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Every day traffic seems to get worse on our roads.

How can we reduce the


number of cars on our roads today? What alternatives can we offer car
drivers?

Novadays everybody prefers to drive his own car by the means of transportation. This is
comfortable and provides freedom to the driver. However, the traffic problem has
became much more worse with the increasing number of cars on the roads. To lessen
the number of cars in the traffic, some action must be taken and drivers should be
supplied with some options.

First of all, i beleive that if the public transportation options satisfy people, they would
not prefer to drive their own car. If the transportation network is expanded to make sure
that every town, avenue etc. is accessible, people would be able to reach their
destination by using public vehicles. This would keep them away from their cars.

Besides, public transportation is cheaper than owning a car if we consider the


maintenance and the gasoline costs of the car. Public transportation options should be
cheaper to attract people. However, supplying cheap transportation would not be
enough. Some drivers do not consider money. They should be attracted with newest and
comfortable vehicles so that they would not be disattracted with the idea of an
uncomfortable travel. As well as supplying new vehicles, the number of active vehicles
should be increased to make sure that the vehicles are not being crowded. People do not
prefer buses because they think they won't be able to sit and they have to stand between
lots of people. This belief must be destroyed.

In conclusion, i beleive that by providing comfortable and cheap transportation, people


would be encouraged to use public vehicles to travel, so the traffic density will decrease.
Also, emphasising that people would save both money and time by using public
transportation by advertisements would be a wise decision to attract people.
A friend of yours is going on holiday soon and has asked you to recommend
a destination. Write a letter to your friend and recommend a good place for
a holiday that you have visited before. Say where you went, where you
stayed, what you can do there and what the food was like.

Dear Sarah,

I am writing this letter as a response to your question. The last time I saw
you you were searching for a place to go to holiday.

If you want to go to seaside, my answer will be Bodrum in Turkey. The sea is


fantastic as well as the bazaars and the historical places around. Besides,
you will be able to meet lots of new people. And also there are quite many
five star hotels with reasonable prices. It would not cost too much, but you
will enjoy your time there. When i was in bodrum, i stayed at sunshine
hotel. It was a five star hotel with a very low price. The hotel staff was so
kind and helpful and the foods were terrific. You will be able to taste a wide
range of turkish food , they are delicious but just beware of the hot peppers!

In bodrum, during the daytime you can enjoy the sun and sea. You can also
windsurf or attend to a boat tour to see sea caves and natural beaches. At
the night, you can go to a club and dance. There are plenty of clubs in
bodrum but i especially advise you to go to the Bobo night Club. It has
quality and the activities are very fun.

I hope you will enjoy your time while in Bodrum. I am sure that you will
like there. I wish you a wonderful holiday!

Yours sincerely,
Cer
You rent a house through an agency. The heating system has stopped
working. You phoned the agency a week ago but it has still not been
repaired.

Write a letter to the agency. In your letter

• introduce yourself
• explain the situation
• say what action you would like the agency to take

children as a workforce

In many countries children are engaged in some kind of paid work. Some
people regard this as completely wrong, while others consider it as valuable
work experience, important for learning and taking responsibility.

What is your opinion on this?

In some countries, especially the countries with poor economic conditions , children are
used as a workforce. Some people find this disturbing, completely disagreeing by the
idea of child workers while other believe that working could be an opportunity to learn
taking responsibilities, get a better understanding of the world and have work
experience. I tend to agree with the second idea because I believe that a child should not
deal with such responsibilities, he is incapable of performing complex duties, study at
school and have free time to play with his toys and other kids.

Childhood is the early part of our lives in which we dedicate ourselves to toys, games,
funny activities and playing with other kids. I think it is not fair to take away a child's
right to live his childhood by forcing or influencing him to work in industry. Besides, a
person can be a child only once in a lifetime. Regarding to the fact that we all have to
work or study in our whole life after we grow up, it must be every child’s right to live a
completely free and normal childhood.
Assuming that a child could utilize from working by gaining experience and taking
responsibilities is a too optimistic point of view. A child is incapable of carrying out
complex duties and this will limit him with primitive kinds of work. This kind of a job
would neither satisfy nor improve a child. Not only children but also adults are not
satisfied with such jobs. It would be cruel and to influence children to work in such jobs
because adults expect more salary and better working conditions then children.

Another important point is that an adult could protect himself from mobbing and all
other kinds of abuse that can happen in a work place. However a child needs to be
protected against such behavior. With the lack of parental guidance and being all alone
in work environment, a child could be harmed by adults. As a consequence, he could
both physically and mentally hurt.

In conclusion, i think work places are not a proper environments to grow up. Children
should be free to live their own childhood however they like. Their duty should be
limited by school work and homework, putting too much on their shoulders will be no
good for their future and self improvement.

Forests

Forests are the lungs of the earth. Destruction of the world's forests
amounts to death of the world we currently know.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

It is known that trees have many contributions to the world. Some people think that
forests, jungles and other natural areas must be preserved in order to protect the world,
while some other people do not care eradication of the forests for industrial purposes. I
completely agree with the first opinion and I will point out my ideas below.
Tress are very useful beings of the earth. They consume carbon dioxide and produce
oxygen by doing photosynthesis. This helps to preserve the balance of the carbon
dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere. However, if people continue cut up trees, remove
forests from the earth, someday the world would come to an irreversible situation, such
as running out of oxygen.

Besides, forests represent a crucial part of nature and nature should be protected by any
means. There are too many environmental organizations emphasizing the importance of
preserving natural habitats because there is no chance to restore a forest immediately,
after destroying it. If you cut off trees, there is no way to grow them back in a short
period. It takes years to a tree to grow. Business organizations often tend to remove
forests and construct buildings instead of them. We should be aware of that an
industrial organization could be built on any place, but if a forest is removed, there wont
be any chance to restore it back as quickly as constructing buildings.

In conclusion, I believe that keeping the forests and other natural habitats are crucial for
the future of the world an mankind. Trees should not be considered as some object, they
are alive as well, and are a part of the world like humans. We must keep in mind that
there will be no recovery when a forest is cut off and plan our industrial growth
according to that fact.

smoking

Some businesses now say that no one can smoke cigarettes in any of their
offices. Some governments have banned smoking in all public places. This
is a good idea but it takes away some of our freedom.

Do you agree or disagree?

Although some companies allow their employees to smoke in the office, governments start to
prohibit smoking in all public places including work places. Some people agree with this action
while some believes this limits people's freedom. I tend to agree with the first idea because
smoking is an unhealthy and harmful activity which not only damages the smoker but also
effects the people living in the same environment with the smoker.

It is certain that smoking damages our bodies. Besides, Cigarette is a combination of various
harmful chemicals and the cigarette packages also alerts people about the damages of smoking,
including cancer, heart diseases etc. Furthermore, it is known that cigarette smoke has negative
effects on people who are not smoking but sitting in the same room with the smoker. The smoke
pollutes the air in a room and non-smokers have to breathe this polluted air. If smoking is
allowed in buildings and other public places, people who don't smoke will suffer from the effects
of smoking too. Smoker's freedom to smoke contradicts with this is really unfair situation.

In conclusion, I believe that a true definition of freedom could be made when the actions would
never hurt any other people. But it is proved by the science that freedom of smoking damages all
nonsmoking people. In that condition, i think smoking must be banned from public places,
protecting the nonsmokers' health. What the smokers will do has a secondary priority and could
be solved by constructing private areas for smoking etc. Human health is the most crucial point.

Popular events like the football World Cup and other international sporting
occasions are essential in easing international tensions and releasing
patriotic emotions in a safe way.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

International sports events like World Cup and Olympics bring lots of people from
different countries around the world together. Some people think that this occasions are
opportunities for developing good relationships between nations, softening tensions and
controlling patriotic emotions while some disagree with that. I tend to agree with the
first idea because sports events emphasizes on fair play, peace and friendship. Also
people has the opportunity to meet with different nations and get to know each other.

In a sport event, for example a football match, only one team can be victorious. The
football players are generally very friendly to their rivals, even if they lose. Besides they
underline the importance of being kind and friendly to their rivals. Suppose to opposing
countries had a football match. If the footballers give the right message to the audience
people who are observing football players as national heroes will start to adopt their
behaviour about the rivals.

Another point of view is learning to lose. If a very patriotic person could adapt himself to
losing a match during the world cup, he will be softened and become less aggressive to
foreigners. This is a very good chance if we consider the fact that football championships
are pretending to be the a game of fair play.

In conclusion I believe that sports events that bring people from different nations
together could help easing tension and developing good relationships between nations if
they give the right messages to people.

When a country develops its technology, the traditional skills and ways of
life die out. It is pointless to try and keep them alive.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

Technological development is a part of modernization and modernization should seem


as a threat to traditions and life styles. The idea that technological improvements will
destroy traditions is true and i tend to agree with it.

In Turkey, before the presentation of television, people were more social and it was a
habit to visit your neighbors. But today, people watch television and spend time with
computers rather than meeting neighbors. Once, there was a tradition about welcoming
a new comer to the neighborhood. All of the neighbors used to visit the new comer and
bring pastries and food to say welcome. But nowadays this tradition is about to end.
Nobody knows who is living next door. Neighbors became strangers.

Another point is the change in our life styles. Although the technological development
made life easier, it made us automated. For example once we wrote letters to our friends
which are living far from us. That letters were written with effort, by human hand, they
were not an automatic character set as today's emails. Nobody send letter anymore,
everybody prefers emails because it is very easy to send an email than a letter.
Every change triggers another change. Technological changes are inevitably going to
change our ways of living. And as our ways of living evolve, the traditions will sure fade
away.

Essay about computers

We are becoming increasingly dependent on computers. They are used in


businesses, hospitals, crime detection and even to fly planes. What things
will they be used for in the future? Is this dependence on computers a
good thing or should we he more auspicious of their benefits?

The development of technology made computers a part of our lives. Today, computers
are used for a wide range of purposes like leisure, security, scientific research and even
solving crimes. There is no doubt that people will be relying on computers in the future
much more than they are doing today. The dependence on computers has positive
effects in our lives but it should be carefully determined that which purposes requires a
human mind to handle and which could be handled by a computer.

The technology will continue to advance and the computers will become smarter and
functional. Furthermore, with the use of artificial intelligence, computers will be able to
determine and interpret results and comparing samples . I believe one day our security
systems will be fully based on computers which could scan retinas, fingerprints, can
identify voices etc. Also in the future talking computers could be used in almost every
car, alerting the driver that he is not wearing his seat belt or going above the speed limit.

However, some jobs and tasks require human interaction and human care and those
could never be accomplished by computers. Surgery is a good example of that. When it
comes to human life a computer, a machine could not be trusted. No matter how
artificially intelligent they are, computers will always have a very limited ability to make
decisions. The decision making ability is based on predefined human rules that are
placed into them.
In conclusion I believe that utilizing from computers for issues that not require decision
making or special human involvement is a certain benefit. But critical processes which
should be carried out by humans should never be left to computers. If we could be able
to identify successfully which areas to use computers it would be the best.

Letter

You have had a bank account for a few years. Recently you received a
letter from the hank stating that your account is $240 overdrawn and that
you will he charged $70 which will he taken directly from your account.
You know that this information is incorrect.
Write a letter to the bank. Explain what has happened and say what you
would like them to do about it.

Dear Sir,

Yesterday I received a letter from your bank indicating that my account is $240
overdrawn. Also, it mentions that i will have to pay $70 and that will be charged from
my account. I am sure that this information is incorrect because I haven’t withdraw any
money from my account since two weeks. Besides, after receiving the letter I
immediately checked my account details and confirmed the mistake . If you examine my
account traffic you will be able to see that there was no such action that will cause a
negative balance.

I hope you will investigate this inconveniency further and find out the mistake. Please
send me the details and the results of your investigation process. I don't want to be
charged $70 as it is a mistake.
Yours faithfully,

advertisements aggree/disagree
In todays highly competitive business world, it is inescapable for a company to be
supplied with advertisements in the media. Advertisements not only contain
information about product but also informs people about special promotions.
Furthermore, when a new product enters the market, it has to be promoted and
described to possible customers. The main way of presenting the new product to the
world and the customers is advertisement.

Advertisements have some certain benefits for a customer. First of all, a customer is able
to learn about a diversity of products and their benefits by watching or reading ads.
Besides, he has the chance to compare the products and this will help him in the
selection process. Advertisements show people what options they have and what
qualifications does the products have.

However, there are some advertisements that motivate people to buy by offering
nonrealistic results. Especially in TV ads, people always seem happy by using and
buying the product. This could lead a person to confusion about the product like that if
he buy it, he would be happy too. So, I think the advertisements have to be balanced
between reality and creativity in case of being honest.

In conclusion, i think that advertisements have a positive effect on our lives if they
contain true information about the product they are promoting. It would be impossible
to know about our choices while shopping or buying certain services if there were no
advertisements.

News editors decide what to broadcast on television and what to print in


newspaper. What factor do you think influence their decisions? Do we
become used to bad news? Would it be better if more good news was
reported?

On the media, a lot of events are published as news with the permission and
approvement of the news editors. The news do not always contain funny, happy or good
events but sometimes very sad and disturbing events take place in the media. I beleive
we should be informed of the important events all over the world regardless of the news
is good or bad.

The most important factor for an editor when deciding to publish a news is, i beleive, the
new's scope. By scope, i mean that if the news is global and related to the whole world, it
is not a question to broadcast it or not. An editor has to publish such an important event
or a disaster like earthquakes, torrents, tsunamis etc.

It is very sad to hear about people's death's, wars, terrorist attacks. But it is essential to
have a knowledge about what is going on in our country and in all around the world. We
may be used to hear bad news but if we didn't we would not even have a chance to know
what is happening. For example an earthquake can be categorized as bad news. There
are advantages of broadcasting that news. When people learn about it, they could offer
help and that would be a support for the country where the earthquake happened. There
are good results of publishing bad news.

One can think that publishing good news more than bad ones could boost the
community's happiness and wellfare. But in reality, bad things happen. While watching
or reading news we have the chance to observe them and learn about them. We would be
much more strong if someday they happen around us.

In conclusion, the most important factor effecting editor's decision about publishing a
news is the news' scope. Becoming used to bad news has a little importance if we
consider the power of knowledge about what is going on around the world.

GÖNDEREN MEROPE ZAMAN: 13:08 0 YO R UM

You stayed at your friends? house when you participated in a business


seminar in Australia. You left a file with important documents in your
room.
Task: Write a letter to your friend, describing the file and ask him/her to
return it to you by post.
Dear Tara and Melanie,

I was delighted to stay with you and i hope we would have the chance to meet again
soon. It was really joyful to spend time with you after my seminar attendance.

Unfortunately, when i was back in izmir, i realized that i have left an important file in
the room i stayed. The file is green and it contains two documents. I remember that i put
it on the coffe table in my room .One of the documents in that file indicates that i
succesfully attended the seminar. It looks like a diploma. The other is a report which i
have been preparing for months. This documents are very important for me. I would be
glad if you post them to my address. Please do not pay the post fee, just send it
indicating that the receiver will pay it. You already know my home address, please post
it to there.

If you can't find the file or need to ask any questions please email me.
Thanks for the warm welcome and beautiful stay again..

GÖNDEREN MEROPE ZAMAN: 13:06 0 YO R UM

You successfully passed a job interview. You are expected to start on November 15, but
you will not be available on that date.

Task: Write a letter to your new boss, explaining your situation, expressing
your concern and suggesting solution.

Dear Sir/Madam

Thank you again for giving me the opportunity to work in your company.
We had agreed upon November 15th as my start day but unfortunately i will
not be able on that date.

When we determined that date my current employer had accepted my date


of quit as November 12th so i confirmed that i would be able to start on
November 15th. But yesterdar my director told me that it was their legal
right to keep me until november the 18th and i have to work until that time.
I am deeply sorry about this situation but It seems There is no possible way
for me to start on that day. Could i shift my beginning to November the 19?

I really want to work with you, and starting one week later would not effect
my excitements. I am looking forward for your answer.

Best Regards,
Gudik.

GÖNDEREN MEROPE ZAMAN: 13:06 0 YO R UM

Television has had a significant influence on the culture of many societies.


To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively
affected the cultural development of your society?

Television has an important role in our daily lifes because almost every house has a
television which is open and being watched by the family members at least one or two
hours a day. Especially teenagers spend considerable time using television. Television
could affect a society's cultural and moral values. What we watch on television inevitably
effects our thoughts, likes and dislikes etc. If the programmes on tv contains too much
violence and gore, or they are morally corrupted, the tv will have a negative effect on a
society's culture. On the other hand, programmes which are seeking community's
wellfare , such as imposing not to smoke, or protecting the environment would have a
positive effect on people and culture.

The increase in crime in past decades makes television a suspect because there are a lot
of programmes which contain violence,guns, war, gore, nudity, bad speech, etc. Suppose
a teenager watching a movie with a lot of killing scenes. He could easily like the idea of
using a gun and accidentally kill someone if he got the chance to obtain a gun. I beleive
the violence on tv will boost the violence in the society.

Besides, the television effects moral values too. When teenagers watch movies that
makes the ideas of premarital sex and having a child without marriage seem normal,
they will use to think in that way. If the community's culture do not approve such
behaviours this would cause conflicts in the society.

but on the other hand, some programmes and movies are enligthening people about
certain issues. For example suppose global warming. Without the tv programmes and tv
news about the global warming may be nobody would have paid attention to the
environment. Also a programme telling about the dangers of smoking or a programme
that imposes people to treat nice to elder people would all serve for good and will have a
positive effect on the communities culture.

To summarize, i think television has both negative and positive effects on a culture and
the people living in that culture. If People want to watch violent, gruesome or morally
defected programmes on tv, they will be effected from what they watch. If they want to
watch usefull programmes the vice versa will apply. It is in our hands to determine the
effect of television to our culture.

GÖNDEREN MEROPE ZAMAN: 12:58 0 YO R UM


In Britain, when someone gets old they often go to live in a home with
other old people where there are nurses to look after them. Sometimes
the government has to pay for this care.
Who do you think should pay for this care, the government or the family?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples
from your experience.

When people get old, they usually prefer to live in private homes which
accomodates older people and hosts nurses to take care of them. This
places have certain fees. Some people beleive that it must be the
goverment's duty to pay this fee while others think that it must be their
family's responsibility to pay the fee. I tend to agree with the second idea.

I beleive that the family is an organization which all the members have to
supply each other when in need. This need could be in emotional or
material means. Parents raise their children without expecting any
financial benefit from them when they become adults. So it must be the
children's duty to look after their parents after they become elder.

If government starts to pay for elder people's living in those homes, it


would take a great deal of money to pay everyones' fees and that would
inevitably cause the people to pay more tax. This would be inconvinient.

And also, i beleive that people should make special retirement savings
when they are young to avoid this kind of problems.

To summarize, i strongly agree that this fee should be the family's


responsibility. Because the children are not raised by the government,
their parents raised them without seeking benefit. Vice versa should be
applied for the old parents and their grown up children should pay their
fee.
GÖNDEREN MEROPE ZAMAN: 12:27 0 YO R UM

You have some library books that you are unable to return as a member of
your family in another city has fallen sick and you have had to go and look
after them.

Write a letter to the library explaining the situation. Apologize for the inconvenience
called and say what you are going to do.

Dear Sir/Madam,

I have borrowed three books from your library ten days ago. According to the librarian's
note in my card, i must have returned the books yesterday. But unfortunately, one of my
family members, my aunt Petunia has fallen sick. She is living in ankara and There is no
one but me to look after her. I had to go to Ankara immediately to take care of her.

I am very sorry for the inconvenience. I would have delayed my departure to Ankara to
return the books, but my Aunt's illness was very serious. I have to stay in Ankara for at
least two weeks. I have brought the books with me and i consider posting the book to
you by mail. Is that suitable for you? I can't think any other options to return the books
back. I would appreciate if you offer another solution or accept my offer.

Again, i am very sorry for this situation. I will do my best to return the books
immediately.

Yours faithfully,
Kekocen
GÖNDEREN MEROPE ZAMAN: 12:02 0 YO R UM
Haziran 2008 Ana Sayfa

Kaydol: Kayıtlar (Atom)

HAKKIMDA

MEROPE

28 yaşındayım, evliyim, neden oldugumu hiç anlayamadıgım bir şekilde


bilgisayar mühendisiyim. kar görmeden, kitap okuyarak ve bilgisayar oyunu
oynayarak büyüdüm. kedileri, kazları, heykelleri ve şiiri severim,mutlu prensi her
okudugumda aglarım..dahası, türküm, dogruyum, depresifim...

P R OF I LI M IN TA MA M IN I GÖ R ÜN TÜ LE

İZLEYICILER

BLOG ARCHIVE

• ▼ 2008 (20)
o ▼ Temmuz (17)
 Every day traffic seems to get worse on our roads....
 A friend of yours is going on holiday soon and has...
 You rent a house through an agency. The heating sy...
 children as a workforce
 Forests
 smoking
 Popular events like the football World Cup and oth...
 When a country develops its technology, the tradit...
 Essay about computers
Letter

 advertisements aggree/disagree
 News editors decide what to broadcast on televisio...
 You stayed at your friends? house when you partici...
 You successfully passed a job interview. You are e...
 Television has had a significant influence on the ...
 In Britain, when someone gets old they often go to...
 You have some library books that you are unable to...
o ► Haziran (3)
 essay 3
 Essay 2
 Essay 1

Topic 7. Food –Drink -health-Welfare

Section 1: Drink

1. What’s your country’s drinking habit?


Tea - An Indispensable Drink for the Vietnamese
As you walk along the streets, somewhere near a lamp post, under the shade of a tree, or next to a door, there is a low table with glass pots containing
different kinds of candies, roasted ground nuts, and sugar coated cakes. Usually next to these treats, there is a humble tea cozy with a tray of cups. Around
the table are several small wooden stools. This is traditionally a complete description of a make-shift tea shop, which is a very popular part of Vietnamese
street life.
This drink is considered indispensable to every inhabitant of the city. Tea is drunk every day from the early morning until late at night. People drink tea at
their homes, at their work places, and even in tea shops on their way to and from work.
Whenever the Vietnamese feel thirsty, they are likely to look for this drink. It is drunk in both the summer and the winter months. In the winter, a sip of hot
tea makes you feel warm inside and better able to cope with the cold temperatures outside.Unlike northerners, whose preference is for a cup of hot steamy
tea, people in the south like to drink their tea cold, tending to add ice cubes.
How do we make a good tea cosy?
The owner skillfully lifts the cap of the tea cozy, takes out the tea pot, and then pours the hot tea into a small cup. The owner then hands the cup of
steaming tea to the customer

Section 2: health
1. People do many different things to stay healthy. What do you do for good health? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. TOEFL135
• Our health is the only thing we really have in the world. You can take away our money, our house, or our clothes and we can survive. Take away our
health and we will die. That is way I eat healthfully, exercise regularly and keep up my social life.
• Eating healthfully is important to maintain one’s health. I try to avoid foods high in fat like french fries or cookie?. I also try to limit the amount of animal
protein I consume. I never eat more than a few ounces of fish or chicken a day and I rarely eat meat. I eat a lot of vegetables and fresh fruit which are full
of fiber and vitamins. It is important to know how to cook these foods so the nutrients are not lost in the cooking process.
• Your muscles must continue to be strong to support your body as it grows older. Esercise helps the bones build density and helps you maintain your
posture. A regular exercise program of cardiovascular training and weight training is an important part of keeping your health.
• Friends are an important of one’s health. Studies have shown that people with a wide range of socila contacts get fewer colds and have fewer complaints
than those who don’t. laughing is also an important part of health. I like to lauhg with my friends and I always feel better when I am with them than when I
am alone.
• By eating properly and exercising regularly, I can keep my body at an appropriate weight and can maintain my health. By spending time with my friends,
i can keep my mind as well as my body happy. It’s all a part of my recipe for healthful living.
2. Prevention is better than cure. Out of a country''s health budget, a large proportion should be diverted from treatment to spending on health education and
preventative and that the individual should have the right to choose whether or not to participate.

Section 3: Welfare

1. Topic33: A government''s role is only to provide defence capability and urban infrastructure (roads, water supplies, etc.). All other services (education,
health, social security) should be provided by private groups or individuals in the community. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion –
prepare for ielts –124.
- Governments can only provide a limited range of services for citizens. Certain types of service, however, must be provided by governments, whereas both
governments and private groups or individuals can share the responsibility to provide other services.
- A government must provide those services which are essentila to a country. These include defence capabilities and social security. Private enterprise and
the profit motive should not form part of these essential services. On the other hand, some services could be provided by either governments or private
groups or both. Education and health care are examples of such services. A government must provide at least a basic level of education and health care so
all citizens can have access to them. Private enterprise, though, could also provide services in these areas for those who wish to pay for them.
- Urban infrastructure is another area where governments and private groups or individuals can share responsibility. Governments must build and maintain
a system of roads, but toll roads can be built and road maintenance carried out by private contractors. Similarly, other infrastructure, such as water or
electricity supply, can be operated by private companies.
- To sum up, there are some services such as defence and social security which must be provided by government. Other services, for examples water supply
or education, could be provided by both government and private enterprise. Consequently, it is not true to say that a government’s role is only to provide
some services while others should be provided by the private sector. In fact, both government and private groups can share in the provision of most
services.
2. In Britain, when someone gets old, they often go to live in a home with other old people where there are nurses to look after them. Sometimes the
government has to pay for this care.
Who should be responsible for our old people? Give reasons.
- Their children.
- Government.
3. What should a government do for a country to become successful?
- Human resources.
- Consolidate the national solidarity.
- Purify the government leadership.
4. Although abuses of the system are inevitable, social welfare payments are essential to protect the rights citizens have to a guaranteed income in a
democratic society. Discuss – 202 exercise –120.
Social welfare is an essential element of an advanced society. Good systems are always abused, but that does not mean they are faulty. In my opinion, the
two main reasons why welfare payments are necessary are as follows:
- first of all, critics forget that there are many forms of welfare besides payments to the unemployed. Their negative opinions harm those who are capable
of earning a wage, such as single-parent mothers, the disabled, and the sick. Moreover, the unemployed have the right to an income, too. They are not
always at fault for not having a job, and in most cases the tax they have paid in the past entitles them to assistance.
- The second reason is that crime increases when people have no means of support. The desperately poor inevitably turn to crime, which is not only
dangerous but costly. Policing the streets is more expensive than providing welfare. A policeman’s wage is four or five times higher than a “dole” payment.
- Certain members of society believe that people should look after themselves. They point out that welfare increases depandency on others and destroys
dignity. This may be true, but in the case of the unemployed, the relief payments are usually temporary. It is surely the fault of the government if there are
long – term unemployed. Welfare critices also believe that it is the responsibility of a victim’s family to provide financial assistance. However, it is too
expensive to provide complete help for a severely disabled person.
- To conclude, it is vital to understand the need for welfare in a modern democratic society. Without welfare payments the poor are destined to become
poorer. The first duty of a government is to provide a financial safety net for all disadvantaged persons, and that includes those without work.
5. The welfare state makes people less self-reliant: above question
6. A much debated issue these days is whether citizens should take out private health insurance or not
- A much debated issue these days is whether citizens should take out private health insurance or not. The cost of providing free medical care for both the
wealthy and the poor is far too great for any government, and most people agree that if you can pay for insurance, you should. In this essay, I will argue
that all who can afford it should be insured, but free medical care must be made available for those too poor to do so.
- The most important reason for encouraging people to take out private health insurance is the cost to the government of health care. Free health cover for
people who are able to pay for it is a waste of public money. Of course, people will only pay health insurance premiums if they know that they are getting
good value for their money. If they get sick, they should pay very little or nothing at all. In addition, the privately insured are entitled to special benefits
such as having the choice of their own doctors, and being able to avoid long waiting lists for hospital beds.
- On the other hand, those who really cannot afford to pay private insurance premiums, which are often very high, are still entitled as citizens to the best
medical care available - they cannot be expected to pay their own medical bills. However, if they are working, they should still pay a percentage of their
wage (say 1 to 2%) as a tax which pays towards the cost of providing ‘free’ medical services.
- In conclusion, most people should privately insure their health, but it is unreasonable to suppose that all citizens can afford it. Therefore, a safety net in
the form of a basic free health care system must exist for the very poor and the unemployed. (301 words)

Section 4: food
1. Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your
answer. TOEFL3
• The twentieth century has broght with it many advances. With those advances, human lives have changed dramatically. In some ways life is worse, but
mostly it is better. Changes in food preparation mehtod, for example, have improved our lives greatly.
• The convenience of preparing food today is amazing. Even stoves have gotten too slow for us. Microwave cooking is much easier. We can press a few
buttons and a meak is completely cooked in a short time. People used to spend hours for an oven-cooked meal, and now we can use that time for other,
better things. Plus, there are all kinds of portanle, prepackable foods we can buy. Heat them in the office microwave, and lunch at work is quick and easy.
• Food preparation today allows for more variety. With refrigerator and freezers, we can preserve a lot of different foods in our homes. Since technology
makes cooking so much faster, people are willing to make several dishes for even a small meal. Parents are more likely to let children be picky, now that
they can easily heat them up seome prepackaged macarani and cheese on the side. Needless to say, adults living in the same house may have very different
eating habits as well. If they don’t want to cook a lot of different dishes, it’s common now to eat out at restaurants several times a week.
• Healthful eating is also easier than ever now. When people cook, they can use new fat substitues and cooking sprays to cut fat and calories. This reduces
the risk of heart disease and high cholesterol. Additionally, we can buy fruits and vegetable fresh, frozen or canned. They are easy to prepare, so many of
us eat more of those nutritious items daily. A hundred years ago, you couldn’t imagine the process of taking some frozen fruit and ice from the freezer,
adding some low –fat yogurt from a plastic cup and some juice from a can in the refrigerator, and whipping up a low –fat smootine in the blender.
• Our lifestyle is fast, but people still like good food. What new food preparation technology has given us is more choices. Today, we can prepare food that
is more convenient, healthier, and of greater variety than ever before in history.
2. Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at home. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons
and examples to support your answer.13
• Some people like to eat out at food stands and restaurants, while other like to prepare food at home. Often it depends on the kind of lifestyle people have.
Those with very busy jobs outside the house don’t always have time to cook. They like the convenience of eating out. Overall, though, it is cheaper and
healthier to eat at home.
• While eating in restaurant is fast, the money you spend can add up. When I have dinner at restaurant with a friedn, the bill is usually over twenty dollars. I
can buy a lot of groceries with that much money. Even lunch at a fast – food stand usually costs five or six dollarss for one person. That’s enough to feed
the whole family at home.
• Eating at home is better for you, too. Meals at restaurants are often high in fat and calories, and they serve big plates of food – much more food than you
need to eat at one meal. If you cook food at home, you have more control over the ingredients. You can use margarine instead of butter on your potatoes, or
not put so much cheese on the top of your pizza. At home, you can control your portion size. You can serve yourself as little as you want. In a restaurant,
you may eat a full plate of food “because you paid for it”.
• It is true that eating out is convenient. You don’t have to shop, to cook, to clean up. But real home cooking doesn’t have to take up a lot of time. Ther are
lots of simple meals that don’t take long to make. In fact, they’re faster than eating out, especially if you think of the time you spend driving to a restaurant,
parking, waiting for a table, waiting for service, driving home.
• Both eating at restaurants and cooking at home can be satisfying. Both can taste good and be enjoyed with family and friends. I prefer cooking at home
because of the money and health issues, but people will make the choice that fits their lifestyle best.
Interview
1. Describe your favourite restaurant.
• Moca Restaurant - location
• The food:
• The service:
• The decoration:
• The price:
• The feature:
• The strength:
• Why suitable for foreigner:
2. Traditional food:
• Which Vietnamese traditional dish do you particularly like?
- Sticky rice cakes are a Vietnamese traditional dish that must be part of Tet meals. As a matter of fact, every Vietnamese family must have sticky rice
cakes among the offerings placed on the altar to their ancestors.
• Do you know how to make the dish?
- Banh chung is made of glutinous rice, pork meat, and green beans paste wrapped in a square of bamboo leaves, giving the rice a green colour after
boiling.
- Making sticky rice cakes is a very meticulous job. To obtain the best cakes, rice has to soak in water for an entire day. The pork meat must include skin
and fat, the green beans must be of the same size, and the bamboo leaves must be fresh.
- Squaring off and tying cakes with bamboo strings requires skilful hands.
- Sticky rice cakes are available at any time of the year, although one is sure to enjoy them with relatives and friends during Tet. During Tet, rice cakes are
served with gio lua and hanh muoi– lean meat pie and salted sour onions.
3 Are Vietnamese people’s eating habits changing? Can you give an example of such changes.
- Increasing number of people come to restaurant
- Improved standard and More dishes than before due to upgraded living standard.
- Rarely the whole family can gather due to business.
4. Do you think people in your country prefer eating traditional food to international one? Why? Why not?
- Traditional one.
- not many opportunities for trying international delicacies.
5. Speculate on a world in which people ate all the same kinds of food.
- not very favourable.
- Prefer a variety of delicacies.
- One part of each country’s culture –one part of the country.
5. How is your country’s traditional culture reflected in the eating habit of the people?
- Agriculture culture reflected in dishes.
- Close –knit relationship between family members.
- Traditional role of women.
End of topic 7.

Topic 8: Happiness –friendship - marriage

Section 1: Happiness-friendship

1. People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. TOEFL132.
Why we remember those gifts?
- Feel joy when looking at them: Feeling of being loved, recall good time together, etc.
- Pinpoint special events in lives.
- Recall memories of special people.
2) Good health is more important than money for a happy life. Do you agree?
3. What do you want most in a friend — someone who is intelligent, or someone who has a sense of humor, or someone who is reliable? Which one of
these characteristics is most important to you? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice. TOEFL
4. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Others like to be with friends most of the time. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with
friends? Use specific reasons to support your answer. TOEFL83
Why want be alone?
- Have time think about my goals and to develop a strategy to reach them -> really think about my life and what I want to do with it.
- Good way to listen to the silence and relax completely: lower stress level, sharpen the power of concentration.
- Being alone -> have time to step back, see the real value of things without being influenced by the opinions of others
- If with others: distort our views of things, worried about what others think of
5. Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Others choose to spend time with a large number of friends. Compare the advantages of
each choice. Which of these two ways of spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to support your answer. TOEFL84
What does friendship give us?
- Learn how to trust each others.
- What to expect from others.
- How to profit from experiences.
Why the more friends the better?
- Always available when we need them, not only in times of trouble but also in times of happiness.
- Want to have people around me that surprise me. Each has his own way of reacting to a situation -> learn how to deal with different kinds of people.
- Teach us about life. lots friends = plenty of information and experience.
6. Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Other schoose friends who are similar to themselves. Compare the dvantages of having
friends who are different from you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to you. Which kind of friend do you prefer for yourself? Why?
TOEFL90
Why different from us?
- Giving you different ways of looking at the world.
- Introduce you to new interesting things.
- Correct your weakness: spontaneous kind of person -> well organized.
- Experiences from different fields.
Why similar to us?
- Enjoy doing the same things.
- Understand each other -> easy to share problems.
7. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. It is sometimes said that borrowing money from a friend can harm or damage the friendship.
Do you agree? Why or why not? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your answer. TOEFL143
How can borrowing money harm friendship?
- How to know the lender can afford or not? -> embrassed
- When you’ll back the loan? -> awkwardness.
- Interest issues -> hurt feelings -> harm to friendship Interview
1. Talking.
- What kinds of people do you most like to talk with?
- Sense of humor: comfortable, relaxed.
- What do you usually talk about?
- Life, career, everything involved both.
2 Who do you think are better in conversation – men or women? Why?
- Women: sensible, emotional, understanding.
3 What advice could you give to someone who is shy about talking?
- The more she talks the more confident she is.
4. What role do friends play in your life?
Why we need friends?
- Help you to solve problems.
- Share happiness.
- Giving you the sense of love and being loved
- Share knowledge and experience.
5. Describe your best friend.
- Why do you get known each other?
- What is his character? - How do you feel about your friendship with him?
4. What are some of the differences between a Vietnamese friend and a foreign friend?
- characters:
- topics for talking:

SECTION 2: MARRIAGE

1. The advantages and disadvantages of arranged marriages.


*. Advantage:
- Financial security. Lack of money -> stress in any relationship.
- Parents make better choice than their children.
+ Parents are older and wiser
+ Experience: at assessing characteristics (experiences) -> know what qualities are desirable in a spouse.
+ Better judges of character than young people, who often let emotions influence their judgement.
parents choose with theirè head not their heart.
• Disadvantage:
- Misery for 3 people if they have fallen in love with the other.
- Likelihood of unhappy life for their children. The basis of the marriage is love. Lack of love -> unsuccessful marriage for their whole life. Love can make
people more tolerance (enhancing sympathy to each other).
- Unfair for their children: Their daughter and son are mature enough to make their own decision for their future spouse. Parents would rather be the
advisors, not decision maker.
- Life has changed. Parents choices are probably no longer suitable for their children. For instance, in World War II, hard- working is a desirable character
for any person. However, in these days, it’s active and well – educated ones that are desirable for a spouse.
2. Young people should live together before getting married?
• Advantages:
- Enhancing mutual understanding:
+ In daily life: cooking, living habit, …
+ Their family life: behavior with their relative
- An effective way to examine if they are a good couple or not. Easy to solve problem if they are not suitable to each other: financial issues and children.
• Disadvantages.
- Greater likehood of breaking – up relations, which would lead to a lot of serious consequences, due to no legal bond between them. One minor argument
can cause their break, for instance.
+ women are vulnerable if their relation are broken up: difficult to find a replacement because of prejudice.
+ In case there are children of this un – married couple -> they are of misery: not perfect parents, an unhappy childhood, obsession about their parents.
- For society: the increase of infectious disease due to a lease ***ual living style: HIV, … -> a great threat to the whole society.
3. Do women usually work after getting married in your country?
• A common phenomenon in several countries: many women drop their full-time employment after marriage. Instead they find some part –time job and
spend more time caring their family issues: housework, children rearing, family health care, etc.
• In Vietnam, it’s not of so popular. In fact, Vnese women continue their employment after marriage. They share nearly the same responsibility of bread –
winner like their husbands.
Some other relevant questions relating to "friendship":
• Are there any famous stories of friendship in your culture?
• Describe one of your closest friends.
• Do you have any childhood friendships that are still strong today? Tell us about them.
• Do you have any long distance friends?
• How do you keep in touch with your long-distance friends?
• How often do you see your long-distance friends?
• Have you made any friends over the Internet?
• How often do you write to them?
• Have you ever met them in person?
• How are your friendships different now than they were when you were a child?
• How do you maintain a good friendship?
• How do you make new friends?
• How many people do you consider your "best friends?"
• Is it common to have friendships across generations?
• What are the advantages and disadvantages of these types of friendships.
• Do you have any friends from a different generation than you?
• There is a saying "To have a good friend, you need to be a good friend."
How can you be a good friend?
• What do you usually do with your friends?
• What factors may result in the breakdown of a good friendship?
• What is the longest friendship that you have had?
• What makes friends different from family?
• What qualities do you think are important in a friend?

Topic 9: Social problems –housing-History –religion- Politic –climate

Section 1: Climate -history - religion.

1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students to study history and literature than it is for them to study science
and mathematics. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
2. What kind of climate does your country have?''
The climate of Vietnam, just as its geography, is subject to many variations.
NORTH VIETNAM
- The climate in the north is very similar to that of southern China. It is characterized by great seasonal differences in temperature, and sudden changes are
not uncommon.
- There are two main seasons in North Vietnam, winter and summer. Winter generally lasts from November to April with rather pleasant cool weather. This
season is usually rather dry. The summer season begins in May and lasts till October. It is a time of tremendous heat, heavy rainfall, and typhoons.
SOUTH VIETNAM
- The south has a monsoon climate. There are two main seasons---wet and dry. The dry season lasts from November to April with barely a day of rain and
then changes to the rainy season which lasts from May to October.
- The hottest and most unpleasant time in South Vietnam is generally between February and April when the atmosphere is humid and the many storms
seldom break into a cooling rain.
- In Central Vietnam, the climate is a transition between the climates of the north and south.
HOTTEST MONTHS
- NORTH VIETNAM
- June, July, and August.
- SOUTH VIETNAM - March, April, and May

Section 2: Social problems -politic.


-Housing1. Why immigrants leave their own coutries?
- some are in political danger at home.
- Join relatives who already live abroad.
- A third group simply want a better social and economic future for their families.
2. problems caused by immigration:
- take jobs from other people.
- Refuse to integrate with the rest of the population.
- Contribute to social problems (drugs, crimes, etc).
Why debate:
- those problems caused by immigration are worse in recent years: unemployment, crime and prices increase.
- The death of the Communism -> freedom to travel –multi –racial.
-
3. Any lives are in danger when hastily erected buildings collapse because safety standards have been sacrificed to hopes of a quick profit. To prevent
disasters of this kind, governments should play a greater role in setting and enforcing safety standards for building construction.
4. Safety standards are important when building people’s homes. Who should be responsible for enforcing strict building codes – the government or the
people who build the homes?
5. Should a city try to preserve its old, historic buildings or destroy them and replace them with modern buildings? Use specific reasons and examples to
support your opinion. TOEFL
6. Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. They may choose to live in university dormitories, or they may choose to live in apartments
in the community. Compare the advantages of living in university housing with the advantages of living in an apartment in the community. Where would
you prefer to live? Give reasons for your preference. TOEFL
7. A country’s first duty to its citizen is to protect them. Therefore it is logical that defence should take up a significant proportion of national budget. For
or gainst?..\..\comprehensive site\task1-task2.htm
8. In the late 20th century, many cities are being rapidly redeveloped. In this process, the needs of special interest groups, such as people with physical
disabilities, are sometimes taken into account. How can society improve conditions for people with physical disabilities?
9. A public figure should not expect to have his/her private life.- PD
Others questions:
• Do you agree that teachers should use corporal punishment as a means of discipline?
• Do you think in vitro fertilisation should be available to parents so they can choose the *** of their child?
• In an overpopulated world, should people be free to have as many children as they want?
• Is there public assistance in your country?
• What are some expectations parents have for their children?
• What are some reasons that people become homeless?
• What are some things people can do to eliminate discrimination and prejudice?
• What do you think is the most serious problem in the world?
• Why do you think so?
• What can we do as individuals to solve this problem?
• What types of noise pollution do you hate the most?
• Who takes care of the elderly when they are no longer able to care for themselves?

Topic 10: Hometown.

1. You have decided to give several hours of your time each month to improve the community where you live. What is one thing you will do to improve
your community? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. TOEFL6
- I will organize a contest for the initiatives of improving the living of people in my hometown among themselves.
- Consolidate the solidarity in the hometown.
- Get a lot of nice ideas for the purpose of improving the community. Two heads is always better than one.
2. What change would make your hometown more appealing to people your age? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 60
- entertainment facility: -> have a place to go after school: socialize, have meetings, and just relax.
3. If you could change one important thing about your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer.
TOEFL
4. Where do you come from?
5. Describe your hometown to me.
6. What is your hometown well-known for?
7. What is life like for you in your home town? What are the good and bad points about living there?
- Environment:
- People:
- Living pace:
- Education:
- Facility:
8. Describe some of the changes that have taken place in your home city recently?
6. What changes have happened recently in your town and what do you think will happen in the future?
- Facility: Road system, entertainment.
- Education:
- Tourism:
- Transport means
7. What are the effects of such changes on the local people’s socio-economic lives?
- Living standard upgraded.
- Spirit life improved.
8. What are the reactions of the local people to these changes?
- Positive: enjoy a better life.
- Negative: transport, factory -> polluted air
9. What are your reactions to these changes? Which of them do you like? Which don’t you like?
- Positive: enjoy a better life.
- Negative: transport, factory -> polluted air
10. If you could change something in your city, what would you change? Why?
11. What are your local industries?
12. Describe a famous beauty your hometown:
13. After you graduate do you want to live in your hometown? Why or why not?
14. Do you like your hometown? Why or why not?
- Yes.
- The place I was born and there had witnessed my beautiful childhood memories
15. What is the best thing about your hometown? .
16. ... the night-life in your city/town.
17. What is the worst thing about your hometown? .
18. What''s there to do in your hometown?

answer to these questions are up to each person therefore i don''t post my answer here. Please prepare yourself for these questions. I think it is quite
important for the interview section

Topic 11. Media- television -communication -Reading – watching movies

section 1: Movies -films

1. It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific
reasons and details to support your answer. 27
How useful is a new movie theatre?
- more opportunities for recreation.
- Reduce juvenile deliquency: teens need activities to keep them busy and out of trouble.
- Lead to several improvements in the town.
- Help other busninesses: more visitor ->shopping, better road.
2. Films can tell us a lot about the country where they were made. What have you learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples
and details to support your response.153
What have you learned about a country from watching its movies?
People all around the world are alike in their goals and emotions.
Goals: knowledge, earning a living.
Emotions: want to be entertained, spend time with family and friends, enjoy some form of sports, music and dancing.
3. Movies are popular all over the world. Explain why movies are so popular. Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer.150
- people want to watch other people’s lives ->find excitement: adventurous and glamorous.
- Like to live vicariously: cry (sad movies) and laugh(comedies).
- Escape out own lives, share other emotions, and imagine ourselves as someone else (prepare in advance).
4. Some movies are serious, designed to make the audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. Which type of movie do
you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.65
Prefer movies that amuse and entertain.
- make me relax, laugh
- keep me in good spirit.
6. In your opinion what factors contribute to a good movie?

Section 2: Reading -watching


5. Pop music:
Opinions
• Pop is an international industry – it’s a as simple as that. Record companies are in business to make a profit.
• Pop music gives pleasure to billions of people. It saves lives, too. Think of all the money that Band Aid sent to Africa, for example. Things like that are
important.
Pop in the ‘80s:
- The most important musical event of the ‘80s was “Band aid”. the program was for the purpose of raising money for the starving people of Ethiopia in
1984. That concert, on 13 July 1984 raised over $ 100 million, with the contribution of famous music performers. It showed that top musicians and their
fans could change the world.
- Something else changed in the 80s, too: musical technology. In less than ten years, video compact discs and computers all became important in the po
industry.
- Thanks to video, every single suddenly had its own three minute film.
- Thanks to compact discs, the quality of recorded sound was better than ever.
- Thanks to computers it was possible to play and record thousands of new sounds.
- Pop has come a long way since the days of Elvis Presley.
- In the 50s it was fun
- In the 60s it was escape
- In the 70s it was big business
- In the 80s it became part of an international youth culture.
6. A singer that you like.
Michael Jackson.
Data: born 29 August 1958.
First in the Jackson Five, then a solo artist, MJ has been a superstar from the age of eleven. Today, he really is a living legend. What’s more, media reports
of plastic surgery, exotic pets and strange beliefs only seem to increase his fame. Behind it, though, stands one of the greatest: - singers – dancers – video –
makers – performers, pop has ever seen.
Greatest hits include: Ben, Off the wall, Thriller, Billie Jean, Beat it, Bad, Smooth Criminal, Dirty, Diana, I can’t stop loving you.
7. How do you think about the books on the screen?
Pros:
- On the screen -> it reaches a huge new audience. So if more people can enjoy a story by seeing it in a visual form, what’s wrong with that?
- A successful screen adaptation helps to promote the original book and increase its sales.
- Pictures make stories more vivid and life like easier to understand of complex and old – fashioned languages.
- Publishing industry develop.
- People lead busy lives these days. They don’t want to spend a week reading a novel when they can watch the film version in two hours. It’s a question of
convenience.
- Make more choices for people: read or watch or both, in which order?
Cons:
- reading is active… your mind has to work and create images. Watching is passive. You just sit there and all the work is done for you. It’s less satisfying.
- Reading -> free to stop and start other jobs. Watching you don’t have the freedom to stop and think for 5 minutes before you carry on.
- Screen adaptatons are never as subtle and complex as the book or plays they’re based on. Characters are cut out, scenes removed -> fit in 2 hours.
- Books can tell you what characters are thinking.
- Vital differences between a novel and a seri.
- Unfair influence on the book industry. Books not filmed -> not good selling.
- Bad screen version of your favourite book can ruin the original novel for you.
8. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Use
specific reasons and examples to explain your position.100
Agree. Reasons:
- The more you read, the stronger your imagination becomes. Reading exercises your imaginative powers
- Develop your storytelling skill. The more reading you do the better you become at creating plots and characters.
Movies advantages:
- the images in movie are much more vivid: in a large screen in a dark room.
- Sitting in a large screen with other people is fun.
9. Is the ability to read and write more important today than in the past? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.134
Agree. Reason:
- communicate through email using the Internet.
- Getting information through Internet.
- E – commerce: advertising on net.
10. People learn in different ways. Some people learn by doing things; other people learn by reading about things; others learn by listening to people talk
about things. Which of these methods of learning is best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. 89
• Best: learning by doing is the method work best.
• give a learner- first-hand experience.
• Disadvantages of other forms:
11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should read only those books that are about real events, real people, and established
facts. Use specific reasons and details to support your opinion.96
- Why should reading other kinds of events?
- Half of all the great books that have ever been written, not to mention the plays, short stories and poetry are imaginary.
- Reading stories as a child help develop our creativity.
- Storytelling is an emotional need for human beings.
-> fictions is too important to our culture, our minds and our emotions.
12. A folk story in your culture that has significance.
Banh Chung, Banh Day –printed.
13. The plot of a good book you have read recently.
- The fiction called “Gone with the wind”
- The author: Magarret Michel.
- The background: the American civil war.
- The plot:
- The story covers 12 years in the life of a very beautiful and haughty girl, named Scarlett O’Hara, also the main character, who were having the most
beautiful days of her life in a noble family at the time the war happened.
- Surrounding her were numerous young, handsome guys who loved her with all their hearts.
- Due to the war the O’Haras lost all their properties to their enemies.
- Being an innocent snobbish girl, Scarlet was suddenly put under heavy burden of rearing all her younger sisters and caring for her mental father. She
served as the breadwinner for a large family in an extremely difficult period.
- In her way, Scarlet had to cope with a lot of obstacle. However, with the essense of a resilent, resourceful girl, Scarlet managed to get her family
overcome the most hard interval in their lives.
- Indeed, Scarlet had left me a very intensive impression for her characteristic and her energy for solving her lifetime problem. One useful tip she used
whenever facing with headache situation was: “Thinking of tomorrow. It is a different day with brighter view!”. It is also useful for all of us.
- In fact, Gone with the wind is not only a historical and drama novel but also one novel of romance. The love affair between Scarlet and Rhett Burtler
would be going on all the time. Although the novel ended with the fact that Rhett left Scarlet alone, I do hope that he would late on turn back with Scarlet
because they did really love each other and both deserved.
14. Film:
- What type of films do you generally like? romance.
- Tell me about a film that you really enjoyed.
- Gone with the wind –230 minutes –1939 -color (above).
- The film get 10 oscars, which includes the best film, the best actress, the best director (Victor Flemming), and some others.
15 What do you think about all the advertisements shown before the film?
- If it last not too long, for about less than 5 minutes, I would be easy – going.
- But in fact, sometimes the time for advertisement reaches nearly ten minutes. Consequently, any audiences would be outraged. I am not an exception.
- I understand that the profits come to the media producer mainly from the advertisement fee. However, the editor should limit the time in an acceptable
limit.

Section 3: Communication

1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face communication is better than other types of communication, such as letters, email,
or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. TOEFL57.
Why face – to face communication is the best type?
- Eliminate misunderstandings immediately: body language.
- Cement relationship: eyes and hands -> stronger relationship.
- Encourage continued interaction: longer conversation.
2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Telephones and email have made communication between people less personal. Use specific
reasons and examples to support your opinion. TOEFL –not available.
Section 4: Media -television[/size=2]
1. Media – A world of information –miracle or Monster:
Today, thanks to modern – science, it’s possible to send words and pictures around the world in seconds. International events can be followed by billions of
people every day. History takes place in our homes. But what effect does all this information have on society? Does it make us more aware, tolerant, and
peaceful? Or – on the hand – does it make some people confused, depressed and viloent.
2. what is news?what are factors that make a good newspaper story:
- It must be new. - It has to be dramatic
- Not about ordinary, everyday life.
- invole in conflict and Danger -> news means bad news.
- There’s Human Interest.
- People are interested in other people – rich, famous, powerful, like: pop stars, TV personalities, actors, politicians, royalty.
- Familiarity: stories about people, places and events which their readers know -> different from different regions.
3. your views of media:
- in my opinion, today’s younger generation is the best informed ever. We’re really lucky. And why do we know so much?… because of the media. OK –
not all papers and programmes are good, I admit but so what? You don’t have to read or watch the bad ones. It’s like an information supermarket…you go
in, look at what’s available and choose what you want.
4. How do movies or television influence people’s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer.7
How do movies or television influence people’s behavior?
- Positive effects:
- Broader window on the world.
- Exposed to people of different races and cultures ->overcome prejudices more easily.
- News, useful information in documentary programmes.
- Relaxation, reduce stress, enhance interest in art.
- Escape our own problems for a little while.
- Show positive ways to resolve problems.
- Educational program:
- People will know many educational programs on the mass media such as cooking, driving, and animals’ lives.
- Negative effects:
- More violent:
- Attract viewers -> emphasize on violence
- Even in educational flms, more or less, there are some violent scenes
- Less sensitive to violent acts, can even commit ourselves.
- Less active: passive activity
- Unhelathy, both mentally and physically.
- Stop using imagination.
- Laziness both physical and mental.
- Wasting time to do other activities. Mostly popular television programs, such as cartoons or soap operas, are broadcast at night.
- Secondly, sometimes mass media influences people’ s idea. Many people will misunderstand the issues.
5. News editors decide what to broadcast on TV and what to print in newspapers. What factors do you think influence their decisions? – cambridge1 –150.
Media
- Before news is broadcast to the mass audience, it goes through a process called gatekeeping in which the editors decide what to broadcast based on three
major factors: politics, sponsorship and mass appeal.
- The first factor that influences this process is politics. If the TV station or newspaper is in favour of a political party, the topics broadcast will support that
party or discredit the opposition party.
- Another factor that influences editors is sponsorship. If a newspaper is sponsored by a famous tobacco company, it surely contains few topics about the
anti-smoking movement. Otherwise, the newspapers will lose its big sponsor.
- Moreover, editors tend to focus on the topics that the mass audience want to see, something that attracts attention right away, and something that is easy
to understand. Thus, a TV company or a newspaper can attract more audience and thus gain more advertising.
- Nowadays, people accessing news from TV or newspapers tend to understand the world as they see it in the media. Gatekeeping influences the way
people see the world and may distort what people see because of the factors associated with gatekeeping.
6. Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
7. Do we become used to bad news? Would it be better if more good news was reported? Paper
good news:
- it does not sell newspapers.
- Lack of listeners.
bad news:
- we have become immune to bad news and the newspaper and radio stations are aware of this.
- Main objective is to sell their products.
8. Watching too much television reduces people capacity to think for themselves -Preparation and practice –168.
• Firstly, watching television makes people lazy as viewers are given second – hand opinions, which can be used as a substitue for individual thought.
• Secondly, most television programmes are primarily entertainment as they are designed to attract viewers away from rival channels. Therefore they are
aimed to appeal to the lowest common denominator and have little educational value.
• Unlike books or even radio, television leaves little scope for the imagination and so tends to dictate simplified role models of what life should be like.
9. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television, newspapers, magazines, and other media pay too much attention to the personal lives
of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion.29
- Is it too much?
- Television, newspaper, magazine and web sites dig up all kinds of past bad actions
- some of these are things people did as teenagers.
- Those incidents involve experiments with drugs or being reckless in a car.
- It has an effect on the celebrity’s family, especially the children –> they may find their career ruined -> society lost one talented individual.
- -> unjust -> public don’t need to know.
- Why they pay so much attention to such subjects?
- What are the disadvantages?
10. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Watching television is bad for children. Use specific details and examples to support your
answer.unavailable
11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons and
examples to support your opinion.
- Why is this an exaggeration?
- It depends on the kind of programmes and type of viewers:
- Empty program + passive viewers = destroy.
- Educational program + active viewers = enhance.
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Re:English Topics for Speaking and Writing

By hakunamatata(游客)发表评论于 2007-5-16 17:43:00

Many thanks. This is very helpful for me.

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昵称:Give a full answer. Don't just give one word answers. Include more information. For
example, when asked where you're from, instead of just saying the name of the place, speak in a
sentence which states the name, the location, and how long you've been there. This shows the
examiner you are confident speaking in English. But don't speak too long or the examiner will
think you've misunderstood the question!

2. Speak clearly and don't worry about your accent. Everyone has an accent when they speak
English. The important point is that you enunciate the best you can so the examiner can
understand you. Rehearse in advance to overcome any obvious pronunciation problems. If you
make a mistake, don't worry, just correct yourself and keep going.

3. Use descriptive words. Don't use boring words like good, bad, nice, or okay. Use exciting
words that covey emotion. Practice using higher level words for every simple word you know –
such as thrilled instead of happy, or depressed instead of sad.
4. Speak up. Sometimes, students mumble and speak very softly because they are nervous or
unsure of their words. Use simple, correct language rather than complicated vocabulary and
speak loudly enough that the examiner does not have to strain to hear you. This indicates self-
confidence and command of the language.

5. Don't use slang. You have 11 minutes to display the best English you know in all the years
that you have been learning English! Choose to be formal rather than informal.

6. Keep a steady pace. Don't speak too fast or too slow.

7. Don't try to memorize answers to sample subjects. The examiner has enough experience to
recognize that you are not speaking naturally and spontaneously and will change the subject or
give you a lower score. Use the sample subjects to give you practice speaking on a variety of
topics, but not to memorize.

8. Explain names or words which are in another language. For instance, if you are asked to
speak about a festival, which involves using words in your language, say the words clearly and
give the meaning if any afterwards, so the examiner can follow your explanation.

9. Ask questions, if necessary, in Part 3 only. You cannot ask questions in Parts 1 and 2, but
you can do so, if necessary in Part 3.

10. Practice speaking with a watch. Get an idea of how long two minutes is and approximately
how much content you will have to cover.

11. Stay on topic. Don't change the subject or the examiner will think you have misunderstood
and may give you a lower mark.

12. Have daily discussions with friends. Take turns asking each other questions about current
events and develop your ability to speak about various topics, using varied sentence structure and
vocabulary.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Mon 20 Apr 2009 11:8 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

How to get a higher band for IELTS Speaking

Many students asked me how they can get a better score for Speaking. One of the
things that matters in the Speaking test is your pronunciation. When you study
with a teacher, improving your pronunciation is easier – he can correct you and you
can listen to him and just copy the way he pronounces words. But what do you do if
you’re all alone and study by yourself?

A number of things, actually!


First, you can use a free web-based text-to-speech application such as this one (click here to try).
“Text-to-speech” means exactly that – you type a word and the program says it. Get a passage of
text and start reading it out loud. Any word you are not sure how to pronounce, type in that
website and click “Say it” to hear it. Repeat it again and again until you remember the right way
to say it.

Second, you can record yourself speak – using a computer or a tape recorder, an mp3 player, a
mobile phone – now there are many devices that allow voice recording. Then listen to your
recorded voice and make note of what words are mispronounced. Start working on those using
the talking website again and get them right.

Third, get a recording of news/radio/anything made by native English speakers. Play it and
repeat after them, trying to copy the way they pronounce words.

A word of advice – there is no quick and easy fix for bad pronunciation. The chances are that
you won’t get rid of your accent completely – but the accent doesn’t matter in IELTS as long as
you pronounce the words correctly, so work hard on that – and you should be just fine!

Twenty tips for IELTS


success

Written by Rad Danesh

1 In Listening, use the example at the beginning of the first section to familiarize yourself with
the sound, the situation, and the speakers.

2 Keep listening until the recording stops, looking only at the questions that relate to the part
being played.

3 There are often pauses in the recording between different sections. Use these to prepare for the
next set of questions.

4 Answer Listening questions in the order they appear on the Question Paper. Remember that
they normally follow the order of the information in the recording.

5 At the end of the recording you have some time to transfer your answers to the Answer Sheet.
Check your grammar and spelling as you do so.

6 In Academic Reading, begin by going quickly through each passage to identify features such as
the topic, the style, the likely source, the writer’s purpose and the intended reader.

7 As you read, don’t try to understand the precise meaning of every word or phrase. You don’t
have time, and those parts of the text might not be tested anyway.
8 Reading tasks sometimes have an example answer. If this is the case, study it and decide why it
is correct.

9 Some tasks require you to use words from the text in the answer; in others you should use your
own words. Check the instructions carefully.

10 The instructions may also include a word limit, e.g. Use no more than three words. Keep to
this by avoiding unnecessary words in your answer.

11 In Academic Writing, you must always keep to the topic set. Never try to prepare sections of
text before the exam.

12 Keep to the suggested timing: there are more marks possible for Task 2 than Task 1.

13 Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, using a wide range of language and
showing your ability (in Task 2) to discuss ideas and express opinions.

14 If you write less than 150 words in Task 1 or less than 250 in Task 2 you will lose marks, but
there is no maximum number of words for either.

15 When you plan your essay, allow plenty of time at the end to check your work.

16 In Speaking, don’t try to give a prepared speech, or talk about a different topic from the one
you are asked to discuss.

17 Always speak directly to the Examiner, not to the recording equipment.

18 Whenever you reply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ to the Examiner’s questions, add more details to your
answer. In each case, aim to explain at least one point.

19 Remember that you are not being tested on your general knowledge but on your ability to
communicate effectively.

20 Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, talking clearly at normal speed and
using a wide range of structures and vocabulary.
+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 18 Apr 2009 10:24 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Writing - half-band scores

About two years ago there was a change in IELTS grading system, when half-band
scores were introduced for the Writing and Speaking modules. At first there was so
much confusion, until they came up with an explanation of those half-bands, but
even now many people write to me asking to explain what can make a difference
between a full band and half-band.
According to IELTS examiners, it is the quality of your writing that makes that half band of
difference. Let me explain. I have written a post explaining how your writing task gets graded,
what things are important and what you can get marks for. So let’s take for example one of
categories there, “Selecting what information to present”. If the examiner sees that you attempted
to do that, but didn’t do it quite right (for example threw too much information away) - that
could mean that you get half of band for attempting but not the full band because you didn’t do a
very good job selecting information. Usually messing up in just one category is not enough to
cost you half band; it would take two or three mess-ups of that kind.

Another example - weak grammar and poor choice of words can make the difference between
band 5.5 and 6. The work can be written in beautiful English but if it doesn’t follow the IELTS
format, you’ll never get beyond Band 7.

So I think the bottom line is - they introduced the half bands to make difference between students
that know what IELTS writing rules are, try hard but do a poor job following the rules and
students that do a good job in fulfilling all the requirements.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 18 Apr 2009 9:16 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Writing - how your band score is calculated

This is the key question of many students: please explain how the band score is
calculated. Finally, I decided to try and summarize what I know about the scoring
process so this is it - the scoring process in my understanding.

When your Writing 1 task gets graded (I am talking about IELTS Academic module here), you
can get (or loose) points for:

Filling the requirement of the task


That means writing a report that shows - this student understands what he needs to do and does
as we ask.

Selecting what information to present


A bit tricky, you need to be careful to not throw away useful information and to not include
every little detail.

Presenting an overview
Describing what the graph shows without repeating the task, in your own words. If you don’t
have an overview or copy the task it will cost you marks.

Presenting key features


Almost any graph has the most noticeable features, write about them.

Organization of information
This is mostly about paragraphs that should come in logical order.
Progression
As the examiner reads your report he needs to see how you “slide” on the graph from one thing
to another.

Cohesion, reference and substitution


That is to do with the way you present statistics. If you repeat the same structure to mention all
the numbers, or choose awkward expressions to do it - that will cost you marks.

Range of vocabulary
Your choice of words can point at limited, normal or wide vocabulary. It also matters if your
vocabulary is adequate for the task or not (if it is not wide but enough to write a clear report,
that’s fine)

Control over grammar, spelling and appropriate choice of words


No need to explain

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 18 Apr 2009 6:7 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Letter, topic: a complaint about a laptop

IELTS Letter, topic: a complaint about a laptop

You have bought a new laptop computer and in a few days of purchase discovered a major
flaw. Write a letter to the company. In your letter
- introduce yourself
- explain the situation
- say what action you would like to company to take.

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am writing you to express my dissatisfaction with a laptop computer I bought in your store four
days ago.

As soon as I turned on the computer, I realized that Windows operating system was not installed
in it, although the offer said it was included. In addition, I chose a gray laptop and the one I
received is black. Moreover, the default language of the laptop is Japanesse and I haven´t been
able to change it to my native language, which is English. To make matters worse, the memory
specifications of this laptop are not the same as the ones that I read in your catalog.

I definitely need this situation to be solved as soon as possible. I made the decision to buy the
laptop at your store, because of previous good recommendations some friends of mine gave me
about your store. However, after this experience, I feel deceived.
I would like you can send me the laptop I first chose at your store, including all the specifications
were shown in the offer. If I don’t get a quick response to my request, I hope a full refund of the
payment I already made.

Thanks in advance for your response.

Yours faithfully,

R.

This is a good letter, all it need is a little more attention as there are certain language
inaccuracies (see comments underlined in blue). Overall, looks like a Band 7 letter.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 18 Apr 2009 2:28 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Essay, topic: mother’s and father’s role in a family

The boys are most influenced by their fathers and girls are most influenced by their mothers. Do
you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and details to support your opinion.

It is true that nowadays parent (parents) have a great influence over the (on their) children. Some
people hold the opinion that the same sex is the major determinations of influencing parent, but
others have a negative attitude (disagree) . As far as I am concerned, I agree that boys are most
influenced by their fathers and girls are most influenced by their mothers (DO NOT COPY THE
TASK EXACTLY, REPHRASE IT). My arguments for this point are listed below.

First of all, father is the person who passed that (those) ways which are (in life which) his son is
passing now, in the other words, sons are stepping in a trace which fathers had driven them.
So (thus) , based on experience it is easy for father to notice sons’ drawbacks and influence
them.

Secondly, it is true that a boy is countedas a strong characteristics human ( considered a strong
person) , but (whereas) a girl is subtle and fragile one. It is hard for mothers to influence their
sons, because it is unbelievable that vulnerable something ( a vurnerable person) can affect a
strong one.

In conclusion, it seems to me unfair that boys are most influenced by their mothers. Based on at
least two points which are above I strongly agree that children are influenced by a parent of the
same gender.

This essay is too short, 190 words instead of the minimum requirement of 250. It doesn’t say
anything about girls being influenced by their mothers, which is also a part of the task -
therefore the task is only partially covered. The sentences are not complex enough, there are
grammatical mistakes and language inaccuracies (see comments underlined in blue). Overall,
looks like a Band 5.5 essay
+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 18 Apr 2009 2:25 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Writing - how your band score is calculated

This is the key question of many students: please explain how the band score is
calculated. Finally, I decided to try and summarize what I know about the scoring
process so this is it - the scoring process in my understanding.

When your Writing 1 task gets graded (I am talking about IELTS Academic module here), you
can get (or loose) points for:

Filling the requirement of the task


That means writing a report that shows - this student understands what he needs to do and does
as we ask.

Selecting what information to present


A bit tricky, you need to be careful to not throw away useful information and to not include
every little detail.

Presenting an overview
Describing what the graph shows without repeating the task, in your own words. If you don’t
have an overview or copy the task it will cost you marks.

Presenting key features


Almost any graph has the most noticeable features, write about them.

Organization of information
This is mostly about paragraphs that should come in logical order.

Progression
As the examiner reads your report he needs to see how you “slide” on the graph from one thing
to another.

Cohesion, reference and substitution


That is to do with the way you present statistics. If you repeat the same structure to mention all
the numbers, or choose awkward expressions to do it - that will cost you marks.

Range of vocabulary
Your choice of words can point at limited, normal or wide vocabulary. It also matters if your
vocabulary is adequate for the task or not (if it is not wide but enough to write a clear report,
that’s fine)

Control over grammar, spelling and appropriate choice of words


No need to explain
+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Thu 16 Apr 2009 6:24 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

New tips by IELTS examiner

I am sure that after reading my previous post, you couldn’t wait for the next one.
These tips were also shared by that great guy, former IELTS examiner, from my last
post.

IELTS Speaking tips

If your goal is Band 6, you don’t have to speak complex English - just don’t make mistakes in
simple English.

Don’t experiment with new words during your interview - it is not the time. Use only words and
phrases you are sure about. For example, if you were reading a newspaper yesterday and saw a
new word, but you’re not sure what it means or when people use it - forget about using it in
IELTS.

No one will judge you on your ideas, only on your English. If there is a movie you can’t describe
(your favorite) and there’s a movie can describe (that you have recently seen) - choose the
second one. They are not interested in the truth, only in your English.

You have to think about what and HOW you are going to say.

Expose yourself to as much English as you can. Not just to learn new words and phrases, but to
also practice until you master them.

If you make mistake - that’s bad, if you correct yourself - it’s not that bad. Examiner doesn’t
count your mistakes, and it makes a good impression when you show that mistake you have
made was not intentional.

If you say “economic” instead of “economy” and make more mistakes like that - its band 5. If
you make a couple of such mistakes - it could be band 6. If examiner can’t understand you - it’s
band 4.

Band 7 people should show they can use a little of special vocabulary. Explain ideas very well,
very clearly, and use not just simple words, but more special words, like “economic
environment”, “favorable conditions” etc.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Thu 16 Apr 2009 6:12 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

Tips by IELTS examiner


I was fortunate to meet a very special person, former IELTS examiner. He sent me an email and
it was filled with GREAT tips, real inside information and, of course, I wasn’t going to keep
them to myself :).

IELTS Writing tips

It is better to write in regular, not very sophisticated English, than to use phrases or structures
you don’t fully understand.
If you need Band 6 - no need for complex sentence structure. If your goal is Band 7 - then show
advanced sentence structure, language and vocabulary.

Don’t write more than 260-265 words in IELTS Writing 2 task. Why? Not because you will get
lower mark, but because of these 2 reasons:

1) It takes more time


2) More words = more mistakes

If you are told to cover specific points in your essay/letter - cover every point, examiners actually
count them.

Don’t overuse connecting words (like However, Furthermore, Moreover, etc) - examiners are
watching for you to do that.

IELTS Speaking - interview tips

Speak until they stop you, don’t just answer the question and stop. Display you best English.
Behave as if it was a driving test - keep going straight until told to turn right, left or park.

It is quite possible that you have to speak about something you have never heard of, or have no
opinion of. If you don’t know the subject - tell the examiner immediately, so he could ask you
another question. If you don’t tell him and start trying to speak, he might think that it is not a
knowledge problem, but a language problem.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Thu 16 Apr 2009 4:47 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Reading test: how to practice smarter

Well, IELTS is getting closer and you are practicing harder, solving more IELTS
exams, reading passages, etc. But is it the most efficient way of practicing?

The best tip I can share with you is this: when you check your answers versus the correct ones,
pay special attention to those you did WRONG. There always will be a chance to congratulate
yourself later for those you’ve got right.
When you are going over the wrong questions one by one, try to understand why your answer is
wrong, why the answer from the answer key is correct, and most importantly - why you made
that mistake. Remember it and make sure you never make it again.

See what trap you walked in, what are your “weaknesses”, what type of task is the hardest for
you. If, for instance, most of your mistakes are in “True/False/Not Given” task - double-check
your answers there. Or may be your problem is “Matching heading” task? Then pay extra
attention to that kind of questions.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Thu 16 Apr 2009 4:13 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Essay, topic: the positive and the negative sides of globalization

Even though globalization affects the world’s economies in a positive way, its negative side
should not be forgotten. Discuss.

In the present age, globalization is playing increasingly important role in our lives. But in the
meantime whether it is a blessing or a curse has sparked much debate. Some people argue the
globalization has fundamentally beneficial influence on our lives while many others contend that
it has detrimental effect as well.

Convincing argument can be made that globalization not only plays a pivotal role in the
development of technology and economy, but also promotes the exchange of cultures between
different countries. To start with, it is the globalization that impelled many corporate to become
an international group, thereby making contribution to local technology and employment.
Specifically, when a multinational group establish a factory in a developing country, the new
equipment, the new management skill and the job vacancies are all in the best interest of local
society. Moreover, people worldwide can know each other better through globalization. It is easy
to see that more and more Hollywood blockbusters shows the cultures different from American,
some recent examples are Kungfu Panda and Mummy.

Admittedly, profit driven globalization severely affected the young people. Today, in the
metropolises in different countries, it is very common sight that teenagers are wearing NIKE T-
shirt and Adidas footwear, playing Hi-pop music with Apple ipod and having KFC. The culture
that took thousand years to form is just seems similar in these cities; it is looks like you can only
distinguish them by their language. Meanwhile, in some developing countries, sweat workshop is
always the issue that concerned by WHO. For instance, some report shows that some teenagers
who employed by NIKE’s contractor always stay in the factory that is fulfilled by smell over 14
hours a day, but they only work for fifty cents per hour.

In summary, I would concede that globalization do come with some adverse effects. Despite that
the benefits created by it far outweigh the disadvantages. Overall, I convinced that we should
further promote globalization and meanwhile the local government should take some measures to
combat culture assimilation and sweat workshop.
This essay is extremely long (338 words instead of the advised 250-265). It has a sound
structure, your position is clearly expressed, the information is well-organized, and structure-
wise the sentences are fine. The vocabulary is impressive and there only were a few
grammatical errors (see comments underlined in blue). Overall, looks like a band 7.5 + essay.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Wed 15 Apr 2009 8:9 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Reading tips: True, False, Not Given

Every IELTS Reading test, no matter Academic or General has tasks of this kind. Lots of
students tell me (and I agree) that this is a very confusing task.

For those who has no idea what I am talking about, I’ll explain - this task has a statement, and
your job is to say is it True, False or Not Given in the reading passage.

How do you “attack” it? First learn the rule:

 If the statement clearly appears in text - it is True

 If the text clearly says the opposite of statement - it is False

 If you didn’t find the statement to be True or False - it is Not Given

For example:
“Smoking is dangerous and can lead to cancer” - T, F, NG

1) If the text clearly says that “smoking is dangerous and leads to cancer” than the answer is T.

2) If the text says that “No research showed evidence that smoking is dangerous and leads to
cancer” than the answer is F.

3) If the text says “The research included smoking people of both genders of ages 30 to 45″ and
nothing else about smoking - your answer is NG.

Don’t make these mistakes:

 Don’t assume anything based on your knowledge and experience, read the
text! It is the oldest trick in the book and they use it a lot in IELTS.

 Don’t “over think” your answer - you could start building long logical
sequences that will take you to the wrong answer.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Wed 15 Apr 2009 6:18 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو‬


‫نظرات‬
IELTS Essay, topic: children and rules

IELTS Essay, topic: children and rules

In some countries children have very strict rules of behavior, in other countries they are
allowed to do almost anything they want. To what extent should children have to follow
rules?

The extent to which children have to follow rules is in itself a very complex issue, since children
across the world grow up in very different cultures. In India for example, the level of morality is
very high and children are to be very submissive to their parents as well as other adults around
them. This, however, is not the case for the Western countries of the world where children follow
the motto “Thou shalt do what thou wilt” as promoted by celebrities and rock stars. I believe that
following strict rules has both advantages as well as serious drawbacks as discussed below.

Firstly, strict rules of behavior create responsible and respectful children who in turn mature into
respectful adults. This forms a stable society which is virtually free from vices such as
prostitution and drug abuse. Secondly, if children do not follow strict rules of behavior, they will
get out of hand and become work- shy and indolent. This will then create a burden on society
since the government has to find ways to cater for these social ills.

However, forcing children to follow strict rules of behavior doesn’t always yield positive results
as discussed above, most of the time it backfires and works against society. For example,
teenagers are more likely to do the opposite of what they’re told to do simply because they want
to be independent. Children should also have rights to exercise their free will and develop their
own pattern of behaviors. Strict rules simply destroy the individuality of children if they’re
imposed on them.

At the end of the day, it is clear that children should be guided by rules, but these rules should
not be imposed on them because as human beings, they need to have room to develop their own
traits of character and adopt a behavioral pattern of their own.

This essay is too long (309 words instead of advised 250-265). Otherwise this work is a very
good one; it covers the task, your position is clear, the ideas are well-organized, expressed,
explained and supported. The sentences show a wide range of language structures, cohesive
devices and the grammar is fine. Overall, looks like a band 7.5 or higher essay.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Wed 15 Apr 2009 3:0 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

8 Famous IELTS Mistakes And How To Avoid Them

Written by Simone Braverman


I cannot stress this enough – the success in IELTS test largely depends on students' ability to
follow the instructions. It sounds ridiculously simple, and yet it is a common mistake to
underestimate the importance of following the instructions precisely. So here is a list of 8 most
famous IELTS pitfalls that cost test takers precious points.

1. More is less. A very common mistake is to answer in more words than


instructed. If the task says "Not more than 3 words", answering in 4 or more
words will definitely cost marks.
2. Less is less. The length of a written task is crucial. When instructions mention
a minimal number of words (250 for essay, 150 for report or letter), it means
that any work shorter than required will be penalized.
3. Longer essay doesn't mean better mark. Another common misconception is
that longer essays score better in IELTS. Not only is this a myth, but also a
dangerous one. Writing a long essay can indirectly cost marks, because the
chances of making mistakes increase with the number of words and
sentences.
4. Changing the subject is unacceptable. Every so often a student is asked to
write on topic, that he doesn't understand. To avoid the disaster of missing a
whole task they decide to write on a slightly – or entirely - different topic. The
sad fact is that no matter how beautiful the submitted work is, the wrong
topic means zero score. Another similar pitfall is to omit parts of the given
topic or ignore the guidelines in your work. Every point the topic refers to
needs to be covered because the examiners will be actually counting them.
5. Good memory can get you in trouble. Having seen that the topics sometimes
repeat, "smart" students with good memory decide to memorize essays. This
is a terrible mistake to make because the examiners are trained to look for
memorized essays and have firm instructions to disqualify such works on the
spot.
6. Accent is not important. Pronunciation is.! IELTS, being a test for non-native
English speakers can't penalize people for having an accent. The problem
here is that not everyone knows the difference between speaking with an
accent and mispronouncing the words. No matter how strong of an accent a
person has, the words are to be pronounced correctly or it will cost marks.
7. It is not the ideas that are important, but the way they are described in. Many
students think that expressing the wrong ideas (whether it is in essay, letter
or discussion) can harm their score. The truth is that no idea can be wrong
and the ideas are not important on their own, it is the way they are
expressed in that important.
8. Connective words: the more is not always the better. Smart students know
that one of the essay marking criteria are coherence and cohesion, and what
better way is there to demonstrate cohesion than to use lots of connective
words, right? Wrong. Overuse of connective words is a know problem, which
is easily recognized and penalized by the examiners.

And in conclusion, a word of advice: to stay out of trouble, it is equally important to be aware of
the pitfalls and to practice enough before the exam. Being familiar with the structure and the
procedure of the test will build up confidence and that will reflect in your score.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Tue 14 Apr 2009 10:58 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬
A few Academic Reading tips

Academic Reading module is a little bit different from General Training - instead of 4 or 5 it has
only 3 passages (more difficult ones). Actually the first passage is usually the easiest and then
they become more and more difficult. With that said, here come the tips:

First of all - don’t read the whole passage. Train yourself to scan and notice only the important
information. After you go over the text for the first time, you should know what each paragraph
is about, what its main idea. This way of “reading” saves you a lot of priceless time.

Second, watch your time closely. Don’t divide the 60 minutes you have into 3 equal parts of 20
minute. Why? Because the last passage is the hardest and you are going to need more than 20
minutes to crack it. So I suggest 15 - 20 - 25, but feel free to look for any other timing that works
for you.

Third, don’t forget to copy your answers to Answer Sheet. You can write them in the booklet as
you read the passage, but you get your score based on what is written in the Answer Sheet.

Forth, if you can’t find an answer to certain question - mark it with big fat ??? so you can easily
see it later and move on to the next one, don’t get stuck. Later you can get back and try it again if
you have time left.

Fifth, count your words - if instructions say “answer in 3 words” - you need to answer in
EXACTLY 3 WORDS, when even “a” and “the” count as a word!

When you practice, read your passage, answer the questions, compare your answers to the
Answer Sheet and pay special attention to the wrong answers. You need to understand WHY you
made those mistakes and remember them so you won’t make them again.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Tue 14 Apr 2009 2:41 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS in Brussels, Belgium - just a short update

IELTS in Brussels, Belgium - just a short update

Today instead of a full size update I have a short one. An email arrived from a candidate who
attend the test in Belgium and it said that their IELTS exam was a lot like the one I’ve posted
about in India, New Delhi. The only difference was in the Speaking test:

Speaking test

Interview
- What is your name?
- What do you do? Do you study or work?
- Do you have visitors sometimes?
- What preparation do you make for visitors?
- Do you think it’s difficult to offer gifts? Why?
- Is that different for men and women? Why?

Cue card
Tell me about a sculpture (or a painting) that you like. Describe what it is and what does it
represent. Why do you like it ? When and where did you see it for the first time?

Discussion
- What kind of art is popular in your country? Why ?
- Why do you think it is popular ?
- Why do you think cartoons are not always considered art? Do you think it’s related to the age
of the audience?

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Mon 13 Apr 2009 6:39 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

EXTRA EXERCISE: Thirteen Writing Topics for Task 2 of Both AC & GT Modulues

Topic 1

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Financial education should be mandatory component of the school program. To what extent do
you agree or disagree with this statement?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 2

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Ecological balance is impossible to archive when technological progress constantly ruins our
environment. Do you agree?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 3

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Soon people who cannot work with computers will be disadvantaged. To what extent do you
agree or disagree with this idea?
You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 4

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Nowadays, radio is being replaced by television and the internet. To what extent do you agree or
disagree with this idea?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 5

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

These days, schools introduce behavior of what is ‘right’ or ‘wrong’. This responsibility is not
only parents. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 6

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Education is a lifelong task. Do you agree or disagree?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 7

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Nowadays, people care about their appearance more than before. Do you agree or disagree?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 8

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Government should spend more money on education than recreation and sports. Do you agree or
disagree?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 9
You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Technology has facilitated our lives so much and given a lot of freedom. Some people, however,
believe that it has caused more problems for us. What is your opinion?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 10

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Shopping has become a favourite pastime among young people. Why do you think it is like that
and do you think they must be encouraged to do other things rather than shopping?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 11

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Nowadays, some people still prefer to ride bicycles. To what extent do you think this will help us
in today’s life?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 12

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

Governments have to place the same number of men and women in different fields of study in
universities. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

You should write at least 250 words.

Topic 13

You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.

People’s character is influenced by environment rather than genetics. Do you agree or disagree?

You should write at least 250 words.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Mon 13 Apr 2009 3:1 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

SPEAKING INTERVIEW : SECTION 1 :Possible questions and answers


1. Where do you come from?

I live in Smallvile. It is a big city /small town located in the south of NeverNeverLand.

2. What is your home like?

I rent an apartment. We have two bedrooms, one living room, one kitchen and of course one
restroom. The apartment is not very big, about 70 square meters.

3. What are the advantages and disadvantages your home has?

The advantage is that my accommodation has lots of sunlight from the windows. And the
disadvantage is that it is noisy because the centre of the city is near by.

4. Tell me about your family.

I have a mother, a father and a brother. My mother is a social worker, my father is a civil
engineer and my brother is a student.

5. Tell me about your job.

Well, I work for a big firm /small company named BananaSoft. It is located in Smallvile. My job
title is Software Designer.

6. Is there anything you dislike about your job?

Normally, I enjoy my job very much. But sometimes my boss gives me boring assignments,
which I don’t like at all.

7. What are your plans for the future?

I would like to improve my English first and then to find another job with better salary.
8. What type of transport do you use most?

There are 2 types of transport that I use: I either drive my car or take the bus.

9. Do you like reading?

Yes I do. I enjoy reading very much. Usually, I read every other day of the week.

10. What do you like reading the best?

I enjoy reading news papers, magazines and of course my favorite fantasy books.

11. What kind of television programs do you watch?

Well, my favorite channel is Some TV Channel. I find it very interesting and educational.

12. Tell me about a film you have seen recently

I saw “Some New Movie” a week ago. It is a comedy and I like comedies. This one has some
silly jokes but other than that I enjoyed it.

13. Do you have a pet?

Yes I do. I have a dog named Richy. He is 4 years old.

14. What kind of food do you like?

I prefer Asian cooking, mostly Chinese. My favorite dish is noodles with vegetables.

15. How often do you go shopping?

Well, I don’t like shopping, so I do it only when I have to.


16. What is your favorite festival and why?

I like October Fest. It’s a German festival that starts in late September and ends in October.
People drink lots of beer at October Fest and that is why I like it.

17. How do people celebrate this festival?

Well, they build pavilions and stands that sell beer and all kinds of food, a lot of bands are
playing there. People from all around Europe come to celebrate the October Fest dressed in
German Traditional clothes.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Mon 13 Apr 2009 2:58 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Essay Plan - Traffic congestion and possible solutions

IELTS Essay Plan - Traffic congestion and possible solutions

A student asked me about the following topic, whether I think it is a situation essay or an
argument one.

“The first car appeared on Britain’s road in 1888. By the year 2000 there may be as many
as 29 million vehicles on British roads. Alternative forms of transport should be
encouraged and international laws introduced to control car ownership and use. What are
your views?”

I think this is a situation essay because it is talking about a problem and is looking at a possible
solution.

Essay plan

Introduction paragraph

Here you should explain what is the problem, what is it’s reason and it’s consequences. The
problem is traffic congestion and a higher number of traffic accidents, the roads are jammed and
the environment suffers from increasing amounts of pollution.

First body paragraph - an explanation of the reasons for this situation

The reason is people are accustomed to using their own cars and that population growth
combined with higher living standards means that more and more people own cars.
Second body paragraph - a possible solution (alternative transport)

Explain what forms of public transport should be developed more and why the state they are now
is not sufficient to convince people use the public transport. How exactly can government
develop the public transport and how can it encourage people use it.

Third body paragraph - another possible solution (laws to control cars ownership)

Write about what kind of laws can be introduced world wide to limit the number of cars per
family / per company. Write whether or not you think it will work and why.

Conclusion paragraph

Summarize what was said before, do not add new information.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sun 12 Apr 2009 10:24 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS speaking: what else to expect

IN READING OR LISTENING SECTIONS IT IS QUITE EASY TO PREDICT


WHAT WILL BE YOUR IELTS SCORE. YOU DO SOME TESTS AT
HOME, COUNT HOW MANY QUESTIONS YOU ANSWERED
CORRECTLY, DO THE MATH - FOR EXAMPLE 34 OUT OF 40
EQUALS BAND 7.5.

BUT HOW DO YOU MEASURE YOURSELF WHEN IT COMES TO SPEAKING


- THAT’S THE QUESTION!
AND HERE COMES ANSWER: USING THE SAME CRITERIA YOUR
EXAMINER IS GOING TO USE.
I WAS LOOKING FOR THOSE AND FOUND THEM IN TO IELTS
OFFICIAL SITE (OF ALL PLACES :))

SO BASICALLY THIS IS WHAT THEY SAY:

YOU BELONG TO BAND 5 IF YOU

 KEEP SENTENCES COMING SLOWLY (WITHOUT PAUSES), REPEAT


WORDS AND CORRECT YOURSELF

 Can use simple sentences easily, but complex are difficult for you and it shows
(you stop, get confused or start to repeat yourself)
 Can not say the same thing in a different way (rephrase) or use a synonym for a
word

 Use grammatically correct simple sentences most of the time. It is rare that you
use more complex sentences and when you do - you make grammatical errors or it
is difficult to understand what you’re saying

You belong to Band 6 if you

 Can speak for some time keeping the right speed (like your first language), with
little difficulties when you repeat words, correct yourself or get lost in words and
stop making sense.

 Use some connective words, even if it is not always appropriate

 Can discuss topics (familiar or not) for a long time, using wide vocabulary and
making yourself clear.

 Successfully rephrase and use synonyms

 Mix simple and complex sentences when you speak, but the in complex ones
you mistake a lot. Mistakes are mostly grammatical and examiner can still
understand you.

You belong to Band 7 if you

 Have no problem speaking for some time keeping the right speed (like your first
language), your speech is smooth and easy to understand, it is rare that you pause
and look for a word to say, repeat or correct yourself.

 Can discuss any topic using a lot of smart words, use English expressions
correctly.

 Use complex sentences without a lot of grammatical errors. There are much
more correct sentences in your speech than incorrect.

I gave you here description of Band 5,6 and 7 because these are the IELTS bands most people
want to know about, but you can see the full description of all bands here.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sun 12 Apr 2009 2:41 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Speaking - what to expect (Discussion)q


The third part of the Speaking test is called “discussion”, but guess what - you are going to do all
the talking :).

Its topic will be related to the topic of second part (Speech), but the difference is that here you
should EXPRESS AN OPINION and explain why it is what it is. This is the part where you
should compare two opinions, present several points of view, say what your perception is, what
future developments might follow, etc.
It usually takes 4-5 minutes.

Just for you to get a feeling of what it’s like, click here to listen to recorded session , and here is
the transcript, all from official IELTS site.

This is really the part where you’ve got to have an opinion on anything and everything.
Any topic you get - you must have something to say about it. So here is a good idea - go over
this list of topics here and think about them a little bit, see what vocabulary you are going to
need, try to discuss them with a partner or just talk to yourself.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sun 12 Apr 2009 2:32 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو‬


‫نظرات‬

IELTS Speaking - what to expect (Speech)a

THE SECOND PART OF IELTS SPEAKING IS THE SPEECH. THE


EXAMINER GIVES YOU A CARD WITH A TOPIC AND 3-4 QUESTIONS
ON IT. THEN YOU HAVE 1 MINUTE TO PREPARE A LITTLE SPEECH
IN YOUR HEAD, IF YOU WANT YOU MAY WRITE THE MAIN POINTS
ON PAPER. AFTER ONE MINUTE ENDS, YOU SHOULD START
TALKING AND KEEP GOING FOR 1-2 MINUTES.

Here is an example of such card from IELTS official site:

Describe a teacher who has greatly influenced you in your education.


You should say:

 where you met them;

 what subject they taught;

 what was special about them;

 and explain why this person influenced you so much.

As you can see, your main task here is to DESCRIBE things. So try to do that as well as you can.
It is very important that you say something about EVERY question that is on the card.
‫‪The best thing is to say 2-3 sentences about every bullet. This way your speech will take at least‬‬
‫‪one minute - the minimal time you have to speak.‬‬

‫‪A good way to practice (requires 2 people) is to give someone a copy of your card and to start‬‬
‫‪speaking. Ask him/her to put V on bullets you’ve talked about. Then look how many bullets‬‬
‫‪you’ve missed in your speech. If you study alone, you can record yourself and then listen and‬‬
‫‪check for missing bullets.‬‬

‫‪Practicing with a clock is a very good idea. You need to get a feeling of “how long is 2 minutes”.‬‬
‫‪When you will speak in front of real examiner, it is best that you don’t look at your watch and if‬‬
‫‪you have practiced enough - you won’t have to.‬‬

‫‪And at last, for you to get a complete picture of Speaking part 2 - here is a sample question, a‬‬
‫!‪recording and a transcript (all thanks to official IELTS site). Enjoy‬‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Sun 12 Apr 2009 2:31‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫!راست يا دروغ ؟ ‪ TOEFL‬تضمين نمره ‪ 100‬در ‪ IELTS،‬تضمين نمره ‪ 7‬در‬

‫بررسي علمي واقعيات شگردهاي تبليغاتي‬

‫تضمين نمره ‪ 7‬در ‪ ،IELTS‬تضمين نمره ‪ 100‬در ‪ TOEFL‬راست يا دروغ ؟!‬

‫پي نوشت‪) :‬سازمان آموزش و پرورش شهر تهران هرگونه تبليغ مؤسسات با ادعاي تضميني را غير قانوني اعلم كرده‬
‫نهاي دانشگا‌هها و مراكز آموزش عالي تشدید‬ ‫است‪ .‬شایان ذكر است‪ ،‬این مراكز فعاليت خود را در آستانه برگزاري آزمو ‌‬
‫می كنند‪ ،‬تا جایی كه برخي از این مؤسسات و آموزشگا‌هها با انجام تبليغات اغوا كننده و دادن وعد‌ههاي واهي از قبيل قبولي‬
‫تهاي احتمالي آزمون اصلي‪ ،‬دادن مدرك تحصيلی معتبر و با شگردهاي خاص‪،‬‬ ‫‪100‬درصد تضميني‪ ،‬فروش سئوالت و تس ‌‬
‫يكنند‪(.‬‬
‫اقدام به فریب داوطلبان و خانواد‌ههاي آنها و اخذ مبالغي هنگفت به صورت غيرقانوني م ‌‬

‫"واقعیت این است که روشهایی برای یادگیری بهتر وجود دارند‪ ،‬روانشناسان با پژوهش های چندین ساله‬
‫به این واقعیت رسیده اند که چگونگی فرآیند یادگیری از خود فرآیند یادگیری مهم تر است و از این رو باید‬
‫به روش آموزشی که انتخاب می کنیم توجه ویژه ای داشته باشیم‪".‬‬

‫احتمال شما هم این روزها با تبليغات مختلفی در مجلت و اینترنت برخورد کرده اید که ادعا می کنند زبان انگليسی را به‬
‫طور معجزه آسا و در مدتی کوتاه به شما آموزش می دهند‪ .‬انگليسی در خواب‪ ،‬آموزش با امواج آلفا‪ ،‬روش ‪ ،X‬روش‬
‫‪ MGM-PLN‬تضمين نمره ‪ 7‬در ‪ ،IELTS‬تضمين نمره ‪ 100‬در ‪TOEFL‬و د‌هها اسم نا آشنا و جدید دیگر‪...‬‬

‫هها ابراز نظر نمی کنیم چون هرگز آنها را تجربه نکرده ایم اما اگر نگاهی به این نوع‬
‫ما در مورد این شیو ‌‬
‫تبلیغات بیندازید می بینید که اساس همه آنها استفاده تبلیغاتی از تمایل افراد برای یادگیری سریع و بی‬
‫ههای درسی و کاری زیادی دارند و یا خود را برای آزمونی آماده می‬ ‫دردسر زبان است‪ .‬مسلما ً همه مشغل ‌‬
‫کنند که وقت چندانی تا آن باقی نمانده است‪ .‬در این هنگام همه می خواهند به بهترین و سریعترین روش‬
‫شهای معجزه‬ ‫به یادگیری زبان بپردازند‪ ،‬اما برخی متاسفانه به این واقعیت توجه نمی کنند که اگر این رو ‌‬
‫ههای‬‫جها و مدارس دنیا که هر روز به دنبال شیو ‌‬‫آسا واقعیت داشت‪ ،‬الن می بایست در بسیاری از کال ‌‬
‫ههای سنتی‬ ‫مدرن تر هستند به طور گسترده از این روشها استفاده می شد و حال آنکه بسياري شیو ‌‬
‫ههاي كوتاه‬‫آموزش در ايران همچنان به قوت خود باقی هستند و شما هیچ خبری از موفقیت این شیو ‌‬
‫هها کذب محض‬ ‫مدت در اخبار و تحقیقات پژوهشی نمی بینید‪ .‬اما واقعیت چیست؟ آیا همه این شیو ‌‬
‫است؟‬

‫واقعيت این است که روشهایی برای یادگيری بهتر وجود دارند! روانشناسان با پژوهش های چندین ساله به این واقعيت رسيده‬
‫اند که چگونگی فرآیند یادگيری از خود فرآیند یادگيری مهم تر است و از این رو باید به روش آموزشی که انتخاب می کنيم‬
‫توجه ویژه ای داشته باشيم‪ .‬آنها همچنين به این اصل رسيده اند که مغز انسان تنها با تصاویر کار می کند‪ ،‬به عبارت دیگر‬
‫هر چيزی که شما می شنوید‪ ،‬می بيند و یا می خوانيد یا احساس می کنيد برای پردازش در مغز ابتدا به صورت تصاویر‬
‫ذهنی در می آیند و بعد مغز آن را درک می کند‪ .‬برای درک بهتر این موضوع به واژه "درخت" توجه کنيد‪ .‬مغز شما‬
‫بلفاصله بعد از برخورد با این واژه تصویر یک درخت را در ذهن شما بازسازی می کند‪ ،‬حال سعی کنيد در حالی که به‬
‫واژه درخت توجه می کنيد این تصویر را از ذهن خود خارج کنيد‪ ،‬غير ممکن است که بتوانيد چنين کاری کنيد و بفهميد‬
‫درخت چيست و تصویر آن را در ذهن تجسم نکنيد‪ .‬حال به واژه "فلخکولوبيس" توجه کنيد‪ ،‬این واژه حتما برای شما بی‬
‫معنی است‪ ،‬تنها به این دليل که مغز شما نمی تواند تصویر آن را تجسم کند و حال چنانچه پيوندی در مغز شما بين این واژه و‬
‫یک تصویر وجود داشته باشد‪ ،‬به راحتی آنرا درک می کنيد‪.‬‬

‫شيوه مالتي مدیاي آموزشي كه در تمامي كلسهاي این مركز به عنوان استاندارد آموزشي رعایت مي شود‪ ،‬فرایندي مشابه‬
‫را در یادگيري زبان انگليسي به اجرا مي گذارد‪ .‬بگذارید یک مثال واقعی بزنيم‪ .‬شما مشغول مطالعه زبان انگليسی هستيد که‬
‫ناگهان با لغت جدید “‪ ”peacock‬مواجه می شوید‪ .‬در ابتدا این لغت کامل برای شما نامفهوم و بی معنی است تا اینکه با‬
‫مراجعه به فرهنگ لغت متوجه شوید معنی این لغت "طاووس" است‪ .‬در این لحظه اتصال ذهنی بين لغت ‪ peacock‬و‬
‫تصویر طاووس در ذهن شما شکل می گيرد‪ ،‬و البته با تکرار می توانيد این پيوند را قوی تر و ماندگارتر کنيد‪ .‬حال اگر‬
‫بخواهيد در همان لحظه یک پيوند قوی بين این دو ایجاد کنيد چه می کنيد؟ در اینجاست که باید علوه بر تکرار از تکنيک‬
‫های کمکی استفاده کنيد که به ایجاد هر چه بهتر این تصویر ذهنی کمک می کنند‪ .‬گفتيم که مغز انسان با تصاویر کار می‬
‫کند‪ ،‬پس هر چه تصویر ورودی به مغز واضح تر و شفاف تر باشد‪ ،‬به شکل بهتری در مغز ذخيره می شود‪ .‬حال اگر لغت‬
‫‪ peacock‬را بشکافيم می بينيم که این لغت خود از دو لغت ‪ pea‬به معنی نخود سبز و ‪ cock‬به معنی خروش تشکيل شده‬
‫است‪ .‬حال می توانيم تصویری در ذهن خود مجسم کنيم که یک طاووس بسيار بزرگ مشغول خوردن نخود سبز است‪ ،‬البته‬
‫این طاووس به جای دم زیبای خود یک دم خروس دارد‪ .‬فقط کافی است تا یک لحظه این تصویر را به طور واضح در ذهن‬
‫خود مجسم کنيد تا دیگر به سختی بتوانيد آن را فراموش کنيد‪ .‬حال هر وقت کسی از شما بپرسد که طاووس به انگليسی چه‬
‫می شود بلفاصله آن تصویر عجيب طاووس با دم خروس در حال خوردن نخودسبز در ذهن شما مجسم می شود و بعد از‬
‫چند لحظه واژه ‪ peacock‬را به خاطر می آورید‪ .‬روشهایی وجود دارند که به وسيله آنها می توانيد همه لغات‪ ،‬اعداد و حتی‬
‫مفاهيم غير شهودی)مانند دیدن‪ ،‬گرفتن‪ ،‬دوست داشتن و ‪ (...‬را به صورت تصویر واضح در ذهن خود در بياورید‪ ،‬به این‬
‫روشها در اصطلح "نمونيک" گفته می شود‪ .‬طبق تعاریف "نمونيک )‪ (Mnemonics‬عبارتست از تکنيک هایی برای به‬
‫خاطر سپاری که تنها به تکرار مطالب اکتفا نمی کند‪ .‬بلکه با ایجاد رابطه بين مفاهيم تازه و اطلعات قبلی موجود در مغز که‬
‫به راحتی یادآوری می شوند)تصاویر‪ ،‬ریتم‪ ،‬آهنگ و ‪ ،(...‬در به خاطرسپاری و یادآوری مطالب کمک می کند‪".‬‬
‫ با این روش به‬.‫یکی از بهترین جاهایی که می توان از نمونيک استفاده کرد در فرآیند یادگيری یک زبان خارجی است‬
‫ فراموش نکنيد که همه کسانی که دارای‬،‫سرعت و با حداقل تکرار می توان دایره لغات خود را تا حد چشمگيری افزایش داد‬
‫حافظه خارق العاده هستند و یا توانایی صحبت کردن به چندین زبان مختلف را دارند به نوعی)شاید هم ندانسته( از این‬
‫ در مورد این‬.‫تکنيک ها بهره می برند و بدون استفاده از این تکنيک ها شاید حافظه آنها از افراد عادی هم ضعيف تر باشد‬
‫ اما در پایان این نوشته خاطر نشان می کنيم که مبحث نمونيک بسيار‬.‫تکنيکها در آینده به طور مفصل توضيح خواهيم داد‬
‫ پس بهتر است از این به بعد روش اعجاب انگيز یادگيری زبان‬.‫گسترده بوده و همچنين اصلی ترین ابزار کمکی حافظه است‬
.‫انگليسی را به نام نمونيک بشناسيم‬

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 11 Apr 2009 10:21 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Speaking - what to expect (Interview)

I’ve neglected the Speaking tips for a long time, so this post is about how to do well in IELTS
Speaking. It doesn’t matter what kind of IELTS you are taking, General or Academic - Speaking
part is the same in both.

As you know, there are 3 parts in the Speaking sub-test : Interview, Speech and Discussion.

Now to the Interview: you can and should be prepared to questions they will ask you.
The questions are predictable, look at this great list I found in one of IELTS forums - click here.

If you speak well, just go over it and prepare an answer in your head for every question. If you
have someone to practice with - do it, if you don’t - I suggest that you record yourself. You can
do that using your PC or voice recorder or even one of those MP3 players that can tape you as
well.

To get the feeling of real IELTS Speaking test you can listen to sample of test here, look at the
questions here and the transcript of the tape is here.

Best advice to those who speak not so well:

1) Write your answers on a piece of paper.

2) Memorize them.

3) Speak to yourself - ask questions and answer with whatever you wrote. It will improve your
pronunciation and make you more confident. This is how you overcome the initial shock of
speaking English.

4) Practice a lot with you wife/husband/boyfriend/girlfriend, at first you may look at your paper
and then don’t - test your memory.

I prepared my students this way and it helped them a lot.


One more important thing - in Speaking you can not receive half band, like 5.5 or 6.5.
Your score will be full band, like 5 or 6.

I will continue with more Reading tips in my next post.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 11 Apr 2009 9:42 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS Essay, topic: The advantages and disadvantages of globalization

IELTS Essay, topic: The advantages and disadvantages of globalization

Even though globalization affects the world’s economies in a very positive way, its negative
side should not be forgotten. Discuss.

Globalization is such a commonly used term in the twentieth century. It simply means that the
world has become integrated economically, socially, politically and culturally through the
advances of technology, transportation and communication. It is undeniable to say that
globalization has resulted in both positive and negative effects which must be addressed
accordingly.

To begin with, globalization has contributed to the world’s economies in many beneficial ways.
The advances in science and technology have allowed businesses to easily cross over territorial
boundary lines. Consequently, companies tend to become more productive, competitive thereby
raising quality of goods, services and the world’s living standard.

Secondly, several companies from the more developed countries have already ventured to
establish foreign operations or branches to take advantage of the low cost of labor in the poorer
countries. This kind of business activity will provide more influx of cash or investment funds
into the less developed countries.

However, one cannot deny the negative effects which have derived from globalization. One
crucial social aspect is the risk and danger of epidemic diseases which can easily be spread as the
mode transportation is easier and faster in today’s advance society. This is evidenced in the
recent bird’s flu disease which has infected most Asian countries over a short time frame.

As large corporations invest or take over many off shore businesses, a modern form of
colonization will also evolve which may pose certain power pressure on the local governments of
the less developed countries. Unemployment rates in the more developed regions like Europe
may also escalate as corporations choose to outsource cheaper work force from Asian countries.

In conclusion, I like to reiterate that globalization is inevitable and we must urge individuals,
companies and governments to use a more balanced approach by taking appropriate steps to deal
with matters relating to the financial or economical gains verses the social, political or ecological
concerns of the world.
This essay is too long, 318 words instead of 250-265. Otherwise (except for some minor
grammatical errors) it is a very nice work. It covers the task, has the right structure, the
paragraphs are coherent and logically connected by elegantly used linking words, the
structure of sentences is fine and so is your vocabulary. Looks like a Band 7.5 or higher
essay.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 11 Apr 2009 6:1 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS exam in New Delhi, India - April 2009 (Academic Module)

One of our Indian friends reports about his recent IELTS exam, here’s what they had:

Listening test

I found the listening test to be simple and the questions were pretty straight forward.

Reading test

Passage 1 was about co-education vs single sex education. It was pretty simple, 4 paragraphs,
Trye/False/Not given questions.
Passage 2 was about Charles Babbage and his invention.
Passage 3 was about taste and flavors. A little bit difficult, tricky.

Writing test

Writing task 1 (report)


We had a line graph showing number of people from different countries given UK citizenship. 2
more charts were comparing the origin of new citizens in 4 different countries.

Writing task 2 (essay)


In most of the societies the role played by a mother and a father is different. What is the reason
and how it will change in the future.

Speaking test

Cue card
Talk about your best friend, you should say
- How you met,
- What you liked about him/her
- Why is he/she your best friend.

Discussion

- Why do you think friends are important?


- Why it helps if you can make friends easily?
- How friendship between men and women is different?
- Do you like to party?
- What do you dislike about parties?
- Can an employer and an employee be friends?
- How can their relationship be improved?

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 11 Apr 2009 5:48 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS exam in USA - April 2009 (Academic Module)

Listening test

The listening was quite hard because almost all of the questions were multiple choice with a long
description. I didn’t have time to read all the choices.

Reading test

The reading was really hard with long paragraphs, many multiple choice questions, many
True/False/Not given questions, a lot of headings matching. The last section was about an
avalanche..

Writing test

Writing task 1 (report)


We had an easy table regarding employment and unemployment in the UK and four more
countries.

Writing Task 2 (essay)


We were asked to discuss whether a person should spend public money on a lifestyle that
prevents illness or should that money be spent to help other people who are critically ill.

Speaking test

Interview
- What is your name?
- What is your job?
- Tell me about your family.

Cue card
Talk about the change in your life you want to make, you should say
- What kind of change you want,
- Why you want to make this change.

Discussion
The topics were about family, friends, whether I cook or not.
- Why teaching children to cook in important?
- What are the things you should teach your children?

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Sat 11 Apr 2009 3:22 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS test results competition

Are you happy with your IELTS test result? You could be this month’s winner of our IELTS
test results competition!

What you need to do is:

1. Scan your Test Result page


2. Send it to ieltsteam.au@gmail.com
3. That’s it – we’ll let you know if you won on the first day of the next month!

Your Test Result page looks like this:

What we do is:

1. Gather test results from people during this month


2. Look for the one with the highest band score
3. Declare a winner – and display the winning test result in IELTS TEAM blog.
4. Arrange an interview with the winner to find out what was the secret of his/her success in
IELTS test.
5. Publish the interview in IELTS TEAM Blog to help all the students achieve great results.

Why do we have this IELTS test results competition? Because this is a great way for students to
help each other by sharing knowledge. This competition will let many people benefit from high
achievers’ advice and expertise.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Wed 8 Apr 2009 10:17 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

Sina’s tips for raising the score in Writing and Speaking

If you’ve just joined IELTS TEAM, let me fill you in - yesterday we started discussing Sina's
success story and this is the rest of it. Today I am bringing you his tips for Writing (where his
score increased from 6.5 to 7.5) and Speaking (from 7 to 8). Sina suggests some pretty modern
techniques for the people who prefer typing to actual writing and who prefer reading online to
reading printed books, so I think you’ll find his ideas interesting. Here goes:

“Writing

It’s paramount to learn the rules of the game here. Don’t ever assume that you write enough
emails at work (very true for GT folks) and that will automatically take care of the writing part
for you. Letter writing in IELTS has some rules that you got to play by and IELTS TEAM has
done a wonderful job in his preparation book explaining all that you may need to know. The
essay writing also requires that you adhere to IELTS rules, and it’s important to learn them.
Again, IELTS TEAM does a terrific job (and did I tell you, I don’t work for IELTS TEAM’s
marketing department!).

If you are not writing a CBT (Computer Based Test), then you are allowed to use a pen for the
writing section. Practice and evaluate relative advantages or disadvantages of choosing one over
the other. This is very important if you are at disadvantage with your handwriting; I had a serious
problem here and it turned out that writing with a pen was a better choice for me.

Practice to get an idea how many pages you may need to write to reach 250 words. This will vary
depending on your handwriting. You can also check how many words you usually write per
paragraph and that gives you an idea where you are.

If you have spelling problems, use a text editor with spell check disabled or write in paper and
then later transfer it to a text editor that can do a spell check for you. In writing, you will usually
employ a few words always thats regardless of the topic. Practice is the only way you can detect
and correct a spelling error. In the worst case, you can at least use alternative words when in
doubt of your spelling.

Speaking
Enough has been said before and I’m not sure I can add much value here. If you think, you are
very weak in speaking, one way to improve is to read a lot of blogs. The reason is, blogs are
usually conversations, and the language used is somewhat closer to how you communicate
through speech.

The language and tone used in blogs are not excessively formal, but I would consider them to be
informal for an IELTS writing. Still they help you with learning to frame complicated sentences.
Of course, you should try to read blogs written by native English speakers.”

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Wed 8 Apr 2009 9:38 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

How Sina raised his score from 7 to 8 - in less than a month

I believe that success stories are important. They help your motivation, make you worry less
about the exam and prove that it is possible to prepare and get a good score in a short period of
time. Today I have one more success story for you - it’s about Sina, an Iranian student, who took
IELTS twice and raised his score significantly.

The exams were one month apart and after only 4 weeks of preparation Sina's overall Band score
rose from 7 to 8. His weakest skills were Reading and Writing and amazingly he managed to
raise his scores from 6.5 to 9 (!) in Reading and from 6.5 to 7.5 in Writing. In Reading the
hardest task for Sina was True/False/Not Given questions, but even those he managed to get
under control.

We exchanged quite a few emails and Sina was very kind to share his tips and tell the rest of us
how he prepared and what the reasons for his success were. I can’t call them “secrets” because
after this post they are not “secrets” any more Anyway, let’s hear it from Sina:

“Reading

Though I was appearing for General Training exam, I did not break the convention and started
off by attempting Academic tests. After a few initial obstacles and as I gained a reasonable
control over the two essential skills of skimming and scanning, my scores began to ascend fast
and I was getting full scores or near full scores. When I started with GT practice questions, the
score dropped and after some analysis I found the reason. In Academic training, you get 3
passages that are big, and your biggest challenge is to get the gist of the passages with in a short
period of time, but then the questions are usually easy!

In GT, you get 5 passages and four of them are short, sometimes ridiculously short, and the last
passage is similar to the Academic Training. In addition, the questions in GT are a bit tricky,
except for the last paragraph that follows the academic convention. So, if you are in a hurry, and
overdo the skimming and scanning you may loose sight of valuable details and fall into a trap.
Remember, in GT you can only afford to have fewer incorrect answers when compared to
Academic for the same band score.
I’m not claiming this to be some science, but this worked for me. So, when you practice, analyze
why your answers were incorrect, and I would even suggest you make note of the time you spent
for each of the passages. Pay particular attention to T/F/NG and Simone has several valuable tips
on this blog and in IELTS TEAM Preparation Courses and Materials.

Also, IELTS MOCK practice tests which are presented by IELTS TEAM were same level
compared to the test level was very lepful for me and release the exam stress.

Listening

This is one area where you can improve your score pretty quickly, if you learn how to listen with
a purpose. If you are like me, and don’t watch much TV, then you can use some online materials
in the form of podcast’s. TED.com is my favorite and I listen to a few other podcasts I download
on technical subjects from several other sites - it’s both informative and helpful for your test.
BBC News site has several such podcast’s for you.”

In my next post I will share Sina’s tips for the Writing and Speaking tests. Oh, and just before I
forget: if you feel that you didn’t do well in the exam, wait until you get the results. Even Sina,
who got 9 for Reading after the exam told me that he was disappointed with his performance.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Wed 8 Apr 2009 9:5 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager |


‫آرشیو نظرات‬

IELTS TEAM

Official Demo Website

‫برای کسب اطلعات‬

‫بيشتر آرشيو‬
‫موضوعی را ببينيد‬.
+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Wed 8 Apr 2009 2:39 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

Listening: The right way to answer

Continuing the previous post, here comes

Listening Tip # 4 - Answer as you listen

What I mean here is that you need to listen and write the answer at the same time.
Make no mistake - it is not a very natural thing for you, so you have to practice a lot in it.
The reason you have to “answer as you listen” is that you immediately forget the sentences after
you have heard them. This is what stress, foreign language, constant flow of information does - it
makes you forget. After hearing the third sentence you won’t be able to repeat the first. It means
that when any part of Listening is over - you won’t be able to remember any of answers. So write
them as you hear them, leave nothing for later.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Wed 8 Apr 2009 2:34 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

What you need to know about Answer Sheet

Answer Sheet is a very important piece of paper.

First of all, your score for Reading and Listening tests is calculated based on what you have
written on it - only! It means that if you’ve got all the Reading/Listening test answers right but
didn’t copy them from the booklet to the Answer Sheet, you score ZERO for the whole
Reading/Listening test. I have read in IELTS official site that you can request later that they
check your booklet for answers, but honestly - who needs the head ache?

Second, it is best that you look at it before you go to take IELTS because it has this certain
structure you need to be familiar with. There are 2 sides you must fill, one for Listening and the
other one for Reading answers and they look very much alike. It is very easy to mix them and
start writing answers on the wrong side, so check and see what’s printed above the table with
answer numbers 1-40, “IELTS Listening Answer Sheet” or “IELTS Reading Answer Sheet”.

Third, when you are training (with clock) for IELTS, you should include in your practice
copying your answers to the Answer Sheet. This way you imitate the whole IELTS process better
and get used to dividing your time correctly.
So here use this link to PDF file from IELTS official site, open it, go to page 8 and see for
yourself what IELTS Answer Sheet looks like - click here.

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Tue 7 Apr 2009 9:47 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

Listening: Distractions

Continuing the previous post, here comes

Listening Tip # 3 - don’t let them distract you


(oh boy, they are good at that! )

In Listening section of IELTS the recording “speaks” several different voices - of younger and
older people, men and women. You may also hear different accents - Australian, British,
American, Japanese, etc. The background noise is also different. It can be of airport, cafe-shop,
street, University lecture hall, you name it. Be ready for it and don’t let it distract you - because
that is exactly what they want. Ignore the noises and listen for the answers.

Of course, the accent you hear the most is British. Suggestion: when you are studying for
IELTS, listen to as much British accent as you can. Where can you get it? I liked what BBC
have - visit BBC site by clicking here. You can listen there to news (and read the transcript),
learn the news vocabulary, learn the pronunciation, etc. Try it, you might like it.

A very good site to use for listening exercises in American English is VOA News - click here to
visit it. This is how they recommend using their site:
“The short sentences, limited vocabulary and slow pace of speaking make it easy to understand.
It succeeds in helping people learn English in a non-traditional way. People around the world
practice their listening and speaking skills by recording the programs and playing them
repeatedly. Internet users can also listen to programs on the Special English Web site while
reading the text.”

Hang in there, people, more tips are coming!

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Tue 7 Apr 2009 9:42 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫ درباره آزمونهای‬IELTS MOCK

‫ به نوعی طراحی شده که قادر است ميزان معلومات داوطلبان در سطوح مختلف از زبان انگليسی را‬،IELTS ‫آزمون‬
‫تکنندگان در این آزمون به طيف متنوعی از سوالتپاسخ‬ ‌ ‫ شرک‬.‫ طبق‌هبندی کند‬IELTS ‫سنجيده و با توجه به استاندارد‬
‫تکرد‌هاند سطحی مابين ن‌اآشنای کامل به‬‌ ‫یدهند و در پایان با توجه به نمر‌های که از ه‌ریک از چها‌ربخش مختلف دریاف‬
‌ ‫م‬
.‫یشوند‬ ‌ ‫ طبق‌هبندی م‬،۹ ‫ با نمره‬،‫تا سطح آشنای کامل به زبان انگليسی‬۰ ‫ با نمره‬،‫زبان انگليسی‬

‫ اخذ این مدرک چنان هم سهل الوصول نيست! شرکت‬،‫با توجه به آنچه از نتایج آزمونها و گفته هاي زبان آموزان بر می آید‬
‫بدون شک‬. ‫ مطالعه منابع درسی متفاوت از جمله راهکاری متداول برای موفقيت در آزمون هستند‬، ‫در کلسهای مختلف‬
‫آموزش همواره نيازمند ارزیابی و بررسی روند پيشرفت است ‪ .‬خصوصًا در مواردی چون آزمون ‪ IELTS‬آشنایی با انواع‬
‫سؤالت ‪ ،‬مدیریت زمان در آزمون و روش های پاسخگویی به سوالت موضوعاتی به مراتب حائز اهميت هستند ‪.‬‬

‫مفتخریم با برگزاری آزمون های هماهنگ‪ ،‬استاندارد و جامع هفتگی و ارائه برنامه ریزی مطالعه ‪ ،‬پشتيبانی آموزش و‬
‫جلسات رفع اشکال ‪ ،‬شما را در هر چه راحت تر پيمودن این مسير راهنمایی می نمایيم ‪.‬‬

‫ط واقعي‌‬ ‫ن با شرای ‌‬ ‫ي داوطلبا ‌‬‫ن ‪ IELTS‬را عد‌مآشنای ‌‬ ‫ي در آزمو ‌‬ ‫ن ایران ‌‬‫ت داوطلبا ‌‬
‫ت عد‌م موفقي ‌‬ ‫ن عل ‌‬‫ن مهمتری ‌‬ ‫يتوا ‌‬‫كم ‌‬ ‫نش ‌‬ ‫بدو ‌‬
‫ي آزمونها ‌‬
‫ي‬ ‫ي ‪10‬مرحل‌ه برگزار ‌‬ ‫ك برنام‌ه منسج‌م ط ‌‬ ‫ي ‪ IELTS‬دانست‪ IELTS TEAM ‌ .‬در ی ‌‬ ‫نالملل ‌‬
‫ن بي ‌‬ ‫ي آزمو ‌‬ ‫برگزار ‌‬
‫ي هدفمند‬ ‫ي برنام‌ه ‪ 10‬هفت‌ها ‌‬ ‫ت‪) .‬ط ‌‬ ‫ف نمود‌ه اس ‌‬
‫ل برطر ‌‬ ‫ن نقيص‌ه مه‌م را كام ً‬ ‫ي ‪ IELTS Mock Exam‬ای ‌‬ ‫نالملل ‌‬‫استاندارد بي ‌‬
‫ن برنامه‌‬ ‫ق ای ‌‬ ‫ب طب ‌‬‫صگردید‌ه و داوطل ‌‬ ‫ن هر هفت‌ه مشخ ‌‬ ‫ي در آزمو ‌‬ ‫يگردد‪ ،‬موارد ارزیاب ‌‬ ‫نآموز ارائ‌ه م ‌‬ ‫ي دور‌ه ب‌ه زبا ‌‬ ‫ك‌ه درابتدا ‌‬
‫ي‪ ،‬نقا ‌‬
‫ط‬ ‫ي ‪ IELTS‬به صورت مرحله ا ‌‬ ‫ي آزمونها ‌‬ ‫ب محتوای ‌‬ ‫ك مطال ‌‬ ‫ينماید‪ .‬تفكي ‌‬
‫نم ‌‬ ‫هدفمند‪ ،‬برنام‌ه مطالع‌ه خود را تدوی ‌‬
‫ل وضعي ‌‬
‫ت‬ ‫ت ب‌ه تعدی ‌‬‫ص كرد‌ه و زبان آموز زیرنظر اساتيد مركز ب‌ه راحتي ‌نسب ‌‬ ‫ي آزمونها مشخ ‌‬ ‫تداوطلب را ط ‌‬ ‫ضعف ‌و قو ‌‬
‫ن دهم از مجموع‌ه آزمونهاجام‌ع بود‌ه ك‌ه در واق‌ع ی ‌‬
‫ك‬ ‫تآزمو ‌‬‫ينماید‪ .‬لز‌م ب‌ه ذكر اس ‌‬ ‫ف اقدا‌م م ‌‬ ‫ي مورد ضع ‌‬ ‫خود در مهارتها ‌‬
‫يباشد‪(.‬‬‫ي ‪ IELTS‬م ‌‬ ‫ن اصل ‌‬ ‫ل استاندارد شد‌ه آزمو ‌‬ ‫ي كام ً‬
‫شبي‌ه ساز ‌‬

‫ت‪:‬‬
‫ن اشار‌ه شد‌ه اس ‌‬
‫ل ب‌ه آ ‌‬
‫ت ك‌ه در زیر ب‌ه تفصي ‌‬
‫ي برخوردار اس ‌‬
‫ط منحصر ب‌هفرد ‌‬
‫آزمونهاي ‪ IELTS TEAM‬از شرای ‌‬

‫‪ -1‬سئوالت و شرایط برگزاري استاندارد‬

‫ت‪،‬‬
‫ن درنظر گرفت‌ه شد‌ه اس ‌‬
‫ي ممك ‌‬‫ت استاندارد علم ‌‬‫ي ‪ ،IELTS TEAM‬نهای ‌‬ ‫ي آزمونها ‌‬ ‫ت امتحان ‌‬
‫ك سئوال ‌‬
‫ي بان ‌‬
‫در طراح ‌‬
‫ي مي باشد‪.‬‬
‫نالملل ‌‬
‫ي موارد مطروح‌ه در آزمونها ‪،‬بي ‌‬
‫ت تقریبًا تمام ‌‬
‫ن ذكر اس ‌‬ ‫شایا ‌‬

‫ن و پاسخنام‌ه تشریح ‌‬
‫ي‬ ‫‪-2‬ارائ‌ه كارنام‌ه استاندارد آزمو ‌‬

‫ي آزمو ‌‬
‫ن‬ ‫ل آمار ‌‬
‫ي تجزی‌ه و تحلي ‌‬
‫ي علم ‌‬
‫‪ -3‬ارائ‌ه نمودارها ‌‬

‫ل تشریحي‌ آزمونها‬
‫لوح ‌‬
‫ت رف‌ع اشكا ‌‬
‫‪ -4‬جلسا ‌‬

‫ن ‪IELTS‬‬
‫ي آزمو ‌‬
‫ي برنام‌هريز ‌‬
‫‪-5‬ارائ‌ه دفتر هدفمند ‌‬

‫نآموزان ‪IELTS‬‬ ‫ك از زبا ‌‬


‫يباشد‪ .‬هری ‌‬
‫يم ‌‬
‫ننهای ‌‬
‫ت در آزمو ‌‬
‫ي موفقي ‌‬
‫ي اصل ‌‬
‫ي ‪ IELTS‬ازجمل‌ه اجزا ‌‬ ‫ي ‌ مطالعات ‌‬
‫برنام‌هریز ‌‬
‫ي تدوین شده ‪ IELTS TEAM‬براي آزمون آماده مي شوند‪ .‬این برنامه سبب مي شود تا‬ ‫‪ ،‌ TEAM‬مطابق برنام‌ه مطالعات ‌‬
‫از سردر گمي داوطلبان جلوگيري شده و پيشرفت آنها به طور ملموسي قابل اندازه گيري و سنجش باشد‪.‬‬

‫ي ‪IELTS‬‬
‫ن اصل ‌‬
‫ن در آزمو ‌‬
‫ت نا‌م كلي‌ه زبان ‌آموزا ‌‬
‫ح ثب ‌‬
‫‪-6‬طر ‌‬

‫ن‪،‬‬
‫ل داوطلبي ‌‬
‫ت تمای ‌‬
‫ن خود و درصور ‌‬‫نآموزا ‌‬
‫ت زبا ‌‬
‫ف وق ‌‬
‫ت نا‌م و اتل ‌‬‫ي ثب ‌‬
‫ل جانب ‌‬
‫ي از مسائ ‌‬
‫ت جلوگير ‌‬
‫‪ IELTS TEAM‬جه ‌‬
‫يدهد‪.‬‬
‫ي ‪ IELTS‬را انجا‌م م ‌‬ ‫ن اصل ‌‬ ‫ي آزمو ‌‬ ‫ت نام ‌‬
‫كلي‌ه امور ثب ‌‬

‫ح بيم‌ه ‪IELTS‬‬
‫‪-7‬طر ‌‬

‫ن ایجاد جو‬‫ي برگزارشد‌ه‪ ،‬همچني ‌‬ ‫ي آزمونها ‌‬ ‫ي خود در سر ‌‬ ‫ن جد ‌‬‫ي از داوطلبا ‌‬ ‫ت و قدردان ‌‬


‫ف حمای ‌‬ ‫‪IELTS TEAM‬با هد ‌‬
‫ي‪ ،‬طر ‌‬
‫ح‬ ‫ن اصل ‌‬ ‫ن در آزمو ‌‬ ‫ي كلي‌ه داوطلبا ‌‬‫ي آزمونها و بالطب‌ع موفقيت ‌نهای ‌‬ ‫ح كيف ‌‬‫ي ارتقاء سط ‌‬
‫ي در راستا ‌‬ ‫ت سال‌م و تشویق ‌‬
‫رقاب ‌‬
‫ح از جمل‌ه‬‫ن طر ‌‬ ‫ي خانواده‌ ‪ ،IELTS TEAM‬ای ‌‬ ‫ل آمد‌ه از اعضا ‌‬ ‫ي بعم ‌‬
‫ق نظرسنجيها ‌‬ ‫ينماید‪ .‬طب ‌‬
‫بيم‌ه ‪ IELTS‬را اجرا م ‌‬
‫يباشد‪.‬‬
‫يم ‌‬‫ن گرام ‌‬ ‫نآموزا ‌‬ ‫ت ا رائ‌ه شد‌ه ب‌ه زبا ‌‬‫ن خدما ‌‬‫شتری ‌‬ ‫ش بخ ‌‬
‫ن و آرام ‌‬‫مؤثرتری ‌‬
‫ينماید که حداقل نمره زبان آموز در هر یک‬
‌ ‫نم‬
‌ ‫كتبًا تضمي‬IELTS TEAM ،‫ح و ب‌ه استناد ضمانتنام‌ه مذكور‬
‌ ‫ن طر‬
‌ ‫ق ای‬
‌ ‫طب‬
.‫ آزمون باشد‬10 ‫از مهارتها در آزمون اصلی برابر با ميانگين وی در‬

: ‫به این مثال توجه کنيد‬

: ‫ آزمون نمرات ذیل را در مهارت نوشتن کسب کرده است‬10 ‫زبان آموزی در‬

4.5 - 5 - 4 - 6 - 5.5 - 5 - 7 - 6 - 7 - 6

‫ در آزمون برای وی کتبًا‬5.5 ‫ اخذ حداقل نمره‬، ‫ خواهد بود و طبق شرایط بيمه‬5.5 ‫ميانگين این زبان آموز در آزمون ها‬
.‫ عينًا تمام مبالغ پرداختی مسترد خواهد گردید‬، ‫و در صورت عدم کسب این حد نصاب‬.‫تعيين می گردد‬

+ ‫ نوشته شده در‬Tue 7 Apr 2009 5:57 ‫ ساعت‬PM ‫ توسط‬Manager | ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

LISTENING: A SKILL not a GIFT

Listening is very often your biggest problem. I know it because almost all my IELTS-taking
friends had trouble there. Your Listening ability in many cases is not developed enough. But the
good news is that Listening is a skill, not a gift, which means anyone can learn how to listen and
understand (almost :)) every word. My friends and I came up with this technique that worked for
us.

What usually happens:

You listen and hear “Blablablablabla”, which you can’t to break into words, and for that reason it
makes no sense to you. There is a big difference between seeing a word printed on paper when
you read and hearing it. If you saw a word, it doesn’t mean you will recognize it when you hear
it. Every word you have read, you need to hear at least once.

What can be done about it:

You need to teach yourself the words

How do you do it:

When training, take a recording of the news, lecture, television program movie or an actual
IELTS Listening test and work with it.

Listening Tip # 1 - use transcript.

Use an IELTS Listening test - just choose from all the links in the right sidebar. You need a test
that has transcript, so I suggest Listening test # 1 (be patient, their site is slow).
First try just listening, to get used to the accent. Then start working with a recording and a
transcript: go over the recording, stop it every sentence and use transcript to make sure that you
understand every word.
‫‪Listening Tip # 2 - repeat phrases‬‬

‫‪You can use any recording. First, listen, remember what you heard and stop the recording after‬‬
‫‪each phrase. Even if you didn’t understand the phrase, play it in your head a couple of times, like‬‬
‫‪a broken record “Tonight we have a special guest”, “Tonight we have a special guest”, “Tonight‬‬
‫‪we have a special guest”.‬‬
‫‪Then say it out loud. If you understood that phrase at first, this exercise will improve your‬‬
‫‪pronunciation. If you didn’t understand the phrase for the first time, this repetition will give you‬‬
‫‪more time to hear it better, break it into words and make sense out of them. And if it is still‬‬
‫‪difficult, you can always rewind and hear the phrase again.‬‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 4:5‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫مشكلت مهاجرين در استراليا‬

‫مهاجرت ‪ ،‬قمار زندگي است و همچنان كه مي تواند باعث بروز تحولت بسيار مثبتي براي‬
‫زندگي يك خانواده باشد ‪ ،‬مي تواند عامل ناكامي و از هم پاشيدگي اركان خانواده نيز قلمداد‬
‫شود‪ .‬عموما ً ‪ ،‬سال اول زندگي مهاجرين شاهد بيشترين نامليمات و تنش هاي زندگي است؛ كه‬
‫در اين ميان ‪ ،‬بسياري از مهاجرين تاب تحمل مشكلت را ندارند و لذا زندگيشان دستخوش‬
‫صدمات جبران ناپذيري مي شود‪.‬‬

‫متاسفانه هنوز آماري در خصوص درصد موفقيت مهاجرين نسل اول ايراني در استراليا منتشر‬
‫نشده و همين موضوع زواياي زندگي و ميزان موفقيت ايرانيان در استراليا را مشخص نكرده‬
‫است ؛ اما آنچه كه واضح است تمامي افراد جامعه ايراني از حداقل رفاه نسبي كه بر مبناي‬
‫اصل عدالت اجتماعي در تمامي اركان جامعه استراليا وجود دارد برخوردارهستند‪ .‬و بعضي از‬
‫مهاجرين ايراني در ازاي اين برخورداري نسبي از رفاه مادي ‪ ،‬بهاي سنگيني را نيز پرداخته اند‬
‫كه طلق ‪ ،‬اعتياد و بيماريهاي روحي و رواني از آن جمله است‪.‬‬

‫سالهاي ابتدايي مهاجرت به استراليا ‪ ،‬سالهايي سخت‪ ،‬پرتنش و سرشار از تناقضات فرهنگي و‬
‫اجتماعي براي مهاجرين ايراني است ‪ .‬بسياري از مهاجرين ‪ ،‬قبل از ورود به استراليا به سختي‬
‫مي توانند متصور شوند كه مهاجرت چه كار سخت و طاقت فرسايي است و به اين سادگي نمي‬
‫توان در موطن جديد ريشه دواند و به اصطلح جا افتاد‪ .‬لذا بعضي از مهاجرين دچار آسيب هاي‬
‫روحي رواني مي گردند كه تا سالها با آن كلنجار مي روند‪.‬‬

‫مشكلت روحي – رواني مهاجرين‬

‫زندگي ايراني ‪ ،‬زندگي خانواده محور است كه هويت تمامي افراد بر مبناي نقش آنان در خانواده‬
‫تعريف مي شود‪ .‬در مدل زندگي ايراني‪ ،‬پدر بزرگ ‌‪ ،‬مادر بزرگ ‪ ،‬پدر ‪ ،‬مادر ‪ ،‬برادر و خواهر تنها‬
‫به معناي نسبي كلمه در زندگي شخص نقش ندارند‪ ،‬بلكه كانون مهر وعاطفه ‪ ،‬نقطه اتكا و در‬
‫بياني ديگر كليد حل مشكلت تك تك اعضاي خانواده به شمار مي آيند و اين دقيقا ً عكس آن‬
‫چيزي است كه در زندگي غربي وجود دارد ‪ .‬در زندگي غربي خانواده كاركردي فرد محور دارد و‬
‫استقلل اعضاي خانواده از نكات بارز زندگي غربي است ‪.‬‬

‫يكي از مشكلت مهاجرين ايراني در استراليا جدايي از نهاد خانواده مي باشد‪ .‬بسياري از‬
‫مهاجريني كه از ايران پا به استراليا مي گذارند بدليل جدايي از كانون گرم خانواده خود دچار‬
‫مشكلت روحي و رواني مي شوند‪.‬و در اين زمينه ‪ ،‬وضع كساني كه بصورت پناهنده سياسي يا‬
‫اجتماعي به استراليا آمده اند بدتر است چون بطور طبيعي آنان بازگشتي براي خود به ايران‬
‫متصور نيستند و اين دوري‪ ،‬مشكلت روحي و رواني آنان را در دوچندان مي كند‪ .‬از طرفي ‪،‬‬
‫تحمل اين وضعيت براي نوجوانان و جوانان ايراني در مقايسه با بزرگترها سخت تر است‪.‬‬

‫مهدي كه بهمراه همسر و دو فرزندش مدت ده سال است به استراليا مهاجرت كرده خاطرات‬
‫تلخي از دوران اوليه ورود به استراليا دارد‪ .‬او مي گويد‪ " :‬زندگي ايراني مجموعه اي از عاطفه‬
‫است كه در استراليا همتايي براي آن نمي توان يافت ‪ .‬در استراليا فقط روابط اقتصادي بر‬
‫زندگي افراد حاكم است و روابط عاطفي نقش كم رنگي دارد‪ .‬زندگي ايراني‪‌ ،‬زندگي تنهايي‬
‫نيست‌‪ ،‬زندگي سكوت نيست بلكه زندگي بمعناي حضور موثر در مشكلت خانوادگي است ‪ .‬در‬
‫ايران خانواده ها غمخوار يكديگرند ‌‪،‬اما در اينجا خبري از اين حرفها نيست‪" .‬‬

‫اولين مشكلي كه مهدي در ماههاي اوليه زندگي خود با آن مواجه شد ‪ ،‬مشكل افسردگي‬
‫فرزندش بود ‪ .‬مهدي مي گويد‪ ":‬متاسفانه پسرم پس از حضور از استراليا از دوستان و‬
‫همبازيهاي فامليش جدا شد و بدين سبب دچار افسردگي حاد شد ‪ .‬و اين مشكل سواي تمامي‬
‫مشكلت زندگي در غربت ‪ ،‬غم عميقي بر روح و روان ما به جاي گذاشت و نمي دانستيم كه بايد‬
‫چكار كنيم‪ .‬خدا را شكر كه پس از ماهها و با مشورت پزشكان توانستيم مجددا ً شادي را به‬
‫زندگي پسرم باز گردانيم‪ ...‬سالهاي ابتدايي زندگي ما در استراليا را هيچگاه دوست ندارم كه بياد‬
‫آورم‪".‬‬

‫مشكلت روحي و رواني كه زندگي در غربت بر تن و روان مهاجرين وارد مي سازد تنها شامل‬
‫زندگي فرزندان نمي شود ‪ ،‬بلكه پدران و مادران نيز در معرض آسيب پذيري هستند ‪ .‬شايد كمتر‬
‫كسي متوجه اين واقعيت باشد كه كساني كه سالهاي سال در ايران زندگي كرده اند ريشه در‬
‫خاك داشته اند و جزيي از بدنه يك خانواده بزرك بوده اند و بمحض اينكه از بدنه خانواده خود‬
‫بقصد مهاجرت جدا مي شوند ‪ ،‬همچون نهالي مي شوند كه در سرزمين جديد خود بايد مجددا ً‬
‫رشد كرده و لذا ممكن است با وزش هر بادي اين نهال تازه از بن كنده شود و به اين سو و آن‬
‫سو برود‪.‬‬

‫زندگي ستاره و امين ‪ ،‬زوج جواني كه زندگي خود را در ايران آغاز كردند و پس از اخذ ويزاي‬
‫دائم به استراليا مهاجرت كردند نيز دستخوش مشكلت روحي و رواني بسياري شد‪ .‬ستاره‬
‫فرزندي برخاسته از جامعه سنتي ايراني است كه در آن ديدار و درد ودل هفتگي با مادر جز‌ء‬
‫لينفك زندگي است‪ .‬ستاره پس از اقامت در استراليا طبعا ً ديگر نتوانست به ديدن مادرش برود‬
‫و حضور همسرش امين در كنار او نيز جاي مادرش را پر نمي كرد‪ .‬بدين سبب ستاره دچار‬
‫افسردگي شديد شد و غم غربت بر زندگي او سايه افكند‪ .‬ستاره مي گويد‪ " :‬ديگر هيچ چيزي در‬
‫استراليا مرا خوشحال نمي كرد ‪ .‬اگرچه من در ايران با مادرم هميشه اختلف عقيده داشتم و‬
‫دائما ً با هم دعوا ميكرديم ‪ ،‬ولي حضور در كنار مادر تنها آرزوي من در استراليا بود ‪ .‬از طرفي نه‬
‫مي توانستم امين را با اين همه مشكلت مهاجرت تنها بگذارم به ايران بروم و نه ميشد مادرم‬
‫را به دليل مشكلت مالي اينجا بياورم و به همين دليل دچار افسردگي حاد شدم‪".‬‬

‫امين نيز به تلخي از آن دوران ياد مي كند و مي گويد‪ " :‬باورم نمي شد كه در ظرف مدت شش‬
‫ماه ‪ 15‬كيلو لغر شوم‪ .‬من كه آدمي سرزنده در ايران بودم ‪ ،‬وقتي كه به استراليا مهاجرت‬
‫كردم خرواري از مشكلت و مصائب بر سرم ريخت‪ .‬از يك طرف نتوانسته بودم كاري را در‬
‫استراليا پيدا كنم و از طرفي ستاره دچار افسردگي شديد شده بود ‪ .‬بدبختي اين بود كه شرايط‬
‫مالي بهيچ وجه اجازه نمي داد كه او را براي مدتي به ايران بفرستم و به همين خاطر درمانده‬
‫شده بودم و تازه آنجا بود كه معناي حضور خانواده را فهميدم ‪".‬‬
‫خوشبختانه زندگي ستاره و امين به سرانجام خوبي رسيد و يك فرد نيكوكار ايراني وقتي كه از‬
‫داستان زندگي آنان اطلع يافت امين را به كاري گمارد و مخارج سفر ستاره را به ايران فراهم‬
‫كرد‪.‬‬

‫شرايط محيطي و جغرافيايي‬

‫شايد كمتر كسي پيش از مهاجرت ‪ ،‬اهميتي براي نقش شرايط جغرافيايي و آب و هوا بر‬
‫سرنوشت زندگي اش در استراليا قائل باشد ‌‪ ،‬اما بايد اذعان كرد كه كه در ماهها و حتي سالهاي‬
‫اوليه‪ ،‬آب و هوا نقش بسيار عظيمي بر زندگي مهاجرين ايراني در استراليا دارد‪.‬‬

‫عمده مناطق ايران داراي آب و هواي گرم و خشك هستند و بدن ايرانيان ساليان سال خود را با‬
‫چنين شرايط آب و هوايي تطبيق داده است ‪ .‬از طرفي ديگر باتوجه به اينكه عمده شهر هاي‬
‫استراليا در حاشيه اقيانوس واقع شده و از رطوبت نسبتا ً باليي برخوردار است ‪ ،‬لذا تغييرات آب‬
‫و هوايي تاثير عميقي بر ساز و كار و فعاليت اندامهاي مهاجرين بر جاي ميگذارد‪.‬‬

‫بسياري از خانواده هاي ايراني پس از ورود به استراليا و با توجه به اينكه بدن آنان در معرض‬
‫ميكروب ها و ويروسهاي جديدي قرار ميگيرد كه نظير آن در ايران وجود نداشته ‪ ،‬به بيماري هاي‬
‫مختلفي دچار مي شوند و زمان زيادي سپري مي شود تا بدن آنان خود را در مقابل ويروسهاي‬
‫جديد مجهز نمايد‪.‬‬

‫متاسفانه آب و هواي استراليا به گونه اي است كه درصد ابتلي كودكان به آسم بسيار زياد است‬
‫و برخلف ايران ابتل به آسم در ميان كودكان و بزرگسالن امري عادي است ‪ ،‬اما براي يك‬
‫خانواده ايراني كه به اميد پيشرفت و زندگي بهتر به استراليا مهاجرت كرده اند ‪ ،‬ابتلي‬
‫فرزندشان به آسم امري زجر آور و ناراحت كننده است‪.‬‬

‫ساناز دختر ‪ 4‬ساله اي است كه در ايران متولد شد و پس از اينكه به همراه خانواده خود به‬
‫استراليا مهاجرت كرد دچار آسم شد‪ .‬سعيد پدر ساناز مي گويد‪ " :‬تازه ‪ 2‬ماه بود كه از ايران با‬
‫مشكلت بسيار به سيدني آمديم و يك شب بهنگام خواب متوجه شدم كه ساناز نمي تواند بخوبي‬
‫نفس بكشد‪ ..‬مستاصل و درمانده شده بودم و نمي دانستم چكار كنم ‪ .‬نه آدرس بيمارستاني را‬
‫مي دانستم و نه فاميلي در ‌سيدني داشتم ‪ ..‬حتي نمي دانستم كه چطور مي توان تنفس‬
‫مصنوعي داد ‪..‬ترس عجيبي بر وجودمان حاكم شده بود و به تنها ايراني كه در سيدني مي‬
‫شناختم زنگ زدم و او در ظرف ‪ 10‬دقيقه به منزلمان آمد و ساناز را به بيمارستان برديم ‪.‬‬
‫سپس او را فورا ً به اورژانس بردند و زير ماسك اكسيژن قرار دادند‪ .‬واقعا ً لحظات تلخي بود و‬
‫من دوست ندارم كه آنرا بياد آورم‪ ".‬پزشك متخصص تشخيص داد كه ساناز به بيماري آسم دچار‬
‫شده است و بايد تحت نظر پزشك باشد ‪.‬‬

‫عموما ً بيشتر مهاجرين در ماههاي اوليه مهاجرت به بيماريهاي مختلف دچار مي شوند‪ .‬سعيد مي‬
‫گويد‪ " :‬شايد در ‪ 6‬ماه اوليه اقامتمان در استراليا بيش از ‪ 40‬بار به پزشك و بيمارستان مراجعه‬
‫كرديم ‪ .‬واقعا ً شانس آورديم كه هزينه هاي دكتر و بيمارستان در استراليا مجاني است و‬
‫مهاجرين هيچ بهايي بابت آن پرداخت نمي كنند‪.‬يادم مي آيد يكبار من و همسر و دخترم هر سه با‬
‫هم در منزل مريض بوديم و هيچ كس هم نبود كه از ما مراقبت كند ‪ ...‬واقعا ً شرايط جغرافيايي‬
‫اثرات بسياري بر بدن انسان دارد و اين چيزي است كه بسياري از مهاجرين پس از حضور در يك‬
‫كشور ديگر تازه به اهميت آن پي مي برند‪".‬‬

‫پيدا كردن كار‪ ،‬بزرگترين مشكل‬


‫سخني گزاف نيست اگر بگوييم كه يافتن شغل مناسب و درخور مهمترين مشكل ايرانيان در‬
‫استراليا است و دانستن زبان انگليسي كليد بازگشايي اين قفل بسته‪ .‬ما براي اين ممكلت‬
‫ساخته نشده ايم ‌‪،‬عبارت مصطلحي هست كه زياد بر زبان ايرانيان جاري مي شود ‪ .‬اما در‬
‫استراليا بايد در نهايت فرد خود را براي كار دلخواه و مورد پسندش بسازد زيرا راه ديگري وجود‬
‫ندارد‪.‬‬

‫در استراليا عموما ً دو نوع محيط كاري را براي ايرانيان مي توان متصور شد‪ :‬اولي عبارت است‬
‫از مشاغلي كه ايرانيان در آن نقش كار فرما دارند كه بخش بسيار كوچكي از فضاي كاري‬
‫استراليا را شامل مي شود ‪ .‬اين مشاغل معمول ً نقاشي ساختمان ‪ ،‬كارهاي فيزيكي و ساختماني‬
‫‪ ،‬مكانيكي و در كل كارهاي خدماتي را شامل مي شود و محيط دوم مشاغلي است كه‬
‫كارفرماياني غير ايراني بر آن احاطه دارند و بيشتر داشتن تجربيات كاري و تحصيلت مرتبط‬
‫شرط حضور در آن است‪.‬‬

‫بطور معمول كارفرمايان ايراني بر روال همان روابطي كه در بازار كار ايران براي استخدام يك‬
‫فرد حاكم جاري است در استراليا نيز عمل مي كنند‪ .‬يعني بصرف آشنايي و ضمانت افراد و‬
‫بدون در نظر گرفتن تجربيات كاري‪ .‬بي انصافي است كه كارارزشمندي كه اين كارفرمايان در‬
‫بدو ورود افراد به استراليا انجام مي دهند ناديده گرفته شود‌‪ ،‬اگرچه ايراداتي همچون ميزان كم‬
‫دستمزد و يا دير كرد در پرداخت ها به آنان وارد است‪.‬‬

‫بزرگترين مشكلي كه براي مهاجرين وجود دارد ورود به بازار كار واقعي در استرالياست جايي‬
‫كه افراد به ميزان تجربيات و تحصيلتشان ارزشگذاري مي شوند نه به زور بازو‪ .‬بايد اعتراف‬
‫كرد كه حضور در جامعه كار استراليا فرآيندي بسيار طولني و پيچيده دارد و بسيار طاقت‬
‫فرساست‪ .‬عموما ً مهاجريني كه از ايران به استراليا مي آيند داراي سوابق درخشان كاري و چه‬
‫بسا تجربه مديريت در سطوح بال را با خود يدك مي كشند ‪ ،‬اما متاسفانه كارفرمايان استراليايي‬
‫بيشتر به داشتن سابقه كار محلي علقه نشان مي دهند نه آنچه كه فرد در كارنامه كاري خود در‬
‫ايران بر جاي گذاشته‪.‬‬

‫علي كه سابقه ‪ 15‬سال مديريت در سطوح بالي سازمانهاي ايراني را دارد ‪ ،‬بهيچ وجه نتوانست‬
‫كاري هم سطح و يا حتي كمتر از تجربياتش در استراليا بيابد ‪ .‬او مي گويد‪ " :‬ساز وكار و روابط‬
‫حاكم بر محيط هاي كاري در ايران بهيچ وجه قابل مقايسه با استراليا نيست ‪ .‬ايراني اقيانوسي‬
‫است به عمق يك بند انگشت ولي در استراليا ترجيح مي دهند كه بركه اي آب را بيابند كه ده‬
‫متر عمق داشته باشد‪ .‬من در ابتدا وقتي براي مراكز مختلف درخواست كار مي فرستادم ‪ ،‬بدون‬
‫استثناء درخواست هاي كارم رد مي شد و حتي به مرحله مصاحبه هم نمي رسيد‪ .‬بعدها متوجه‬
‫شدم كه ذكر سوابق مديريتي متعدد در كارنامه كاري ام خود عاملي بازدارنده است و به‬
‫اصطلح ‪ over-qualified‬هستم ‪ .‬بدين خاطر مجبور شدم كه دوره هاي كوتاه مدت را در مراكز‬
‫آموزشي بگذرانم و سپس از كارهاي بسيار كوچك دفتري شروع كنم‪".‬‬

‫اما وضع كار براي تمامي مشاغل بدين گونه نيست ‪ .‬معمول ً فارغ التحصيلن رشته هاي مرتبط با‬
‫فن آوري اطلعات از وضع بهتري بر خوردار هستند و با توجه به بازار كار مناسب استراليا‬
‫بسرعت جذب مشاغل مورد نظر خود مي شوند‪.‬‬

‫محسن كه مهندس كامپيوتر است مي گويد‪ " :‬در زمينه فن آوري اطلعات زمينه كار مناسبي‬
‫وجود دارد و اكثر ايرانيان مشاغل درخور توجه دارند‪ .‬شايد يكي از دليل عمده آن كار با كامپيوتر‬
‫بجاي سر وكله زدن با ارباب رجوع است‪ .‬معمول ً كارفرما‪ ،‬فلن برنامه كامپيوتري را از شما مي‬
‫خواهد و شما در مهلت مورد نظر كار را بايد تحويل دهيد‪ .‬به همين سادگي"‬
‫يكي از راههايي كه بيشتر ايرانيان براي فرار از انجام كارهاي پيش پا افتاده و با هدف يافتن كار‬
‫مناسب در استراليا انجام مي دهند ادامه تحصيل در دانشگاه است‪ .‬حضور در دانشگاه ‌‪ ،‬فرصت‬
‫هاي شغلي زيادي را نصيب ايرانيان مي كند و كمك مي كند تا ايراني جايگاه واقعي خود را در‬
‫بازار كار استراليا بدست آورد‪ .‬نويسنده‪ :‬بابك عظيمي‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 3:59‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫مشكلت مهاجرين ايراني‬

‫نگاهی به مشکلت مهاجرین ایرانی در استرالیا‬

‫شايد براي بيشتر ايرانياني كه هنوز پا به دنياي غرب نگذاشته اند تصويري كه از زندگي مهههاجرين‬
‫ايراني در استراليا در ذهنشان نقش بسته معادل با تفريحات شبانه روزي ‪ ،‬حمام آفتههاب در كنههار‬
‫دريا و آزاديهاي بي حد وحصر جنسي باشد‪ .‬اما اين تصوير چقههدر بههه واقعيههت زنههدگي ايرانيههان در‬
‫استراليا نزديك است؟ آيا مهاجرين ايراني در استراليا دائما ً در حال خوشگذراني هستند و تمههامي‬
‫اوقات خود را يا در لب ساحل بسر مي برند و يا با قايق هههاي شخصههي خههود در دل اقيههانوس بههه‬
‫مهههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههاهيگيري مشهههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههغولند؟‬

‫زندگي در استراليا برخلف ظاهر فريبنده اي كه ممكن است داشهته باشههد كهار چنههدان سهاده اي‬
‫نيست و از بسياري جهات سخت تر از زندگي در ايران مي باشد ‪ .‬مهاجرين ايرانههي پههس از ورود‬
‫به استراليا با مشههكلت عديههده اي روبههرو هسههتند كههه عمههده ايههن مشههكلت بخههاطر تفههاوت هههاي‬
‫فرهنگي‌‪ ،‬اقتصادي و اجتماعي عميقي است كه سبك زندگي در استراليا با نوع ايرانههي خههود دارد‪.‬‬
‫همچون ديگر كشورهاي غربي ‪ ،‬اساس و پايه زندگي در استراليا بههر مبنههاي قههانون اسههت و بنظهر‬
‫مي رسد مهمترين عامل اصطكاك جامعه مهاجرين ايراني با زندگي در استراليا‪ ،‬از عدم شههناخت‬
‫كافي به قوانين حاكم در استراليا بعنوان سرلوحه تمام رفتارهاي اجتماعي و فههردي تمههامي آحههاد‬
‫جههههههههههههههههههههههههههامعه نشههههههههههههههههههههههههههآت مههههههههههههههههههههههههههي گيههههههههههههههههههههههههههرد‪.‬‬

‫روحيه قانون گريزي ايراني كه بدليل بافت فرهنگي و اجتماعي زنههدگي در ايههران شههكل گرفتههه و‬
‫عكس العملي طبيعي در مقابل عدم پايبندي تمامي اركان جامعه به قوانين در ايران اسههت‪ ،‬عمل ً‬
‫در زندگي غربي و بويژه در استراليا كاربردي نداشته و راه به جايي نمي برد‪ .‬در استراليا همه در‬
‫مقابل قانون يكسانند و مرتبه اجتماعي افراد و ميزان تمههول آنههان هيههچ تههاثيري در اجههراي قههانون‬
‫ندارد‪ .‬از اين رو‪ ،‬در مواجهه با تخلفات قانوني‪ ،‬تعابيري همچون من پسر آقاي فلني ام و يا جون‬
‫سركار بيخيال جريمه شو پول چاي ات رو من ميدم كمترين معنا را بهراي فهرار از اجهراي قهانون‬
‫در اسههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههتراليا دارد‪.‬‬

‫‌ هموطن ايراني كه سالهاي سال طعم لذت بخش و شههيرين فههرار از اجههراي قههانون را در ايههران‬
‫چشيده است‪ ،‬پس از ورود به استراليا‪ ،‬به يكباره خود را در قفسههي گرفتههار مههي بينههد كههه ارزش‬
‫افراد در برابر قانون فقط بر مبناي عملكرد آنان تعيين مي شود و نه بر اساس اصل و نسب ويهها‬
‫طبقه اجتماعي فرد‪ .‬و در اين ميان‪ ،‬آگاهي نداشتن از قانون دليل موجهي بههراي قههانون شههكني و‬
‫قانون گريزي تلقي نمي شود‪ .‬لذا‪ ،‬اولين سدي كه در پيش روي مهاجر ايراني در اسههتراليا وجههود‬
‫دارد آگاهي يافتن از كليه قوانيني است كه بايد در زندگي روزمره التزام و پايبندي خههود را بههه آن‬
‫نشان دهد‌‪ ،‬در غير اينصورت هرگز با ديگر اقشار جامعه همگون نخواهد شد‪ .‬بهميههن خهاطر بهراي‬
‫آگاهي يافتن از قوانين استراليا‪ ،‬دانستن زبان از واجبات است و كمههك شههاياني در ادغههام فههرد در‬
‫جههههههههههههههههههههامعه جديههههههههههههههههههههد خههههههههههههههههههههود مههههههههههههههههههههي كنههههههههههههههههههههد‪.‬‬

‫زبنننننننننننننان انگليسننننننننننننني ‪ ،‬پاشننننننننننننننه آشنننننننننننننيل ايرانننننننننننننني‬

‫متاسفانه نظام آموزشي در ايران بگههونه اي طراحههي شههده كههه كمههك چنههداني بههه يههادگيري زبههان‬
‫انگليسي به افراد نمي كند و بيشتر ديپلمه هاي ايراني و يا حتي فارغ التحصههيلن دانشههگاهي اگههر‬
‫بطور خصوصي به يادگيري زبان اهتمام نكرده باشند‪ ،‬قادر نيستند به مدت ‪ 5‬دقيقه در مههورد يههك‬
‫موضوع به انگليسي صحبت كنند و يا يك صفحه مطلب به انگليسي بنويسند‪ .‬بدين خاطر‪ ،‬سههخني‬
‫گزاف نيست اگر بگوييم كه عدم تسلط كافي به زبان انگليسي عمههده تريههن مشههكل ايرانيههان در‬
‫خههارج از كشههور و بههويژه در استرالياسههت و درسههت هميههن نقطههه ‪ ،‬پاشههنه آشههيل آسههيب پههذيري‬
‫مهههههههههههههههههههاجرين ايرانههههههههههههههههههي بههههههههههههههههههه شههههههههههههههههههمار ميههههههههههههههههههرود‪.‬‬

‫دانستن زبان انگليسي عمل ً شاه كليد ورود به تمامي اركان جامعه در استرالياست و شههايد كمههتر‬
‫ايراني مهاجري را ميتوان يافت كه بدون تسلط به زبان توانسته باشد مدارج ترقي را در استراليا‬
‫طي نمايد‪ .‬براي مهاجرين تازه وارد‪ ،‬دولت اسههتراليا ليسههت كههاملي از كارهههايي كههه بايههد آنههرا بههه‬
‫انجام رسانند منتشر كرده ‪ ،‬اما در حقيقت بدليل اينكه انجام هر يك از ايهن كارههها نيهاز بهه دانههش‬
‫زبان در آن حوزه خاص دارد انجام دادن اين ليست چالش هاي بسياري براي مهاجرين بهه همهراه‬
‫دارد‪ .‬افتتاح حساب بانكي ‪ ،‬گرفتن شماره بيمه مالياتي‪ ،‬ثبت نههام در طههرح هههاي درمههاني‪ ،‬اجههاره‬
‫مسكن و ‪ ...‬از جمله كارهايي است كه مهاجر بايد در بدو ورود خود اقدام نمايد‪ .‬اما ‪ ،‬با توجه بههه‬
‫اينكه انجام هريك از اين كارها اصطلحات انگليسي خاص خود را دارد ‪ ،‬لذا‪ ،‬عمل كردن بههه آنههان‬
‫بههههههراي مهههههههاجرين تههههههازه وارد كههههههاري طههههههاقت فرسهههههها و اسههههههترس آور اسههههههت‪.‬‬

‫فريبرز كه مهندس راه و ساختمان است و ‪ 2‬سال پيش به استراليا مهههاجرت كههرده در ايههن بههاره‬
‫مي گويد‪ ":‬من قبل از مهاجرت سالها زبههان مههي خوانههدم و حههتي براحههتي نمههره ‪ 6‬را در امتحههان‬
‫‪ IELTS‬كه براي اخذ ويزاي دائم لزم است را بدست آوردم ‌‪،‬اما بمحض ورود به اسههتراليا متههوجه‬
‫شدم كه دانش زبان من محدود به يكسري لغات و اصطلحات تخصصي و ادبههي انگليسههي اسههت‬
‫كههههههههههه در واقعيههههههههههت زنههههههههههدگي روزمههههههههههره ام كمههههههههههترين كههههههههههاربرد را دارد‪".‬‬

‫تسلط به زبههان‪ ،‬نقههش اساسههي در يههافتن كههار بههراي مهههاجرين دارد و اگههر فههرد عليرغههم داشههتن‬
‫تحصيلت عاليه نتواند به انگليسههي تكلههم كنههد بايههد يهها بههه مشههاغل خههدماتي همچههون ظرفشههويي‪،‬‬
‫كارواش ‪ ،‬نقاشي ساختمان ‪ ،‬موزائيك كاري و ‪ ...‬كه ندانستن زبههان نقههش چنههداني در انجههام كههار‬
‫ندارد تن در دهد و يا در محيط هايي كار كند كه تماما ً افراد به زبههان فارسههي صههحبت مههي كننههد‪.‬‬

‫فريبرز ادامه مي دهد‪ " :‬با توجه به اينكه مهندسين راه و ساختمان بههازار كههار خههوبي در اسههتراليا‬
‫دارند و من نيز حدود ‪ 5‬سال تجربه اينكار را در ايران داشتم اما هههر بههار كههه بههراي شهغلي اقههدام‬
‫ميكردم و در مصاحبه ها حاضر ميشدم بدليل عدم تسلط به زبان قادر به گرفتن شغل نمي شدم‬
‫و اين موضوع بيش از ‪ 50‬بار براي من اتفاق افتاد‪ .‬در استراليا بازار كههار بسههيار رقههابتي اسههت و‬
‫زبان انگليسي مهمترين نقش را دارد‪ .‬و من به ايههن نههتيجه رسههيدم كههه بايههد بههراي يههادگيري زبههان‬
‫انگليسهههههههههههههههههههههههي كهههههههههههههههههههههههاربردي وقهههههههههههههههههههههههت بگهههههههههههههههههههههههذارم"‬

‫نكته ديگر در خصوص زبان‪‌ ،‬تفاوت در لهجه انگليسي استراليايي اسههت‪ .‬چههه بسهها بسههيار كسههاني‬
‫هستند كه به زبان انگليسي تسلط كامل دارنههد ‌‪،‬امهها پههس از مهههاجرت ‪ ،‬بههه دليههل لهجههه متفههاوت‬
‫استرالياييها تا مدت هاي مديههدي دچههار برداشههت هههاي اشههتباه در محيههط هههاي كهاري و يهها ادارات‬
‫ميشوند‪ .‬بدين خاطر ‪ ،‬چه خواسته و چه ناخواسته زماني زيادي طول مي كشد كه مهاجر ايرانههي‬
‫بتوانهههههههههد بههههههههها محيهههههههههط خهههههههههود تعامهههههههههل مثبهههههههههت داشهههههههههته باشهههههههههد‪.‬‬
‫راننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننندگي در اسنننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننتراليا‬

‫قوانين راهنمايي و رانندگي در استراليا تفاوت هههاي بسههياري بهها ايههران دارنههد و هميههن تفهاوت ههها‬
‫باعث بروز سردرگمي هاي زيادي براي مهاجرين ايرانههي مههي شههوند‪ .‬جههدول بنههدي و خههط كشههي‬
‫خيابانههها‪ ،‬علئم راهنمههايي و راننههدگي و بههويژه قرارداشههتن فرمههان در سههمت راسههت ماشههين از‬
‫بارزترين تفاوت هايي است كه مي توان نام برد‪ .‬و از ايههن رو تطههبيق بهها شههرايط جديههد راننههدگي‬
‫ممكهههن اسهههت بهههراي بسهههياري از ايرانيهههان ماههههها و شهههايد سهههالها بهههه طهههول انجامهههد‪.‬‬

‫گرفتن گواهينامه رانندگي در استراليا كار ساده اي نيست و با تههوجه بههه اينكههه داشههتن گواهينههامه‬
‫يكي از مدارك معتبر براي شناسايي فرد و همچنين رتق و فتق امور اداري است ‪ ،‬در نههتيجه بايههد‬
‫براي گرفتن آن هر چه زودتر اقدام كرد‪ .‬عموما ً ايرانياني كه پا به استراليا ميگذارند از قبل داراي‬
‫گواهينامه ايراني هستند و خوشبختانه دولت استراليا شههرايط نسههبتا ً منصههفانه اي را بههراي تبههديل‬
‫گواهينامه آنان به گواهينامه استراليايي فراهم كرده است‌‪ ،‬امهها بهرجهههت داوطلههب بايههد بتوانههد از‬
‫سهد امتحهان آييهن نهامه و آزمهون شههر برآيهد تها بتوانهد گواهينهامه كامهل خهود را دريهافت كنهد ‪.‬‬

‫محمد كه تا بحال دو بار در امتحان آيين نامه و چهار بار در آزمون شهر رد شههده اسههت‪ ،‬همچنههان‬
‫تلش مي كند تا گواهينامه استراليايي خود را دريافت كند‪ .‬او مي گويد‪ " :‬واقعا ً گرفتن گواهينههامه‬
‫در استراليا كار حضرت فيل است! من هر بههار بههه دليههل مختلههف در آزمههون شهههر رد شههدم ‪ .‬در‬
‫استراليا با جون من بيخيال گفتن به كسي گواهينامه نمي دهند‪ .‬يهك بهار در آزمهون شههر ‪ ،‬بهدليل‬
‫اينكه فقط ‪ 3‬كيلومتر بيشتر از سرعت مجاز رانندگي كردم رد شدم و عجز و التماسهايم هم هيچ‬
‫ثمههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههري نداشههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههههت ‪".‬‬

‫در استراليا همانقدر كه گرفتن گواهينامه كار سختي است از دست دادن آن كار ساده اي اسههت‪.‬‬
‫برخلف ايران كه بهنگام تخلف ‪ ،‬فقط جريمه رانندگي مجازات فههرد متخلهف اسهت ‌‪ ،‬در اسههتراليا‬
‫سيستم امتياز بندي علوه بر جرائم نقدي حاكم است ‪ .‬هر راننده حق دارد در طي ‪ 3‬سال تهها ‪12‬‬
‫امتياز عدم شايستگي در پرونده خههود داشههته باشههد و چنههانچه ايههن حههد نصههاب را از دسههت بدهههد‬
‫گواهينهههههههههههههههامه راننهههههههههههههههدگي از وي سهههههههههههههههلب خواههههههههههههههههد شهههههههههههههههد‪.‬‬

‫اسفنديار كه در آستانه از دست دادن گواهينههامه خههود اسههت تجربيههات خوشههايندي از راننههدگي در‬
‫استراليا ندارد‪ .‬او يك بار بدليل فقط به خاطر ‪ 15‬كيلومتر سرعت غير مجههاز داشههت مجبههور شههد‬
‫‪ 231‬دلر جريمه بپردازد و ‪ 6‬امتياز عدم شايستگي را نيههز در كارنههامه اش ثبههت شههود‪ .‬اسههفنديار‬
‫نمي دانست كه اگر بهنگام تعطيلت كسي مرتكب تخلف شههود امتيههاز عههدم شايسههتگي دو برابههر‬
‫محاسبه ميشود ‪ .‬تخلف ديگر اسفنديار عدم توجه به خط كشههي عههابر پيههاده بههود كههه پليههس او را‬
‫‪ 308‬دلر جريمه كرد‪ .‬اسفنديار مي گويد‪ " :‬اصل ٌ باور نكردم كه به اين راحتي در آستانه از دست‬
‫دادن گواهينامه خود باشم و مجبور بههه پرداخههت ‪ 539‬دلر بخههاطر دو تخلههف كههه در ايههران سههاده‬
‫انگاشته مي شود باشم‪ .‬بد شانسي من اين بود كه هر دو تخلف من بهنگام تعطيلت بود و امتيههاز‬
‫هاي عدم شايستگي من دو برابر محاسبه شد‪ .‬در حال حاضر فقط دو امتياز اضافي بههه مههن داده‬
‫انهههههد و چنهههههانچه آنهههههرا از دسهههههت بهههههدهم گواهينهههههامه ام را از دسهههههت خهههههواهم داد‪" .‬‬

‫ثبت جرائم رانندگي در پرونده افراد مشكلت ديگري نيههز بهمههراه دارد كههه مهمههترين آن پرداخههت‬
‫بيشتر پول بهنگام بيمه كردن ماشين است‪ .‬برخلف ايران ‪ ،‬كه ارتكاب يك تخلف راننههدگي كههاري‬
‫عادي قلمداد مي شود در استراليا فرد متخلف به نوعي به ديههده مجههرم بههالقوه ديههده مههي شههود‪،‬‬
‫بدين سبب شركت هاي بيمه مبلغ بيشتري از فرد دريههافت مههي كننههد چههون مههي داننههد كههه زمينههه‬
‫ارتكاب تخلف در فرد قانون شكن بيشتر از ديگران است و ممكن است شركت بيمه را در آينههده‬
‫مجبههههههههههههههههههور بههههههههههههههههههه پرداخههههههههههههههههههت خسههههههههههههههههههارت نمايههههههههههههههههههد‪.‬‬

‫يكي از علئم راهنمايي و رانندگي جالبي كه در بسياري از بزرگراهها وجود دارد ‪ ،‬تابلوي ‌" مسههير‬
‫اشتباه است ‪ ،‬دنده عقب برويد ‪" .‬است‪ .‬شايد كمتر ايراني وجود داشته باشد كه حتي براي ثههانيه‬
‫اي هم كه شده در جهت عكس خيابان در استراليا رانندگي نكرده باشد‪ .‬سعيد كه ده سال اسههت‬
‫در استراليا زندگي مي كند از تجربيات خود مي گويههد‪ " :‬مههن در ايههران ‪ 15‬سههال راننههدگي كههردم‬
‫ولي پس از ورود به استراليا احساس مي كردم كه اصل ً رانندگي بلد نيسههتم ! اينجهها رفههت و آمههد‬
‫ماشين ها در خيابان دقيقا ً برعكس ايران است و گاه اتفاق افتاد كه من در جهههت عكههس خيابههان‬
‫بههههههههههههههههههههههههراي دقههههههههههههههههههههههههايقي راننههههههههههههههههههههههههدگي كههههههههههههههههههههههههردم ‪".‬‬

‫سعيد خاطره اي جالب از رانندگي در جهت عكس خيابان دارد كه آنرا با هيجان و ترس بازگو مي‬
‫كند‪ " :‬يك شب بهمراه دوستم در منطقه اي رانندگي ميكردم كه با آن آشنا نبودم و سپس به يههك‬
‫خيابان عريض پيچيدم ‪ .‬راديو ماشين روشن بود و ما در حال گوش كردن به موسيقي بوديم‪ .‬پس‬
‫از اينكه حدود چند صد متر در خيابان رانندگي كردم ناگهان متوجه شهدم در جهههت عكههس خيابهان‬
‫رانندگي مي كنم و بسرعت ترمز كردم و با دنده عقب سعي كردم كه از بزرگههراه خههارج شههوم ‪.‬‬
‫در همين حين ‪ ،‬راديو ناگهان گزارشي مسههتقيم از هليكوپههتري را پخههش كههرد كههه وضههعيت كنههترل‬
‫ترافيههك سههيدني را بههر عهههده داشههت و در آن ‌‪ ،‬گزارشههگر هليكوپههتر بهها هيجههان از تلش ماشههيني‬
‫گهههههزارش ميهههههداد كهههههه سهههههعي دارد بههههها دنهههههده عقهههههب از بزرگهههههراه خهههههارج شهههههود !"‪.‬‬

‫سعيد ادامه مي دهد ‪" :‬ما واقعا ً خوش شانس بوديم كه بهها آن وضههع توانسههتيم از بزرگههراه خههارج‬
‫شويم و به گزارشگر نيز فرصت داديم تا نفس راحتي بكشد !"‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 3:58‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫اقتصاد‬

‫استرالیا دارای اقتصاد بسیار شکوفا در سالهای اخیر در دنیا بوده است‪ .‬سرعت رشد اقتصادی بسیار بال و نرخ بهره‬
‫پایین‪ ،‬از جمله مسایل قابل توجه در این کشور بوده است‪ .‬استرالیا دارای سطح استاندارد زندگی بسیار بالیی‬
‫است‪ .‬سرمایه گذاریهای بسیاری در بخشهای زیربنایی مانند آموزش ‪ ٬‬سلمتی و حمل و نقل کرده است‪ .‬استرالیا‬
‫دارای یکی از پایدارترین اقتصادهای جهان است که نرخ سرمایه گذاری را در این کشور افزایش داده است‪ .‬این‬
‫کشور دارای بهترین تکنولوژی کشاورزی و دامپروری است طوری که یکی از بزرگترین صادر کننده های این‬
‫محصولت به جهان می باشد‪ .‬این کشور در راستای صنعت‪ ،‬ساخت و تولید نیز گامهای بسیار خوبی برداشته است و‬
‫هدف کلی‪ ،‬راه اندازی کمپانی های بزرگ بر اساس تکنولوژیهای جدید و سرمایه گذاری روی بخش تحقیقات را دارد‪.‬‬
‫در حال حاضر استرالیا دارای معادن بزرگی می باشد که در نوع خود جزو پیشرفته ترین معادن دنیا می باشند‪ .‬زبان‬
‫اصلی این کشور انگلیسی است و بیش از ‪ 4.1‬میلیون نفر از مردم دو زبانه هستند‪.‬‬

‫هزینه اجاره خانه‪ :‬اجاره خانه در استرالیا بصورت دو هفته ای پرداخت می شود‪ .‬خانه ها در استرالیا شامل‬
‫یونیت یا آپارتمان و ویل ‪ /‬هاوس می باشد‪ .‬اجاره خانه به عوامل مختلفی همچون موقعیت واحد در شهر‪ ٬‬تعداد‬
‫خواب و نوع واحد بستگی دارد‪ .‬بطور کلی خانه ها یا بصورت استودیو )بدون اتاق خواب( هستند که اجاره پایین تری‬
‫دارد و یا دارای یک یا چند اتاق خواب می باشند‪ .‬همچنین برخی از خانه های با تعداد خواب زیاد بصورت اشتراکی‬
‫اجاره داده می شوند‪ ،‬در اینصورت فرد می تواند از یک اتاق خواب به همراه بقیه امکانات آن خانه بصورت‬
‫اشتراکی استفاده کند‪ .‬این مدل اشتراکی بیشتر برای دانشجویانی است که نمی خواهند هزینه زیادی داشته باشند‪.‬‬
‫بطور متوسط شما می توانید خانه مورد نظر خود را با ‪ 150‬دلر تا ‪ 300‬دلر در هفته اجاره نمایید‪ .‬همانطور که‬
‫گفته شد رقم اجاره بستگی به شرایط و موقعیت خانه دارد‪.‬‬

‫هزینه خوراک‪ :‬بطور متوسط هزینه غذایی در یک هفته برای یک زوج بین ‪ 80‬تا ‪ 120‬دلر می باشد‪ .‬در استرالیا‬
‫فروشگاههای زنجیره ای بسیار است و شما می توانید از اجناس مورد نیاز خود را از آنجا تهیه کنید‪ .‬برخی از این‬
‫فروشگاههای عبارتست از ‪ Woolworth‬و ‪Coles‬‬
‫هزینه وسیله نقلیه ‪ :‬در استرالیا وضعیت وسایل نقلیه عمومی خوب است و شما می توانید برای رفت و آمد از‬
‫آن استفاده نمایید‪ .‬وسایل نقلیه عمومی شامل اتوبوس ‪ ٬‬قطار شهری و تاکسی می باشد‪ .‬در صورتی که از وسایل‬
‫نقلیه عمومی استفاده کنید بایستی بلیط تهیه کنید که اینکار توسط دستگاههای صدور بلیط در مکان ایستگاه های‬
‫اتوبوس یا قطار انجام می شود‪ .‬معمول بلیط های صادر شده دارای مدت زمان اعتبار می باشد مثل برای چند‬
‫ساعت و شما می توانید در این بازه زمانی از همان بلیط استفاده نمایید‪ .‬بطور متوسط هزینه بلیط اتوبوس و قطار‬
‫شهری بین ‪ 1‬دلر و بیست سنت تا ‪ 3‬دلر متغیر است بسته به مسیری که می خواهید بروید‪ .‬اما چنانچه می خواهید‬
‫از ماشین شخصی خود استفاده نمایید بایستی توجه داشته باشید که مخارج ماشین شامل بنزین ‪ ٬‬هزینه سرویس‬
‫ماشین ‪ ٬‬هزینه بیمه و هزینه رجیستر کردن می باشد که هر سال بایستی این هزینه را پرداخت نمایید‪ .‬بطور متوسط‬
‫یک ماشین برای شما بین ‪ 50‬تا ‪ 80‬دلر در هفته هزینه دارد‪.‬‬

‫هزینه آب ‪ /‬برق ‪ /‬گاز ‪ /‬تلفن ‪ :‬در استرالیا بایستی هزینه برق ‪ ٬‬گاز و تلفن را پرداخت نمایید‪ .‬البته هزینه آب‬
‫بسیار پایین است‪ .‬معمول هزینه ها هر دو ماه یکبار بصورت قبض برای شما ارسال می گردد‪ .‬برخی از خانه ها‬
‫دارای گاز نیستد و تمامی وسایل با برق کار می کند‪ .‬بطور متوسط شما در ماه ‪ 60‬تا ‪ 90‬دلر هزینه برق دارید و به‬
‫همین میزان نیز مصرف گاز‪ .‬سیستم تلفن دارای هزینه اجاره ماهیانه ‪ 30‬دلر است و علوه بر آن شما بایستی‬
‫برای هر اتصال تلفن مبلغ ‪ 20‬سنت بپردازید‪.‬‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 3:16‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫کار‬

‫در حال حاضر استرالیا بعلت رشد اقتصادی بی نظیر خود در سالهای اخیر دارای شرایط کاری بسیار خوبی می‬
‫باشد‪ .‬بر اساس آخرین آمار نرخ بیکاری در استرالیا در سال ‪ 2006‬به ‪ 4‬درصد رسیده است که این در ‪ 23‬سال‬
‫اخیر بی سابقه بوده است‪ .‬البته بازار کار برای برخی از رشته های تخصصی بهتر از سایرین می باشد)‪ (MODL‬و‬
‫این با توجه به نیازهای روزمره استرالیا تعیین می شود‪ .‬اکثر کسانی که می خواهند به استرالیا بیایند اولین‬
‫نگرانیشان مسئله کار است‪ .‬باید خاطر نشان شد که با توجه به بازار کار خوبی که وجود دارد شما خواهید توانست‬
‫کار مورد نظر خود را بیابید اما چندین فاکتور در طول زمان جستجو و انتظار شما موثر است‪.‬‬

‫اولین و مهمترین فاکتور تسلط شما به زبان انگلیسی و آشنایی شما به لهجه محلی استرالیا می باشد‪ .‬هر چقدر‬
‫تسلط شما به زبان بیشتر باشد شما سریعتر می توانید اطلعات و دانش خود را به کارفرما نشان دهید و توانایی‬
‫های و شرح حال خود را بیان کنید‪ .‬به عبارت دیگر بسیاری از کارفرماها می خواهند که کارمندی را انتخاب نمایید که‬
‫راحت تر در محیط کار با بقیه همکاران ارتباط برقرار کند‪ .‬معمول سفارش ما اینست که برای دوران بیکاری خود به‬
‫مقدار کافی پول به همراه داشته باشید تا بتوانید خود و خانواده را پشتیبانی کنید‪.‬‬

‫دومین عامل مهم برای یافتن کار اینست که شما دارای سوابق کاری مرتبط با رشته خود باشید‪ .‬لزومی ندارد که‬
‫این سوابق حتما در استرالیا باشد‪ .‬شما بایستی سوابق کاری خود را در رزومه خود بصورت دقیق و واضح ذکر‬
‫نمایید‪ .‬به عبارت دیگر داشتن یک رزومه کامل و خوب به شما کمک خواهد کرد که سریعتر کار پیدا نمایید‪ .‬البته تنوع‬
‫کار در استرالیا خیلی زیاد است و شما اگر تمایل داشته باشید می توانید برای شروع در کار های غیر مرتبط با‬
‫رشته خود مشغول بکار شوید و بعد از یافتن کار مورد نظر خود‪ ٬‬تغییر کار دهید‪ .‬حداقل نرخ پرداختی برای یک کار‬
‫‪ 10‬دلر در هر ساعت می باشد که این مبلغ برای پرداخت هزینه های زندگی کافی است‪ .‬برای یافتن کار شما می‬
‫توانید به وب سایتهای کاریابی مراجعه نمایید‪ .‬همچنین شما می توانید در روزنامه های هفته ای جستجو نمایید‪.‬‬
‫همچنین بسیاری از شرکتها و ادارات دارای وب سایتهای شخصی خود می باشند که مشاغل مورد نیاز را در آن‬
‫لیست می کنند‪ .‬اولین قدم برای گرفتن کار آماده کردن رزومه است و سپس شما بایستی برای کار های مختلف‬
‫رزومه خود را ارسال نمایید‪ .‬در صورتی که رزومه شما با شرایط کاری مورد نظر کارفرما یکی باشد با شما تماس‬
‫خواهند گرفت تا برای مصاحبه قرار ملقاتی تنظیم گردد‪ .‬هرچه زبان را روانتر صحبت کنید احتمال یافتن کار مناسب‬
‫تری دارید‪.‬در مجموع کار فراوان است فقط اندکی دوندگی میخواهد‪.‬‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 3:15‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫جنبه هاي مثبت زندگي‬


‫كشور استرالیا دارای آب و هوای گرم و آفتابی است؛ آفتاب از نظر روان شناسان به انسان احساس آزادی می دهد‬

‫نرخ دستمزدها در استرالیا بال است‬

‫شرایط كار در استرالیا بهتر از كشورهای اروپایی است‬

‫قیمت های زمین و ملک پایین تر از كشورهای اروپایی است‬

‫استرالیا رهبر علمی جهان بخصوص در پزشكی و صنایع تكنولوژی است‬

‫كشور استرالیا به خاطر ملیت های مختلف از تنوع فرهنگی برخوردار است‬

‫دسترسی بهتر به میوه و سبزیجات با قیمت پایین تر‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 3:15‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫زندگي در استراليا‬

‫طبیعت تماشایی استرالیا‪ ٬‬محیط چند ملیتی ‪ ٬‬مردم مهربان و ترکیب آب و هوا و نحوه زندگی‪ ٬‬آن را به یکی از‬
‫بهترین مکانهای توریستی دنیا تبدیل کرده است‪ .‬محیط منحصر به فرد استرالیا دارای گیاهان‪ ٬‬حیوانات و پرنده های‬
‫محلی بسیاری است که هیج جای دیگری در دنیا وجود ندارد‪ .‬آب و هوای اکثر شهرهای استرالیا حالت مدیترانه ای‬
‫دارند طوری که در استرالیا دمای هوا زیر صفر درجه نمی رسد‪ .‬بارش باران در اکثر فصول وجود دارد و برف تنها‬
‫در برخی از مناطق آن هم در ارتفاعات و به اندازه خیلی کم مشاهده می شود‪ .‬این امر باعث می شود تا بسیاری‬
‫از مردم دنیا جهت فرار از زمستان سرد کشورهای خود )مخصوصا کشورهای نیمکره شمالی( به استرالیا بیایند و‬
‫تعطیلت خود را در کنار سواحل زیبای استرالیا سپری نمایند‪.‬‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 3:14‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫دستور و واژگان‬

‫زبان‪ ،‬مجموعه ایست از واژگان و دستور زبان‪ ،‬یعنی دستور مربوط به چگونگی استفاده از واژگان‪ .‬مثل در زبان‬
‫انگلیسی‪ ،‬فاعل‪ ،‬فعل و مفعول به ترتیب اجزای تشکیل دهنده یک جمله هستند‪ .‬زبان بومیان استرالیا‪ ،‬مانند زبان‬
‫یونانی و لتین‪ ،‬دارای دستورزبان بسیار پیچیده و هزاران واژه است‪ .‬بدین ترتیب‪ ،‬برخلف برخی‪ ،‬زبان بومیان‬
‫استرالیا‪ ،‬زبانی بدوی نیست‪ .‬درزبان بومیان استرالیایی نه تنها افعال بلکه اسامی نیزدارای پسوندهای مختلف‬
‫میباشند‪ .‬بطورمثال‪ ،‬اسامی که فاعل جمله هستند دارای پسوند ویژه ای بوده که نمایانگر آنست که اسم مورد نظر‪،‬‬
‫فاعل جمله می باشد و اسامی که نقش مفعول جمله را بعهده دارند‪ ،‬بدون پسوند بکار برده می شوند ‪ .‬برخی از‬
‫واژگان‪ ،‬در همه زبانهای بومی استرالیا‪ ،‬مشابه و مشترک هستند‪ .‬برخی از این واژگان‪ ،‬نام هایی هستند ازقبیل ‪jina‬‬
‫به معنی پا و ‪ mala‬یا ‪ mara‬به مفهوم دست و ‪ mayi‬بمعنای غذای گیاهی‪ ،‬و افعالی چون ‪ pu‬بمعنای به هدف‬
‫خوردن و به هدف زدن و ‪ ka‬بمعنی حمل کردن و ‪ nya‬یعنی دیدن ‪.‬‬
‫این تشابه بین زبان های مختلف‪ ،‬در مورد برخی از قواعد دستوری مربوط به این زبان ها نیز صادق می باشد‪ .‬در‬
‫بسیاری از زبانهای بومی‪ ،‬بطور نمونه ‪ -lu‬و در برخی دیگر از این زبان ها ‪ -ngku‬پسوند نام هاییست که نقش فاعل‬
‫را در جمله بعهده می گیرند‪ .‬همان گونه که اغلب زبانهای متداول‪ ،‬از اروپا گرفته تا شمال هندوستان‪ ،‬مثل زبانهای‬
‫انگلیسی‪ ،‬آلمانی‪ ،‬اسپانیایی‪ ،‬یونانی‪ ،‬روسی و فارسی و هندی و غیره ‪ ...‬ریشه از زبان هندو‪ -‬اروپایی گرفته اند‪،‬‬
‫زبانشناسان براین باورند که تمام زبان های بومی استرالیا‪ ،‬ریشه از یک زبان بومی گرفته که درنواحی میانی‬
‫سواحل شمالی استرالیا و در حوالی شهر ‪ Darwin‬رایج بوده است‪.‬‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 3:14‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬
‫زبان‬

‫اولین سدی که در پیش روی یک مهاجر غیر انگلیسی زبان در استرالیا وجود دارد‪ ،‬آگاهی یافتن از کلیه قوانینی است‬
‫که باید در زندگی روزمره التزام و پایبندی خود را به آن نشان دهد‌‪ ،‬در غیر این صورت هرگز با دیگر اقشار جامعه‬
‫همگون نخواهد شد‪ .‬بهمین خاطر برای آگاهی یافتن از قوانین استرالیا‪ ،‬دانستن زبان انگلیسی از واجبات است و‬
‫کمک شایانی در ادغام فرد در جامعه جدید خود می نماید‪.‬‬

‫دانستن زبان انگلیسی عمل شاه کلید ورود به تمامی ارکان جامعه در استرالیاست‪ .‬دولت استرالیا فهرست کاملی‬
‫از کارهایی که مهاجران تازه وارد باید به انجام رسانند منتشر کرده‪ ،‬اما در حقیقت به دلیل اینکه انجام هر یک از این‬
‫کارها نیاز به دانش زبان در آن حوزه خاص دارد عمل کردن به این فهرست چالش های بسیاری برای مهاجرین به‬
‫همراه دارد‪ .‬افتتاح حساب بانکی‪ ،‬گرفتن شماره بیمه مالیاتی‪ ،‬ثبت نام در طرح های درمانی‪ ،‬اجاره مسکن و ‪ ...‬از‬
‫جمله کارهایی است که مهاجر باید در بدو ورود خود اقدام نماید‪.‬‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 3:13‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫جمعيت‬

‫جمعیت کلی استرالیا حدود ‪ 22‬میلیون نفر می باشد و مساحت کلی آن حدود ‪ 7.7‬میلیون کیلومتر مربع است‪ .‬طبق‬
‫آمار سال ‪ 2002‬استرالیا از نظر‪:‬‬

‫جمعیت‪ ،‬چهل و ششمین كشور جهان می باشد‬


‫تراكم جمعیت ‪9/1‬نفر دركیلومتر مربع می باشد و ‪%86‬مردم كشور ساكن شهرها می باشند‬
‫پرجمعیت ترین شهراسترالیا ‪،‬سیدنی با ‪ 327,000‬هزار نفر جمعیت حدود ‪ %21‬جمعیت کل كشور را تشكیل می‬
‫دهد‪ ،‬از جمله دیگرشهرهای پرجمعیت استرالیا میتوان از ملبورن ‪،‬بریزبین)بریسبان(‪ ،‬آدلید‪ ،‬پرت و هوبارت نام برد‪.‬‬
‫به لحاظ توزیع سنی‪ 4/28 ،‬جمعیت را افراد كمتر از رده سنی ‪14‬سال‪ %2/59 ،‬را افراد ‪ 15‬تا ‪ 59‬سال و ‪%4/12‬‬
‫جمعیت را افراد بالتر از ‪ 60‬سال تشكیل داده و متوسط عمر مردان ‪63/67‬سال و زنان ‪ 15/74‬سال است‪.‬‬
‫نرخ تولد ‪1/16‬در هزار و میزان مرگ و میر ‪7/7‬درهزار و رشد جمعیت ‪%84‬است‪.‬‬
‫میزان مرگ و میر كودكان نیز ‪14‬نفر درهرهزار نوزاد می باشد‪.‬‬
‫‪ 7%‬جمعیت کشور را انگلیسی ها و ‪ %5/1‬را بومیان تشکیل می دهند‪.‬‬
‫اكثریت شهروندان استرالیایی مسیحی )‪%36‬انگلیكان‪%31،‬كاتولیك‪ %25 ،‬پروتستان و ارتدكس و غیره( می‬
‫باشند ‪.‬‬
‫علت اصلی مهاجرت‪ ,‬آب و هوای مناسب استرالیا است؛ با این همه‪ ،‬علوه بر اروپاییها درصد بالیی ازجمعیت كشور‬
‫را ملیت های دیگرتشكیل می دهند )حضورملیتهای مختلف باعث ایجاد نژادهای زنده‪ ,‬شاداب و آمیختگی فرهنگی‬
‫شده است‪.‬‬
‫اشكال یا مزیت استرالیا این است كه كشورجدیدی است واروپایی ها در ‪ 200‬سال اخیر در این كشورسكنی گزیده‬
‫اند‪.‬‬

‫درحال حاضر استرالیا كشوری مطلوب جهت زندگی است و بنابراین دولت احساس می كند كه می تواند تعداد‬
‫بیشتری مهاجر انتخاب كند‪ .‬به عنوان پی آمد سیاست های فشرده مهاجرت‪ ,‬روش های مهاجرت استرالیا نسبتا‬
‫پیچیده است و مهاجرت به استرالیا وقت گیرتر و گران تر از مهاجرت به اروپا است )روشهای مهاجرت به استرالیا‬
‫خیلی شبیه روش های مهاجرت به آمریكای شمالی است(‪ .‬تعداد عظیمی از شهروندان انگلیسی هر ساله به خاطر‬
‫آب و هوا‪ ,‬چشم اندازهای شغلی و مسكن ارزان تر‪ ,‬به استرالیا مهاجرت می كنند‪ .‬جمعیت نسبتا كم استرالیا و‬
‫منابع عظیم طبیعی درگذشته‪ ،‬به این معنی بوده است كه استرالیایی ها ازدستمزدهای بهتر‪ ,‬هزینه زندگی پایین تر و‬
‫روش زندگی بالتری نسبت به همنوعان خود دركشورهای توسعه یافته دیگر برخوردارند‬

‫| ‪ Manager‬توسط ‪ PM‬ساعت ‪ Tue 7 Apr 2009 3:12‬نوشته شده در ‪+‬‬ ‫آرشیو نظرات‬

‫یتر‬
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