δ

L

)

2

(

Δ

L

)

i

notation is used to denote deflection at

i

th

(

Δ

L

)

1

= −

4

wL

7

3

PL

8

EI

12 EI

(8.1a)

(

Δ

L

)

2

= −

7

4

wL

3

27 PL

24 EI

16 EI

(8.1b)

In fact, the subscript 1 and represent, locations of redundant reactions

released. In the present case

and subsequent lessons of this module, the deflections and the reactions are taken to be positive in the upward direction. However, it should be kept in mind that the positive sense of the redundant can be chosen arbitrarily. The deflection of the point of application of the redundant should likewise be considered positive when acting in the same sense.

For writing compatibility equations at B and , it is required to know deflection of

the released structure at

The deflection at

redundants

direction of

B and C due to external loading can be computed easily. Since

2 are not known, in the first step apply a unit load in the

B and due to external loading and due to redundants.

respectively. In the present

2

R

A

(

=

R

1

)

and

R

B

(

=

R

2

)

C

C

R

1

and

R

R

1

and compute deflection,

a

11

at

B , and deflection,

a

21

at

C

,

as

shown in Fig.8.1c. Now deflections at

due to redundant

R 1 are,

B and

C of the given released structure

(

(

Δ

R

)

)

=

11

Δ =

R

21

a

a

11

21

R

1

R

1

(8.2a)

(8.2b)

In the second step, apply unit load in the direction of redundant

deflection at

be recalled that the flexibility coefficient

of force applied at

structure) at B and C due to redundant

and compute

22 as shown in Fig 8.1d. It may

i due to unit value

j . Now deflections of the primary structure (released

R

2

B (point 1),

a

12

and deflection at

C

,

a

a ij

R

2

is the deflection at

is

(

(

Δ

R

)

)

=

12

Δ =

R

22

a

a

12

22

R

2

R

2

(8.3a)

(8.3b)

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It is observed that, in the actual structure, the deflections at joints B and C is zero. Now the total deflections at B and C of the primary structure due to applied

external loading and redundants

R

1

and

R

2

is,

(

Δ = Δ

1

L

)

1

+

a R

11

1

+

a R

12

2

(8.4a)

Δ

2

(

= Δ

L )

2 +

a R

21

1

+

a R

22

2

(8.4b)

The equation (8.4a) represents the total displacement at B and is obtained by superposition of three terms:

1) Deflection at

structure, 2) Displacement at B due to the redundant reaction

B due to actual load acting on the statically determinate

R

1

acting in the positive

direction at

B (point 1) and

3) Displacement at B due to the redundant reaction

R

2

acting in the positive

direction at

C

.

The second equation (8.4b) similarly represents the total deflection at . From

the physics of the problem, the compatibility condition can be written as,

C

Δ 1 =Δ + a R + a R = 0

L

1

11

1

12

2

(

)

(8.5a)

Δ

2

=Δ + a R + a R = 0

L

2

21

1

22

2

(

)

(8.5b)

The equation (8.5a) and (8.5b) may be written in matrix notation as follows,

(

(

⎧ Δ

Δ

L

L

)

)

1

2

+

a

a

11

21

a ⎤ ⎧ R ⎫ ⎬

a

12

1

22

⎦ ⎩

R

2

{(

Δ

L

)}[]{} {0}

1

+ A R =

=

0 ⎫ ⎬ ⎭

0

(8.6a)

(8.6b)

In which,

{( )}

Δ

L

1

= ⎨

⎧Δ ⎫ ⎪

(

(

Δ

)

L )

L

1

2 ⎭ ⎪

; []

A

=

a 12

11

a

a a

21

22

⎦ ⎥ ⎤ and { R }

R

R

1

2

= ⎨

Solving the above set of algebraic equations, one could obtain the values of

redundants,

R

1

and

R

2

.

{} []{ }

1

R =− A Δ

L

(8.7)

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In the above equation the vectors {

primary structure at point 1 and 2, [A] is the flexibility matrix and {

vector of redundants required to be evaluated. In equation (8.7) the inverse of the

flexibility matrix is denoted by

indeterminate to second degree and the size of flexibility matrix is . In

general, if the structure is redundant to a degree , then the flexibility matrix is of

the order . To demonstrate the procedure to evaluate deflection, consider the problem given in Fig. 8.1a, with loading as given below

. In the above example, the structure is

is column

contains the displacement values of the

Δ

L }

R}

[] A

1

2× 2

n

n × n

w = w ;

P = wL

(8.8a)

Now, the deflection (

from the equations (8.1a) and (8.1b) respectively. Then,

Δ

L

)

1

and

(

Δ

L

)

2

of the released structure can be evaluated

(

(

Δ wL

)

= −

wL

4

7

4

= −

4

17 wL

L

1

8 EI

Δ wL

)

= −

7

4

12 EI

4

27 wL

24 EI

= −

95

4

wL

L

2

24 EI

16 EI

 

48 EI

(8.8b)

(8.8c)

The negative sign indicates that both deflections are downwards. Hence the

vector {

Δ

L

}is given by

{

}

Δ =−

L

wL

4

48 EI

34

95

(8.8d)

The flexibility matrix is determined from referring to figures 8.1c and 8.1d. Thus,

when the unit load corresponding to

R 1 is acting at B , the deflections are,

L

3

5

3

L

3

EI

,

a =

21 6

EI

5 L

3

8

3

L

6 EI

,

a =

22 3

EI

a 11 =

Similarly when the unit load is acting at C ,

a 12 =

The flexibility matrix can be written as,

[]

A =

L

3

6 EI

2

5

5

16

(8.8e)

(8.8f)

(8.8g)

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The inverse of the flexibility matrix can be evaluated by any of the standard method. Thus,

[

A

]

1

=

6 EI

7

3

L

16

5

5

2

(8.8h)

Now using equation (8.7) the redundants are evaluated. Thus,

Hence, R

1 =

R ⎫ ⎨

1

69

56

R

2

wL

6

EI

×

wL


4

16

5

=

3

7 L

48 EI

20

56

and R

2 =

wL

5 ⎤ ⎧

2

⎦ ⎩

34

95

(8.8i)

Once the redundants are evaluated, the other reaction components can be evaluated by static equations of equilibrium.

Example 8.1

Calculate the support reactions in the continuous beam due to loading as

shown in Fig. 8.2a. Assume

ABC

EI to be constant throughout.

beam due to loading as shown in Fig. 8.2a. Assume ABC EI to be constant throughout.

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as redundants, since the given beam

is statically indeterminate to second degree. In this case the primary structure is

. The primary structure with a given loading is shown in Fig.

8.2b.

Select two reactions viz, at

B ( R )and

1

(

C R

2

)

a cantilever beam

AC

In the present case, the deflections (

B and C can be readily calculated by moment-area method. Thus,

Δ

)

L 1

, and

(

Δ

)

L 2

of the released structure at

and

(

(

Δ

Δ

)

)

L

1

L 2

819.16

=−

EI

2311.875

= −

EI

(1)

For the present problem the flexibility matrix is,

125 625

a

a

11

12

=

=

3

EI

625

6

EI

a

21

a

22

=

6

EI

1000

=

3

EI

(2)

In the actual problem the displacements at B and are zero. Thus the

compatibility conditions for the problem may be written as,

C

a

a

11

21

R

1

R

1

+

+

a R

12

2

a R

22

2

+Δ = 0

L

1

(

)

+Δ = 0

L

2

(

)

(3)

R ⎫ ⎬

1

R

2

=

3 EI

1000

312.5

125

1

27343.75

312.5

EI

×

819.16

2311.875

(5)

Substituting the value of E and I in the above equation,

R

1

= 10.609kN

Using equations of static equilibrium,

R

3

= 0.771 kN

and

and

R

2

R

4

= 3.620

kN

= −0.755 kN.m

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Example 8.2

A

clamped beam AB of constant flexural rigidity is shown in Fig. 8.3a. The beam

is

subjected to a uniform distributed load of

w

kN/m

and a central concentrated

moment

force method.

2

M = wL

kN.m

. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams by

wL kN.m . Draw shear force and ben ding moment diagrams by the redundants. The primary

the

redundants. The primary structure in this case is a cantilever beam which could

be obtained by releasing the redundants

positive in the upward direction and

counterclockwise direction. Now, calculate deflection at

loading. Let (

due to external loading. The positive directions of the selected redundants are shown in Fig. 8.3b.

B due to only applied

assumed to be positive in the

Select vertical reaction (

R 1 )and the support moment

R

R

2

1

and

is

R

2

. The

B and ( Δ )

L 2

(

R

2

)

at

B

as

R 1 is assumed to be

be the slope at B

Δ

L

)

1

be the transverse deflection at

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The deflection

unit load method. Thus,

(

Δ

L

)

1

and

(

Δ

L

)

2

of the released structure can be evaluated from

and

(

(

Δ wL

L

)

= −

1

 

4

3

wL

4

= −

4

wL

8

EI

3

8

EI

3

wL

2

= −

2

EI

3

wL

6

EI

2 EI

 

3

EI

Δ wL

L

)

= −

2

(1)

(2)

The negative sign indicates that (

clockwise. Hence the vector {

Δ

L

)

1

is downwards and rotation

Δ

L

}

is given by

{

}

Δ =−

L

wL 3 L

3

6

EI

4

(

Δ

L

)

2

(3)

is

The flexibility matrix is evaluated by first applying unit load along redundant

and determining the deflections

R

1

a

11

and

a

21

corresponding to redundants

R

1

and

R

2 respectively (see Fig. 8.3d). Thus,

a 11 =

3

L

3

EI

and

a

21

=

2

L

2

EI

(4)

Similarly, applying unit load in the direction of redundant

flexibility coefficients

a

12

and

a

22

as shown in Fig. 8.3c.

a 12 =

2

L

2

EI

and

a

22

=

L

EI

R

2

Now the flexibility matrix is formulated as,

[] A =

L 2

6 EI

2

L

3

L

L

3

6

, one could evaluate

(5)

(6)

The inverse of flexibility matrix is formulated as,

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[

A

]

1

=

6 EI

3

3

L

6

3

L

3 L

2

2

L

The redundants are evaluated from equation (8.7). Hence,

R

1

R ⎫ ⎨

1

R

2

2

= wL

=−

=

6 EI

6

3 L ⎤ ⎛ wL ⎞ ⎧ 3 L

× ⎜ ⎜ −

3

⎠ ⎩

4

3 2 3 L − 3 L 2 L 6 EI ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ w
3
2
3 L
− 3
L
2
L
6 EI
w ⎧
6 L ⎫

3

2

L

and R = −

2

2

wL

3

(7)

The other two reactions ( Thus,

R

3

and

R

4

=

M

= −

2

wL

A 6

R

4

) can be evaluated by equations of statics.

and R

1

R

= =−

A

wL

(8)

The bending moment and shear force diagrams are shown in Fig. 8.3g and Fig.8.3h respectively.

Summary

In this lesson, statically indeterminate beams of degree more than one is solved systematically using flexibility matrix method. Towards this end matrix notation is adopted. Few illustrative examples are solved to illustrate the procedure. After analyzing the continuous beam, reactions are calculated and bending moment diagrams are drawn.

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