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The PIE-Concept

- Decoding the Proto-Indo-European Language -

J. Richter

iéu
Fig. 1: The Provençal pronoun of the first
Person singular
Introduction
This overview investigates the correlation between a number of
divine names, the pronouns and their bipolar elements.
European languages derived their linguistic concepts from the
common Indo-European sky-god Dyaus, which in its purest
form has been copied to god's name (Diéu) in Provençal
language. The personal pronoun of the first person singular
(iéu) is correlating to the divine name (Diéu)1.
Simultaneously the creation legend has been coded as bipolar
structures (a male symbol i and a female symbol u) in the
personal pronoun of the first person singular (e.g. iéu, iau or
iou).
IU-, IO- and IOU-combinations have been identified in the
pronouns for Aromanian, Lengadocian, Romansch, Sursilvan,
Sutsilvan, Sicilian, Aragonese, Aromanian, Catalan,
Interlingua, Italian, Gascon (Occitan) and Spanish languages.
Generally the Indo-European core *iou has been used to
encode a divine name (e.g. IU-piter), pronouns (e.g. iu) and
supreme justice (ius) and as a joint, especially a matrimonial
joint. Romance languages may also symbolize the Adam
Kadmon-concept inside the personal pronoun of the first
person singular (*iou, e.g. iéu, iau or iou).
In contrast to Romance languages the Germanic languages do
not reveal female symbols (o and/or u) inside the personal
pronouns for the 1st person singular. For this reason they do not
reveal the Adam Kadmon-concept.

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Details are documented in: The Keywords in God's Name

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Provençal language
European languages derived their linguistic concepts from the
common Indo-European sky-god Dyaus, which in its purest
form has been copied to god's name (Diéu) in Provençal
language. The personal pronoun of the first person singular
(iéu) has been integrated inside god's name (Diéu).
The strong correlation between the pronoun (iéu) and the
divine name (Diéu) may symbolize a biblical legend, in which
God created man according to His image2.
Simultaneously the creation legend may have been coded as
bipolar structures in the personal pronoun of the first person
singular (iéu): male and female he created them.
male (i) and female (u) he created iéu.
In order to analyse this thesis for a number of other languages
the personal pronoun of the first person singular will be
compared to the corresponding divine names.

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Details are documented in: The Keywords in God's Name

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Proto-Indo-European language3
The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the unattested,
reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European
languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. The existence
of such a language has been accepted by linguists for over a
century, and reconstruction is far advanced and quite detailed.
Scholars estimate that PIE may have been spoken as a single
language (before divergence began) around 4000 BC, though
estimates by different authorities can vary by more than a
millennium. The most popular hypothesis for the origin and
spread of the language is the Kurgan hypothesis, which
postulates an origin in the Pontic-Caspian steppe of Eastern
Europe and Western Asia. In modern times the existence of the
language was first postulated in the 18th century by Sir
William Jones, who observed the similarities between Sanskrit,
Ancient Greek, and Latin. By the early 1900s well-defined
descriptions of PIE had been developed that are still accepted
today (with some refinements).
As there is no direct evidence of Proto-Indo-European
language, all knowledge of the language is derived by
reconstruction from later languages using linguistic techniques
such as the comparative method and the method of internal
reconstruction. PIE is known to have had a complex system of
morphology that included inflections (adding prefixes and
suffixes to word roots, as is common in Romance languages),
and ablaut (changing vowel sounds in word roots, as is
common in Germanic languages). Nouns used a sophisticated
system of declension and verbs used a similarly sophisticated
system of conjugation.
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Source: Proto-Indo-European language (PIE)

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PIE-Personal Pronouns4
PIE had personal pronouns in the first and second person, but
not the third person, where demonstratives were used instead.
The personal pronouns had their own unique forms and
endings, and some had two distinct stems; this is most obvious
in the first person singular, where the two stems are still
preserved in English I and me. According to Beekes, there
were also two varieties for the accusative, genitive and dative
cases, a stressed and an enclitic form.
Personal pronouns (Beekes)
First person Second person
Singular Plural Singular Plural
*h₁eǵ(oH/H
Nominative *wei *tuH *yuH
om)
*h₁mé, *nsmé, *usmé,
Accusative *twé
*h₁me *nōs *wōs
*h₁méne, *ns(er)o-, *tewe, *yus(er)o-,
Genitive
*h₁moi *nos *toi *wos
*h₁méǵʰio, *nsmei, *tébʰio,
Dative *usmei
*h₁moi *ns *toi
Instrumental *h₁moí ? *toí ?
Ablative *h₁med *nsmed *tued *usmed
Locative *h₁moí *nsmi *toí *usmi

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Source: Proto-Indo-European language (PIE)

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According to the Swadesh list of words in English and Proto-
Indo-European the personal pronouns of the 1st and 2nd person
are the most important words in any language. This rank
suggests to investigate the special religious character for these
pronouns, by comparing the words with the divine names.

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PIE-Entry for God
The following entry has been found in List of Proto-Indo-
European nouns
*deiw-os god, i.e. 'shining'

Skr. deva, Polish dziw,


Av. daēva, Kamviri di,
Lith. dievas, Eng. Tiw/Tuesday,
Latv. dievs, Gm. Ziu/--,
Old Prussian deiws, ON. Týr,
Lat. deus, Goth. Tyz,
Oscan diúveí, Welsh duw,
Umbrian di, Irish día/día,
Gaulish Dēvona, Lycian ziw,
Gk. Zeus, Luwian tiwat-,
Phrygian tios, Lydian Divi-,
OCS. divo, Palaic tiyaz,
Russ. divo, Arm. tiv/--/--

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Descendants from the pronoun Ego5
Proto-Indo-European root *éǵh₂.
Language Ego (I) God
Aragonese yo
Aromanian iou , io
Catalan jo Deus, Déu
French (oldFrench) je Dieu, Diex , Dex
Galician eu Deus
Interlingua io
Italian io Dio
Gascon (Occitan) jo
Lengadocian ieu , jo Dieu
Portuguese eu Deus
Romanian eu Zeu, Dumnezeu
Romansch jau, eau Dieu
Sursilvan jeu Dieu
Sutsilvan jou Dieu
Sardinian eo Déu
Sicilian iu Diu
Spanish yo Dios
Vulgar Latin eo Deus

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Source (Wikionary): Etymology for Ego

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The personal pronouns in Lengadocian: ieu, Aromanian6: iou
and Romansch7: jau, including the variants Surselvisch: jeu
and Sutselvisch: jou. A similar variant may be Sicilian: iu. A
number of io- and iu-combinations will also be included in the
list.
The following correlations may be identified in this table:
• In French the pronoun “je” is found included in “Dieu”.
• In Galician the pronoun “eu” is found included in
“Deus”.
• In Italian the pronoun “io” is found included in “Dio”.
• In Lengadocian the pronoun “ieu” is found included in
“Dieu”.
• In Portugese the pronoun “eu” is found included in
“Deus”.
• In Romanian the pronoun “eu” is found included in
“Zeu”.
• In Sicilian the pronoun “iu” is found included in “Diu”.
• In Spanish the pronoun “yo” is found included in
“Dios”.
• In Sursilvan the pronoun “jeu” is found included in
“Dieu”.
Obviously the divine name and the pronoun are correlating in
the languages French, Galician, Italian, Lengadocian,
Portuguese, Romanian, Sicilian, Spanish and Sursilvan .

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mainly spoken in Greece
7
one of the four national languages of Switzerland

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Creation Legends
A creation legend may have been coded as bipolar structures (a
male symbol i and a female symbol u or o) in the personal
pronoun of the first person singular (e.g. iéu).
Suitable IU-combinations have been identified in the pronouns
for Aromanian, Lengadocian, Romansch Sursilvan, Sutsilvan
and Sicilian.
Equivalent IO-combinations have been identified in the
pronouns for Aragonese, Aromanian,Catalan, Interlingua,
Italian, Gascon (Occitan), Lengadocian, Sutsilvan, Spanish.
Genuine IOU-cores have been identified in the pronouns for
Aromanian and Sutsilvan (Romansch) languages.

Bipolar Symbolism in *Iou


The supreme Roman god was Iuppiter (Jupiter), whose name
shares the Indo-European root *Iou (→dyeu) with the Greek
Zeus (dyeus) and the Sanskrit dyaus (“the sky”). Although the
early Roman gods were in some senses personal, they were
generally not anthropomorphic.
Iuppiter originated as a vocative compound of the Old Latin
vocative *Iou and pater ("father") and came to replace the Old
Latin nominative case *Ious.
The Indo-European core *iou has also been explained as
supreme justice8 and as a joint in uniting the people and the
human matrimonial couples, symbolized by joining the male

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*ious, from Proto-Indo-European *yAus- (“ritual purity; supreme
justice”). Source → justice

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(I) and female (U) elements9.
Matrimony has been considered a sacred act, performing a re-
uniting of the separated halves of a man. These religious
symbols have been encoded in the divine names and in the
corresponding personal pronouns of the 1st and 2nd person
singular – the most important words in any language.
In a subtotal the Indo-European core *iou may have been used
to encode a divine name (Jupiter), pronouns (I), supreme
justice (ius), and a joint, especially a matrimonial joint.

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Details are documented in: The Keywords in God's Name

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Adam Ḳadmon10
In the religious writings of Kabbalah, Adam Ḳadmon is a
phrase meaning "Primal Man". The oldest rabbinical source for
the term "Adam ha-Ḳadmoni" is Num. R. x., where Adam is
styled, not as usually, "Ha-Rishon" (the first), "Ha-Kadmoni"
(the original).
The remarkable contradictions in the Book Genesis could not
escape the attention of the Pharisees, to whom the Bible was a
subject of close study. In explaining the various views
concerning Eve's creation, they taught that Adam was created
as a man-woman (androgynous), explaining ‫זכר ונקבה‬
(Genesis 1:27) as "male and female" instead of "man and
woman," and that the separation of the sexes arose from the
subsequent operation upon Adam's body, as related in the
Scripture.
Closely related to these doctrines of the heavenly Adam is the
Adam Ḳadmon (called also Adam 'Ilaya, the "High Man," the
"Heavenly Man") of the Zohar.
The Indo-European core *iou may now represent an
androgynous Adam Ḳadmon, in which I is representing the
male, respectively O or U the female half.
In fact the pronoun iou may originally have been interpreted as
a joined “Adam” instead of “I”, in which “Adam” has been
considered as representing a couple. If a man said: “Adam
promises to pay 10 cows” he represented his wife as well by
using the *iou-pronoun.

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Source (Wikipedia): Adam Ḳadmon

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In a total the Indo-European core *iou may have been used to
encode a divine name (Jupiter), pronouns (I), supreme justice
(ius), a joint, especially a matrimonial joint and an
androgynous Adam Ḳadmon.
These symbols have been available to the ancient peoples, but
some of the symbolism may have been altered locally.

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Modified pronouns
The interpretation of the creation legend may have been altered
locally or in the course of time, resulting in modifications in
the pronouns' structure.
Especially English and other Germanic languages seems to
have developed a unique combination of I and U-pronouns for
the most important words in the Swadesh list, resulting in very
short personal pronouns (I for the 1 st person in English and U
for the 2nd person in Dutch).
The personal pronouns for the 1st person singular in Germanic
languages do not reveal female symbols (o and/or u) and
therefore they do not support the Adam Kadmon-concept. The
Swadesh list for Germanic languages contains the following
entries for these personal pronouns for the 1 st person singular :
I, ik, ek, ich, ish, ech, jeg, jag, eg, ég.
Instead most of the pronouns for the 2nd person singular in
Germanic and Romance languages reveal female symbols (o
and/or u), often combined with the letters D, T or Th: you,
thou, do, dû, jo, jij, je, u, jy, du, Sie, doe, Do, De, Ühr, tú,
usted, Lei, þú, vous.

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Conclusion
This overview investigates the correlation between a number of
divine names, the pronouns and their bipolar elements.

Personal pronouns and divine names


European languages derived their linguistic concepts from the
common Indo-European sky-god Dyaus, which in its purest
form has been copied to god's name (Diéu) in Provençal
language. The personal pronoun of the first person singular
(iéu) is correlating to the divine name (Diéu)11.
The investigation confirms the correlations of the divine name
and the pronoun for the languages French, Galician, Italian,
Lengadocian, Portuguese, Romanian, Sicilian, Spanish and
Sursilvan.

Creation Legends
Simultaneously the creation legend has been coded as bipolar
structures (a male symbol i and a female symbol u) in the
personal pronoun of the first person singular (e.g. iéu, iau or
iou).
IU-, IO-, IAU- and IOU-combinations have been identified in
the pronouns for Aromanian, Lengadocian, Romansch,
Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Sicilian, Aragonese, Aromanian, Catalan,
Interlingua, Italian, Gascon (Occitan) and Spanish languages.

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Details are documented in: The Keywords in God's Name

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Divine Attributes
Generally the Indo-European core *iou has been used to
encode a divine name (e.g. IU-piter), pronouns (e.g. iu) and
supreme justice (ius12) and as a joint, especially a matrimonial
joint13 (and yoke14). Romance languages may also symbolize
the Adam Kadmon-concept inside the personal pronoun of the
first person singular (*iou, e.g. iéu, iau or iou).

Fig. 1: Bow yokes on a bullock team


published for Wikimedia Commons under GNU Free Documentation
License, by Cgoodwin

12
derived words are: justice, just, judge, juice, etcetera
13
to join = Latin: iungo
14
yoke = Latin: iugum

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Germanic and Romance languages
In contrast to Romance languages the Germanic languages do
not reveal female symbols (o and/or u) inside the personal
pronouns for the 1st person singular. For this reason they do not
reveal the Adam Kadmon-concept.

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Contents
Introduction................................................................................2
Provençal language....................................................................3
Proto-Indo-European language..................................................4
PIE-Personal Pronouns..............................................................5
PIE-Entry for God......................................................................7
Descendants from the pronoun Ego...........................................8
Creation Legends.....................................................................10
Adam Ḳadmon.........................................................................12
Modified pronouns...................................................................14
Conclusion...............................................................................15

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