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The Decline of Medieval
Hellenism in Asia Minor and
the Process of Islamization
k from the Eleventh through
the Fifteenth Century

Speros Vryonis, Jr.
e n il

(,I1 ' 1 2) (1'

Berkclcy Los Rngeles London 197I

UNIVEIISI'I'Y O F C A L I F O R N I A P R E S S

To my mother and to the memoy of my father

University of California Press
Berkeley and Los Angeles, California
University of California Press, Ltd.
London, England
Copyright 0 1971by The Regents of the University of California
ISBN: 0-520-01597-5
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 75-94.984
Printed in the United States of America

Preface

The writing of this book arose from the convergence of two interests that
have long intrigued me: the Hellenization of the Levant in antiquity and
the centuries-long confrontation of Byzantine and Islamic societies, the
joint heirs of this semi-Hellenized Levant. The decline of Byzantine
Hellenism and the phenomenon of Islamization in Anatolia from the
eleventh through the fifteenth century focus on that area and time within
which these two interests converge for the last time. Perhaps this under-
taking is inordinately ambitious, encompassing as it does a vast geo-
graphical and chronological span and cutting across three disciplines
(those of the Byzantinist, Islamist, and Turkologist). Now that this work is
finished thc words that Helmut Ritter spoke to me in a n Istanbul
restaurant in 1959, and which then seemed to be a challenge, take on a
different meaning. This renowned orientalist told me, simply and calmly,
that it would be impossible to write a history of this great cultural trans-
formation. My own efforts have, of necessity, been rcstricted to certain
aspects of this huge problem. Scholarship badly nceds new, detailed
histories of the Seljuk, Nicaean, Trebizondine states, and of many of the
Turkish emirates. There has been no comprehensive history of the Rum
Seljuks since that of Gordlevski (1941) of Nicaea since those of Meliarakes
and Gardner in 1898 and 1912, of Trebizond since that of Miller in 1926.
The archaeology of Byzantine and Seljuk Anatolia is still in its infancy,
and the mere establishment of the principal events and their dates in
these four centuries remains unachieved. Unwritten ’also is the history of
Arabo-Byzantine relations and confrontations in Anatolia, though the
monumental work of Marius Canard on the Hamdanids represents a
substantial beginning. The story ofthe decline that Islamization occasioned
in the Armenian, Georgian, and Syrian communities of eastern Anatolia,
though absolutely essential, is yet to be written. Finally a comparative
study of the folklore and folk cultures of the Anatolian Muslims and
Christians would do much to fill the wide gaps in historical sources. The
number and extent of these scholarly desiderata surely indicate how
imperfect and insuficient the present work must be. I have concentrated

The book of Claude Cahen, Pre-Ottoman Turkey (London, 1968) appeared after the
completion of my own work.

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I

i PREFACE
PREFACE
I
i related to Byzantino-Turcica, who supplied me with copies of their
on the fate and Islamization of the Greek population in Anatolia to the
exclusion of the other Christian groups. There has been no attempt to writings, and who gave me encouragcment. The studies of Paul Wittek and
present a conventional chronological history of events, but rather the I Claude Cahen have been of particular value and aid, and those ofRichard
approach has been topical. Ettinghausen have been helpful in the area of art history. 1 wish to thank
It is with pleasure that 1acknowledge the support of several institutions my editor, Shirley Warren, who performed admirably with a difficult
which greatly facilitated my research. The Middle East Center of Harvard manuscript and also the editors of the new EncycloJedia of Islam for
University enabled me to begin the investigation as a Research Fellow of permission to reproduce the statistical chart from the article “Anadolu,”
t h e Center in 1959-60. A grant from the Harvard Center and Dumbarton
I by Franz Taeschner. I have dedicated the book to my father and mother,
who first imbued me with a love for the historical past, who educated me

I? ’
.:
O a k s subsequently allowed me to spend a summer at Dumbarton Oaks in
this early stage. The interest and sympathy of former Chancellor Franklin
Murphy and the director of the UCLA library, Dr. Robert Vosper,
resulted in the constitution of a respectable Byzantine collection of books
and periodicals absolutely essential for research in Byzantine history, and
1
I
with great patience and expense, and who gave me every encouragement.
T h e problems of transliteration and of geographical names have been
such that there is no conceivable system that would satisfy everyone.
Basically I have followed the new edition of the Eiicyclopedia of Islam in the
which had previously been lacking on the UCLA campus. The UCLA transliteration of Islamic names. The Turkish equivalents for the names of
Research Committee and the Center for Near Eastern Studies, by their Byzantine towns and villages will frequently be found in the key to the
unstinting generosity, made it possible for m e to work at those institutions map. Though to some my treatment of transliteration and of geographic
in t h e United States and abroad which would provide me with the necessary
materials. Thanks to a grant of the Social Science Research Council in
i1 names will seem cavalier, I shall be satisfied if I have conveyed the mean-
ing rather than a particular philological form.
1962-63,I spent one semester at Dumbarton Oaks and one semester in
Greece and Turkey where I enjoyed t h e facilities of the Gennadius
Library, the Center for Asia Minor Studies, and the kindness of the
members of the history faculty of the University of Ankara. As the work
neared a n end, William Polk, Director of the Middle East Center, and
William McNeill, chairman of the history department, invited me to
spend I 966-67 a t the University of Chicago where they provided me with
the badly needed leisure to finish the basic writing.
I a m particularly indebted to my colIeagues a t UCLA who in meetings
of t h e Near Eastern Center, the Medieval and Renaissance Center, the
faculty seminar of the history department, and in individual encounters
contributed to the sharpening of the work’s focus as well as to the improve-
m e n t of its contents. Milton Anastos, Amin Banani, Andreas Tietze,
Gustave von Grunebaum, and Lynn White came to my assistance in
certain specialized areas, and more important listened to what must have
seemed an endless outpouring of Anatolica with a patience that would
easily rank them among the Byzantine saints and Muslim dervishes of
i
Anatolia. I a m also grateful to Andreas Tietze who took time from
his busy schedule as chairman of the Department of Near Eastern
Languages to read through the manuscript. His great knowledge and
kindness saved the book from many errors. I wish to express my gratitude
to Peter Charanis with whom I frequently discussed many of the problems
entailed in the writing of this book, and to whose research on Byzantine
ethnography I am much indebted. Thanks are also due to Osman Turan
and Halil Inalcik who, with their unsurpassed expertise in things Seljuk
and Ottoman, have been so kind as to discuss with me many particulars
1
viii ix

Contents

List of Illustrations xiii

Abbreviations xv

I. Byzantine Asia Minor on t.: Eve of the Turkish Conquest I
Administrative Institutions
Towns and Commerce
Great Landed Families
Demography
Road System
The Church
Ethnography
Religion

11. Political and Military Collapse of Byzantium in Asia Minor 69
Events Leading to Maiazikert
Manzikert (1071)
Initial Turkish Conquest and Occupation of Anatolia (1071-81)
Byzantine Counterattack ( X O ~ I - X I ~ J )
. Byzantine Retreaf (1143-1204)
Political Stability and Polarization : Nicaea and Konya
Withdrawal of the Byzantines to Constaiatino,ble and the Decline of
Konya: Establishment of the Emirates and Emergence of the
Ottomans
Conclusions

111. The Beginnings of Transformation I43
Nature of the Turkish Conquest in the Eleventh and Twelfih
Centuries
Recolonization and Reconstruction
Integration of the Christians into Muslim Sociey (107’-1276)
Equilibrium of Konya and Nicaea Destroyed
The Nomads
Conclusions
xi

xi i xl11 .. - CONTENTS IV. Amphilochius at Konya as a inosquc Economic Lge Equestrian statue of Justinian 1 Folk Culture l’he threshing sledge Conclusions Recapitulation 498 Index 503 . 4 6 2 : Conclusions T h e rupestrian churches of Cappadocia VI.. The Loss of Byzantine Asia Minor and the Byzantine World 403 Interior view of Sultan Khan caravansaray Causes and Egkcts of the Loss Byzantine ReJectiolzs on and Reactions to the Loss of Anntolia Exterior view of Sa’d al-Din Khan caravansaray Religious Polemic View of Seyid Ghazi Tekke Folklore Tahtadji women from Chibuk Khan Governmental Measures A Bektashi sheikh with disciple VII. Decline of the Church in the Fourteenth Century 288 iI The Acta I The Notitiae Efiiscopatum Acta : Ujheaval Acta: Im&overization List of Ill ustra ti0 ns Acta :Ecclesiastical Discipline Matthew of Efhesus-a Case Study Conclusions V. T h e Byzantine Residue in Turkish Anatolia 4444 Mawlawi dervishes participating in a sciiia’ The Physical Residue Danishmendid coinage Formal lnstitutions T h e former church of St. Conversion to Islam 351 Muslim Institutions: Tasawwuf Muslim Institutions :Fu tuw w a following p .

1885-1927). Aksaray-Genqosman M. N. J.P. Dolger.S. E. B. Eflaki-Huar t C. 1-111.I. Z.S. A.O. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. ’AV&AEKTU‘ I E ~ O C J O ~ V ~ I T I U I-rqvohoyiaS.). Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des ostromischen Reiches (Munich-Berlin. second edition.I. ~~~ vols.Z.H. Bedi Karthlisa. Byzantiniscli-neugriec~iischeJahrbiiclter. 1943).K. 1912ff. B. H.O. Bibliotlieca geographorum arabicorum. vols.G.). Encyclopedia of Islam. N. Leib.F.A. Genqosman and F. B.E. A. 1937-1945). B. AS Acta Sanctorum. I-V (Petersburg. AEA-rlov ~ i j io-ropmfjs 5 K a l hohOylKij$ hrctlpias Tqs ‘EAA&bS. I go3 ff. D. 1918-1912). A. Alexiade. Regesten F. Annuaire de l’institiit ~hilologique et historique orientales et slaves. Encyclopedia of Islam. Aksamyli Kerimeddin Mahmrid’un miisatneret-el-ahyer adlz’ Farsga tarihinin terciimesi (Ankara. ed.E.O.R. 1-11 (Paris.G.J.P. D. xv ‘I . B.J. C. Power (Cambridge.E. 1924ff. I-VIII. Cambridge Economic History. ’ApXEiov ~ ~ V T O W . Byzantinische Forschungen. (Leiden.L. D .l-l. first edition.).E.H. Clapham and E. l?c/ios d’0rient.O. A.E.S. Dictionnaire d’liistoire et de giographie kcclesiastigues (Paris. B. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Anna Comnena Anne Cotnndne. T. Les saints des derviches tourneurs. A. Byzantinisclie Zeitsclirift. A. Uzluk. B. 1941ff. Huart.H.). de Goeje.S. B.N. vols. Byzantinoslavica. 1891-1898). Bulletin of the Scltool of Oriental and African Studies. (Paris. vols. Analecta Bollandiana. texts dtabli et traduit. ed.B. J-M.C. Abbreviations Greek historians in the Corpus Scriptorum Efistoriae Byzantinae are simply listed by name and with no further identification.I. B. Dictionnaire de tlihologie catholique (Paris. Dolger.

@. E.I.P. 1890).V. .R.H.M.A. Duda. 1932 ff. Journal Asiatique. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Real-Enzyklopadie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft (Stutt- gart.S. G.H. S. N. Muller. Jahrbuch der osterreichischen byzantinischen Gesellschaft. 1893ff. series graeca (Paris. xvi xvii . Zbornik Radoua Vizantoloshkog Inst ituta.I.A. Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society (London. ~ O V T I C ~‘Emla. A. R. R. G. llov-ricnch Oiihha. Zepos. Miklosich et Miiller F. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Migne. Zhurnal Ministerstua Narodnago Prosviescheniia. T. LA. I 872-1877). C ~ ~ P.S.S. R. Regestes V.M. R. W.H.E. M. llahaiohhysia K a l l l ~ h o ~ o v v r p ~ c vols.P. Zeitschrijitfur Balkanologie. J. 1852-1859). n.G.C. Revue de I’Orient chrbtien. Korosi Csoma-archivium. Jus Graecoromanum. sumptibus academiae scientiarum rossicae (Petrograd.N.D. Combe.H.B. P.B.Z.R.). hagen. vols.X. GFeek Roman and Byzantine Studies.B. Nlos ‘EAAqvo~vfi~wv.S. P.D . Z. Die Seltschukengeschichte des Ibn Bibi (Copen. P.v.B. Sathas.G. (Cairo. Palestinskii Sbornik.A.M. xg 12-1924) I P. 1904IT.O.O.). E. G. J . Wiener Zeitsch@ft fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes.E. I-VI (Athens. Rhalles and Potles K. M .F. Istanbuler Mitteilungen. Potles. Ramsay. M.).P.P. Z. Grumel. Revue historique.C. 1885-1897).A. Rivista degli studi orientali. Zeitschrijit der deutschen morgenlandische Gesellschaft. Sauvaget. 1857KJ. Patrologiae cursus comjletus.O. N.O. Zllrv-raypa T ~ Belov V Ka1 ~ E ~ Q v K W ~ V W V . J . P. J . Les regestes des actes du patriarcat de Constan.). ed. l7.O.G. Rkjertoire chronologique d’bpigraphie arabe. P. English Historical Review. v. s. (Athens.w. Sudost-Forschungen.G.C.). J. Lampros. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. J. 1892-1917). I. Fontes rerum byeantinarum. Orientalia Christiana Periodica. Miklosich and J.B.H. Grumel.M.A. Rhalles and M. Zepos. T.C. Recueil des historiens des Croisades (Paris.). Pravoslavni Palestinskii Sbornik. K. I b n Bibi-Duda €3. 1918ff. Ramsay. t x h ~ 1-11 (Athens.S. Tiirkiyut Mecmuasi. K. Zepos and P.R.n.H.E. Z. Islam Ansiklopedisi. R.E.S. Z. Journal of the American Oriental Society.I. 1 ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONS E. tinoble (Chalcedon. I-VIII I. 1860-1890). Studia Islamica. Revue des btudes islamiques. 1931).A. Vaktjlar Dergisi.S. Geography W.S. Vieantiiskii Vremennik.M. R. TI. S .R. 1931ff. Patrologia Orientalis (Paris.C. vols. Wiet. MiKpUOlaTIK& XpOVIKh. J. The Historical Geograi)lg of Asiu Minor (London. Regel W. Monurnenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua (London. J. M. 1841ff. J.K. MEoaiaviKfi BiPhioefiKq (Venice. Monuinenta Germaniae Historica.S. Regel. 0. V. Acta et diplomata graeca medii aevi sacra et profana (Vienna. ‘959). M. O.

the isles. almost nothing in the way of popu- lation statistics for Anatolia has survived. Unfortunately. With the decline of medieval Hellenism i n Anatolia. Egypt. most populous. the Islamiz- ation and Turkification of the Anatolians in the later Middle Ages. the Islamization of Asia Minor has a twofold interest.1 Of these areas. there are other indications that Asia Minor was the most populous region of the empiree2So long as Anatolia continued to be an integral part of the empire. and the Levant to the Arabs and the occupation of Italy by the Germanic peoples a n d of much of the Balkans by the Slavs. “The Byzantine Empire in the World of the Seventh Century. This new society differed from those of the Asiatic steppe and from that of the Islamic Middle East because it arose in a Byzantine milieu. Ostrogorsky.O. Byzantine Asia Minor on the Eve of the Turkish Conquest Since the fall of North Africa. the empire became little more than a weak Balkan principality. Arabization. the related Anatolian phenomena of Byzantine decline and Islamization are essential to a basic understanding of both Turkish and Byzantine societies. Anatolia was by far the largest. but aside from the factor of its great size. Specifically it represents the last in a long series of religio-linguistic changes to which Anatolia had been subjccted over the centuries. Since antiquity the inhabitants of the Mediterranean world had been subject to a remarkable variety of transforming cultural forces : Hellenization. For the student of cultural change. T o these were now added Turkification. 1 The evidence is discussed below. Once Anatolia slipped from Byzantine control. Broadly considered. 1. I -2 I . constitute one of the last chapters in the history of cultural change in the Mediterrancan basin. along with the Christianization and Hispanization of Iberia. Romanization. and Islam- ization. Byzantium remained a strong and com- paratively prosperous state. and economically the most important. I . G .XI11 (IS$). competing with Serbs and Bulgars on an almost equal footing. Consequently. Anatolia. 1 For a picture of the Byzantinc world at this time.” D.. Christianization. and southern Italy. Byzantium had been restricted to the southern confines of the Balkan peninsula.P. there arose a Turkish-Muslim society that is at the base of the Seljuk state and Ottoman Empire.

a The art of eleventh-century Byzantine Anatolia is still insufficiently investigated. W. demography. Seleuceia. When one compares the size of the de l’empire byznntin QW IXE-A’IBsitcles (Paris. Nothing could be done in his province.000 placed the provincial bureaucracy under the tutelage of the military. A. amounted to only 5. Geschichte des byrantinischen Staates. One century earlier Kudama noted that the forces education and intellectual life cannot be satisfactorily reconstructed because of the nature of the theme of Seleuceia. mostly themes but in. His most important function was to and 200 in a bandum.. Les instituliotis de l’emjire byzantin (Paris. The themes of Cibyrrheote. I I 5-148. and ecclesiastical institutions.XVI levy of Leo VI is greater than that of any of the ninth-century Anatolian themes save (19679. there will be no attempt to include these two categories in this Samos. G51-655. BrChier. but fought the Arabs and for any given theme. as supreme authority in the theme. 1952)~pp. the turm not more than 6. A useful and brief sketch of Anatolian provinces in the eyes of the central administration. I I I .000 fiscal strength. and banda in a particular theme varied.100. Armeniacon. P. u.. 97-98 (hereafter cited as Gelzer Die Constantinopolitan-centered organism. and 70.000 Seleuceia 5. and personnel that had to remain to guard the shores of the theme and to cut timber N. 1’Asie Mineure. XVIII.Though ~ the administrative apparatus Bucellarion 8. vol. indicates that the size of the thematic 80-83. without his consent. The bandum should not have more than T h e strategus.000 Anatolians. there which caused serious dislocation of this society. Ostregersky. Recherches sur l’administratzon armies had increased by the early tenth century. was a veritable 400 men. 369. 2 3 . 1884). largely under the direct control and Opsicion 6. immense area and at the same time integrated them effectively into a Wiss. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. pp.000 Charsianon 4Jooo Anatolia approximately twenty-five provinces. 125-191. which the civil administration became subordinate to the thematic hnatolicon 15.7 Anatolian society prior to the drastic upheavals of the eleventh century Beside the men the government recruited from the local soldiery. by the Arabs in the ninth century. The Arab The catalog of the expedition to Crete in the reign of Leo VI tends to confirm the growth in the size of the thematic forces.760. and Ruccelarion. drungus. conquest of new lands in the east witnessed the creation of new provinces rural society. in contrast to the smaller figures for theninth century. pp. 7 Leonis in$eratoris tactica. 1963). size of Byzantine military forces must have increased markedly. CVII. and those of Samos 5. this conclusion seems inescapable. pp.000 cluding also duchies and catepanates.pp. Cibyrrheotc force under Leo VI with the size of the forces of the thcmes as reported For a cautious reevaluation and refinement of the role of the themes. This will entail a discussion and partial descrip. however. La Mediterrnnie et le Moyen-Orient.G.000in a drungus. towns. there is every indication that the of the Turkish invasions. The levies of the Cibyrrheote force amounted to 6.B.000. served as a balance to the landed aristocracy. drungoi.. Nr. that the strategus of the theme sent to watch the shores of Syria. Kgl. 696497.000 also acted as a partial check on the absorption of the free peasantry by the Chaldia 4. command the army of the theme.3 and army corps. 1926-1928). 709. but it would seem that the size of the was a major contributor to the imperial tax collectors. Pertusi.A. and religion. sacits. dominated the administrative and military activity of the Armeniacon 9. military. This comparatively largc number for such a theme as the Cibyrrheote. Chrono&hie. and support of the existence of the free peasant society. 193-209. one must begin Anatolian themes in the first half of the ninth century was approximately with a descriptive analysis of Byzantine society in the peninsula on the eve 70. De Cuerinmiis. roads. B. (St.G. for shipbuilding.~ By the tenth century. between two and four turms. by Genesis). Glycatzi-Ahnveiler. save for the assessment Psellus. E.6 turm was not regularly established and observed. Michael viceroy.000 landed magnates and thereby assured the empire of military. ed. Kaegi. Thracesion 6. Hence. (Munich.tome 2 : Les Balknns.000. and religious institutions characterized reflection of this expansion. L. Die Genesis der bymntinischen Themcnverfssung.000.. is a Certain political. 3d ed.000 Optimaton 4. d.000. For the breakdown of these forces which follows. which were eiTected by agents directly under dadhbih. that the armies ought not be too large.000 strategus. Gelzer. The thematic system served as a vital impetus to and The thematic army was organized in units of decreasing size. gives the following figures: 5. These institutions were other sources ofmilitary personnel in the provinces.000 in a turm. I-I. it Paphlagonia 5. Constantino Per- phirogenito De Thematibus (Vatican. ethnography. But because of the differences in size of the various themes. of Aegean 3. Renauld (Paris. regrettable though this fact may be.. and passim for the literature.690. Ges. I . 39-53.C. VI. Petersburg. provinces. Constantinople. Much has been said about the efficacy In the order of honorary precedence and size of payment the generals of the more important and powerful themes generally preceded the generals of these thrcc themes a n d importance of these local armies drawn from the inhabitants of the (see below). Perhaps Administrative Institutions the remarks of Leo VI. Ibn IChura- and collection of taxes. Kl. 1960).760. d.” J. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST As the subject of this book is the cultural transformation of Greek author Abu’l-Faradj Kudama ibn Djafar noted that the levy of the Anatolia between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries. for the Cibyrrheote “Some Reconsiderations on the Themes (Seventh-Ninth Centuries). and probably other ships Orient (Park. I. Abh. At the time of the death of Basil I1 (1025)~there existed in Cappadocia 4. as this does not include the two ships J. The tion of administrative. A thematic army usually had. Phil-hist. the drungus not more than 3.O. le Mayen. the turm. but there is little information as to their numbers. those of the great Anatolicon. I n addition the thematic soldiery of the geography and its significance for the history of the area is to be found in P. p. 5 (18gg). the number of turms. 1956). and Aegean. 1948). Birot and Cibyrrheote under Leo VI was larger than 6. were among the less important and numerous of the hnatolian chapter. These included a produced an element o f homogeneity in the life of the inhabitants of this H. 36 (hereafter cited as Psellus- Renauld). The system of the themes. social. of the sources.3000 administration of the ~tra t e goi. E. economic. Drcsch. whereas the intensification of the Byzantine offensive efforts similarly demanded an increase i n the size o f the armies. which in turn not only and bandon. I. Skabalanovi& Vizantiiskoe gosudarstuo i tserkou u XI.

VI. Les institutions. 24.G.100pounds of gold respectively.R. ~ ~ Leontocome 5 Other large themes very probably had as large a military force. gr-g3. Five pounds of gold were given to the widows in the De Caerimoniis. militarv expenditures in Anatolia during the early ninth century. and i n many instanccs pensions were given to disabled soldiers and to the stimulating local industry.13 The soldier was also entitled to part of the spoils of war. 652.ed. VIII (rg63). 4 5 \ .lbs. The Arab sources ibid.. Soldiers received between eighteen and twelve solidi per tend to corroborate one another. the military strength of the district may have Seleuceia 5 been as large as I O .300 who took the place of the indigenous thematic soldiers in this period of and 1.Amantos. I. Mardaites were settled around Attaleia. possibly Thrace 20 b y Justinian 11.000and 840. armament. I. wax. I I I. pp. T h e success of Byzantine arms against the Arabs The pay of the thematic soldiers in comparison with that of the officiers during this period is i n part to be explained by the effectiveness of this was quite small. De Caerimoniis. and other necessary Thracesion 40 Opsicion 30 12 Theophanes. of gold. and provisions on comparatively steady a nd significant sum of coined money in the form of their frequent expeditions.Ostrogorsky. De Cnerimoniis. 30. i n military pay from the sources of the ninth and tenth centuries.12 O n the basis of these figures it seems likely that the government The military apparatus in Anatolia had an important role in the pro. gives the following salary range: solidi.Grdgoire et M.I.C.A.Constantine Thomas Whittemore Collection and the Numismatic Evidence for the Urban History Porphyrogenitus. merchants sold the government the cloth for the sails. 651-656.000 and I. if not Cihyrrheote I0 larger.000 solidi.298-299. 140. I. 1883-1885). paid out between 500. 12. I t contributed to the local economy by paying out Asis Minor. C.On the basis of these and other figures in Constantine Porphyrogenitus.000 Persians in each theme (though these seem to have been incorporated Charsianon 20 Paphlagonia 20 into the thematic levies) . Byzance et b s Arabes I : La dynnstie d’dmorium (820-876). With the addition of the Mardaites to the forces Lycandus 5 of the Cibyrrheote theme. oars.000 thematic levies mentioned by the Arab sources for t he early ninth century. On the pay for the lesser officers and for the soldiers. 696-697.” 13 Speros Vryonis. with the consequence that the military manpower stationed in Samos I0 Aegean I0 Anatolia during the tenth and early eleventh centuries must have far surpassed the 70. 655. 1g35).pp. and yet the overall expenditure on military salaries was Anatolian manpower. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OB THE TURKISH CONQUEST variety of ethnic groups that the emperors settled as distinct military Bucellarion 30 bodies throughout Anatolia. and salaries in gold to the officers and soldiers who lived in Asia Minor. settled Cappadocia 20 2. widows of the ~ l a i n . a nd the importance of these Anatolian forces very substantial. the military pay chests of the themes of Turkish invasions in the eleventh century. tin. year.260. 130-136. lead. de Boor (Leipzig. 382. emerges from the obvious correlation between thematic decline and the I n the early ninth century. C/trono. During the authorities also paid out cash to artisans and merchants to provide a the reign of Leo VI the generals of the more important themes received wide assortment of items and services.000.. This superimposition of foreign bodies of Coloneia 20 soldiers in the provinces increased the military manpower of a given Mesopotamia from commercium Sebasteia 5 province considerably. as emerges from the incidental accoLmts of the period. by way of example. “MapGahai. I. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. 109-110. Vasiliev.OOO. 669. Theophilus.300 solidi was made for government The Mardaites of the west in the Cretan expedition of Leo VI numbered over 5. Craftsmen were hired to make the following cash payment:11 weapons of every type for the armed forces. 489 (here- A. the Anatolian levy of yo.” Z. commerce. O O O . Ibn Khuradadhbih B. ofByzantium. each. 1 ~ T h e government was able to feed into the business life of the Anatolians a The army and navy required supplies. Though the government undoubtedly the military roga. and agriculture by its expenditures.ooo received pay of between eighteen and twclvc l1 Ibid. or 93. The professional mercenaries Armeniacon in Anatolia and of Strymon in Europe amounted to 1. there were also bodies of Slavs and Armeniansa8 I n Macedonia 30 addition the government stationed tagmata of imperial troops i n certain Chaldia 10 plus 10 from commercium of the Anatolian districts.I.200 gold solidi crisis were ineffective replacements and were unable to halt the Turks./.600 and 79. record ‘tha. p. Thus the Byzantine and Arab sources 40..Edition fratyaise after cited as Theophanis): . Geschiclite.OOO solidi annually to the soldiery of vincial economic life. “An Attic Hoard of Byzantine Gold Coins (668-741)from the ‘EAAT~IKCI.V. bronze.V (Ig23). Armeniacon 40 rope. 484. foodstuffs. prepardepar H. One can gain some idea as to the sums of money involved acquired many of the necessary items by taxes in kind on the populace. to sew the sails for the ships. Constantine Porphyrogenitus an estimate of 690. Anatolicon 40 pounds of gold t o caulk the boats. l4 BrChier.era~/iiu. Canard (Brussels. or between 1. reign of Michael I.

“An Attic Hoard. “Vizantiiskie goroda v VII.000lances. in spite of it bears on the relative importance of the area for Byzantine civilization their frequency. (Moscow. where there were also divisions of the citizenry according to stantine . and to the continuity of this urban character of much of Anatolia into the it is even more doubtful that the Greek language and Byzantine Christi- middle Byzantine period.S.163-195. and so cities generally..” J. koti. Kungress (Munich. The A O ~ W J T I Kor~ accounting officeof the army was in charge of The history of Arabo-Byzantine warfare and relations in Asia Minor is yet to be written. “Vizantiiskie goroda. “The Arabs in Asia Minor from Arabic Sources. H. VII. 182-208. X V I I I crisis of the third century. Wellhausen. 750-813. 10.. The Greek C i p . ICirsten. or to the Turkish invasions) .I x3 ff.” Studies in t h e History and Art of ilia Eastern Provinces of the Roman Enqire (Aberdeen T h e principal exponent of this theory is A. “Rol gorodov-emporiev v istorii Vizanlii. I@). E. produce 1.47-66.000 measures of barley. Canard. 3. Jones.He relies very heavily upon the numismatic evidence which. Leonis imperatoris tacfica.Glycatzi-Rhnveiler. Vryonis.” Bsrichte zum XI.. H.-Constantine Porphyrogenitus. “Les invasions arabes cn Armhie. 300. 84-92. vols.on craftsmen in the army. pp.But actually there seems to have bSen autonomous municipal institutions.20. The generals Siuziumov.R.” “Byzantine Cities in the Early Middle Ages. 28. Vasiliev..Kagdan.. der Wiss.O.VII and Romanus 11. Zeit der Umaijaden. the archon ofEuboea 20.. least insofar as the meager sources permit conjecture. seventh century. “Byzantines ’OT. An Economic Suruey of Ancient and Arabs in the Time of the Early Abbassids. j . as for instance Corasium in southern Asia Minor during the linen cloth for Greek fire and ship caulking.” Naclirichten uon d. Lip.000 arrows. 61-121. Manandean. 85-94. and finally a walled enclosurc. z3 Kaidan.” 186.G. P. 128-747. rg61). Ramsay. no such abrupt decline or hiatus during the seventh century in Anatolia. the treasury paid out approximately twenty-two pounds tribes.B. X V I I I (194.000 lances.” V. W. 903-916. and the passage of armies through Balkans served to put in even bolder relief the economic and political the provinces. “L’Asie Mineure et les invasions arabes (VIIb-IXd sikles).H.18 1 possible that a number of the towns may have decreased in size by the late seventh or the eighth century. Broughton. that this was signifi- ‘*Byzantine armies on the move spent considerable sums of money..T h c Anatolian cities were able to recover from the XVI (igoi). 40. “Die I<iimpfe der Araber mit den Romaern i n der X I vv. Canard. Procopius. A. V I (1953).” p. CVIII (1926). S. J. ( ICJOI).” however.8). and flour. is ambivalent o n this point. Vryonis. R. H e attributes fodder.V. EVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST materials.” p. century? When one speaks of cities he thinks primarily in terms of underwent a disastrous decline. 300. I.H. O&ki Byzance et les Arabes.23 Some students of the question have maintained that between the What were the characteristics of these Byzantine cities in the eleventh seventh and ninth centuries the polis of antiquity.P.lGThe administration saw to it that salaried craftsmen special. M. “Die byzantinischc Stadt..000“sphacta. 1-11 (Brussels. XI. 657-660. thereby played a stimulating and significant role in the importance of the continuity of towns and cities in Anatolia.21 or possibly have shifted their locations Towns and Commerce slightly to more strategic positions on higher ground. and as many shields as possible.G.” V. Leonis imperaloris tactica. 1950). The strategus of Thessalonike was ordered to manufacture istorii uizantiiskogo obizestua i kitltttry ~III-pervain polovilla I X ueka (Moscow-Leningrad. in T.There is even archaeological evidence for the temporary tack. I t is quite economic prosperity of Anatolia. I. “Vizantiislcie goroda. Byzantion.:. It is not clear whether this system continued after the decline and to a certain extent the disappearance of the Byzantine towns to the dis- Justinian I. and so forth. p. X X I (1954).Dereonia i gorod u Viraniii IX-X vu.A. first in that Balkans did not occur in Anatolia. “An cantly accelerated by the invasions of foreign peoples.ooo arrows and 3. ~ n i Alexander to Justininn (1898). and provisions for the grooms. 4. “Les expeditions des Arabes centre Constnntinople. izing in the production of military weapons were maintained in the though the Slavic invasions in the Balkans did cause a marked decline of principal towns. CVII. 187. Minor. Internoliorialem Byzurititiislen- of Nicopolis and Peloponnesus were to perform in a similar manner. P. Obviously the Byzantine towns of of gold to . ‘The existence of Theodore Scutariotes. to be the possessor of extensive urban settlements down to the period when Obviously what had happened to the Byzantine urban settlements in the the Turks first appeared ? This question is doubly important. Rome. R. For the later period. The archon of Hellas was to I pp.000 of wine. and 6. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. P.000 lances. E.” E..V..-- ~ ~ of the slave method of production. This is certainIy the case of the town I n the outfitting of eleven ships that participated in the Cretan expedition of Con. Anecdota. 14.” D. 6 7 . Roman Asia Minor. GrCgoire.craftsmen and merchants for services and materials. anmearance --r. 87 ff. transitory affairs (when one compares them to the Slavic I and strength. Ostrogorsky. (1962)~ 1-32. T h e protonotarius of the Thracesian theme was to collect 20. 260-270. pp. 1092. pp.” Souetskaia Arkheologia. “K voprosu o gorode v Vizantii VIII-IX vv.” p. at This situation existed as late as the reign of John Vatatzes in the thirteenth century. XXX.J.000 nails for the ships. records that the state post system had also provided z2 Kirsten. Ges. Anatolia in thc eleventh century would hardly fit such a description. ru Gdttittgen. 1940). For the earlier period one may consult the following works...2a or been ‘‘ruralized. Attic Hoard. 1g58). Kakdan. For a critique of his theory. moneys so spent. 5-7. M.000 of wheat.000measures of disappearance of a few towns.. 1088-1093. I 935. in antiquity. 1906). “The War of Moslem and Christian for Possession o f Asia (Oxford. however.. hard. Brooks. De Caerimoniis. if at all.M. is unsatisfactory and unreliable. passim. 164-188.14-447. and second because it is closely related to the problem of invasions of the Balkans which not only effaced cities but also Christianity. 20. z6 ffa 21 E.” By late Roman and early Byzantine times there had developed in Anatolia b u t this does not mean that they did so to the point of becoming insignifi- a large number of thriving cities and lesser towns with a considerable cant as an urban phenomenon.H. CCXXVII. “Byzantinische Stadt. I V (Baltimore. XI11 (1959). M. D e Cuerimoniis. pp. X V (]goo). 673-676. 30.” He was to prepare 10. This condition in the The military organization ofByzantium. Pfiil-hist.17 many of the towns of the western half of the empire. E. 506-507 (hereafter cited as Theodore Scutariotes- Sathas). He adds. Muslim urban developments in Anatolia during the later period. J. The raids of the Arabs were.V I I I (1956). Frank. On urban continuity see also. W. CVII. l T I n Leo’s Cretan expedition there are extensive details. 281-301. To what extent. 1960).” p. did Anatolia continue anity could have spread and penetrated to the extent they did in Anatolia.19 The question has often arisen as survived as a centralized state without a money economy and towns.. business and cash to the inhabitants of the provinces by purchasing from them horses. I t is doubtful that Byzantium could have commercial life and money economy.l6 and their production was quantitatively significant.

. 3 0 Kagdan. Justinian I restated this one militarization of the provincial administration through the implemen.rr&s.”A later list of episcopal sees uses the terms bishoprics and cities inter- morales el politiques. Xanalatos. 24-25. care for the sick. The later there was a bishop there had to bc a city. . Manoljovi:. Igrr-rz (Turin. Vryonis.o).. 103-104. . By the sixth century the bishops were participating i n the elections formation for centuries. 22-23. I.pp. rg65). 16.. Vryonis.ZD by institutions of a different sort.the thematic system consummated the end of urban autonomy. characterized by the presence of the members of the ecclesiastical metropolitans and the bishops. 546 (hereafter cited D.Z. G.55.” Texte der NotiliaeEpiscopntum.24Nevertheless. and XXXVI (~gso). .For the later changeably. matters. Those towns that For a general survey. D. T h e Byzantine polis had tion. and the exact reverse was also true. I that episcopal authority became a refuge of the last vestiges of urban and later through the guilds. Dolger. Untedruckte tind ungeniigend veroffentlichte period. “Vizantiiskie goroda.18-26. and by the presence of the strategus administrative set up into that of the~provincialgovernment is not as well or his representatives.O. “Die frtihbyzantinische und byzantinisch beeinflusste Stadt. (Paris.” Trauaux el Mdmoires I949).The crisis of the third century further undermined these institutions. only inhabited ccnters which are -rohv&vOpwroI can have bishops. the city i n the early eleventh century was the seat of a strategus that today one generally. der PViss.26Alongside the officials T h e Byzantine town of Asia Minor in the eleventh century was. never attained the power of the western Latin bishops. The council of Chalcedon i n affairs. 8 9 . ahdiieh). because of the authority of the The “aspect” of the eleventh-century Byzantine town was characterized centralized state.. Notitiae Episcopatunz). shall h a v e . e n Dolger. 1.rr&av ~ M I V . . 451 decreed that cities or poleis would be the seats of bishops. . did not the presence of a bishop. Partiti politici e lotte dinasticlie in Bizanzio as Gelzer.R. 1. documented. lust. states or with neighboring towns and villages. The church had modeled its administration along the lines of the resident a number of local craftsmen as well as merchants both indigenous and foreign. the aged.” Atti de 3” craftsmen and merchants and of industry and commerce is not well Congress0 internazionale di studi sull’ alto medioevo (Spoleto. of the military administration were those of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. a s Cod. 116. -rrbh~i~ ~ T O imcrKo. 289-314. The novel of Leo VI abolishing the The episcopal powers and rule in provincial administrative organization remnants of u r b a n autonomy simply put into legal language a state were to remain important until the end of the Byzantine Empire and that had come into being previously and that had been in the process of beyond. XXXV (1949)~ 63 ff. 213.4. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST aUtonOmOus. These officials presided over routine matters of admini...P.F. Zw@ohT) €15 TT)V la-ropfav decline in population lose their status as bishoprics. “Stadt. independent institutions in the municipalities of antiquity civil administration of the fourth and fifth centuries. “Smyrne”).. Akad. for the affairs of the town were subjected to the strategus who was I We decree t h a t every city. connccts with t h e state: with his immediate retinue (or of one of his subordinates) appointed by education. The integration of the ecclesiastical hierarchy (bishops or metropolitans).3.its own and inseparable . fityln. century later: tation of.” B. Con. Reale Accademia delle scienze di Torino. 11.. 1g4. and wcre often does not seem to have been quiescent in political matters and it frequently the recipients of imperial gifts bestowed upon the city. As late as the twelfth century. bodies as well. though the eastern bishops. bishop. . 1912). I. I n this manner had been threatened from the moment the Hellenistic monarchs had those cities that were the centers of the provincial administration became placed their epistates Or I’eprCSentatiVe in the pOliS to oversee its foreign the centers of the ecclcsiastical organization. “L’histoire et la gbographie de la rtgion de Smyrne entre les deux occupations turques ( I o ~ I .27 appointed from Constantinople. Cognasso. eeAhrweiler. a n d con- as is witnessed by the attempts of Diocletian to stabilize them. According to some scholars this basic element for the O n this Byzantine “demokratia” during the earlier period. (1965). but they seem to have had charge of performing many services sequently. E. &$~pimov K a t h o v . XVII (1963). “La duret du rtgime des partis populaires B Constantinople..” pp. I n addition there were other characteristics of the known as the parallelism existing between the structure of the earlier towns-the presence of trade or commercial activity whether with foreign provincial administration and the structure of the hierarchical administra. Bv(awivh pEhETfipcna. Abh. .26 I autonomy.LVIII But such arguments are based largely upon the silence of the sources. were important in city finances.30 6 peuple de Constantinople. These institutions were largely thematic Not only did the bishops take some part in these strictIy governmental and ecclesiastical.. der bay. first through the demes. Histoire du Bas-Empire. both ultimately centering in Constantinople. “Byzantine Circus Factions and Islamic Futuwwa Organizations (neaniai. the populace of Byzantine towns of local urban officials.K ~particulibrernent I ~ ) au XIIIEsibcle. 1958).396-421. “Byzantine AqpoKpcnia and the Guilds in the Eleventh Century.46-59.G. . So in the sequently the concept of a polis or city became inseparably associated with fifth century the city. ~ ~ T ~ I X O ~ O V 0mnI~oyEv. I Gelzer. I n short they cared not only €or the souls of the provincials but for their stration and juridical business as well as over military and police affairs. wherever preserve the city type of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. This particular aspect of the town as a center of 24 F. .” Byzantion.” and “Factions de cirque et partis populaires. and others i n need.A. &EIV . though not exclusively. Constantinople. J. TO6 pv[crvTlVOa haoU (Athens.. though the lesser oficials were local inhabitants. Marciq. L I (’go’).a8 One can say expressed its will in riots and political outbursts.617-71 6. V I (1936). lust. as it had evolved. Stein. I1 (Paris-Brussels-Amsterdam.” Bulletin de la classe des lettres et des sciences 2 7 Cod. the orphaned. Zepos. Balsamon remarks that 0110 morte di Manuele Corntieno.155 (hereafter cited as Ahrweiler. then. “Le existence of towns was seriously lacking in the eighth and ninth centuries.” passim. at least in Asia Minor.

It is Urkunden). I. “Ephesus.. has been gathered. Hodoeporicon S. 223. Phrygia.33 eleventh century. Studien z z i ~Geschichte der Stadt Ephesits vom 4. which produced only barley. 1-14.O. 18g5). Toller and A. 536. 34 Ibid. 1g37).” pp. 83. I0 I1 . source material is so scarce. 541. W. 556.. VI. Theophanes.~’ These incidental bits of 3 8 G. and mining of the Smyrna region. 256. lists Phygela A number of the texts that follow are also cited in Ka.H.” But Phygela is described as a large town in 33 AS Nov. IV. L. 2. Bees. Gelzer.30 tenth and eleventh centuries. though possibly not on the same scale as Ephesus. T. Vetters. Jews. P. 1926) 41 Constantine Porphyrogenitus. give a general. This would seem to imply the continued existence of state regu.” pp.32 Incidental information concerning the economic activity the eleventh century. of course. 1905). 578. centuries.G. 537. I. H. Nicomedia. neither craftsmen nor merchants. 111. reference. 43 Tafel and Thomas. Thomas. pp. goes to see St. Strabo. the surplus of which was exported to regions in the brethren. Meh-rafiuma P X E T ~ Kw ~p b ~T ~ VyeoaioviKfiv “ETEDOVK a i Sanctae. which received money from pious donors. 1856). Rudikov. Keil.554. I 854). P. There may have been a small *4 J. it becomcs obvious that neither T h e western Anatolian coast was dotted with natural harbors that trade nor commerce. and the nearby sea was period under consideration. 1go5). 3d series. Lazarus he will be able to converse with him. so often quoted. “Ephesus” pp. I (1962). 469.532. Attaliates.. M.40 Phygela served as a debarkation point to and from of the city emerges from an eleventh-century hagiographical composition Crete41 as well as a commercial center and depot for naval stores.A. as one of the “new cities” which he claims were founded in the late ninth and tenth 182-186. uizantiiskoi kultury Po dannym grezeskoi agiografii (Moscow. and shipping con- yielded 100pounds of gold in annual taxes during the reign of Constantine stantly plied the lanes between Smyrna and Constantinople and the isles in VI (780-797) . Miletus and Clazomenae were undoubtedly oE similar Books are purchased there. 50-51. A 36 Ibid. and Ge~rgians. StrobiIite merchant pledges to his patron saint one-half of all his gains from maritime ’’ Ibid.C. Jalirlticnderts I( But in the preceding passage. Starr. 1880). remarks that 1964). Willibaldi. but was rather a center of both local and international trade. nachchristlichen Jahriiuridert bis zum ilrrem Untergang an der ersten Halfte des 15. Broekhoff. Urktinden. The monks of Ephesus was a lively harbor town with a panegyris or trade fair that Mt. I. rcmarks that cities were general treatment see the following: 0.P. 540. Ahrweiler. “Vizantiiskie goroda.D. There is no intention of trying to adduce urban conditions in the O n the agriculture. B.. Benndorf. “Zum byzantinischen Ephesos. 157 (hereafter cited as Hudud al-‘Alam-Minorsky).B. Vie de Grigoire Ddcapolite el les Slaves Macddoniens au IX“ sihle (Paris. I. TivEev. Molinier (Geneva. DefrCmery and B.. The monastery. the relevant passage is confused as a result of incorrect copying from other sources. noted it to be still well watered and byzantines aux XP-XII8 sikcles.S. 372 A. however. receives an interpreter from the metropolitan of Ephesus so that when he eleventh century. Ahrweiler. 273-288.42 in which we get a glimpse of what must have been a very busy town. and there is also mention of a state bakery. P.” Byzantine-Bulgarica. Dvornik. Ozerki Battuta-Gibb). Voyages d’lbn Bntoirtah (Paris. it makes the contradictory remark that R u m has (Jena. J. De Caeriinoniis.P.” Oriens Christianus. were absent from seem to have been active maritime centers in the tenth and eleventh Asia Minor during this period. N. I. 444 (hereafter‘cited as Ibn useful collection on the towns. IV). had existed in classical times. 52. The Phocaea and Strobilus were among the important ports of Anatolia in monks of the monastery on Mt. who has just converted to Christianity “Smyrne. Urkunden a i r alteren Handels-wid Stantsgesdichte information indicate that eleventh-century Ephesus was no sleepy hollow der Repulrlik Venedig (Vienna. Minorsky. 228. 106. describes Phygela as T ~ VKahobyEvov @aoA6yov.” For some reason Icazdan. 658. Russians.T..36 This also centers of lively trading activity. 145-182.. interesting to note that when Alexius I accorded the Venetians com- Archaeology has not yet progressed to the point where it can be of service mercial privileges. 73-75. picture of the towns over a period of time. (Vienna. Hudud al-‘Alam. This con- colony of Muslim merchants in Ephesus.T. III. (London. C. ed.. 198-1gg. A Gibb. “Vizantiiskie goroda.ao. ~ ~ hinterland of these towns in the Thracesian theme fair. R.586.” ’ApXaiohoyiK? ’Eqqy~pl~ pt. 309 (hereafter cited as Ibn Battuta-DefrCmery). Wilson. W.G. (London. For a 31 The famous passage of Hudud al-‘Alam. AS Nov.” p.31 centuries. Rather there is a n attempt to fiassim. after the decline of the “old cities. as there is mention of Saracens. if impressionistic. XIV. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF T€IE TURKISH CONQUEST i SOUrCeS that are not only rare but are also Constantinople-centered. p.” A D . Ein Fuhrer durcli die Ruinenstndt utid itire Gescliichte. 1-1. Ephesus (Vienna. . colony. in Itinera HierosoCyrnitana e t Descr$tiones Terrae (1966). The Jews in the Byzantine Empwe (Athens.i. The Regions of the World: a Persian Geography. Craftsmen and merchants of various sorts appear : a painter. a nauclerus. Tafel and G. Benndorf. see chapter I11 below. p.. ghistoliers Dyzaiitins du Xe si2cZe (Paris. commerce. AS Nov. V I (1931). Because the that the vine was cultivated.44 The towns farther north were a plasterer. 6 (hereafter cited as Daniel. I. Zur Ortskunde und Stad&escliiclite von few in Rum.dan. pp.-982 A. “Sur les citCs 11. random factual information spanning a long period of time 4 0 “Vie de Saint Athanase l’hthonite. For further bought many of its necessities in the shops of Ephesus. 40. (1953-54). P. 723-726 and. trade. mentions both Strobilus and Phocaea. Galesium near Ephesus are constantly which Venetian merchants were to be allowed to trade late in the going to the ~dto-rpov (Ephesus) for the various needs of the monastery. 111. 156. X V I Willibaldus. “villam magnam. p. 263-283. T h e eighth-century pilgrim p. 1917). Darrouxts.3s Its plain was fertile. R. 1 9 3 9 ) ~p. cornmercc if he comes back safely. 3 0 T h e Pilgrimage of the Rzcssian Abbot Daniel in the flooly Land 1106-1107 AD.S. 5th ecl. dition also prevailed in the thirteenth century between the Seljuk and Nicaean domains. p. 53. Die Genesis. 579. Strobilus also had a Jewish lated corporations in the provinces during the eleventh century. 3a P. J. dl AS Nov. a central emporium with commercial activity was of more than a local nature. A. “Smyrne. I 960). 111. mentions the presence of a mosque in the city. 1959) 11.35 though this is felt to be something of a formidable temptation for produced much grain. Ephesus was one of the cities that Venetian merchants in regard to the extent of urban life in Byzantine Anatolia during the could visit. I 94. 52 (hereafter cited as Tafel and Thomas. XXV (1906). 532-533. V. and commerce is to be found in A. eleventh century by facts pertaining to earlier centuries. 81. Athos sailed to Smyrna to purchase necessities. well watered. T h e translator and commentator on the text. I b n Baituta. Sanguinetti.34 and the monks are permitted to attend the i ~ n p o r t a n c e The . on Clazomenae as a port of call and seat of a bishopric in the in Ephesus. J. If one looks at the scattered references of the a rich fishing ground. for in an earlier period I b n Khuradadhbih. “What is most interesting is that the Saracen. many towns and villages. The Travels of Ibn Battuta (Cambridge.

5. J. 1890). T$ 6k Bithynia. du Roi. Procopius. 397. ‘I ~ 6 A i v&pxai6. I b n Battuta- (1913). 259-260. IV. De Caerimoniis.” This rich area exported such items as grain.” Antiquity. A Conze. 450. 418.” R. . 109. “Historisch-geographische Studien ilber bithynischen Siedlungen. I2 I3 . 66 Tafel and Thomas. (Paris. Abydus. I. -riohwavOpw~oT$rq. 1929)~ p.^^ exported livestock to their favorable location along the land and maritime routes leading to the capital and served as the market for villagers in the vast rural area Constantinople. Karnopp. Netre to be found in the shops of Constantinople came from thcse rcgions. Buildings. p. 1938). ‘ I . Lampsacus.62 Though the literary references to Attaleia remained throughout the whole period the principal naval the town are scanty. p. “ crvhhapP&vov-rai ITAEio-ra H I K ~ &TE Kal AS Nov. I. 11. Al-Umari-Taeschner. and silk. 11. Prusa.so probably there for purposes of trade. to buy what they needed.65 Pylae possessed <woSoxEiaor Khans for the rnerchants. La vie nierveillsuse de S. . by numerous harbors. 11. 5 I I . I t also had a Jewish colony. Mesarites. became a famous resort was in addition famed for its thermal baths. (Vienna. Northwestern Asia Minor had remained an PacrihiSi T a p a d p m i v T& epippma. . Al-Umari- K. “Intorno all’ autore del carme €15 ~h 6v nUOlolS 8EpM&. was town that Constantinopolitans visited for the cures of the warm baths. I V (1936).O4 4 7 Papadopoulos-Kerameus. noted that the springs Were still visited by the sick in his day. IV.S.” B. Ibn Battuta-Defrtmery. Giogruphie d’Edrisi. 1g43). the forces rebelling against Anastasius I1 were able to dew K a t TIVES ‘Eppalwv ‘pwhfis ah6ae K C X T O I K O ~ J T EBpnopdag ~ TE x & p v Kal T ~ S capitalize on this factor to raise a large fleet of merchant vessels in this area with which to &hhqs &q+3ovlas.~8 The whole region of northwest Anatolia was unusually favored. 111. 464.. Nicaea. 333 of naval stores and grain but an international trading centerogwhere in (hereafter cited as Drexl and Pertz). As late as the early fourteenth century Nicaea was an mpicmo66amov ~b xolpows K a l Bvovs. M. 645. Urkunden. 642. 659.” Thus Synnada also had a small group of Jews in the ninth century. Stddte Painjlpliens und Pisidiens. Al-Idrisi-Jaubert. der Wiss. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. 11. by its proximity to a large market in Constantinople.E. 318. I. Abydus was an important station for the levy- trans. Wheat was grown in the area and fish were supplied from the 6a Constantine Porphyrogenitus. 43. A. Stadt und Landschaft Pergainon mentions springs of cold water and apricots that were exported to Egypt. Anne Comnhe. notes that the environs abounded in fruits. Lion Choirosphactes (Athens. AS Nov. 11. 6Abydus. I t is quite possible that some of them were AS Nov. Heisenbefg produced and the thermal baths of the city were still visited at this late date. and Pylae enjoyed a certain prosperity because of and travelers and merchants voyaging between the two areas usually 45 Zepos. ed. 54. 1936. &istoliers byzantine. embellished since the time Archangel Michael.J. These dr/poyai-rov~gcame to town to sell their own and the town specialized in the export of swine. AS NOV.~ Abh. 590. Ibn Battuta-Defrtmery. Alexiade (Paris. Drexl and F.N. 643. The fish and crustaceans were believed to cure fever and 6 7 DarrouzPs. 1838). 323-324.” I t was still an important commercial center in thir- important area of silk production down to the early fourteenth century. V. 11. 1840)..~7 Pythia (the Turkish Yalova). a n d asses to produce. X Battuta-Gibb. 1 7 . XIII. 1g37). EVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF T H E TURKISH CONQUEST state khans for the residence of the merchant^. Sitz. stopped at Attaleiaao2It was not only an important center for the deposit 46 Michaelis Pselli Scripta Minora. . mpicpavfis Kal 671 &yxlahos K a i rr)\+jeos &I TOV 61 Theophanes Continautus. XXII. an important market for grain and livestock.. p. 365-366 (hereafter cited as al-Umari-Quatremtre). J.” A. ” prisoners taken in war. ahla &mopla Kal TpaypmIKh a w v a h h a y ~ m a . G. grapes were a speciality. 64 AS Nov. 4 0 Cedrpnus. “The City Walls of QuatrPmere. Anecdota. p. 385. 438. M.. Darrouzts. 720. Lampsacus. Ibn Battuta-Gibb. 17-20.b6 around the city. Laurent. 453. O 0 I n the early eighth century.rrhowTovVal ~ohliavSpov. Nicomedia. IV. lake. XI. 1g41). IOXWpbV 6k Th TOhhb. Theophanes. 143 (hereafter cited as Anna Comnena). Taeschner.P.01 It was the most convenient Adramyttium was a town of more than respectable s i ~ e . 387.C. Ibn S. Petersen. G.47 Its neighbor.O.R. 366.Leib. F. P~~ilosopti. der bay.40 and also to visit the church of the Con~tantinople. ‘I. which belonged to Psellus.E. 43 (hereafter cited as al-Umari-Taeschner) .H. 1. al-Idrisi-Jaubert. 241. E. “vrroh(~viov Al-Umari’s Bericht iiber Anatolien in seinem Werke masiilik al-absiir f i maniiilik al-amsiir EhEpiypaTTOV pkV. 44. ‘‘ Nkaia 1~6AisTohhois pkv ppt8E1 Tois Zlhois Kahois. a n d E.” in Notices et extraits des mss. of Justinian I with public baths and buildings. ‘‘ 4s &cpoppbv ElhOqcrav 01 TihEicrroi TGV EIS Kb~rpovT O P E U O ~ ~ U V . ~ harbor between the region of the Aegean and Cyprus and points eastward. p.-pliilolog-Kl. ( 1 9 2 0 ) ~263-337. some Helenopolis. a n d by the century Theophanes Continuatus refers to Nicaea as rich and heavily existence of fairly rich and large villages. 111.lEhE“Xs 6K&&EUeal K a l 8la”rEpb Kal Ta Denkmdler aus Nicaea-Iznik (Berlin. XI1 (1938). Chalcedon. IV. Pierre d’dtroa 837 (Brussels. Kolias. A. Iv. vavTq68Ev E ~ Sahfiv Kmaipo6vTwv . De Caerimoniis. Nicaea.5DGreat numbers of merchant populatcd. Mcrcati. pottery. I. de la bibliothdgue restoration of the baths by Leo VI. 132. 326.6a an equally active commercial center and mart for local farming pr0ducts. (1913).61 It is pertinent that the Arab geographer al-Mukaddasi vessels touched at such ports of call as Cyzicus. Jaubert (Paris. the archaeological finds indicate that in the eleventh base and commercial station that the Byzantines possessed i n southern century Pergamum was the site of some local industry. &istoliers byrantins. u~b~pv. for the de I’ouvrage qui a pour titre: Mesalek etc. p. 386. V. 111.” different site but this is perhaps a confusion with Side. Honigmann. Lanckorodski.” 6 2 E. I. Cius. Netie Quellen. I. 302 (hereafter cited as al-Idrisi-Jaubert).S.” p. 629. Schneider.. 2v &o-rEiov 6 x 6 ~ ~ 1 ~~rlrvros Kal paralysis. Defrkmery. For a survey of the history ofNicaea. “Vizantiiskie goroda. “Notices Procopius. Leo Choerospliactes composed a poem on the baths. Tpbs &plTOpelaVZXEIV EfiCpVGj. 1g3g). {KKahEiTal TOGS 8TlT7l8EbOVTaST b Xpqpa TpbS k l W T q V . P6as TE K a l ~ITITOWSK a l ~pdpccrctTOGS &va h @ important silk manufacturing center.I. 11. Ramischen und byzantinischen KOTOlKOhJTaS pee’ 6Oqs O h &V E k O I Tls hl!. 11. iii. I. indicates that later Attaleia was built on a 64B. Schneider. mentioned the presence o f Muslims in the cities of Bithynia. 4 8 Much of this produce was evidently shipped to Constantinople. Laudanum was Quellen zur Geschicltte des lateinischeti Kaistertirms und der Kirchenunion. A. the description of the village of Oreine in 6 o AS Nov. 111. commer- The city contained granaries for the agricultural produce o f the rural cially. oppose the emperor. 1. 11. p. horses. A. See for example in Drexl and Pertz. of large towns and centers of population. 11. Most of the silk teenth century commerce between Bithynia and Constantinople.Schneider and pEybha TTPCCY~UTEUT~KCC . Solch. 39. 322-324. 428. ” K.. P. I. Pertz (Milan. Akad. De Caerirnoniis. 209. Cyzicus.sS and its neighbor Anatolia. A. 304. 11. G. ing of maritime tolls.O. cattle.. . Quatremtre. Nicholas Mesarites. I b n Battuta-Gibb. 384. 263 (hereafter cited as “Un itintraire”). ” ‘I addition to the local merchants one could expect to see Arrnenians. visited by great numbers of ships. Die Stadtniauer von Iznik (Berlin. 63 Kaidan. Nicmann.60 The tenth. 720. O3 Constantine Porphyrogenitus. 1956). of which the “virgin” (1gr3-25). “Un itintraire arabe A travers le Pont..G. 52-53.” (Leipzig. ed. 183. by the presence environs49 and an active colony of Jewish merchants.

Trudy (St. “Saint Phocas..” Anatolia. William of Tyre. B..78 the Paphlagonian.rthapp&oucri. 93-94. N. ‘‘ ’Ap&mpa. and annotated by F. Nicetas d. 6 ~ f i sIla$. St. . ~ adis- . P. pp. Darrouzb. 8 7 Italians were calling at Attaleia at the end of the eleventh century. XXX ( I ~ I I ) . D e Caerinzoniis.. 43-47.A. I. 111. trans.G.ll. 421. de Planhol. Epistoliers Dyzantins.CV. VII (1954)~ 97-10?. V a l 6fi K a 1 hlC16Ul K a h O i S K a l O f K j T O P Q I b d E V 35 7 T E p I ~ C N E Q T & T O I $ K E X P ~ ~ ~ VS. a more important commercial center.05 Jews. Babcock and A. In the period of Ibn Battuta-Gibb.08 The northern Anatolian coast was the scene of similarly energetic I . was important as a grain port and naval base. :&as a1 of 7 z When George the bishop of Amastris had to journey to Trebizond to free merchants Y .instead of wood.G. Mansel. and the produce of the soil made Amastris one of the more prosperous towns on I the Black Sea. who always dedicated a share of the wheat (in which they traded) to his church. A History of Deeds Done beyond the Sea. pp. 73 Sinope.. ‘I . of Amastris from jail. 198-199. s of 41 relates that the “Scyths” who lived on the north coast of the Black Sea were in frequent and intense commercial relation with the inhabitants ofthe city. “Deux anciennes Cglises byzantines de la citadelle d’Amasra (Paphlagonie). o i K o 6 o C l r j a o l SEA TE h U N V P O i S K a t TEfXEUl KaPTEPOiS. 26. Die Ruinen uon Sida (Berlin. A. Thd Jews p. by way of example. 5 2 .I I 42I d 26 I A 27 0 28 C 29 D 30 E 31 1 this ties. Phocas was patron saint of the merchants and seamen.71 Its merchants were quite active as early as the ninth century.” Actes de X Congrds International d‘ztudes Byzantines 1955 (Istanbul. ” “Amastris.rr?tcri 6QTOTS EriTq6Etois 6alyihQS E 6 j e w o u p 6 v q . Starr. pp. also comments on the fertility of the soil.72The combination of local industry. .E. 7l Nicetas of Paphlagonia.” f the Cahiers Archkolagique.CV. Cjcrmp €75 TI K O I V ~ V O W V T ~ ~ X O V T E S ikia 1pdpiov.6 Pdpeiov TOG EO$E~VOU pCpos TIEP~OIKOGVTESZ K N a i . Van de Vorst. but possibly earlier as well. . C. Petersburg). hroptas X+IV KO~~~~CCVTES. ‘30-133. xxvi. Of rohhol r E p 1 T ~ V’A-rr&heiav T & T Q V I K ~ ~ E ETUXOV BVTES.957) PP. O g Nicephorus Bryennius. Urkunden. Oikonomides. XVI. 111. 03-85.. Eyice. y:: 73 Nicetas of Paphlagonia. . 184-219. T& r a p ’ Q m & v TE uuvEimpCpoual. “La ville byzantine de Side en Pamphylie. Its agricultural produce found ready markets in the less fertile regions of the Anatolian plateau. 189. 590. ““Ayios CJ @COKESb ZIVOTE~S. 421. 1963). i 1 I 74 c. “L’Cglise cruciforme byzantine de Side en Pamphylie.” and Italians.879-918.” P. Krey. The region of Synnada. became wealthy and great from this maritime commerce. ‘4 ‘5 .. records the case history of a certain Maurix who.they exported wheat to the Phrygian district.’’ 0 8 ~ Ankori. It was at too high an elevation for the cultivation of olive oil or the vine. trade. Phocas. C and probably earlier.” ’.07The Arab accounts of the ninth and 2s. A. dpBahp6s. 46-47. there were Latins. Supplementband X (1965). M. Heracleia engaged i n a brisk trade with Constantinople” and with Cherson. 7 O Constantine Porphyrogenitus. which needed its grain. 28 29 30 31 mkish 27 A W P E K~a l~ 6ia60uis ahjs. and Muslims in the city. Vasilievsky. K a 1 T&V r a p ’ ahfis &. 101-102. pi3hAov 6 i ~ i j Os ~ K O V ~ 6hlyou ~ ~ S . I11 (1958)..W.B. Tafel and Thomas.” A. ling commerce and industry.~ Vailht. ‘‘ 0 6 6 ~ v lpiv T ~ V h b y f s 9 Buhauuqs inires $ ‘ w y l ~ ~ vuravI&Tai*.G. Greeks. the site of the church of St. 6EiV. K a l ot rpbs V ~ T O V68 KEI~EVOI. X.74 and also as the sponsor of the great 055/1id.H.Mansel. 75 tenth centuries describe the district of Attaleia as densely populated and rich in cereals. Jews. O n Side. east of Attaleia: A. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST * saracens.G. . “Side. northeast was Amastris.. 11. 0 8 Ibn Hawkal. I. 1g5g). EIs fiv oi TE 1. 2 8 7 .” D. and for fuel the inhabitants had to utilize animal dung.qov[as. describing Amastris as the “eye” of Paphlagonia. though of humble origin.35-42. . P. 1. Keraites in Bymiltiurn (New York. 418. Nomadisme et uiepaysanne (Paris. produced only barley. 1958). XVII (IgsZ). @pga~ov. k p a K q V O ? S .70 TO the b Sea.” A. see Eyice. De la plaine pamphylienne aux lacs phidiens.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 12 b c B L A C K S E A b +I +I C C 10 10 d d 39 19 e e 38 38 f f 3i 37 4 9 36 36 h h 35 3F I !1 I I I I50 200 MILES I 27 I I 28 I 29 30 31 32 33 34 I 35 41 42 43 44 . 26 A 27 8 28 C 29 D 30 E 31 F 32 G 33 H 34 I 35 J 36 K 37 L 38 M 39 N 40 0 41 P 42 0 43 R 44 s 45 12 .

Central Asia. G. 8” I’npii~lo~~oulos-E. Antoniadis- nibicou.” U. was Trebizond. See also 0.C. It was officially observed by the go\-urrirncntoficials.rravjyvpls TGV ~ E Y ~ ~ w vI t.rai i i d h ~ ~ ~ &mop01 oi.el the most important of which was the panegyris of St. ‘O Cerasus.. Kirche wid thcologische Literntur im /p:anfinisc//en Ileicli (Munich. p o v a l 6 i K a l ITapOEviSvey 6 i a p E p o q p t v a i K a T h t J K V O l ral xAq8os AaoG O ~ K O WfipSfw5 dp~8poTOV.IT. ‘‘A Molybdobull of the Imperial Protospatharius Constantine. H-G. Moravcsik and R. Schlumberger.. Sbornik v istohiikov po istorii trajezundskai iinpcrii (St.R. Syria.) “ j w e e i pkv yap 76 . ed. In$. ‘‘ T&VU ~ 6 f i p 0 ~ 6 ~K a 1 paeaia $mi .. tmnj~in$. ” For the seal of the crites of the theme in the ninth-tenth century. p. Beck.. 381. 289. Uryer. It‘ecliercfies mr les douanes (2 Byzance. de Courteille (l’aris. rcfers to Trebizond as ~!wl-markets. D.G. I’apnclopoulos-~ermaneus. also the site of an imperial treasury in the eleventh century. and industry.Z. H Z I’a~~~~clopoulou-Il. 7 a Constantinc I’orphyrogenitus.244-246. L’ “octaun. H. EVE O F THE TURKISH OONQUEST Saraci panegyris. 56. 11. 58 (hereafter cited as Papadopoulos-Kerameus. ‘4 15 . Chrysanthos.” V. 4th scr. t r p . 111. which participated in this fertile The I \ ‘ I I 7-.cramcus. 11. imp. “Saint Phocas. in ternis of population. Lampsides.. Krites of the Thcnlt! of Chnldia. Eugenius.LVZI (1964). Anna Comncna. was ” .0.An..cro~ncus. I 897)..Is(. for the seal of a tenth-eleventh century con~mcrciariusof Amisus. or commercial fair. XXVII (1966). K a t Tap& ~rrtruqs.rlucincoiinu dc ‘I‘rkbizonde. B.80But significant as it was in the grain trade. pp. pp. Ist.)* (This is from the miracula of St. commerce. instituted in the region of Basil I: Merchants and travelers from all parts of the Middle lo Van de Vorst.” le “konmierkioti” et les commercinires (Paris. see A. J. p.). Bqooaplwvog ~ y ~ t b p l o€15 v T p a m c o i h a v G v T b IT~GTOV~ K & I & ~ ~ E V O V K W & ~ b vM a p K i a v b v K&61Ka (Athens.. pp. fexfc et traduction.rqviKaka K U I ~ O Gfi Tpa-rregoGs f j 6 ~ Kal mplomos qv K a l ITEplKhU- 705. The silk-garment merchants used this linen to line the so- caIlccl bombyccne tunics. Al-Idrisi-Jaubcrt. Trebizond was more important as a commercial center in which converged trade routes coming by sea from Cherson and by land from the Caucasus. 81. 49-50. 64.. IX (rgng). 7 9 I’apntlopoulos-Keramcus. ~ ) 3 (hcreafter cited as Mas‘udi).” Tlic city also had mining works in the vicinity. was one of the major textile centers of northern Anatolia. Petersburg. There were several market fairs held each year. Phocas.” A. “NicCtas ~vi.. I~nnipros. Eugenius by Joseph the metropolitan of Trebizond. I C I I ~ 11.9. ‘H kKhqtJk T Q a I T E < O k J T O ~ . maritime intcrcourse with the “Scyths” and the other Pontine cities. Jenkins (Washington. Papadopoulos-Kerameus.is‘ucli. until the end of the elevcnth century when the ‘Turkish invasions irltcrrup tcci the celebration.78 It was situated in the vicinity of the fertile grain-producing regions of Paipert and Chaldia70and served as a storage center and market for the region’s grain. traj. which traded rich ii3 41 P 42 P 43 R 44 s 45 r extensively with the Chersonese. Dc Adm. ?’ Zepos. fst. TE nheimoi K a l BAPioi. trap.” p. for bibliography. 380-381. “ fiSq y&p uoi K’awTaGOu . 81 M. rgG3).U. 1st. wealth. supplying Constantiriople with linen cloth. I 959). Les jmiria d’or. the patron saint of Trebizond. Xu$oAat E ~ S TT)V l a r o p h v Tpam[oiivro5. KUI ~Cqopos.” Revue Nutnistncitiqtte. 393. Amisus.U X E ~ ~ yijs V . I 967) pp. TOIS Iv T&I. held on the feast day of St.for an ecclesiastical seal of tbc clcvcmth and twelfth centuries (or possibly of the tenth century). pnssirn. im). Constantinople. 57-59. 286-287 (hereafter cited as Constantine Porphyrogcnitus.75 tenth Slightly to the southeast was another grain port. G. 9. De Adniitiistrnndo Imkerio. I 916 ) . “Sceaux byzantins inbdits. C. and Anatolia.. 77 Certainly the most important of the Anatolian cities on the Black Sea. On the later pcriod. XI1 (1906)~ 1q. IV-V (1936). &O@(ETO* T ~h~i j p x o v 6v a h f j o k I T ~ O ~ I X O VTE bhlyoi K a I oTpmili. 348-34. imp. I 68-1 70. de Maynard and P.

Cedrenus. India..se Many of its inhabitants moved to the town Eona and Oenoe were smaller towns of some commercial note. p. trans. “ K a l ITCntTOfWV ChVfOV. 101-102. For the shrine of St. 11. 416.000builders and 200 plasterers. Attaliates.. 577.. is I 188.” should be sent to the coasts of the provinces of Armeniacon. 4. 328.nj 8“ a commerce of salted fish taken from Lake Van and of clay for crockery.rrohhol Zp~~opoi KM’ l p y a o f a v Iv -rahais oiKoijoiv. also recently acquired. 11. prosperous. Aside from the grain most important of these and located to the southeast of Trebizond was that Trebizond sent to the imperial capital on the Bosphorus. Armenia. The earliest mentlon of Jews in Byzantine Trebizond and numerous population.A.Q4The town via the emporium of Trebizond. vey&hqv .. reflected by such authors as Theophanes and Constantine Porphyro. sands of the sea.rrpoa66ou~.. mo-rdrras odoas Kal oias ~ o h h h s..rraibla phr were to b e prevented from going to Cherson with their much needed EVTacea IITTfihaT& t b ‘ l . W. pp. p. 11. Trudy.. iv’ O ~ T W Ei. was a n important and very populous emporium.rrhiieoy o\jK EirapfOvq-rov +pouua. relates that commerce O 8 I t is one of the few Byzantine towns whose personality momentarily shines through flowed from Trebizond to the Georgian town of Adranoutzi. O’ Matthew ofEdessa. 148. 577. In the mid-eleventh century Toghrul attempted to Trebizond. describes 8 0 Istahri. O 0 Matthew of Edessa. Imp. ‘‘ v6his E m1p~yirhqK a i . 122-125. Manzikert as dowry. 415. T h e former relates that when Constantine V wished to rebuild Minor. I. If grain does not pass Trebizondines were engaged in a vast international commerce between across from Aminsos and from Paphlagonia and the Bukellarioi and the flanks of the Armeniakoi. he decided to abandon the enormous customs revenue. 1858). 638. “Sultan! take this sow to wife and we shall give you Ibid. ‘‘ Kal . including tant were the perfumes and other exotic items that entered the empire not only local Syrians and Armenians but also many othcrs.gl Also. Constantine Porphyrogen- . pp. effort. imp.G. rj) &. Abasgia. . . was later repeopled primarily with Jacobite existence of the Chersonites. Dulaurier Papadopoulos-Kerameus. I. 79. Greek merchants brought them. a Caucasian people. and confiscate the cargoes. Georgia. the exports of grain. ’?&+t Histoire du conzmerce du Levant au moyen age (Leipzig. 393.83 if the Chersonites do not journey to Roumania and sell the hides and wax that Russians. 214. he numbers of churches and grain silos. arrest the O6 Attaliates.rrohu(p6pou~ TE K a l Theophanes. I. The latter. 416-417. T h e Kachaks. and extensive emporium with commerce coming to it from the darkness of the sourceless period. pp.” ae Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Ani.80 and C i r c a s ~ i a n s . (Paris.08 Melitene. k TE yhp ’Iv8Gv K a l TGV I T h q u t o x h p w v ’Ipfipwv T&VTWV TE cbs d m i v TGV l v nbpoais @vQv K a l ‘ P w p a l o v TIVGV~h qopda EO-KO~I@~EVOI BvTaCOa &hhfihois~ ~ ~ ~ & h i h h Ctironique o ~ u i .rroIp1. . Paphlagonia. . but it is quite possible that they were to be found there earlier. Ep. came to the city to purchase Greek brocades and other textiles. ~ The ~ they get by trade from the Pechenegs. d’zdesse (gGz-1136)auec In continuation de Grkgoire leprttrejusqu’en 1162. 148.Q6Theodosiopolis in the vicinity seems the commerciarioi levied.$\> &b JI .43-47. ‘‘ K W ~ ~ I T O ~6’qv IS ~ohcp Irhqebs ~’BVSKEI ah?. C o l ~ h i a n s . The merchant ships of these provinces in the days of Justinian I. De Adm. in return for the goods that the O2 Constantine Porphyrogenitus. pp. a large Pontus. 40. sent to Pontus such items as hides and O3 . ~ dc ’ Matthieu 83 Mas‘udi. pp. elaborates on the wealth 86 Ankori. This latter is depicted as a very busy. xxv. 3. 1g23).86 ~ Georgians.rros. the latter as a ship building center and naval base.rrohiTefav. one of the most recently acquired cities of the empire in eastern Asia genitus. 123.” The situation was much the same crews. One of the were imported into the Islamic world via Trebizond.Al-Idrisi-Jaubert. m. Heyd. trap. Keraites. The inhabitants of Manzikert then placcd a pig on a hallista and hurled it into Mas‘udi. very impor. He brought 1.r k 2. 2 I 6-2 I 7.. It collected KOpp6pKiOV h E p V . and Bucellarion to take possession of the Chersonite ships. 83-84 (hereafter cited as Matthew of Edessa).88 The tenth-century Arab Prior to the Seljuk invasions. with great the acqueduct of Valens i n Constantinople during a severe drought. as ‘ * K W ~ ~ T T O ~ ~ Spupfav6pos Kal rrohbv Tihokrov &ouua. 188 gb>. remarks that its population was as numerous as the $SPI d ~ 3.” Melitene itself brought in a 16 =7 . x w p 6 1 ~ o h i v . E. Eugenius for cures: Arabs. to have. and Syria. ” wax which they acquired from the Patzinaks. 208. History qf the Wars.dl d. Imp. pp. they cannot live. III. 11.” Matthew of Edessa. 286-287. Armenians.OOThis whole tier of Pontic of Artze where commercial conditions were more favorable.rrot K a l I T ~ O ~ T O SJlv a h o i s ITE~ITT~S. 440. but after the towns participated in a vital commercial and industrial life.A.rropo~G’fiaav 01 &Opw. take the city but after a furious siege that was unsuccessful. a fact Turkish sack of Artze much of the populace returned to Theodosiopolis.. De Adm. the Chersonites cannot live. Artze. B. 6Ua mEpUIKI] T E K a l ’IV61Kfi K U l fl hOl7Tfi ’ A d a ( p i p . 11. . Theophanes Continuatus. a fairly large townD3inhabited by numerous merchants. refers to it variously as “. KGval 6k ITOhhal lTOhUWepoTl’6TaTOl 6KqVTal dr/XWT&T”W drhh4hais K a l . “ T b h f O q p O V K a l k&KOUoTOV K a l T & V U 6XUpbV Kal SUVWbV KdtUTpOV . Im). 11. 45-47. the Byzantines possessed in eastern Anaiolia Istakhri relates that most of the Greek textiles and brocades in his day a number of comparatively prosperous commercial towns.g7At the easiernmost extremity was transported craftsmen and builders from western Asia Minor and the town of Manzikert.92 east and west. wine. Ist. 107 ff.” Zonaras. . Procopius. a4 Cedrenus. Greeks. O8 Constantine Porphyrogenitus. imperial agents K a l drpiepbv irmpf3alvouoa. The trade of the region furnished a possessed and traded in all types of goods and wares that were produced in further source of revenue to the state by virtue of the customs duties that Persia. *Jews.3. . Al-Idrisi-Jaubert. ” o o Al-Idrisi-Jaubert.. I. and other commodities were commercial towng0that had been incorporated into the empire during not only necessary for Constantinople but were absolutely essential to the the reign of Romanus I. . and ihe rest of Asia. the sultan’s camp with the cry.. pp. 44.rrohu&vOpw. been a n important caravan town that traded with the Georgians i in the early tenth century. 11.Attaliates. D e Adtn. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST East were to be seen buying and selling goods in Trebizond and visiting cargoes.rrap&Eiv . Vasilievsky. S itus tells his son that in case the Chersonites should revolt. 393 Melitene and the surrounding towns were quite prosperous. calls it in the tenth century.

Byzantine Mesopotamia. ‘‘ . W. P I July I 137. trans. et sur loutcs les merchandises comme or. Urkunden. I. in the elcventh century a wealthy inhabitant of Melitene. Liudprand. I 17. 136. 48-55. J-B. Ev K U ~ +cicipos K & J ~ Kal xdpa id a h I j v 6kpfa K a l &yaefi. i “Arab-Byzantine Relations under the Umayyad Caliphate. G .000 Armenians. Becker in Die Werke Lindpmnds van Cremona. 54.O. and they are Byzantines) were rebuilt at the expense of the wealthy Syrian inhabitants. Chabot. 414-415. precious stones. les animaux el “Malatya. though actually not in inhabited and productive clusters of villages in their environs.Matthew of Edessa. .P. 130. and trans.” D. trading in ureservcd bv the Islamic. 1gz4). a Syrian Christian. 1go5). was very important in the economic life of the empire and highland town of Tzamandus was also wealthy and of good size. though certainly not as pauihE1SS rohhas Xihl&Gas xpuuiou Kai &pywplou ~ K E K ~ VSaopotpopeio8al I-rqolws I T E T T O ~ ~ ~ K E VG. ‘‘ 1 ~ 6 h i ~. Abd al-Masih. Tarsus. He is either refer- lo( Matthew of Edessa. 130-131 (hereafter cited as Michacl the Syrian).000 Latins.. Archelais. I a ‘9 .rrirhts piv fi M E ~ I T Tp~yckhq I‘ .O. which arc also local in character. 06 ToiS argent. Arabic and Persian Sources (Oxford. weavers. cobblers. and people. 703. S. Budge (London. center and prior to its destruction by the Turks in the twelfth century was inhabited by others remained in their Faith. Gough. and some of them were baptized and became Christians. . a considerable portion of it must have entered into and passed inhabited by wealthy merchants. X V I I I (1964). Edessa was an important textile citizens returned to TarsBs. brocart grec.~ ~ ~ K C C ~rohudrvOpw. Article twenty-one speaks of caravans coming from Byzantium to the move to Melitene as they were accustomed t o living between two peoples. This trade had no doubt always existed and the the commercial route connecting Mesopotamia-Syria with Anatolia. and the supply of food Syrians. perhaps this culogy was lifted from the legislation of Justinian. ITisto7y of the Patriarclls o f the 111. Ankori. pp. silk merchants. Both the Armenians and reveals incidental facts about the cities in this area. The C~ironographyof Gregory Abu’l Faraj the Son of loo Cedrenus. after being ( I 958). and. p. A.loOThe Asia Minor.” Me7anges ogerts d M.lo4Aniioch. Les pays. refers to A d a m and habitants resisted the Turks valiantly. ~ g r q ) I. favored by its location on of Byzantiurn a n d Islam. M.lo3 obviously dependent far much of tenth and eleventh centuries were populous and prosperous. XXVII (1958). pp.” Anatolian that they struck the imperial gold coinage at their own expense.000 Greeks. Cilicia. with thickly their prosperity o n trade with Syria. I. Michael the Syrian. 11.” I V But fines (sundus). Tafel and Thomas. 165. trans. “A Letter of Historical Importance from Seleuceia (Selefke).4. Hebraeus). I E ~ SKoupa-rcop[av hoKcc-racT-rfioaS b important point of religious pilgrimage. 107-108. 11. And many of her further discussion of the population of towns see below. Hisstoire de la dynastie 1957).. Sourdel-Thomine (Damascus Hamdanids in 969-970. sur les ktoffes (ordinaires). ce seront les douaniers du chambellan et de Bakjur aprts lui qui l o o Cltronique de Michel le Syrien Patriarche Jucobite d’dntioch. 48. Bar Hebraeus. In the the saints’ lives.” E I I . trans. was the principal town of Cappadocia. 111. E. Aprts eux tous ces drolts seront p e r p par les douaniers impCriaux. I 9 I 5). and Heracleia. “En ce qui concerne la dime Byzantine hippodrome and baths were still to be seen. la dime.lo’ Nigde. History ofthe World. Zonaras. V ” Nicetas Choniates. 8. Scriptores reruni geriimicnrum inti st4tii the Syrian. Guide des lieux de &Yerittage. ed. 94.” Ficker. For an account of the shrine of St.502. Michael ed. Z ~ O . Goitein. Tarsus as large towns with an active commerce and fine stone bazaars. soie non travaillte. “Un Cpisode de l’histoire des refers to Adana as a ~ 6 h 1 vSee . and was exceedingly prosperous. Syrian. There is a par. Keraites. ‘‘ T a h q v oih . (Cairo. 85-150. Erlusse des Putriarcherz van Konstantittopel Alexios Studites (Kiel. According to Sawiras ibn al-Mukaffa’. . who are provincial in nature. dated Baghdad. says that the Greeks For a complete analysis of this treaty preserved in I h m a l al-Din. 111. 4 .lO8 Caesareia. and 1. see Canard. Seleuceia. and tailors. for a total of 35. prClevCe sur (se q u i vient du) pays des Rum. . in 1071-1072. translated from the Arabic text by Canard.000. see Honigmann. lo7 Cedrenus. says it was full of gold.rros. p. indicates the presence of Greeks in S. 3d ed. says of Anazarba. 1932). brocades. For therein was so abundant that 1 2 litres of bread were sold for one zGz. 111.P.lo2 Nisibis and Edessa were coni. pp. 1g51). Edessa is one of the few cities for which there are his revolt was able to raise considerable sums of money from its inhabitants. bijoux. Its in. and ed. 149.Z ~ I . scholaiuin ex Monumentis Genmmzae Historicissel. dv drrroKpfipVcp-rr. Aside from the commercial and industiial importance of l o g Thus. repoIted to have loaned Basil I1 100 centenaria of gold.23. 305 (hereafter cited as Sawirus ibn al-Mukaffa’). it wa5 also an important producer of wheat. Ctoffes de soic druayKaiots p6vov EIS PIOv &ih)\h K a i Tais ~ r ~ p l r r o Ei s~ ST ~ P ~ E\jeuvoupivrp.lo1The trade with the Muslim east was transacted in northern and eastern Asia few remarks tha t emerge from the sources reveal that this town was Minor. It was one Adana. Wiet (Cario.rrohUnhq8q -rr6hlv. and Armenian authors. Bagfzdad duritig the Abbasid Caliphate f r o m Contemporary rebuilt. reign of Constantine X Ducas the walls of the city (destroyed in the tenth century by the But for south and central Anatolia we have only thc 13yzantine chronicles. Constantinople and in the lands under the sway of the Turks.G . 20. J. 541. Anazarba and Podandus in the paratively populous and wealthy. vii-viii. pcrles.” Zonaras.aratiin editi (Hannover-Leipzig. 52. 11. 1g37). iii. 133. 1x1 reconstruction of the towns of the area under hlcxius Comnenus. Rdasse. Chabot prClCveront. In eastern Asia Minor information Syrian Christian merchants of Melitene were very active commercially. 146. . have preserved significant information. 171. Canard.. commercial ports of southern Anatolia.. ring to conditions of the eleventh century or else to the period of the reconquest and l o fGibb.” Al-Idrisi-Jaubert. See also Yakubi. PZ. I 98. 6. I1 ( r g y ) . Le Strange.. p. . attracted Jewish merchants fi-om Egypt as settlers. “Les relations politiques ct sociales entre Byzancc et les Arabes. lo8 Nicephorus Phocas recolonized Tarsus after its conquest. Gustave Schhmberger (Paris. les Ctoffes de soie L fleurs de diverses couleures (huzyun). 173-174. 111. ‘‘ K O V ~ O T ~ ~o6aa ~ ~ OKS a i rohuCtv0po. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST ChristianslOO and to a lesser degree with Armenians and Greeks. Legatio. 133. Aaron. relates the story of the three sons of a certain Abu Imrun who were so rich 133. 4. trans. which went to the treasury at Con- . FIain- refused to settle there and so Nicephorus Phocas asked the Syrians and their church to danides. 502. d h l s &pxaia Kal cot6 dcs douaniers de Qargawaih et Dakjur. los Cedrenus. 28. but all their children were baptized. 11. is said to have ransomed 15. 835. I. Attiya and Y .hpq K E I ( ~ TrohU&U8pwTros ~ v ~ ~ Kai ‘rrhohq~mpIppl8fiS. 833-837. p. A. 178 (hereafter cited asBar 33. relates that the yearly tax. p. “Anazarbus. autres merchandises. they are Studies.” English summary of the article in Tarbiz. and Seleuceia wcre significant towns charac- of the important points at which commerce flowed between the domains terized by commercial enterprise.lQ7 especially in the commercial activities of the Anatolian towns. J. 19111. through southern and central Anatolia. les douaniers imphriaux prtlCveront la dime. see Attaliates. d-irloqpos.” Scylitzes. the Hebrew Pfpsiciaii commonly known as B a r Hebraeus beitig tfle First Part of fiis Political in the twelfth century still regards Anazarba as ‘‘ T T ~ ~ Iwpiqavij. 1959). D.” (Paris. p. journeyed through Anatolia in the latter half of the twelfth century the des Flamdanides de Jezira et de Syrie (Algiers.ooo “And Tars& was (re)built. Egybtian Church.000Christians from the Turks a t five dinars a head. Matthew of Edessa. Cinnamus. silver. passim. Zonaras.. lcs Ctoffes d e lin. pierres prCcieuses. I n the eleventh century these Unfortunately source niatcrial is lacking here. Anazarba produccd fruit in great abundance. Michael the concerned only with the capital. the city had. p. in addition. 100. 11. For northern and western Anatolia Syrians had their own church and corporation of merchants in Constantinople. Mopsuestia. domain of Islam. 111. 11. des douaniers de I’empereur sikgcront tr Basil. I.” Rardas Sclerus during stantinople was fifty pounds of gold. 11. 111. Svriac. Al-Idrisi-Jaubert. ” Ficker. for mention of the Croisades.rroS.106Though much of this the seat of one of the most important Greek metropolitanates and an rich revenue to the crown. ticularly significant mention of it in the treaty concluded between the Byzantines and l o D When al-Harawi. population figures. wars and ratzius only temporarily interrupted it.

and his The Cities and Mactdonien dans les inscriptions d’Ancyre. Phfygia). XI11 (I928). In order to ransom him he was obliged to raise several thousand gold pieces. a and entrance to the plateau.r&a 67) b x6pos &$ova TUpEiXEV. Amorium. The Historical Geograp/y of Asia historiques d’Ancyre. -rouoiirov 6B tvvfix~~at -roh(tl. Grbgoire.” D. but it is difficult to ascertain the period to which he capital it continued to be a large town. West of Caesareia was the city of Anatolian towns. vol.lls Between Dorylaeum and Nicaea were the doubtlessly continued to produce these materials during the Byzantine lesser towns of Malagina. myrtle.11l Chonae. van hineranalolien (Greisen. Mocius in Constantinople. towns. in one of his numerous campaigns against the Turks the brother of Alexius Comnenus was 113lbn Buttuta-Gibb. west of considerable commercial life. Northwest of Iconium. Euchaita. ” As the Seljuk where communication routes meet. religious. 6445. The markets abounded in fruits. C. the century. ed. cardamum. S. Broughton.rrohiTda in the eleventh and productive countrysides. textile manufacture in the region of Laodiceia was already famous in the time of the This h e was able to d o from the rich of Ankara and the neighboring towns by promising to geographer Strabo. still refers to Amorium as a . Polybotus. 430. 207. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST large as Caesareia. Trocnada.R. compared the gardens of the city to those 6th TOO T $ ~ E~ i vCpa . When the members of the Third Crusade passed refers. Pithecas. I E V ~ ~ E V O VEAAITTQ~ 118Nicetas Choniates.110 It has been assumed that the city had all Iconium. “Ancyre. before its Tp0KU8fipEVnl ~h p&Aio-ra -rrohu&vBpw.” Festxchrvt Gearg Jacob (Leipzig. but it K C l T a T V E i . 523-524.and farther north were Gangra and Castamon. figs.l14 Amorium. and commercial ninth century is possibly an indication that Amorium was the site of focal point of south-central AnatoIia. P. Ionia. VIII.lZ0Slightly to the east was Saniana clothes and materials. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas.l17 The largest and most important of the plateau towns in valleys supported livestock and a host of agricultural products which northwestern Anatolia was Dorylaeum. 11. recovered and was attended by the inhabitants of Lydia. The lakes were well stocked with fish.rrhfiOsi TEKal pay6OEi &v6p6v TE Kal olKi6v K a l T ~ V lloTheophanes Continuatus. “Michel I11 et Basile le Minor (London. 388. Located near the sources of the river. 42. and other fruits. On Byzantine Ankara.llO Chonae and Laodiceia. Al-Umari-Quatremhre. *urkish Conquest (Oxford. and K a l Bua &VOpbrroIs ipovfiv &EI. Nova Series. along the road to Dorylaeum. Ein Beitrag zur Siedlungs-und Wirtschaftsgeogra&hie when they devastated Amorium in the reign of Romanus IV.” Byrantion. Caria. rg28).G. %dUqp& T€ K a l mpiqmvfis K a l ~ p b qTQV PET& T ~ VpaaihEOovuav K a l T ~ Vh a u 6 v T T ~ ~ E W V Nacoleia. 8. however. no-ra& ti& cited as Ansbert). Geograplly. Wittek.. sluzba. Tyriaeum. Attaleiates. 8AAwv xpqa-rav xal (IlAWT6V 61apipovua. 2. Al-Idrisi-Jaubert. pEyfUTq $V Tois &VOTOhlKOiS7 f l S POpa?Kqs hIKpOT€kYS p6pEUIV . its plain watered by the streams of the town of respectable size. p. These included Laodiceia Cecaumene. Karalevsky. the Turks killed large numbers of the inhabitants W.” EI.H.Pfeifer. the he observed that the Greek textile workers were still making excellent most important of which was Ankara. 693. The fields produced rich harvests Michael. also drew their livelihood from their position on the celebrated sack by the Arabs in the ninth century. The northern rim of the plateau contained a number of towns. were urban agglomerates that lived from the traffic passing but disappeared as a result of the Arab destruction. 11. Zonaras. Ibn Battuta-DefrCmery. lg0 Its medieval walls alone would indicate its importance. they were possessed of well-watered and villages. K a l 7TE6fa ?Tap’ U h f i V TkT-raTal hElbTl)76$ TE ThEiOTOV 4 K O V T a KU\ soon declined. existed a series midway between the Halys and Iris rivers. famed for its textiles in late antiquity. Philomelium. Milunges de I’Universilk S t . “ qv y&pT&E .G. 307. was larger than the church of St. brvepch-rrwv TE nohrrrrhf@Elav 301. the administrative.l13 (a military base) .H. Chroust. “Mtlanges d’archtologie anatolienne. 144-293. the city enjoyed the advantages that strategic result of the great trade fairs held at the panegyris of the Archangel location and generous nature bestowed.E. says that For references to the church as a site of pilgrimage.. who is very careful in the nomenclature that he applies to cities. 1932). the villages were densely and the faithful came on pilgrimage to see the great church of the Arch. Joseph.” speciality of the craftsmen of Lydia and Phrygia in antiquity. with its mosaics. Caborcion. Acroenus. and as a commercial center &ov Kal T i k I Tois 60Ko~ul ir/aeoiS ~ ~ q v o \ i p w o v . Santabaris. houses of illustrious citizens. 425. enjoyed a certain commercial prosperity as a Bathys and Tembris. 75 (hereafter TE ~ 6 a GalyiAq v p&Aima ht6166vai Kal cippbv nap+uOaI &u-raXw. Die Pasdanhchaft von Nigde. and angel with its mosaics. 111. 818. G. “Inscriptions 11*For a discussion of these smaller towns. Zonaras. Located at the point of egress from included liquorice. The gold embroidery which I b n Battuta mentions was a repay the loan with interest. grapes. 230. n7r-r7na The tradition of captured.rov I T O ~ I T I K ~ VTE . Ibn Battuta-Defrtmery. V (Igag). the panegyris hapnpal K a l KQpar rohv&vOpwnoi quav OEpp& TE aGr6pocra Kal a-roal Kal ~ ~ h u v o l . The church. 12 I . Geography). Paphlagonia. M. 1957). ser. of grain and the rivers abounded in fish. 202. Kal l&ov n a v ~ o 6 m 6 vyIvq rpipowua”. ‘‘ T b 6B Aopbhaiov TOGTO q v plv BTE n 6 h 1 ~ qv paydthq TE describes it as a beautiful city where routes converged. W.” p. “Skazaniia 42 amoriiskikh muzenikakh i tserkovnaia centers. XII. was a center of commercial of smaller towns that served as administrative. zgpzg5. along the road leading from Iconium to the Maeander River valley. Asia Minor.”With the stabilization 0 6 6 a ~ i jylvauOai. 118 Cinnamus. 329 ff. “Ammuriya. 20 21 . no. Ramsay. speaks of it as a beautiful town with forty towers. and military 116Vasilievsky and Nekitene. phrroi hirap& K a l o h w s E ~ Y E W . 11. and wine. “ n 6 h EfiGalyova ~ Kal p~y&Aqv. 135. V I l . 11.rrosK a l ’IrhijOos &pGOq. 111. V (Berlin. fountains. and Pessinus. n A f i O q ixelswv of Damascus. pp. and L e ~ c a e .. 281.” Byzantion. “ n6hs Synnada. 327-346.d~ ~ f i v ll1 Ansbert. I I . 1 ~ ~ period. Nicetas Choniates. see below. aepa TE yhp T ~ Vx6pov tmarahfi visited it in the first half of the fourteenth century it was still an impressive town. Bishoprics ofphrvgia.. .” Canard. Al-Idrisi-Jaubert. 110 Attaliatcs. for when Ibn Battuta saw the city in the early fourteenth century. by the city they noted it to be larger than the city of Cologne. p. ecclesiastical. populated and the city was embellished with stoas. 355. &pfiXav6v TI IrpopaivovTa K ~ A A o00ro ~. pomegranites. Cotyaeum. Merchants traveled long distances to do business at this event. 11’ Attaliates. IV (1927-28). “ lrohhol yhp T ~ ah6pwv V Xpvuiov m-rrbpqauiv &@.ll6 and the presence of Jews in the city during the early Iconium. 310. Ramsay. I 895-97) (hereafter cited as Ramsay. 11. E ~ E PTIS rQv $v ’Aulq K a l A6you &cfanohhoir.G. was one o f the larger road system of southern Anatolia. 11.692. . lvTcrirOa MEhiuuqv6v ITOTE Kaiuapi olKfai TE $@pK066p‘()VTUI of relations between Konya and the Byzantines in the late twelfth century. When Ibn Battuta-Gibb. de Jerphanion.” Zapiski inzperatorskoi akademii nauk. 16. .” Iconium see chapter iii.l12Laodiceia. 437-468. doov E ~ S6alyiAeiav I-rois T Q ~ E& ? . p. . T ~ ~ I T E I K a l i66uOai Kahbs K a l yE\icauOaI fi6rjs. Bryennius. 1890) (hereafter cited as Ramsay. Being an Essaj ofthe Local Histov ofphrygiafronr the Earliest Times to the “Zur Geschichte Angoras im Mittelalter. communications.

‘‘ Kal 6 1 f p 6id T ~ S works were still being exploited in the thirteenth-fourteenth centuries at which time T O ~ ~ Wa2lhiis V mci)~hro-rieEyhv yAo-rarrLGwv XapGiavwv. . islands as well as with Constantinople. scriptions.H. and they built ships. vaticano graeco 676 (Berlin.S. VI. . Bollig. I. or from Euchaita. and material from the Turks. maritime and hinterland trade routes. 54. physician of rhe caliph Murawakkil. iron. la* Psellus-Renauld. On carpet production in ohopo\sv. . The Anatolians manufactured brocades and in a metalliferous region and the mines seem to have been worked in various textiles of linen. silk. icp’ b v OGGEIS txhhos merchants from the Muslim world came to purchase the metal. swords. and the Achemenid royal court. 166-167.” EI. V. 111..~’ The textile industry of a city with numerous inhabitants and wealthy in gold. The routes are given in Ibn Khuradadhbih.O. deLagarde and J.12% Doceia. The major land Smyrna. Muslim. Cyprus. Recueil des inscriJ%ions grecques clrre’tiennes d’Asie Mineure (Paris. Johannis Euchaitarum mtropolitae quae supersunt in cod. ecclesiastical. VI. pro- Byzantine and Seljuk times. though chopped up Cilician Gates and other routes.” passim. was thc various cloths and textiles produced in late ancient Anatolia.. 3 (Leipzig) p. incense. 155. IV. “-robs T& ~ p G 1 . I n spite of the aridity of the historical sources. plateau.lZ0The peninsula was a major region of the Byzantine mining Circassian. See also n.A. vol. .G. Ibn Fadlan’s Reisebericlrl. carpets . B. Manandian. Coloneia. “Marvazi and the Byzantines. see chapter vii. cspecially brocades. 64 (hereafter cited as Ibn Fadlan-Togan). 0 torgovle i gorodakh Arinenii v sviaei s mirovoi torgovle i drevnikfi vrernen (Erevan. the churches with their efleminacy. The rugs of Sardes were las Vryonis. of this commerce found its way into the cities of the plateau via the tioned by every tongue”. p. 225 ff. 4. stockings. 185. Again. describes the Byzantines as “gifted in crafts and skillful in the fabrication of (various) articles. lead. 13. “The Main Industries of the Mediterranean Area as Reflected in the Cecatrrneni strategicon et incarti scriptoris de oJiciis regiis libellus (Petropolis. lal P. Sebasteia. Nicopolis. and trans. Amaseia was located in the Anatolian towns. trade and commerce. ‘‘The Question of the Byzantine Mines. Also Nichacl towns ultimateIy reaching Constantinople in the west or Trebizond in the the Syrian. according to Turkish tradition. silver. Much of this commerce must have deployed itself along the river I O I ff. Records of the Cairo Geniza. I. Vailhd. of this town were still alive in the nineteenth century. Antioch. I 922). Chersonite. were widely demanded in the Mediterranean.E.. Armenian. Asin a mining town. XXXVII (1962). “Das M i d im Bericht Uher die Schatze der Fatimiden.I’ AS Nov. On the import of Byzantine luxury items into late tenth-ccntury Egypt. some of this commerce was sea with the result that the city prospered. and Anatolia was of great renown in late antiquity.P. 166. 207 (hereafter cited as John Mauropus. textiles.M.64.and lZ4 When the Turks attacked Sebasteia in the eleventh century. silk. Y . I I 1-1 I z. I. much as Ankara and borne from Trebizond to Constantinople and to other harbors. and the Caucasus while the commerce of the only to the Chinese in thcse skills (a theme that reappears in the Mathnawi ofDjalal al-Din Aegean coastal centers was connected with the Greek peninsula and the Rumi in the thirteenth century). 72 (here.la4 must have produced many of the everyday items that they needed in their Anatolian towns were subject to ever-present and powerful currents of own urban and rural life. duced glassware and pottery. considered to be among the finest in the ancient world. 7-8. 223.ras. ed. XXIV. Ahrweiler. east. arrows. “Amaseia. Georgian. They were highly prized by the When the Turks first invaded the area the inhabitants sought refuge in the mines. Canard. they wove carpcts. X ( I 950).O. 27. habitants of Amaseia in order to raise the ransom money with which to purchase Roussel The Byzantine products of the silk industry.” J. alum. Various types of craftsmen. and other naval supplies.” They are second Constantinople. and Argyropolis were important administrative. wore gowns of Byzantine silk would indicate Mapyapwfi. “the city rnen. 570 in chapter iii. 91.G. Maritime commerce came to the marble. and l a bMinorsky. Neocaesareia. and the Aegean. producing silver. was a town of importance as a result of its strategic location in I Antioch to Attaleia and other ports.lZ6 by precipitous mountains.62-464. 817-823.” Z. and Italian merchants traversed the industry.E. Athcnaeus. pp. possibly some gold. The maritime commerce of the coastal towns was tied up with laaMinorsky. LXXXIX ( 1 9 3 5 ) ~ valleys and mountain passes leading from the littoral to the towns of the 363-371. pp. and of a butcher from seventh and eighth route from the east entered the various border cities from Antioch in the century Caria. I. Aegean. though.D. Ka-rkmo 6’ tmppMAovcTav ~ p ~ c ipdbt i~p y v p 6 ~ 0 6 0 K ~A ~ V ~ S high domes were so numerous that the Turks a t first hesitated to enter.” 18. I n the north the trade followed the coastal Caravans travel from Syria to Constantinople where they have their depots. Its fair attracted merchants from afar south to Trebizond in the north. For the export of Anatolian capets and textiles to thc Turks of Central Asia. 22 . Lagarde). “ . textiles.Argryopolis. 1g54). eighth to tenth-century Tralles. -rroAv&vepwrov n6h1v . they Minor. mentions the existence of an important state prison.acp8pov. Mediterranean littorals. incited the poor of the city to riot in eastern Asia Minor.lZ1Amaseia. There is evidence for the existence of well-developed local industry Like so many other towns in northeastern Anatolia. But at the same time a good portion the mountain passes (Psellus speaks of it as a famous city. 156. Bar Hebraeus. Anna Comnena. “Armenia. 2 1 . mandils. Togan in AOlrntzdlungert Jiir die Kunde dcs I ..” Speculum. . “Smyrne. mentions cloth merchants in eleventh-century Doceia. IV ( I ~ G I )175. shields.”and were associated by the Greeks with excessive luxury . struck their first coins from the metal mined there. “Byzantinc Mines.G.) contain the epitaphs of marble workers from the regions of tenth-century supplied by Egypt. and cotton. 462-4. and semiprecious stones. carpets. copper. I t is of interest that I-Iudud al-Alam men- opposition to the suggested loan.1zz) Its rural neighborhood. trouser cords. the Turkish Giimushhane. it and merchants are mentioned on rare occasion in the texts and in- seems quite clear that Greek.S. that Byzantine textiles were fashionablc in ninth-century Baghdad. the Gabriel. 5’4. Alexius Comnenus found himself forced to rely upon the wealthy in. wool. was nevertheless well watered and productive. 2. For a detailed listing of the refercnces to brocades. 1896) p. however. specialized labor. The mining traditions of the Greeks lZ7 Vryonis. pp. Jewish. E-rrdpcc~v~w fi @aoihah~. describes Rum (Anatolia) as a very rich province producing great quantities of brocades. 143.” pp. Cherson.I 9. Morgenlandes.” See also Goitein.” The rich Amaseians. prccious stones. The anony- mous author of the Hudud al-Alam-Minorsky. The sea trade of Attaleia was incomplete (Grbgoire. De@zosoplristae. Russian. Thc hagiographical and other texts note various craftsmen. It was at that time \j-rr~o-rpwy&q I a p S i a v ~yiAo-rdt-rriGi T L ~ VT&WW TTOAWEAGV. Broughton.lZ7Food production played a very Anatolian coastal cities along the entire Black Sea. bows.ras K a i x p q y b o v for upholstering. pt. . and when the Danishmendids took it. 11. Roder. tions Anatolia as an important center of the rug industry. ~b 6$ mkrqs yhd-rrqs j3ocb~avov mbhicrya. Bar I-Iebraeus.. rope. nails. 131-134. The Christian inscriptions from Anatolia.. K.I. Matthew of Edessa. The fact that Bokht-Isho Bar after cited as Cecaurnenus).” D. Certainly they and commercial centers of the conventional Anatolian type.H. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST note and evidently of some size. .” A. 1882) pp.H. XII. “Marvazi.

“Agrarian Conditions in the Byzantine J. These estimates. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST I important role in the commerce of the towns. 1958). livestock. and Pertz. C. the large estates of the aristocracy enabled Maleinus Lycandirs Pacurianus them to maintain large bodies of private troops. Attaliates. the inhabitants of which brought these products to town. Caesareia had its K W ~ O T ~ ~ E I ~ .bolatnia Charsianon Palaeologus province tended to become semihereditary in a particular family. I d ed. Possessed of vast Ampelas Radenus Souanites cstates and high official position in the provincial administration and Goudeles Argyrus Theodora (wife of Theophilus) Scepides Botaniates Ducas military. 13‘ such for example were Cryapege near Caesareia. 11. Ionian Trade and Colonization (New York. erroneously. Russell has suggested that the population remained The following representative list of the estates and domiciles of the Anatolian I Great Landed Families magnates is drawn from a study in progress on the internal history of Byzantium in the eleventh century.Chliat had 7h Imb T O ~ O Vrohlxvia. 3 (Philadelphia. though not I Maleinus Phocas Boilas Synnndenus Bourtzes Straboromanus Chaldia Xiphilenus exclusively. 277. . very population in Byzantine Anatolia and its towns. 271-272. parallel to the larger movements of trade. Broughton. Drexl C. I. I. p.000 around the year lZ8 Zepos. regulates affairs having to d o with these fairs. & [ Y ~ o I K ~ K &Zonaras.131 Thus. Griechische of villages around them: Attaliates. Very often the exercise of the strategeia in a particular Cecaumenus Ducas Meso. “Observations on the Demography of the Byzantine Empire. XIV. which are smaller local trade between the villages and the towns.I. Beloch. all based upon farmers and herdsmen received cash for their goods.000 to townsmen and by selling it to merchants of Constantinople and other cities. describes this for Nicomedeia. Oreine. and I 1. Transactions of the American Philosophical Socieb. 133.D. I have not gone into the problem of the relation of this landlord class One of the critical phenomena in the history of Anatolia was the evolution to the Anatolian towns.Ani had rohlxvia and halepa.5 .129 Here the the way of comprehensive tax registers or population figures. pp.ff. Attaliates. Antioch had its KOkai. 812-816.rr&TE K a \ rawcpopa. pp. 81. vol. legumes. the Byzantine villages provincial aristocracy contributed to the defense and expansion of being more closely connected to the towns than was the case with many Byzantium in the east. there was generated also this that Byzantine Asia Minor was sparsely inhabited. Each town had its group of Unfortunately almost nothing is known about the numbers of the villages. vary from 8.” Cambridge Economic History Maurus (Cambridge. which was just as really little more than educated guesses. The most 13n Drexl and Pertz. U. Russell. vol. 13. 131. X L (1965)~84-101. for little has survived in often during the big fairs held on the feast day of the saints. C. Empire in the Middle Ages. Drexl. 81. Iconium had its K W ~ O T T ~ ~ E OBryennius.” Speculum. whose deeds permeate the chronicles and I Cappadocia Anntolicon Paph1agonia I Alyattes Mesanactes Doceianus legal literature of the tenth and eleventh centuries. 11.. nuts. 54. 421. Aside from control Maurix Maleinus Iberia Ducas Boilas of these thermatic armies. Runciman. I recent survey of Byzantine demography is P. I n the eleventh century. by virtue of their control of the provincial armies. pp. The towns in turn an assumption of commercial prosperity and urban vitality in the period were able to dispose of the villagers’ produce both by sale among the of the Roman and early Byzantine Empires. 1886). Die Beuolkerung der griechiscli-rornisc~ie~IWell (Leipzig. . however. I n this manner the Anatolian population in antiquity.800. 95. These Leichudes Gabras magnates.~~~ J. rg66.000. I. 502. Ancient and Medieval Population. 24 2. 111.000. 1941). 21-33. The silence villagers sold their produce and bought the products of local or foreign of the sources and the thoroughness of the cultural transformation effected industry. 1952). 1960). and Pertz. . Charanis. “Byzantine Trade and Industry. this Cibprheote Screnarius Artiieniacon Ducas Dalassenus les S. 86-87. by the fifteenth century have led many scholars to conclude. 58. of the great landed families. Ostrogorsky. p. IOO A.lasThe towns served as markets for the produce class played a crucial role in the decline of the state. 1959). as in Bitilynia Argyrus the case of the Phocas’ and the theme of Cappadocia.000 for Anatolia in the fifth century of the Christian era. Euchaita had its x w p t d . wielded Coloneia Melissenus great power. 11. no.Demography. Bengtson. Estimates. 146.’’ Cambridge Economic History (Cambridge. Oxford.“ Thirteenth International Congress of Byzantine Studies.132 of the peasants most important items of which were grain. zoo. have been made for the size of important in some respects as the larger scale trade. J. wine. So long as the government Melias Apocapes was able to check their more extreme political and economic abuses. XLIII. based on the acquisition of great land holdings.G. Most of the Diogenes Musele Comnenus Ducas Sclerus Calocyres families rose to power and eminence via the armies and then consolidated their position by an economic expansion that was largely. (Munich. see H.proposes a population of 8. Late and Pondandus had xapih mhu&vBpw. Roebuck.600. fish.13”Many of these villages were quite large and thriving. 132. this powerful areas in western Europe. 279. For more recent remarks on the methods of arriving Often the chroniclers describe the main Anatolian cities in conjunction with the clusters at population figures in the ancient and medieval world. Anazarba “Recent Advances in Medieval . J.R.. Dernoprafi 19 fruit. Anna Comnena.800. Geschichte von der Anfdngen bis in die romische Kaiserreit. they were largely responsible for the social and historical Lecapenus Maniaces Curcuas development in Asia Minor prior to the Seljuk invasions. Attaliates. and lumber. Asia Minor.

Tyana. I I 1-112. Imp. 126.174. i I prosperity of the Anatolian provinces as well as to new conquests in the Sebasteia. Edessa. Dolger. p. Une nouuelle Irouince de l’art byrantin: Les iglises rzlpestres de Capbadace (Paris. The I KC~OTPOU to differentiate the town from the village. ( ~ o w v ~ v . Mop. Byrantion. Chrysopolis. Cappadoca). 2 16. equivocally and exclusively upon the ‘* . .206. 638. 1 9 8 ~ ~ 0where 0 .rrohis was thus . . Cyzicus. i ~ o p d n o h i v . Anna Comnena. Sebastopolis. 423. Bishops There are indications that by the tenth and eleventh centuries the popu- 1 . below. 74. Beitage zur byzantinischsn Fitiantuerwaltung.” Byrantion. Attaliates. which often have fortifications. besonders des 10. . 104 (hereafter cited as Miklosich et Miiller). “ K C O ~ ~ ~ O ~ I S in the early sixteenth century at about 5. however. indicate that TIOAITEIa and xwp6lroAis were interchangeable terms.I”t had no walls. incrcase in population in the two centuries prior to the Seljuk invasions. Manzikcrt. Caesareia. “Recent Advances in Medieval Demography. VTI (1904). “Essai agrarian establishments.. due to the unsettled conditions in the provinces. Rhacdestus as K&o-rpa a n d -rdAhaig. pp.I S T&S -rrohuavOp6nous . Nicaea. A further indication of demographic stability and growth is the Amaseia. These terms are used in the same manner by Constantine growing land hunger of the landed magnates in the tenth century. h k a r a . Smyma. 6’ ~ V Q Kalxdj. Adramyttium. next to a town. to the growth of the population. Samosata. . A bishop may never be appointed to “ .H. Ramsay. en masse.la4 . possibly the equivalent of IT~O&UTEIOV or pai-r&riv. 1 ~A1 active policy of transplanting peoples to Anatolia certainly contributed 1 130 K.” pp.201. X (1935). Sardes. and the presence of dense the towns by a nomenclature that differentiates them sharpy from village clusters in the environs of the cities are also factors that would villages. 46. I t was not a centralized town with extensive walls. Artze is referred to as a K&UTPOVand -rrohirdav. VI (193I). p.148-149.1~0 to the Muslim l a n d ~ . Zonaras. has attempted to equate K & U T ~ O V only with -rrohJxvq instead of 1~6his. Abydus. With the comparative pacification and normalization that ensued in the six- teenth century. Acroenus. gg. 111.“ o h h i ofiaav w v o ~ ~ o w p ~c5s q vVGV kcbpa-rai. Xwp6. gp-rropo~6’ fiouv ot &0pw-rroi. The Byzantine requirement that each town should constitute a bishopric Orerki. 036’ E & ~ K & towns that Theophanes mentions after the beginning of the seventh century for Asia VpuyvvpBvqv rEIXEcri. but also has a considerable suburban area. Germaniceia. though a K W ~ ~ T T O ~was XVe et x V I c sikles. “Charsianon Kastron. a conclusion supported by the Nauella CXXVIII. by which the c a p was tied to the iugum because of the insufficient labor force. 148. 199. Amida. which was separated from the town by walls. Acta et dipolmatn g r a m medii aeui sncra etprgana (Vienna. -rrhijOoscivflph-rrwu. . c. “&TI Tb K&UTpOV Tb ’ApGaVoirrSqv 6UTlV 6xWpbV T&VW.135 These towns were comparatively safe and shielded from the appear and former bishoprics are promoted to archbishoprics or metro- massive upheaval that enveloped urban society in much of the Balkans.. 117.Adranoutzi is a K&IYT~OV. 397-400 (hereafter cited as de Jerphanion. ”Honigmann.000 during the middle I included on the list of episcopal seats. l 3 The ~ trade routes (actively plied by Muslim and The chronicles and histories of the period refer to a large number of Christian merchants) going through the towns. I (1958)~20. For a more detailed treatment of this two taxes with a separate collection presupposes that the earlier scarcity of point see chapter iv. Berlin. Myra. 118.as is Ephesus.” I lation of Anatolia was growing.E. Perge. 11.. “Byzantine Cities. I927).w p i o v . politanates. 163.reproduces a list of the more important Nicetas Choniates. Sebasteia. 24. The replacement of the reciprocal unit of the Archbologinhen hstiluts.Rttaliates.Barkan. Important commercial emporia could have the form of a sur les donntes statistiques des registres de recensement dans l’empire ottoman aux K W ~ ~ I T O ~ Thus IS. 20. L. pqTpd-mohiS. refers to Adana. 678. 0. But this differ- existence of a bishopric was that an inhabited area should be sufficiently entiation is not as rigidly observed as that between n6Ais and K h p q .ooo on the basis of the tax figures.Rudikov. 61-62. Amastris. E ~ CKduas S .137and there are other testimonials to an I 1852-59). Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Theodosiana. Amaseia. I 15. AS Nov. according to Barkan. Cedrenus. The sources use the terms &mu. llbhiapa. Smyrna is called both K & U T ~ O V evolution of the ecclesiastical administrative structure in Asia Minor. the population increased considerably. EI iv’ oCrrws E ~ I T O I ~ KU\ &pi0pbv hEppUhOWUU.The term xwpb~ohiscould refer to a settlement suestia. I3O Matthew of Edessa. Ephesus. Nacoleia. Mtiller. 138 Ostrogorsky.23 1-234. Tarsus. Syllaion. 6Aiyqu I T ~ A I UKai u6pqu. Be Theodosiopolis.. I S . 245.0oo. li-lxii. KWU 6Q KcbpaS E K K E X U ~ ~ V ~ Vm p l ~ h sO-rrwpEiaS T ~ V~ E ~ U E Minor. W. and q~polipiovare generally employed lo designate settlements inter- was observed as late as the twelfth >century. are to be ordained ‘‘ . 89. pp. Iconium.XI. 554.”1s0 Anatolian demography emerges from the survival. “Lycaonia. 141 As early as the reign of Justinian I ~ 6 h i ands ~ h o ~ p owere v used interchangeably. tend to support the assumption of a certain demographic vitality. “Die Steuersystem in byzantinischen Altertum und Mittelalter. agricultural labor had disappeared. I n southern Anatolia Cybistra was raised in rank to an arch- period the system underwent a transformation by which the head tax bishopric in the eleventh century. De Jerphanion makes this The older tax system. of the ancient During the course of the tenth and eleventh centuries new bishoprics towns. was relaxed. 1925-42). 134-135. decline of the population is. Nicomedia. Phrygian Laodiceia was formed of several scttlements or villages scattered about the lower slopes of the mountain. estimates the population of Anatolia commercial exchange of goods from Persia and India. The increase is due in part to the rise in population and As late as the eleventh century. pp. 111. lI. 111. 166.and Zonaras. Melitene. 245-248 (hercafter cited as Rhalles and Potles).S. iXE1 6QK a l paTf&rIV &a &s 13‘ For the details see .The basic stipulation for the mediate between towns and villages. Chalcedon. These could be rather large affairs and were not restricted to essentially 134 Russell. Adm. T ~ ~ I STohiTda.000.X”w p d ~ o h was i ~ used to refer to a n ordinary village community. Attaleia. Amorium. and IT MI^. Pergamum. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST I at the comparatively high figure of 8. such important cities as Melitene.calls Tzamandus both d h i s and -rr6Aiupa. und II.000 by the beginning of the tatorsmakeitplain that the approintment of a bishop to a place depends un- thirteenth century and the Turkish period. Sinope. 222-113. Antioch of Pisidia. The 6’fiv TOGTO. I I. Ostrogorsky. go. Charsianon..000. Jahrhundert (Leipzig- Dorylaeum. Imp. 11. -rrhr@t. 249. Kwpd~rohisand &yp6-rrohig1 seem to be populous to be considered a town. Potles.. 1860-go). 66. and Artze were unwalled despite the fact that they were close ea~t. KUI nhoirros fiv a h o i s i ~ ~ p i r r d s . Prusa. Martyropolis.138 Porphyrogenitus. -irohfXviov. If it were too small it could not be applied to a settlement larger than a village but scattered and not formed according to a synoicismus.” J. I 140 F.Beiblatt.” p. Miklosich et J. and in the middle Byzantine 1 observation in regard to Cappadocia.O. That there was a certain stability in . Rhalles and M. ~ c j p ~ ~l .. T&S I T ~ ~ E .” Jahreshefte des dsterreichischett and land tax were separated.638. 26 . Trebizond.. heavily populated and a rich center of Artze. 28. Zliv-ruypa T ~ V 0dwv K a l IEPGVKavdvwv (Athens. The canon law and the commen- Byzantine period but that it declined to 6. TI. 83-84. 111. Pylae. Synnada. De. Adin.

p. Constantine Porphyrogenitus reveals approximately of a town scattered over a large area. Chalcedon.rros. I n the mid.941 Konya 6. Metochife el Nicdphore Choumnos (Brussels. for the tolian towns in the years c. See also Russell.872 Sivas 5. Oenoe. slain. Euchaita. Lycian Adrianople. ciudades hispanomusulmans. Journal of the American Research Pachymeres. IT~AIS mpiqavfis. 146. r r o ~ u & u e p ~ ~ opupiav6pos ~.560 to 34993(3. 176-177. lOf ~ ~ the captives that the Turks took from century. beween 5. Tzamandus.500 inhabitants for each of the two comopoleis.000 (perhaps 47.1~0 only 1. There . that the size of the towns tend to range between similar extremes. 111.lcBand c. When . Chroniques dtrangEres relatiues atix expdditions franjaises pendant le XIIP sidcle (Paris. Artze. One may assume that towns had populations of captives taken from Anatolian . 27. which was rebuilt sources to the cities has some numerical substance. I.rroTdrrq. Zonaras. and than 2 . 578.000 were killed and io. Sinope. Adana.143 The total population prior to the fall of the city.” p. 1~hij0os Aaoij) which indicate that the contemporary observers western Asia Minor. 295. Praenetus. 273. gevcenko. relates that in 1256-57 the Mongol Baidju slew 7. Smyrna. Pylae. 12. in 1144.000 in Ramon Muntaner. “Extension y demografia de las Ankara. I.rrov T E is some indication as to the size of a comopolis in the twelfth century.000) captive. 327 (hereafter. Zapetra.000 to 37. Perkri. Bar Hebraeus.000 melium.Dorylaeum had been one of the prosperous towns of the eleventh Gaihan and A l b i ~ t a n . A T .OOO. trans. farms.rroh~hfieElav Zxov. Ztinerarium Willelmi de Rubruc. reports that century. the peninsula of Artake (Cyzicus) had zo. 469. p.000 Turkmens in the twelfth century. Toledo 37. Thud Melitene was probably a town comparable i n size to Edessa. refers to an earthquake that killed 40.rro~ as applied by Byzantine walls over a long period of time. furnishes reliable figures for some of the Ana- Cyzicus. Abara. Nicomedeia. p. The sources are not to be taken literally. Parnassus.000from captivity. Doryhum. Theodosiopolis. Neocaesareia. Nicaea. Cedrenus. pp. 1520-1530 (based on tax registers): notitiae episcopatum have not been utilized. 111(1955). 5 0 0 . ~perhaps ~~ about 5. one 148 Nicetas Choniates. Almeria 27. -duavepw. L. Matiana.000 Germaniceia. Syllaion. C. van den Wyngaert.560 Amaseia. Bursa 34. Buchon in Albistan. When the Turks sacked the city of Artze in the eleventh Fransiscana. Iconium. Sozopolis. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST number of the towns are described by epithets (Toicxhq ~ ~ b h~rE ~ Y &. Adranoutzi. Kars.000 captives were taken from Tell p. habitations.~~0 Caria. 55-57.000 and 35. though slightly lower Chliat.354 14a For the references to these towns and territories see the material above on Adana. and the Ottoman figures (results of reliable tax registers from a later period) when com- 143 Sawiras ibn al-Mukaffa’.000. ( I gzg). dtvepcj. Cius. A. 305. Pisidian Antioch. Sozopolis. 15. seventy inhabited areas referred to as towns by these various terms: Manzikert. The indirect evidence for an increase in the Anatolian population of the 47. Anazarba.000 of the inhabitants. Amid 18.” S. Ani. Side.000. a phenomenon to be tenth and eleventh centuries and the few figures for town population explained by the flight of the agrarian population to the safety of the would indicate that the epithet 1~0hu6~8pw. etc. A perusal of the texts of Bryennius. 655-657.127 Ankara 14. Chabot. Pracana. nohbv T~OGTOV Exouc~a. which was not a full- perhaps assist in giving some idea as to the size of towns. Chronique d’dragon. Adramyttium. & i d e s sur la polhique entre Thdodore Center in Eglpt. Chonae. century (before the Turkish conquest). Zangi is said to have delivered the 10. Tzamandus. 69-82. probably had a population of about twelfth century. iii. Melitene.000 and ZO. Amara. in Sinica 14’ Matthew of Edessa. Pounoura. cited as William of Rubruq-Wyngaert). “Episode de bined with the Byzantine estimates do not necessarily prove anything. 426.000 inhabitants. 161 Cinnamus. 315. Chrysopolis. Lycandus. when Zangi first captured the city two years earlier. it was - Melitene in the eleventh century. Castamon. estimate of between 5. 1962). Iconium. has given a similar. Synnada. Granada ~6. Anazarbus. Edessa.lS1Though th‘e evidence is very scant. V ( 1g66).OOO people in Erzindjan in the mid-thirteenth century. Abydus.000 Caesareia. Gangra. Mopsuestia. Melitene. de S i d e at de Grhe. Though the similar magnitudes of the Spanish figures (arrived at by area measurement) Trebizond.000. Yakub Arslan carried away 70. Ottoman Empire 5. “The Population of Medieval Egypt. Basilaion. Antioch. When the Muslim Nur al-Din captured the city devastation and enslavement a third time. Matthew of Edessa. Cedrenus. Artze. 15. Hierapolis.000 Tephrice.”’47 with the former size of the city. Edessa. 30. 11. Ephesus. though it is likely that most of the thirteenth century (1280).was said to be ~roh~&tv0pw. This considered these towns to be large by the standards o f the day. Thus its popuation was larger three-quarters of a century later.000enslaved.000 and 6. 344. fledged town in the twelfth century. Podandus.towns in the twelfth century will varying between 10. Antioch.000 were killed. gives the following population estimates for eleventh-twelfth century Spain: . Cecaumcnus.142But just would indicate roughly 2.000escaped. I 124-25 during the course of a six-month siege of the historian Cinnamus considers to be insignificant when compared the city the inhabitants are said to have perished by the “thousands. ~EYLOTT). Bar Hebraeus. Seleuceia. Psellus.000 inhabitants by the Byzantines in the have as many as 35.indicates that the population had increased.000 Christians from 5.000 to 36. 137-138.” pp.000 Zaragoza I 7. I 841 ). Philo. it is interesting I’histoire des Crusades. Spain 15. As a result of its destruction during the Turkish invasions. For the date. Nicaea. Acroenus. I n 1145.l~~ The number towns were smaller. A large city could and recolonized with 36. T h k of course does not exhaust the possibilities.930 Tokat 8.av6poS. Samosata. A. Sebasteia. Ticium. Amaseia.. Torres Balbas. Argaous. exaggeratedly reports that 150. Basilaion. Cinnamus. Attaleia.ooo 14’ Matthew of Edessa. on the basis of area measurements. 16.000. he took away captive 5.Z.000 Valencia I 5. . The city of Tralles. houses. ed. Amorium. Ani.000 at Marash in the eleventh century. “Die byzantinische Stadt. Barkan.” p. l“Michae1 the Syrian. the Seljuk sultan attacked the two comopoleis of Tantalus and Caria in vohi. Strobilus. Trebizond. Coloneia. Podandus. (hereafter cited as Ramon Muntaner-Buchon) relates that in the early fourteenth Arsanias. Tarsus.000 inhabitants. J. I.000 of the inhabitants were an earthquake killed more than IO. lfioDolger. Chonae. Mallorca 25. I. The word KWM6lTOhls here may mean a large village. though it also has the meaning Anna Comnena. a figure that of that city. Amastris. TI. Attaleia.rrohvdrv0p~~os ? The city of Edessa in the year I 07 I was said But Caria had been sacked on a previous occasion and was to suffer to have 35. Euchaita and Sebasteia.000 289. “Les donnkes statistiques.ooo youths and maidens were taken Byzantium 5-10. p.000 Malago 15-20. 28 29 . how large was .000were ransomed by the merchants inhabited by only 2. Dorylaeum. 419. Attaliates. Chelidonium. Larissa.

and Malagina to Dorylaeum of roads which the empire had largely inherited from the days of the where the road climbed through the mountains onto the plateau. Koukaules. Cappadocia. 202 ff. “The desolate on the eve of the Turkish invasions. Geography. see Hans Dernschwarn’s Tagebuch einer Reise nacfi Konstantinopel tirid Kleinasien (1553/55). across the Halys River to the town of Saniana.rrpoo-ra$u KW& e(E)i(ov) K d ~ O h ’ l o Y 6 s(Athens. d m o v (6 )I’ &yyap((w) 30 3’ .lj4 The Coloneia. 128-140. The first.’’ XVII (194I).444-445. on the basis of the area contained by the medieval Optimaton. 153 Ramsay. Bury. at which standing camps the armies of the various themes gathered hagiographers but also in the accounts of the Arab geographers and and joined the emperor as he marched eastward to the borders. Then Roman Empire. 144-184.. think oftown populations in terms of their size in late antiquity rather than in modern times. 1. Ibn Khuradadhbih. pp. I 9351. but aside over the Zompus Bridge. separating the coastal region from the central plateau. . I 924-26) I vol. p. military bases. XII. 74. A critical juncture of this highway was government as a result of these roads. and currents of trade as a result of this arterial network. that eighth-century Ankara may have had between 25. Dorylaeurn. B. Papers ofthe American School of atiatoWie Karauansamq des 13.. 1941).E. 81. O&zlar (Turkmenler). M. 60. and a third skirted the semidesolate or depopulated on the eve of the Seljuk invasions.163 forked. J. P. remained under closer supervision of the central joined the road from Caesareia. at Malagina east of Anatolia at some point along the Sangarius.B. p. southernmost reaches of the plateau going through Iconium to the Taurus. The large land mass of Byzantine Anatolia was closely knit by the system I t led from Nicaea via Pithecas. for it was from this town that the three main branches went to accessibility of the major Anatolian towns and cities to merchants.. VI. were often important towns The major routes ran in a northwest to southeast direction. and then traversed ulation of Asia Minor increase by the tenth and eleventh centuries. 214-224. I11 (1884-85). with all the necessities for provisioning troops.lj0 These travelers. 11 (191 I ) . pp. ed. century contrasts with the assertions of certain scholars that the peninsula was semi. TQ edy &cppa$v(~~) la’ On the merchant khans throughout the empire. There was a number of large military stations or camps along this high- and others. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST must conclude on the basis of this material that not only did the pop. F. The tenth-century emperor southeast routes generally ascended rrom the coastal region of northwest Constantine VII mentions six aplecta. 1923). Sebasteia.459. p. Here the road times. K. “TlEpl ~ A ~ ~ K T O W E. across the Sangarius River occurred with the transferral of the capital to Constantinople. Thus the population density of Asia Minor in the eleventh lS5 Ramsay. We must. The northwest. Sterett. Leucae.. and especially Ramsay. is copiously noted not only by the Byzantine historians and way. Thus one route skirted the northern rim of the plateau the population of the towns and province as a whole was significant in going through Amaseia and Coloneia. The inscription on the tablet was the identification of an animal to the survival of the Romano-Byzantine roads in western Anatolia. gr-gg). the two branches going to the great Cappadocian the Byzantines in Asia Minor inasmuch as it was the means by which this center of Caesareia and to Tyana and Tarsus respectively. the gateway to the central plateau. but the plateau itself. DeCaerinioniis. has attained by This was probably the mustering center for the troops of the theme of entirely different methods. (Paris. I-II.000 and 30. Taeschner. For the Seljuk and Ottoman routes. published a bronze tablet found at o r e n Koy anntolische Wegenetr naclr osmanischen Quelleii (Leipzig. and Theodosiopolis. the central branch going to Tephrice efficiencyof the bureaucrats who administered the provinces and who. vol. and storehouses with provisions for the arrnya16’ results that Russell (“Population of Medieval Egypt.” pp. II. Erdmann.E. Melitene. He suggests. There was some readjustment of the system which it proceeded through Trocnada and Pessinus. merchants.G. though there located on the main highway or within easy reach and were supplied were smaller routes running in a north and south direction. and caravans. Koprulu. pilgrims. through the town of Gorbaeus to the south of from that the road system persisted in its principal form down to Turkish A n h r a . Das Classical Studies at Athens.152 Thus it would be incorrect to speak of Anatolia as central plateau region via Saniana and Sebasteia. Jahrliunderts (Berlin. 5. For a reference in southeast Asia Minor. possessed the cxtensive stables of the 152 This estimate of Anatolia’s demographic condition generally coincides with the emperor. Geography. 1967)~p. (Ankara. T h e W o & Expedition t o Asin Minor. for certain emendations of the text.000 inhabi- tants. J. B. Les origines de l’etnpire ottomatl &lThrjKTa of Asia Minor. The other road province could be more tightly integrated into the empire. R . cut through the mountains Nicaea on the banks of the Sangarius. officials. the movement of Byzantine armies and ensured areas threatened by the Once more the highway branched into three routes : the northernmost enemy with a more rapid defense. Siimer. The most important of these was the great military highway used by the Road System emperors when marching out to meet the Arabs on the eastern borders. 1961). Bu$av-rlvGu pi05 . 238. The roads also made easier the relative leading to Nicopolis and Coloneia. I t facilitated leading from Saniana went almost directly east to the city of Sebasteia.” Bu(Qv-rfs. I-II. an arms depot. at any rate. Of equal importance was the Saniana. 158 G. was the fortress. or aplecta as they were called. ZGou Giaq(6pov) P. Babinger (Munich and Leipzig. Geography. Das I 12-1 13. the branch leading to the southeast going through Mocissus and The organization and maintenance of the road network was essential for then branching again. the southeast artery pushing to Melitene where it at the same time. I 99-22 I .lj5 ffequent use of these highways by the armies. Kolias.A. in the Turkish period from such a stable. the regions of the Taurus. another route cut through the absolute terms. Tarilileri-boy tefkildti-destnnlari 15’ Constantine Porphyrogenitus.

entering from the Sebasteia and points east. “Un itintraire. 263-267. 213-214.” p. on the other to Caesareia 4! provided the winds were favorable. Caesareia. I. Amaseia and down to Caesareia. Sangarius. Ia3 Marquart. There was a third la*Zbid. the bishopric of Kaborkeion. En route he fell in with a group of Cappadocian pilgrims. than a Byzantine source and so one is able to deduce the commercial importance of these There were also some important roads running north and south. Merchants. and when the emperor was marching to network was intersected by numerous smaller roads. and Sebasteia met him at Caesareia. But undoubtedly they existed throughout the Gangra (or an alternate route slightly to the north of Gangra). no doubt intended for use by the armies. pp. 1054) who performed lbSIbid. Cappadocia.lsl Nicomedia and Ankara both served region of the Bucellarion theme he remarks that there was an inn for Muslims. forked. pp. 720). Lazarus (d. there were similar roads Ibn Khuradadhbih reveals that the emperor had constructed seven large leading inland from such Black Sea ports as Heracleia. If the emperor were marching to Cilicia. I t was here that the road while the journey took only eight days on the highway. and Tzamandus.lo3Side and other and the Taurus mountains. Zbid. 219-221. Another road ran from Ankara to Gangra. 197-198. and also by a smaller number of Rhyax . Euchaita peninsula. including Jews and Arabs. I t is of some interest thqt his itinerary followed the northwest route described abovc and that when he arrived in the Archelais. 263). One route led from Nicomedia through and a t Pylae (De Caerimoniis. Amastris. an-Nuhas (Honigmann. the road from Sebasteia went through accommodate 1. and so on. pp. Sinope. assembled at Samosata. 208-109.l6 north-south routes cutting over the plateau. together passes of the Anti-Taurus while Germaniceia was in turn connected with with those troops under the Domestic o f the Scholes. while the troops of valleys. The sixth aplecton was that of Dazimon. The presence of a hospice for Muslims in the Bucellarion theme is important evidence for inferring the presence of Muslim merchants in Anatolia. 197 ff. hostels. By way of example. In his lblIbid. 242-279. Amaseia. This was as important points of departure for the roads going across the northern one of the Byzantine @vo6oxEia. Trebizond. Undoubtedly.pp. or passage by ship to those going by sea. across the Ponlic region to the Sangarius Another highway left from Nicomedia and went through Ankara. for the most part seem to have followed the coastline and the river Paphlagonia. Tyana.1~~ The roads were extensively traveled by and Iconium to the Cilician Gates.. the sea voyage. supplied horses and transportation for travelers going eastern bank of the Halys. It too commenced result that knowledge of all the major land routes appears in the texts at Malagina and progressed through Dorylaeum. Honigmann.. Nicomedeia to Constantinople (Honigmann. south to River (Honigmann. only the troops of Bucellarion. road that avoided Iconium altogether by going from Dorylaeum. the pilgrimage both to the Holy Land and to various sanctuaries of Asia Minor. at Nicomedeia. which aplecton. first journey Lazarus set out from the coastal town of Strobilus for the shrine of the Arch- angel Michael in Chonae. Neocaesareia. going on the one hand to Sebasteia. which existed far travelers.” p. and Charsianon met him at Saniana. also 32 33 . again a well-watered spot and thus capable of overland. who with the advancing army. Philomelium. “Un itinCraire. was slightly to the south of joined to Melitene in the east and to Germaniceia in the south via the the highway.270). The troops of the Anatolic and Seleuceian themes. from Mayaferrikin via Coloneia. Armeniacon. required fifteen days. though seem to have followed the great networks for commercial reasons with the it was also animportant military and commercial artery. Anatolian plateau. An official of the post system. Saniana. Constantine Porphyrogenitus mentions such institutions in the region of the Sangarius. Al-Mukaddasi describes a second journey that led from Amid via Melitene. Polybotus. perhaps Anatolian networks. a site amply fed by the sources of the Sangarius River. Here the troops of the went generally in a west to east.lo2 Kaborkeion. pp.” pp. Osteuropaische und ostasiatische Streifiiige (Leipzig.. pp. regions of the Anatolian plateau. The Tephrice and Theodosiopolis to Manzikert. This Armeniacon were mustered. bathing arcades over the hot springs of the city. al-Mukaddasi describes the journcy of a Muslim who traveled Pessinus to Archelais and then south through Tyana to the Taurus. Coloneia. Neocaesareia. r5G. the fifth Anatolia was effectively served by this system of major roads. I n the east. then towns of Cilicia were similarly connected by traversible roads to the main the troops of all the eastern themes joined him at Saniana.1o6 Acroenus-Polybotus-Philomelium-Iconiumand the other that traversed Malagina-Dorylaeum-Amorium-Laodiceia-Iconium. Ankara.” p. and Na’din 168 Ramsay.. “Un itinbraire. and the Taurus. “Charsianon Kastron. they joined him at the station of Bathys coastal areas of the northwest and west. of the Arab ge0graphers. 268). I n western Asia Minor the roads marching directly east toward Melitene.ls8 The fourth aplecton. lo6 Quite illustrative of this type of itinerant was St. Geograpfty. was on the resided in Attaleia. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST gathering place for the troops of the Thracesian and Opsicion themes. (on the more southerly route). and that each could and Trebizond. But if he were highway system going through Iconium. Amaseia. Ibn Hawkal states that accomodating large numbers of men and horses. and accompanying map. The same the most prominent being the route from the coastal city of Amisus to author mentions that there were Muslims in the cities of Bithynia. a route often referred to as the pilgrim’s route. 1go3). and Of particular importance was the busy road from Attaleia via Cotyaeum then marched to Trocnada on the military highway where they fell in and Malagina to Constantinople. That the armies frequently A second trans-Anatolian highway skirted the southern confines of the used these roads goes without saying.looThere were at least two variations pilgrims-pilgrims who visited not only the Holy Land but also the of this route to Iconium: one athat went via Malagina-cotyaeum- numerous shrines of the greater and lesser Anatolian saints. or west t o southeast direction.000men. while Arabissus was similarly third aplecton. It is significant‘that this information comes from a Muslim rather Satala.

John.l ~ i s l i ( ~ ~ ~ r i ~ s - the center of the cult of St. Chalcedon.inatolic theme to Chonae.le* I n the earlier centuries this provincial organization lords or largc areas and usually of a number of towiis as well as villagcs. I (1894).171 The rnctropoIitans were the ccclesiastical stnntinople.B. 133-134 (hereafter cited as Delehaye. 253-254. Sardis. “Saint lintoinc Ie Jeune et Petronas la vainqueur des Arabes en 863. John on a golden chain. and by Jews. became the seat of the bishopric. I r o m Cilicia he took the road going north by Mt. ’‘* Sonic churches in sauthmtern Anatolia were subordinate to the patriarchate of Antkxh. pp. 1923)1PP. and thence to the shrine of St.tnovi& Gosudarslco. 517-518). Lazarus met other pilgrims from as far away 21 Cappdocia arid Paphlagonia. Basil. He then returned to W ~ to Antioch. Halkin. Mocissus. of St. StauroPoli%Lnotiiceia. EPhesus. &bast&. regions of the cnipire. and when thrown on the stormy sea would Asia Minor was not only the most itriportalzt 13yzantiilc province calm it. and which was enclosed in gold a n d prec. Pessinus. where the melropo1itan. ’@’ 4skald. After the Turks took Ephesus they traded three of the relics of his cult t o Ticino militarily and economically. Of the first twcnty-seven mctropolitaiiatcs listed of Amisus on the Black Sea and set sail for the Caucasus. They had the right to participate in t h c iiiectiugs Y I’alestine whcre he visited the various shrines and churches.I Z ~ .s.9c)-lOr. Pisidia. BrChier.P.tlic tenth century there had been approxilnatcly 37 I bishoprics subordinate to tliein. the tomb were beneficial for childbirth.and remarked that the exudations of priesthood and liicrarchy represented Xiotli the capital and tlic proviuc:cxs. I”. metropolitans and bishops provided for guestliouses. The powcrs and influcnc:c of tliesc orgaiiziation. Asia Minor possessed approximately forty-five the spiritual dornain but also in the sphere of administration and in the nietrop~litanates. Myra. though most of them probably went by the sea route that skiited the westf‘rn anti southern coasts of the peninsula. Peeters. XXXVI-XXXVII (1917-~g).~~~ ten archbishoprics. once more to the church of the Archangel. \\itnrsscd miracles at the tomb in 1304. T h e rtnatolian road system saw a certain number of Latin pilgrims o n their way to the Holy Land. of the church had followed the pattern of the imperial administrative over which towns were the bishops. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST T h Church suffragant bishoprics.4. Thus the town.. hospitals and to a certain extent. La Uie mrueilleusc de Saint Pierre d’&oa 837 (Brussels. a baptized hfuslint. LXII (1944). Side. was a significant increase in their number170 due largely to the cxpai1sion arclil~islioprics.Laurent.I Z I . 99 in Ih~ropo. Amns% bfelitelle. and before arriving at the town. John himrelf from the place where Christ’s head lay. a cloth t h a t cmpirc. Ephesus remained a favorite pilgrim site through its Byzantine life. He visited the cave of the Seven Sleepers. Galesium. PP. Perge. 404-418. Ikck. Nicomedeia.175Also. the tomb of Mary Magdalene. only two werc located ill E u ~ o ~ thl:c . Iconium. 87.6 )visited . Notice and 16 in Chlabria and Sicily.” 8. K k h e und tlteologische Literattrr. 34 . Their importance relative t o that of tlic European mr. pp. -“hkara. fever. of the rroiitiers in tlic east. “Histoires monasti. Theodore Teron. most ~ O ~ U ~ O mctropolilan~~t~’s U S ol’ h: ioub stones and which had hung from the neck of St. In tlic first half of thc tenth century. hierarchs in thcir respective provinccs were considerable.pp. but also by a Georgian. 111..Theodore. These included: a piece of the true cross taken b y St.l‘~It was with thcsc inc:om~sthat tllc: church of St. Thtodore”).” B. or polis. Anatolia possessed tlic riclicst.ltcs are liqtctl hiographer. a i d most importallt. iiicluding nut only Cheek Christians from the vicinity.” A. 1gz8). I n I 106-07 the Russian abbot Daniel (P.tropc)li- hfary had made and given to St.SYnndi. 43-47. the ~ ~ ~ l i ~]hco@rm~. Claudiopolis. He saw t h e recruited from the local population aid Constantinoplc. These pilgrimages were not limited to the ancient and rqtablishcd centen. In. journeyed from Antioch to Caesareia. and emperor.Delehaye. about 371 bislio~~rics in Asia Minor. Pilgrimages to the great shrines of Anatolia must have been commonplace. a book of the Apocalypse written in gold letters by St.. clearly when 0 1 1 compares ~ thc number or bishops to l x J b ~ u ~ iii c l lhc ~ t v o For other referenccs to these Anatolian pilgrimages. ~ . 343. l i n ~ In 1%) the famous Georgian monk. accompanied by his composed for purposes of‘ protocol. local education.172 It was the metropolitans and archbishops who linked the on their way to the shrine. ’llw drath n holy dust arose from the tomb.John the Theologian (AS Nov. but also it was so in the rcligialls domain. 465-+66). Lazarus finally made his patriarch.S. P. another pilgrim (a PaPh. After a number of distractions. thcrc \VC‘L‘V 18?-22ja 218. tanates is clcarly reflected in the onicial lists. John and relates that on the anniversary of the latter’s orphanages.. Ramon Muntaner-Buchon (pp. Theodore where they were graciously received by the archbishop. John.~7‘J‘I’his c n ~ r g r sI W ~ C (Lolld’Jn.fGB and a great number of courts. pourliousL.109 and by the eleventli century tlicrc Anstolia had an elaborate ecclesiastical organization of metropolitanates. which believers gathered as a cure for diseases. Asin Miimr that on his way to the shrine of the Archangel. Neocaesareia.Z. “Euchaita et S. I. “Euchaita et la ICgende de S. not only in By the eleventh century.and bishoprics subordinated to the patriarch of Con. L‘e’glise et Z’Oridnt ou tnqeri-cige (Paris. “Ungedruckte und wenig bekannte Ilisturr~ervcrzcichriissrdcr orientalischen Kirche.“ in Anatolian Studies Presented to Sir William Mitchell Ramsay remailling twcnty-five were situated in Rn:t~olitt.18in thc Argeaii islvs. Caesareia. 425. so t h a t tllc imagc of the Holy Virgin used to refute Ncstorius. and departing from Euchaita m a d e his w a y through the . provincial administrative structure of the church to Constantinopl(~. The elaborate structure 01’ I n c ~ r o p o l i t a n a t ~ s . for Lazarus was himselfvisited by many pilgrims on Mt. the tomb of St. ecclesiastical as wcll as thc bureaucratic. Nicaea. I 90-1 96. in a notitia of thc elevc~ithcentury. Zacaria of Phocaea for grain. 1’. Scleuceia. George the Hagiorite. ‘rYana. Gangra. They then journeyed to t h e port in order of thcir rank. Wes gkorgicnnes. the patriarch. T. the coffin of the Apostle Timothy. F. H. T h e indeed or tlic whole ecclesiastical institution-was supported by cxtensivc last Irg of his long pilgrimage was from Chonae to Ephesus where Lazarus went to the properties and certain cash incomcs. the remains of the 300 holy fathers. Antiocheia. lagonian monk) joinctl the party. . Argaeus to Caesareia where of the synod i n Constai~hopleand also to participate in thc election ol‘ he prayed at the church of St. There he followed the northern route to Euchaita. 1956). c+iCUS. adini~~istrativc pcrso111i~tWCTC itlexander. AS Nov.Gelzer.

T h e various shrines of St. p. 846) of Mt. The most famous of the martyrs’ sanctuaries in eyes of the provincials. Ira). I t was this close attach- the hinterland included those of St. of religious life in ceding from abovc and turning away and smashing the bows and swords Anatolia during chis period. Michael Maleinus (d. 13-18. John the Theologian a t Ephesus. Georgians. though of course there would be numerous churches of Caesareia. St. A. Hadjinicolaou- Slavs in the Mores. It was an l V 8 This is a phenomenon that needs further study. Luke the Stylite (d. who were besieging Anatolia. and the local saints . 792) of peoples. practices attendant upon these cults in consonance with the Orthodoxy most regions the important cults included those of Tryphon at Nicaea. The eleventh-century York. and some of these were especially popular. and Amphilochius and shrines (to say nothing of bones) associated with that particular saint of Iconium.E. while the illustrious twelfth-century archbishop cults centered on the martyrs. “ ‘ 0 pros N~KCOVOS TOG ME-ravoEi-re. and New sanctuaries continued to arise about the personalities of newer they naturally conceived of him as being partial to this city.” Byzantion. Eugenius performed the same task for the Trebizondines by inter- others were evidence of the intensity. ) This v . Of equal principal city or town of the saint was usually identified with that in importance were the churches of the fourth and fifth-century saints Basil which his bones rested. 1053) was to protect his city from devastating invasions of various foreign on Mt. haoir ~ci-rkPappCrpwv v p o ~ o h ~ ~ C . 838) of Amorium.18o of Amorium.6.l78 It has been repeatedly stated that the bishops Myra. Saint-Mamas (Athens. hierarchical. others on the personages of later saints. 53. Ioannicius (d. and of Athens Michael Acominatus and his brother the historian Nicetas still others on the personalities of “mythical” saints. 1933)~ pp. 51. VI (IgsI). Morava.'-'? The great Athonite father and organizer St. F. Eugenius as T& &yia for the Byzantines. r r a ~ p t One . See also M. George (d. Paul (d. all of whom had played such an important role in determining elsewhere. ig47). and these cults generally homogeneous society and culture. 521-533. are not unique. Nicholas at were simply accepted. c p t A 6 . if not the variety. of these cults for the integration of the majority of the Anatolians into a Slavs. which came to be such a salient feature of Byzantine life. very important in the everyday life of the Byzantine the Byzantine church. Usually the saint was the possessor of a special town. an institution that played such a critical role in inhabitants of Asia Minor. who in the tenth century left animal sacrifice and absorption of pagan deities into the Christian cult of saints. Nicon tou Metanoeite. describes Theodore as “ ~ b v i v h e p o v &pXov-ra K a l T ~ vS~ p ~ x d p o u origines du c d l e des marlyres (Brussels. many local strains were so firmly entrenched that they Polycarp at Smyrna. T w o examples of this phenomenon. Mercurius and Mamas at Caesareia. St. are Asia Minor to convert the Muslims of newly reconquered Crete and the among those that have been studied in some detail. Olympus in q$. did much the same thing. 132. 111 (1906). and missionary leaders. “L’archevkht de Ptdachtot et le sacrifice du foan. These cults were absorbed by were. 955) in western respect. Asia Minor had been Choniates were from Chonae. -rahqs K ~ ~ ~ O G XKOa i V-rrpom&rqv K a i Iqopov. Theodore is said to have routed the Arabs. Creek Popular Religion (New Athanasius was born and educated in Trebizond. 979) in Chalcedon. Phocas at Sinope. of Constantinople. by appearing before the gates of the city on horseback. and others who visited them on the pilgrimage. Delehaye. intimately trative of the influence and importance of Anatolia as a spiritual reservoir associated with the personality. Les Lagarde. ~ ~ ~ of the most important functions of the saint Bithynia. of course. C. attempted to care for both were the shrines of Eugenius at Trebizond. The eleventh-century metropolitan of Euchaita. Galesium near Ephesus. but of equal importance was the significance not only among the Greek Christians but also among Latins. the Forty ment of the provincial peoples to the saints which forced the church to Martyrs at Sebasteia. as in the case of Djalal al-Din Rurni who saved Konya from the Mongols. and on the link between professor of law a nd patriarch Xiphilenus was also born and partially the pagan cult of the heroes and the Christian cult of the saints. The list of the sanctuaries located in Anatolia unifying the empire.170 I n the western. I 953). The Paphlagonia. Gregory of Nyssa. 151-152. perhaps. pp. in the Hyacinthus at Amastris. Though the church tended greatly t o regularize the is a long one. From these holy men came a considerable portion of the monastic. John Mauropus- 170 For a n extensive catalog of the cults of the Anatolian martyrs.rrohi. inhabitants of that town thought ofthe saint almost as their co-citizen.” P. and the the evolution of the Eastern church. and many St. Nilsson. activity... IV. c. 36 37 . Anatolian monk. The cults and churches of the various Anatolian saints were famous Less spectacular. ” same phenomenon is to be observed in the 200--902. Blasius (d. Some of the educated in Trebizond. and the clergy in general. he is ‘‘ b TOG X ~ I ~ W V ~ C ~ O U 177 Lampros. 145-180. Gregory of Nazianzus. 802-807) of Amastris. on the continuity of pagan practices. Theodore at Euchaita. I 16. Cumont. Lazarus (d. 1st. of Byzantine society. and writings of the Apostlc Paul. Nicephorus (fl. tenth miracula of the various saints credit them with considerable success in this century) of Latmus in the district of Miletus. 961) in Bithynia. the Forty-two Martyrs (d. AS Nov. These men of Anatolia. Philaretus the Merciful (d. George i n the regions of Paphlagonia. 911-912) Euchaita i n 934. in$. miracula of the Muslim holy men of Seljuk Anatolia. and the accept many of the anomalous practices attendant upon their cults. and the Archangel Michael at Chonae. 17B Papadopoulos-Kerameus. O n the Black Sea coast and metropolitans. a fact that intensified the sanctity of Anatolia as a repository of spirit an eleventh-century citizen of Trebizond addresses St.” N. p. In such a holy men. and the spiritual and physical needs of their flocks. EVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST was strewn with sanctuaries and cults of numerous saints. who are so illus- one of the earliest provinces of Christian missionary activity.

~83But these St. George. Hagias Nikolaos. through the shrines and sanctuaries.B. exerted a considerable cults were particularly close to soldiers. but there is no reason to doubt that the secure the return of these relatives from Crete and Syria. Saints Theodore. 100-202. 580. Accordingly. H&‘S Ni. and Mercurius. i n the Christians taken prisoner by invaders. Nicholas whcn he was lost on ajourney to India. George -ipo.MiraculaS.pp. 111. 38 39 . I. turning away the Ismaelite army from the walls of Iconium. 111. r3-18. and especially with the tax collectors. it was to the local saint that the ill came. The Third Of Euchait% a soldier of the region previous to a military expedition Went into the Part g t h e Ecclesiastical History of Johrt cf Ephesus. In a period The shrines of the saints.. 43-47.lg2 Indeed. 415. 534. 1937). 111. having been saved by St.. probably Paulicians. AS NOV. one of the tenth- Theodore. 111. those of the so-called military proselytizing and missioning force upon the non-Christians and heretics saints. George of Amastris was responsible The Archangel Michael js credited with helping Heraclius defeat the for the conversion to Christianity of the pagan Russ who. Theodore 1 0 5 Lampros. 3d ed. Sigalas.3. Binon. went drought or floods destroyed the crops.E. and George answer the prayers of the local inhabitants of Caria. Theodore. Nicon administrative authorities.rlOi K d nmpi60S 6ITdlTTa K a \ lTP6PaXE KUi ‘ppOUpi KCri KOlVbV TpOUT&TU KUi T&@l 1( grain for the starving inhabitants of Myra (Anrich.lg4 and the same hagiographer describes the Nicholas. pp. Nicholas intervened to procure Tm. Christian if St. 629-630. Georgii (Lcipzig. though the accounts are not often as precise as onc would desire. iii. Such were the panegyreis of St. 1913).I.l87 of Anatolia. 125. The references to conversion are Paphlagonia. A steady column of lepers. at least accordillg to his miracula. Amphilochius is credited with texts. “Bio5 NIKWVOS.lsl George of Arnastris. ” I (rg24). 36. paralytics. through the countless pages of the miracula on their way to the winter with violent storms on the sea accompanied by heavy snows. in the repatriation of St. rebuilt the saint’s church in Euchaita. 78. trafi. Eugenius.le4 and John Tzimisces as a result of the victory over the Amastris. and then brought them to safety within The subject of religious conversion does appear in the hagiographical I while the Arabs were raiding the area. Trudy. I 71- 1733 175-r81. His hagiographer reports the story of one Vasilievsky. pp. 314-315.Aufhauser.189-195. l o 2Vasilievsky. 54. often took the Muslim Egypt and Syria. particularly in the more remote provinces that might be even less well The saints and their churches were the sponsors of the local fairs (some equipped medically. however. Constantine was himself a converted Jew. or some. conversion of a Saracen in Ephesus.” pp. St. The provincials also appealed to the saints to sufficient grain supplies. 1909). John at Ephesus. 150-151. believed to be buried under his casket.lss The most numerous miracles and services. 1-06 ‘AYlQu @ E o ~ ~ p o u . G..1st. Ibid. imp. and as an offering of thanks presented his sword to the saint. B..imp.lfl6 to the shrines of particular saints whose medical reputations were wide- 1 8 0 An especially spectacular performance in this respect was that attributed to St. ~ ? . was known as far afield as saints. (Brussels. St.I. 37. and he became a Christian. On one occasion when Trebizond had had a particularly severe marches. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST of the godless barbarians. threatened by storms while at sea.pp. In another case j S 4Drexl and Pertz. 328. I.blflos. epileptics. and cripples Eugenius of Trebizond. not always content to remain on the defensive.ls6 Some of the Church. pp. grecs inidi:dilselntifS ri S. 132-133). 1u8 Vasihvsky. institution. Theodore t o protect him. XII. Greek Pojmlar Religion. 38-40. Eugenius is “ T ~ KolvfiS S j u 6 v V6hEwg (Papadopoulos-Keramcu~. while still living. and then scattered and few in number.lD1St. p. I.69. on behalf in Crete and Sparta and by the mass program of conversion which John of their co-citizens.” l o o Anrich. On the ancient Greek panegyreis and their survivd as a p. Lazarus converted a village of heretics. conversion oC Muslims in Syria. at least in their miracula. religioeconomic institution in modern times see Nilsson. Hngios Nikolaos. promised to become 185 Zonaras. III. ‘‘ ‘H 6iau~~ufi TOG h b TOG xpucri-rr~owrrapaSE6op6vwv 8awclrjrrwv man and his small boat entered the harbor of Attaleia safely. S. if vened and calmed the seas so that the ships were able to bring grain to the starving city la’ Papadopoulos-Kerameus. 49-50). Payne Smith (Oxford. p. For a good description of a pagan. which he attributed to the intervention of St.1eg neighborhood as he could. John of Ephesus. i u i v Iviptqqpa. trans. Imp. Delehaye. Mercure de (Louvain. Sigalas. Anrich. sanctuary and prayed to St. 512. one invoked the saints with special out of the walls of that city. Les &vdes grecques des snints inilitaires (Paris.rraioirxos is credited with the offensive. AS Nov. of Ephesus implemented in the sixth century. 408-409.105 attributed to the saints are those that have to do with healing. as indeed the whole of the ecclesiastical of history when knowledge of medicine had not progressed sufficiently. however. After the campaign the soldier pnssini (hereafter cited as John of Ephesus-Payne Smith). even leading the imperial armies to victory in foreign lands. the Trebizondines were threatened with starvation. the fisher- A. while raiding Persians. broke into his sanctuary in order to steal the rich treasures they Russians in the Balkans.Ts6The saints also figure century Anatolian saints St. Syrian mule merchant who wore a golden likeness of the saint on his chest as a result OF Bibliogrflpl&z Hflgbgra$hicn Groeca. Nicholas would save him. the city was without shrines in hope of cure.ls2St.. inter- still the dreadful forces of nature.E. R.Ist. 1V. “AIaQKEufi” lSRTheophanes. gathered as many of the Christians in the prayers and invocations. If disease came upon their livestock. religious-commcrcial panegyris in Comana durlng the ancient period. 4. IV. 2 2 . T r u 4 . Strabo. of which were of an international character) or panegyreis held on the times they would travel long distances from their own villages and towns feast days of the saints.286. 65-69. Trudy. Doclcments LO4 Ibid.lDB quite prominently.415. 1860). As a result of the saint’s intervention. a Muslim fisherman from Egypt. and Euchaita who have lost relatives to the Arabs. J. Nicholas. This role of the saints and their shrines as vital integrating The saints are frequently alleged to have intervened with Byzantine forces in society is more forcefully illustrated by the activities of St. vicinity of Philetis in Caria. 1957). In one of the miracula of St. Der hi& Nikolaos in der grzecliischetz Kirche (Leipzig-Berlin.lD0St.I o I . As the winter storms made the seas too dangerous for the grain ships. were intimately involved in the economic life of the Anatolians. 76. 1g13). spread.

I. George. he promptly marched a03 Ibid. at the shrine of St. Asia Minor was city. In fact. “Saint Phocas. 531-533.212T h e presence in a town of a saint’s shrine. to the church of the Archangel Michael in Chonae. 532-533. government officials and. falls to the ground. and is O n departing they remarked. .207 as are also Michael at Chonae. “Makri and all the country as far as Myra produce black incense and gomphytis.’’ 2 0 ’ Sigalas. prosperous. Lazarus.P.S.le* St.. and a attracted traders and goods from the whole of the Islamic and Indic poor woman is saving a chicken for the saint. Thus it is that they produce the gomphytis incense. pp. Basil of Caesaieia and his cargoes to saints Lazarus. XII.. that the saints were shrewd businessmen. pp. Aufhauser. 317.20oMerchants and craftsmen are constantly Euchaita.l** St. by virtue of herdsmen. 184-219. 537. of the incidental and anecdotal nature of these sources. They raised the offering to one nomisma and finally to four nomismata beforc the church doors opened. “AIaomufi. Theodore and the panegyris The saints’ shrines. 207-208. Bpqpfas aPdrrou vohu&vOpwnov -rr6A1w. 130. P. p.” Miruculu S. 328. AS Nov. and placed it in the church as his offering to St.the recipients of con- The pious from all classes of society made lavish gifts to the various siderable wealth i n cash and kind. a merchant promises one-half of his cargo to St. that his product o f the district of Attaleia in the eighteenth century. 108-113. were of great significance for any settled area. I 34. In the nziracula and from far away. Eugenius.I3+ 207. Finally he zol Lampros. says that this same Kapnopopia. Soon afterward four merchants passing through the city came to the church to pray.1.w~dvT ~ V One rather humorous anecdote from the miracula of St. George throughout the lands of Paphlagonia. The treeiscalled zyghia and resembles thealder. XIVOT~E~S. both from the neighborhood to St. imp. and the worm-dust.” him to win. Lucas. trap. from the cherry-tree.” p.” p. 103-107.. and the 211 T h e inhabitants of Gangra In Paphlagonia sent one pound of gold as an offering. iK .” eat it.rrav-rbs EOvou5. very important. 111.1 . were that had made it into a great. pray. 322-333. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST St. as a gum similar to that Anrich. . John Mauropus-Lagarde. Georgii. John Mauropus-Lagarde. to save both the gold and its purveyor from robbers so that they may reach Chonae safely! 21z For the church as a legal custodian of the property of others. but to no avail. ‘‘TQ & ~ I ErahpyIE K V I T ~ nmheiS T& crpoy~drr& UOU. Sigalas. Ka\ collected with a sharp-edged piece of iron.20s the common folk gave more modestly. Delehaye. Nicholas. 333. bores through the wood beneath the bark. 289. the monastic foundations Sailors and maritime merchants pIedged wheat and other items from their and traditions of Anatolia going back to St. ‘‘ . p. or as.200and streaming through the shrines of these Anatolian saints. and. or as the sponsors of the large pane- saints in return for the services that the saints performed.3. there is the case of the 1714). George promising to give him a cake (acpoyy*ov) if the saint should help (hereafter cited as Michael Acominatus-Lampros). 6-7. a farmer gives an ox. 206 Cedrenus. 512. Theodore at profits from their commerce. 1st. After his luck changed. whole is then boiled in a copper vessel. T h e Trebizondine fairs were international and of St. “Kavhv ’Iwu$-pTOG ‘Ypvoyp&~ouE ~ S “Ayiov @.. John Mauropus-Lagarde. “AI~~oxEu~~. they would eat it and give the saint 0ulJ. ‘‘ “Aytos 00~6s 6 imp.” zo4 He describes the brilliance of the celebration when the local people and officials off to his mother. IV.” p. they remarked that inasmuch as St.. of the bishop and his the emperor John Tzimisces has already been mentioned.. century John Orphanotrophus was cured of a serious illness by St. f i p ~ I?IK~ uoi? &hho o k & ( Y O ~ & ~ O ~Aufhauser. church of St.210Gifts of such a nature worlds. . which is sold to the merchants in leather bottles. ” A. 210 Sigalas. 57-58.T. EV. Hagios Nikolaos.Idrpcrra. John Mauropus were brought to the saint not only by the inhabitants of his town but very remarks that a great host of people came to the celebration. Voyage du Sieur Paul followers are making the gift to the patron saint of a different area. a nd for the town and rural environs as well. Nicholas) . Georgii. “Aiamwfi. Theodore a soldier presents his sword.” Strabo. Van de Vorst.BO4 possessors of large landed estates and serfs. . 111. burn incense.201 These fairs were important for the church of the soldiers. It exudes from the tree in a viscous state. Phocas at Sinope. of the large anccdote is of interest in showing the presence of itinerant merchants. at such a town as Euchaita. and populous full of cIosely connected with the economic life of the provinces.” pp. I’8 Van der Vorst. Theodore of Euchaita which served as a guardian of the dowry of il recently deceased woman. 7. 286. 132. obtained the cake. 58. “Saint Phocas. of the offerings caterpillar species. 312. Theodore. There was a famous church of St. An industry that catered to pilgrlms as well as to the religious heads of the local then found themselves unable to get out of the church. George in Paphlagonia known as Phatrynon.” pp. la Macidoine el 1’ Afigue (Amsterdam. 289. “Euchaita et S. in this particular incident. 121iracttlfl S. The offering of gyreis. trap. so he lavished gifts on the church and built a wall around the foundation of the coenobitic institutions of Mt.D. he intercedes Lrtcas failpar ordre du roi dam la Grdce. “pEpi6a UOI ptau ol ~cnrrihhdpavoi . George is quite illustrative Z i v o d a . pp. 319. XI. This is gathered and mixed with produce of the first tree. pp. Macri and Myra. Oikonomides.20EThe middle classes were equally attached to the cults of the saints. pp.. the poor farmers and particular saint. E’Asie Mineure..lo7 St. product was used by Anatolians in the worship of pagan Gods! It was still an important Georgii. finally. Zst. Mtxaj’h ’AKopivbl7ou TOG Xovidrrou T& uo3(6pma(Athens. These the saints (one well-to-do family in Myra gave I O O gold pieces annually panegyreis attracted great numbers of people. George could not have come together to chant. 18. 130-131. and Phocas if they would guard them during their dangerous sea voyages and enable them to reap financial zoo AS Nov. Daniel. also the basic monastic province of the empire. A huge worm. Eugenius at Trebizond. 56 appealed to St.211 that it was the great fame of the shrine of St. Hagios Nikoloas. St.” pp. The Another shrub. and indeed the church as an institution.202H e states often by Christians living in another part of the empire. One must also keep in mind that from the seventh century until the Nicholas. XVIII (1g53). to bring gifts to the saint.So they consumed the cake but p. I n the eleventh staff. p. Spotting the fragrant cake. at the shrine of St. pp. 218-240. A group of young boys was playing next to Aufhauser. the church and during the course of the games one boy contiilually lost. i s called raka-storax. 167-170. P.” pp. “Saint Phocas. -riOkaui. whether as the stoas and marketplaces. Thkodore. the boy did not forget his vow. Papadopoulos-Kerameus. resembling the aspen. which made even by children and. 289. Mirncula S. N. Van d e Vorst. Papadopoulos-Kerameus.no8 The merchants and wealthy classes donated generously to the economic activity and economic prosperity that they brought. p. comes away from the shrub like wheat bran. 415. I 3.. 1. Anrich. Athos.. George is not a t all jealous. 40 4. 1879). p. of course. They thus became somewhat morc population was the manufacture of black incense and gomphytis in the coastal towns of generous and each gave one miliaresium to the saint. Even farther inland. 244. .

had not always possessed this predominantlv Greek Anatolian Languages. 2d ed. Howink ten Cate. This second wave of settlement was fateful not and superficially Hellenized and was. i n the vicinity of Miletus.geschic/ite dds allen orients. Hetites. and Persians. the monasteries were thriving. Goetze. the principal discernible elements i n the progress of Hellenization at this early stage in a sense depended less on culture of eleventh-century Anatolia. B. there is little that would lend weight the numbers of settlers than upon the consequences of the economic and to these suppositions. Neumann. Kultrrrgesc/ric/ite des alkw Orients. Some scholars have the western coast in considerable number. while many were founded from the groups. p. Nicaea. though Milcllell Ramsay (London. “8pigFphie Asianique. debate.214 are extant remains.210But from the point of view of language and religion. V I I I (1950). nov..L. 414-437. central. pp. Cimmerians. Robert. Greeks. or rather of Anatolia in the day Kara Da& monastic communities thrived down to the Seljuk first millenium of the pre-Christian era. and the influence i n classical times was centered on the coastal arca. Uiiteisuchiirzgeti zum Weiterleben Iielhitischetr zrnd lrlwisclreri Spracligtltes it1 liellcnistischer wid roniischer Zed (Wiesbaden. ao[-204. Kleitiasietl. He announced this sensational discovery and promised a forthconling grammar of modern Hetite. T h e process of Hellenization in terms oflanguage and culture had begun Galesium. 202-209.C. J. Swanson.21D By disagreement on all three of these items in regard to the inhabitants of 800 B. Ionians. 182-183. indifferent to the language. not been documented in siificient detail. scenes ofvigorous monastic life. “Languages of Asia Minor. Kultu. whereas those in eastern Anatolia apparently came from both Europe and Asia. At the moment of the Turkish in- vasions. XXIII (1954)~ 439-442. 1948). It is interesting that the had inhabited Anatolia since the days of the Hetites. a18 A. Auxentius.” 3l7 1t had hosted Urartians. M. Vazelon.3-26. for the dominant religion was that of the Greek or Byzantine church. The actual process by which Greek language and Greek Christianity had come to predominate was a long one. and these in turn colonized the maintained that the Byzantine population of Anatolia was only lightly shores of thc Black Sea. One phil- ologist claimed to have found Hetite spoken in an Anatolian village in the twentieth century. “A Select Bibliography of the Anatolia. ser. B 1 O Goetze. 180-183. and cultural superiority that these emigrants developed in Anatolia. Friederich. for most of which there ninth through the eleventh century. Kleiriaszattsclit S’rachdedtnalcr (Berlin. Cappadocians. Isaurians. and one that has monastic centers. “Angebliche-moderne Reste alte Kleinasiatischer Sprachen. and Sumela. D. Kurds. Masson. I n the district of Iconium. to name only the bettcr known ethnic the Seljuks first arrived in Anatolia.” Orientalin. 1-38. 1961). religions. Lydians. while at Trebizond and the languages. These peoples brought their own languages. pp. G. 396. Prusa. thc Aeolisns. and the entire Propontid coast were literally strewn with these establishments. In the a17 A. The Liiwian Population Groups ofLycin and Cilicia Aspera d u h g the Helltitistic Period (Leidcn. environs were located the famous monasteries of St. Present. 1961). There has been considerable discussion. seemingly for commercial purposes.D. EVE OF THE TURICISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST institution of a monastery a t Annesoi. Sakellariou. Olympus. in fact. Armenians. which in some cases are suficient to permit classifi- cation of the languages. Saycc. and as the Mycenaean period. as well as the whole of the Opsicion theme.” Z. Their eastern Anatolia to the confines of Cappadocia was Greek. near Ephesus. Mt. however. Mt.218The majority of the people in western Anatolia Ethizograjlly seen1 to havc come from Europe and thc Aegean isles. The regions of Chalcedon. rg3z)). 1957). and ethnic groups of the peninsula at be established on the coasts of western and southern Asia Minor as early various times. 42 43 . 213 T h e bishopric of Hagios Procopius (Urgiip) was the centcr Caucasus i n later times as “the meeting place of a host of unrelated of the famous troglodyte monasteries. on the present The linguistic situation or pre-Greek Anatolia. Lycians.More recently Ph. D. I g23). “Inscriptions inCdites en langue carienne. has been compared to that of the invasions. was very weak in comparison with the non-Greek elements. Perhaps the most interesting.” Nelletiictr. only for the coastal regions but in the long run for the hinterland of Asia church. for it was the basis of a vast process of Hellenization which the population of the peninsula in the eleventh century was the same which was to continue as late as Byzantine times.M. and Dorians had founded colonies along Byzantine Asia Minor in the eleventh century.216 Others have asserted that Minor as well. Mt. The dominant language of western. and government of Constantinople. But PriederiLh. La 7nzgrntton grecgrie eii Ionic (Athens. 1958). pp. In thc south. it was * problems facing the historian of Byzantine Anatolia are those that have Greek that showed itself to be the most dynamic.” Atintalian Slirdies Presented to Sir William regions of Anatolia east of Cappadocia this Greek element. C. Carians.J. H. and Latmus. Eugenius.” Bulletir~of the New York Public L i b r a y (May-June. were the centuries before thc pre-Christian era and continued long afterward. were important character. (Munich.G. LXXXVIII (1934)~ pointed out that the language in question was Circassian and spoken by Circassians who had Bed the Russian conquest of the Caucasus. Some rather humorous incidents have occurred in the search for the remnants of these languages in modern times. Greek colonies came to to do with the languages. Many of these monasteries had existed for centuries when Jews. and certainly the most perplexing Of all thc languages and cultures of pre-Christian Anatolia.193-194. Phrygians.

XIII. grammarians.pp. Feb. Ncllenization and. Robert. For an example of thc spread of 1ar. 4. pp. I t is also highly probable that in many areas where native Jones. “-rh-rapoi 6$ yhhrrais ~ ~ G V 01 T OK$vp&at. comments on Hellenization by 221 In Hellenistic times Perge in Pamphylia was associated with the mathematician remarking that Lydian was no longer spoken in Lydia (though i t survived Apollonius. doctors of note in thc Hellenistic and Roman periods arose in such Hellenized cities as Sardes. But it is not only meeting ground of East and West. The Greek Cip. pp. Nyssa. although even here Greek cultural influence Hellenism acquired the prestige of political domination and empire. nachchristlicher Zeit. 40-50. z yhp ~b ykos hT3yXavEv bv. who played such an important part in retained more of the pre-Greek culture. rhetoricians.22@ The degree to which Hellenism had penetrated phers. nevertheless. Laumonier. Nicaea.. 2 2 8 It has been customary to speak of these rural areas as completcly unaffected by the 2ao Ibid. Greek. 358-365. Anazarba. Hellenization made its great progress.27-29. Holl.” Ilcrmes. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST geographical nature of Anatolia combined with the Persian domination comparatively large numbers of men of letters who appeared there i n of the plateau to limit Hellenization to the maritime regions.221 The slower rate of Hellenization of rural Asia Minor is reflected i n the After the conquests of Alexander the Great and the establishment of the survival of a number of the “Anatolian” languages as late as the sixth Epigonoi. Gothic peninsula. Laodiceia. Theodoretus. 210-21 I . as were the fourth-century dynasts of was the official as well as the literary language. 51-67. A. I n contrast. biogra- bers of Greek words.Tq . the process often being synonymous One of the better known cases of linguistic continuity is that of the with urbanization. 1-38. Even though Greek receptive to this culture. the inhabitants were bilingual (Strabo. Strabo also remarks. Tralles. 2% Greek City. rivaled only by Alexandria. On Carian. 1966)~pp.pp. Caesareia.2a0 Hellenistic. society (law. Roman. L.) can be receptive to outside influence independently of 2 2 2 S. the penetration of Hellenism.224The geographer Strabo. “ 6 S& ~g ‘EAA&& X P T ~ ~ ~ cpwvfi. “Das Fortleben der Volkssprachen in Kleinasien im AnatoEische Personennamen (Prague. T h e King is Bead (Lincoln.” Thus Greek had also penetrated these more isolated areas.pp. P. to form cities in the Greek manner. For other examples of Anatolian bilingualism in late ancient BOT~V PV A u S ~ ~ . 1961). K. 243-244. but 236 Strabo.” 210 Strabo. C. 17.. For the showing t h a t though the Carians spoke a n impure Greck.22s Urbanization continued under the Romans. I 963) .. The Lydians had been particularly Hellenized. it had not yet conquered Caria and Lycia. The nature of the sources urban settlements and villages of Anatolia in many places coalesced. Alabanda. the rural areas were far less affected and language spoken by the Isaurians. p. Fedsch$t Franz Dolger zit 75. and early Byzantine times.229There is evidence that so that i n a sense Rome maintained the traditions of Hellenization in the Cappadocian was still known and spoken in the fourth century. p. etc. in the period from the sixth to the fourth does show the degree to which many of the cities and towns had been century of the pre-Christian era. Cotyaeum. 280-283. ”On the Hellenization of Lydian names and religion consult. Soli in Side with the phlosophcr Chrysippus and the poet Aratus.C. of Paphlagonia. art. XIV. Jones. Mylasa. By the late sixth century o f the pre-Christian era. pp. 209. Ta ‘EAAqvh.. Also there is the example of n1001kfl. Les cultes indiglnes en Carie (Paris. as reflected in languages and the fifth-century history of Byzantium.dl. as for instance Jones.222 I t was in the towns that harmful than helpful. 1963). was subject to two rival processes. 1488D. was in the process of dying. Zgusta. Mollus for a while among the isolated Cibyratae). examples one may cite certain Greek villages that speak both Greek and Arvanitika. religion. 44 45 . linguistic considerations. Georgian. himself an inhabitant of one of these Hellenized Anatolian towns (Amaseia) . The Greek City. Iloll. and whose language seems still to religious practices. Aphrodisias. 288. they spoke it extensively. XIII. Robert. Pergamum.” pp. The indigenous battle they fought against the progress of Greek. 28. while the more ambitious of the local population found with Armenian. historians. the local rather than culturally. and he implies that Carian produced the grammarians Crates and Zenodotus.. 4. Consequently. uses the verb ~api&iv in a fashion parallel to O O ~ O I K ~ [ E I V . Samosata. a20 On what follows. “Das Fortleben dcr Volkssprachen.225the language having acquired large num.%‘dPWV. the interpretation of what are kings of Hellenistic Anatolia adopted Greek as their official language and apparently geographical terms as denoting ethnic groups has been more sought to imitate other cultural forms.. “Isaurian Builders. Certainly linguistic Iranization. Mango. Hellenica. LXXXII. E V ~ SKih15 . CeOurtstag (Hcidelberg. but the other facets of human 221 Ibid. have been spoken as late as the sixth century. 9 . Laranda. For modern Ibid. C. 163-182. Tarsus contributed the poets Dio- scurides and Dionysidcs and the town became one of the chief centers of philosophy.z26 A Hellenistic monarchs pushed the process through the foundation of study of thefortleben of these Anatolian tongues (one is not concerned here Greek cities. pp. Tyana. economic specialization of the Isaurians. 17). 248-254. and if its presence a slow rate. the tempo of Hellenization greatly accelerated and henceforth century of the Christian era. 1-2. change is the most striking evidence of cultural change. For this summary. on and the archaistic use of ethnic epithets often make it dificult to ascertain their own initiative. and Byzantine But the literary aspect of The penetration of Greek cultural influence inland continued at Hellenic culture was largely an urban phenomenon. “ T ~ S(yhb-5) AvSGv S i ob6’ lxvos certain Anatolian towns and villages in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries which spoke Greek and Turkish. Prusa. The Attalids whether a linguistic or ethnic term is being used purely geographically were active in promoting Greek cities in western Asia Minor. -rij in which the cultural consciousness is exclusively Greek. -rq AuSGV. the inhabitants of the Cilician plain and of the regions the countryside. tongues survived. The Greek City. Amaseia. Jones. The of a type is to be seen in the rural areas and in their languages. Eddy. through the linguistic medium that a group or society is influenced. it does not reflect at all on the rural areas. X L I I I (1908).” PO&C/t70Rioll. Greek poets. Anatolia. in the towns and cities of large portions of Anatolia is reflected in the Nicomdeia. Noms indigt‘nes duns 1’Asie Mineure grecoromaine (Paris. Kurdish) demonstrates the losing nature of the their desires for advancement a stimulus to learn Greek.

riod is employed. &hr(vEs 6 TGV r o r 0 i j v ~ T ~ U K O V O &t)p ~. p. XXII. G.” p. Priederich.B. rpaida to designate the Byzantine Empire see the interesting studyof P. still preserved their national on the question are the ecclesiastical histories of Socratcs and Sozomenus. mentions Mysian and Lycaonian they are usually in Greek. . xxxii. 2 3 ~ Christian era). Though a very few of the epitaphs are in Phrygian. is the word a renaissance and that it was the living language of the people in a limitcd Phrygian in the text simply a reference to the fact that his mother was from area of Anatolia? The majority of these inscriptions contain the epitaphs the district of Phrygia ? Here again one is faced with an archaistic use of a and names in Greek. and that the century of the Christian era. Galatia was also called rahhoypaiala site. The curses themselves seem to be rigidly formulated with Igq. a a 7 Ibid. 1468. maintains that Lycaonian was actually Phrygian. See also the remarks of L.. does not prove the vigorous survival of scholars have relied. Caldcr. 5. 5. M. 764.” pp. “Acta Graeca SS. ix. Jahr- 232 Holl. a n inhabitant of the district who have followed him) has concluded as a result of two passages in these of Phrygia. P.” “8lqyEiTo T T E i~~~d t v 7 0 v early Christian era Bosch. That this is so. Aniantos. 236 Their descendants were still known as ror0oypaiKor (and not as Gotho-phrygians) ation in Galatia Cis Halym. On the use of a society where the customary linguistic medium was Greek. similarly I-Iellenized and were called rahhoypaiKo1. with a curse on the would-be violators of the tomb written in Phrygian.“TPAl KIA symbolizes the process by which Greek was spreading.A. 418-419.” he obtained the services of a Marcellinus. Davidis.” J. As of 1956 the known and published This passage has been interpreted as meaning that Selinus addressed his number of such inscriptions was an even I O O . the healed Lycaonian was drawn into ostliclien Prouitzzen des rornischen Kniscrreichs (Hildesheim. Mitteis. 1963). &?Ahyhp K a i T ~ V‘Ehh~vwv. z Z .O. Neo-Phrygian. At. speechless. The second these languages were for the most part dead or moribund in the sixth language to which he refers is probably Greek.. Calder attributes R few of the idprlc-rov iixwv 76 yivos. D i e Mission iind Azis6reitutzg des Cht istenturns. He was a Goth f r o m his father a n d a Phrygian through his mother. 385.” p.A. But the real question is the ~ ~ is the significance of this have been dated to the third ~ e n t u r y . 230 Holl. 256. “ . VII. Diodorus Siculus. &T6POu UUVbVTO5 a h + y l V d U K O V T O S T f i V ‘EAA~vIK~~v p V j V K a i 6p~r(VEiiOVTOS I1 (1g52). 11. the inhabitants of Phrygia having texts t ha t Phrygian was a spoken and understood language as late as the been Hellenized i n their speech. rheas u h fiv b ~ m p 6 s . AL an earlier period the Celts had been (whatever tongue this may have been). ~and ~ ~ practically all these congregation in both Gothic and Phrygian. “Phrygia. M. G. n. The remainder of the story indicates just the oppo.” ‘Ehhqvi~tr. Sozomenus narrates that Selinus was able proposed a more lively continuity of these hnatolian languages i n western to deliver sermons “not only in their national language [Gothic] . Rather it shows the process of Hellen- Socrates mentions that the bishop of the Goths in Asia Minor. (Leipzig. “ K d h i &KKhTlUhs I K W @ 6I8&UKEIv. Syniconis et Georgii. and Phrygian at least into the third ~entury. “ro-r0oypaiKol- 1 9 5 3 )141 60@hoyGv T ~ V8Ebv &bay” But in effect this does not prove the vitality of “Lycaonian” ro-reoypmla. Phrygian into the fifth century. “Die ICelten in Ankara.” pp. C.r r q Ebai K a i pi@qdrylov. XIX (1899). pp. “Ethnic Composition. And These are the latest texts o f the Anatolian languages (third century of because of this he t a u g h t in both languages.” J. 1’. 313-316. XVI (196?).235 Selinus.M.232Let us look then at these two texts on which so many Gothic. 4 th ed. in the eighth century. 868-869. On the absorption and Hellenization of the Celtic nobility in the bilingual interpreter who knew Grcekinaddition to “Lycaonian.). Ammianus Greek. TOrh-WV. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST i n the fourth century. Greek and fifth century. 2What meaning of dr~cpo-rkpa~s Tais ~ I C L ~ ~ K T O “in I S . 71-90. 3.” I n his desire to communicate. Holl (and those Gothic. Oir p6vov SI~AEKTOV ~ I ~ O A ~ ~yapI O V. 648.. ~ (hereafter cited as Charanis. 366. 283-291. V.” Jnhr6tlclr Jir kkinnsinlischer2 Forschurig.” A.S..”). I 14.B. drawing upon an incident century. ‘%TE T?J Big 8iaAiK. I. Reichsrccht ~ i Volksrecht d in den ?a m p l ahoc.. passage has nothing to do with the Phrygian language. he used both languages.. Strabo. “Das Fortleben dcr Volkssprachen. The translator. Thus. as his mother was a non-Goth. “Das Fortleben der Volltssprachen. was the son of a mixed marriage. in the c h u r ~ h . AS Mai V. T h e Greek little variation.2~0But term that refers to nothing more than a geographical district.” This indicates..” P.G.” npbacpopa E ~ SZdh’iTwVU 17. The healed man felt compelled to relate the wonder to others. both languages. attempts to show that “Lycaonian” was a XVIII (18gg). “ofi yap ~~TT~UTCXTO T+ ‘EAhjvwv yh&mav.H. he could also speak Greek. Das Tatigskcit cines nicht identifizierten Strategcn irn friihen 9. one is actually dated to the year 259 A.D. 243-244. a bilingual.” a 3 8 Priederich..” Does this material ? Would i t justify the proposition that Neo-Phrygian underwent mean that he really spoke both Gothic and Phrygian? Or. 4. und ’APMENIA. and in both cases the Greek alphabet of the pe- as possible languages in this period. xv.rc. and so Selinas their bishop often addressed them in the contents of which refer to eveiits in the fifth century. n. Anderson.281Of these languages spoken in Anatolia. in contrast to Ka-r&+p TUTPIOV a h i j v rpwvfiv.A. This passage.Z ~ . “On the Ethnic Composition of Byzantine Asia Minor in vital language in the sixth century.” 13011. “Explor. a certain ization at work among the Goths through intermarriage and religion.A. K a i 61& inscriptions to the end of the second century.M. The Goths. 8. Theophancs.238 Thus Neo-Phrygian survives in these third-century CiQ. But thcse two terms seem to be geographical rather than linguistic.” 234 Both texts indicate the following. W. Martha. which have survived. . There is also the question of the body of Neo-Phrygian inscriptions.Opric 6 i K U T ~ Hqidpa. Jones. then... V (1g32). XII. Charanis. TOGTO 6pToTiPaIS Tais 8lah6KTOlS h o l ~ w cKa-rh . KuprmIGqv (ThessaloIlike. and the geographical term is mentioned in the late eighth 231 11011. 32. xxix. LXVII. rejects Mysian as a language. Upon being cured h e spoke in hisown tongue. 43. 247-248. pp. indicates that already by Roman times people were not sure as to what Mysian was. “Das Fortlebcn der Volkssprachen. Appian. 241. But. that Mysian was no longer a spokcn language. I . a33 Socrates.Speck. 9. in the Iife of St. ~ f i vkKhquiav Bui8aoxe.but also Asia Minor during the Byzantine period have concentrated on the case of in that of the Greeks. Mithradates. 870. “Phrygia. p. tongue i n the fifth. The principal literary texts that have been brought to bear w h o settled in Phrygia i n the fourth century. 256. hunder. p. readily. LXVII. But as he spoke no Strabo. 46 47 .W. “pap-rupEiv 6k K a l T ~ V 234 Sozomenus. See also J. XII. I-Iarnack. Those who have second language of Selinus was. 5 . This incident has to do with the cure o f a man who was the Thirteenth Ccntury. 2 3 a Calder. emerges from the Neo-Phrygian has received the greatest amount of scholarly attention parallel text in Sozomenus which is much more explicit as to what this because of the survival of the Neo-Phrygian inscriptions. G.

Gelzer. prauss. X X I I (1g61). V (1g32). I. 140-154 (hereafter cited as ‘Transfer.” B. inscriptions found. artificial revival of the epigraphical use of the Phrygian language by the Though there were no large migrations of new peoples into Anatolia Tekmoreian Society.”) . Constantine V settled thc sources. M.240Certainly some knowledge of ment.242 At least references to these Mardaites were sent to Attaleia. Of these. n. 531.196-240. 657. Though the number of on numerous 0ccasions.9 . I t is not recorded w h e t h e r is indicative of the fact that the inhabitants of the area still felt themselves to be Phrygian. one group on the eastern borders. where by the latter part of the seventh century they must have tions of the Turks in the eleventh century. 76. IV. 111. the same manner in which Socrates used the term Opbk. “Transfer. 352. pp. Constantine Porphyrogenitus’ use 247 Charanis. Akad. but these were later removed by the Arabs.241 military purposes. SO language among the people. Calder. I. the five detachments of cavalry which Justinian sent to fight on the Persian front (Pro- But the usage is more likely geographical. which mentions the word Phrygia. “Some Notes on the de la classe des lettres et dcs sciences niorales et kolitiques. Vasiliev. 668.260 Probably there also was settled a a30 244 For the general practice of transplanting populations. Kurdish. Strabo. pp. pp. “Corpus picture the samc author’s “Ethnic Composition.R. The Greek Cib. 144.249 language.” p. VII ( x g q ) . formulaic curses.. “MapSaf-ral. (hereafter cited as “Prtcisions. Political expelled a considerable number of Armenians from Byzantine Anatolia. XI11 ( ~ g s g ) .” B. that Phrygian existed as a vital living state to the east.M. 1870). there is the fact that most of non-Greek.. B .R. 152-253. the Byzantine emperors over the centuries introduced these inscriptions. I. share the view that Anatolia was Ernpirc. “Slavic Element in Asia Minor in the Thirteenth Century.P. 2 4 0 Theophanes. from Phrygia. much in copius. however.”). to Ortho- for the assertion that it was artifically revived and that Greek probably doxy). factors in the Byzantine period contributed to the victory of the empire’s causing them to settle i n Melitene and Fourth Armenia. On other occasions the transferred populations were brought for was. and 1. p. or were Christians fleeing the conquests of the Arabs. der kotz. has a t one point stated that these inscriptions “represent an Asia. xiv. Bryer. received large numbers of migrations and settlements. L’empire grec. for no Phrygian cited as “Ethnic Changes. 12.S. until the migra- I regions of Byzantine Anatolia.”). Presented to Sir William Mitchell Ramsay. due to the fact that there was in existence a relatively strong and organized One is not convinced. On the Laz. X V I I I (1948). xxx.245 and t h e Anatolia (to the regions of Cappadocia) . “Ethnic Changes. “Anadolu. He also supposes that the Byzantine Empire in the Seventh Century. for he mentions the disappearance of a number of Phrygian tribal Abhand. Agapius of these terms led Rambaud. so far as it has been possible to ascertain. P.H. xiv. “The Armenians in the Byzantine this problem from the Hellenic and Turkish sides. who have studied Z6O O n the Armenians of Byzantium. and possibly Lazic not had a n Armenian but the cmperor Philippicus (71 1-713) only survived but were spoken by the overwhelming majority. Theophanes. as well as Greek. History of the Wars.O.J. and subjected to Hellenization (often Neo-Phrygian existed in the mid-third century. “Corpus inscriptionurn neo-phrygiarum. In M. 48 4. I.he Phrygians were bilingual in the third century.000in Greek. 18 are i n Latin.25-36 (hereafter Phrygians ofGalatia had been completely Hellenized by the third century. that in the easternmost parts of Anatolia. thc triumphed over the various indigenous tongues of western and central Greek Cypriots were moved to Cyzicus by Justinian 11. Aside from the alphabet.V I I I ( I 912) . 4. he speaks of a fourth-century inscription m46 Theophancs.K. De Cnerimoniis. 29. already in the third century... Bulletin a 4 3 Rambaud. 365..” EIz. Georgian. Kitab al’ Unvnn.” Comparative Studies in Sociely and Histop. z I . 382. 8. “The Transfer of See also his “Philadelpheia and Montanism. “PrCcisions effectively Hellenized. z48 ff.” pa 143. It is true. XLVI (1gz6). R e postulates that this usage a’*o Constantine Porphyrogenitus. populations into their Anatolian provinces the epitaphs are in Greek. W. Amantos. In contrast to the Balkan peninsula. 294.Z40 Similarly. Charanis.. Rambaud. as a result. (Berlin. L’etnpire grec. VII. 1go3). as in the regions of Coloneia and Neo- caesareia. settled in Asia Minor or not. XXI-XXII ( 1 9 6 6 ) ~174-195. and trans. with perhaps no linguistic connotation. in his day already bore witness to the process in which the Phrygians were disappearing 2 4 8 Charanis. 69-83. the foremost student of these that Anatolia had something of a buffer against the peoples of central inscriptions. nomenclature was used throughout Byzantine history. zg. to d e Menbidj. “Ethnic Changes in t h e inscriptionuin neo-phrygiarum. XII. 17-18).A.076 to Anatolia had been causing trouble for the empire in other provinces. This archaistic geographical I. XXXI (191I). A.O. Arabic.” J. A.” B.H. On the general ethnographic 241 Calder suggests that . L’empire grec au dL4me sidcle (Paris.S. I existed in considerable numbers.247 seventh-century Pergamum possibly Armenian. 38 in Neo-Phrygian (or Hence they were removed from their familiar social and ethnic environ- Greek and Phrygian). VII. conclude that all these linguistic groups existed to the end of the empire. lacking in soldiers were settled in various parts of Asia Minor. Histoire universelle ed.J.~44The reasons for this transplanting of peoples these Neo-Phrygian inscriptions is in itself considerable (xoo)..” pp. EVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST monuments for the most part in fixed ritualistic. 140-147.L.” inscriptions have been found in Galatia. 297-298 Laz and Tzan. der Iyiss. In some cases the foreigners brought keep in mind the fact that in eastern Phrygia alone there were some 1. decisively victorious in Phrygia.” D.” J. p.” Acadhnie rojale de Belgiqrte. 244-245.S. odd groups of Armenian early languages are.pp.A.. first the Sassanid monarchy and later the caliphate. Grtgoire.538.” The powerful influence of Greek is evident i n from the East. Asia Minor was shielded from such large ethnic movements of peoples who might have changed the linguistic pattern. One may assume that by the sixth century the Greek language had I n this way the Goths were settled in Phrygia in the fourth century. I 63. which from the sixth The settlements of Armenians were most numerous in the easternmost century and even earlier. placed in a strange one.. Charanis. Syriac. X X X I I I (1947). “Ethnic Changes. 243 Jones. and in Anatolian Studies Byzantiunz.B43Perhaps this was partially Calder. 13-136. Population as a Policy in the Byzantine Empire.” ‘EAAUVIK&. Pergamon unter Byznntinern zmd Ostnnnen as an ethnic group. p 4 0 Calder. divisions..L. 364. and Taeschner. 41 ff. But there is some evidence indirectly) and to Christianization (or i n the case of heretics. one should were closely linked to state policy. in Greek. 5” strie. gkographiques et chronologiques sur les Paulicicns. “Transfer. I11 (1961). as are most of the names.” p. Charanis.” p.

D e Caerimoniis.2. p. I n regard to the continuity of the Slavic settlements of the seventh and eighth orientalistici in anore de Gioriio Leui Della Yida. Coloneia. VI.260and i n 692 he was able to raise a Byzantion. X X I I (1952). I (Paris.” p. A. There existed a mosque in ninth. Ankara.” Europe. 108-109. Most of the large scale transplanting after one has allowed for the exaggeration. 243. 14. Charanis. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. this must have been the largest of Armenians from their homeland b y the Byzantine emperors. Anatolia. Charanis. but on p.” pp. but it is not clear whether they were settled there.E. 364. seems to have been made to the European That the Slavs were still to be seen as a n ethnic group in this north- western corner of Anatolia i n the ninth century is recorded in Theophanes Other groups were sent to Anatolia.” p. -snurce _ . . Ostrogorsky. I 956). to the theme of Opsicion. Nicephorus theme.202 up to the tenth century. These monasteries feature considerable pseudo-kufic decoration in their frescoes. whom he had taken prisoner in Justinian destroyed the remnants of the Slavic colony and that the colony therefore disappeared. pp. rcfer to them as KaeloOivTES if in fact they had been there since the seventh and eighth 2s8 Charanis.. 0 0 0 .” ~ ~ ~ K T IT?5 K & *” Charanis. Hamdanides.” p. 666-667. “Ethnic Changes. there were mustered 500 Armenians from Platanion in the Slavs with their women and children a t Leucate on the Gulf of theme of Anatolicon and 500 more from Priene. 20. B. settlement as being exact and accurate figures. The first such mention would seem to be the 5. Theophanes.25*All these references. 431. I. OI ZBAapquiavoi 01 KaOi- “The Slavic Element in Byzantine Asia Minor. 69-83. 622. 50. 141-142. literally or makes allowance for exaggeration.. X I X (1949). “The Arab Mosque in Athens. exaggeration of a medieval chronicler. 124-126.” Hesperia. Laurent. T h e exact interpretation and translation of this rather impor- Arab invaders of Anatolia in 665. I (Rome.205Their numbers are comparatively small as revealed in this presence of Slavs in the seventh. I 10.2ts whereas Goo Armenians Constantine V many Slavs fled the Balkans and were allowed to settle (possibly those of Priene) were to guard the shores of the Thracesian in the region of the Atarnas River not far from the Bosphorus.. 111.. merchants. 76-78. Charanis.. Miles. 432. Amantos. 1965). 30. But when lie marched against customary to post Armenian contingenis in various parts of western the Arabs with his armies. and the u6dvTq ds -rb ’ O ~ ~ K I OIVt would . 42. Eyzmceet les Arabes. I. 142-143.268Almost a quarter of a century later. Lemerle. Tzarnandus. Symeon Magister. “Ethnic Changes. a55 Charanis. Justinian I1 sent the Slavs. 669.267There are references to the to Crete.3-144. I. XVIII (1948). 106).000 Slavs who deserted to the Theophanes. Melitene.” p. 590. 1 3 1 . Muslims are mentioned in the cities of Bithynia. Theophanes. medeia (Honigmann. Whether one interprets Theophanes 11. 98-1 19. “Un itinhire. ing items. Therefore the testimony of Theophanes a6316id. Constantine Porphyrogenitus throughout Asia Minor. 337-340. ’AKaSqpIuS ’AOqvGv.A. 655-657. has rejected 254 Ibid. L a vita retracta et les miracles posthumes de In the eleventh century the metropolitan of Ephesus h a d an interpreter for the Saracens Saint Pierre d’dtroa (Brussels.” pp. a Christian Arab monk is mentioned in an inscription Theophanes Continuatus. . he mentions that there were only 127 in the Opsicion “Quelques’ ‘A-catt’ de l’histoire des rclations entre Byzance et les Arabes.” pp. is elsewhere said to have been Armenian. Neocaesareia. Canard. 348. Cedrenus. 42.~ K A a j h p a v o \ K a l p&ppapoi. 42-43. Caesareia. the emperors transplanted considerable numbers of Slavs to the tenth ~entury. D e C a e r b m i i s .000 of these Slavs deserted to the enemy. as well as in exterminated. Maricq. 666.000 Armenian troops. though his origin of onc of the Cappadocian troglodyte monasteries (de Jerphanion.251 and it was military force of 30. 41-41. eighth. tant text has excited some disagreement. 348-349. 1958). and inhabitants. Europe and posted in the Opsicion theme. These were probably for Muslim captives.. necessary to reckon in narratives of this type.” pp.” p. but at the same time it must have been greatly depleted if not (G. Charanis.” seem a little strange that a tenth-century author would COmnentS of G. Geschichte. Cajpadoce. “Transfer. ZKAU~OI. 257-297. I. at least Slavic settlement in Asia Minor.647. refers by the phrase.” Travaux et Mimoires. the Slavic settlement under Justinian I1 century Ephesus (Ibn Khuradadhbih. It is possibly to the Slavs that the author of the life of St. (Canard. ninth. I. 54z). the whole colony. ivQiJAia EOvq. of a slightly later Slavic 250 Theophanes Continuatus. or simply as to the complete disappearance of this Slavic settlement must be discounted as the assembled and paid with the -viy[ycIcnaTfjs ’Avcrrohij~. 35. Persians in ninth century Anatolia. See also P. AS Nov.. “Thomas le Slave. pp. Peter of Atroa Constantinople. (AS Nov. most recent of which are tlle follow. “Ethnic Changes. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST number of Armenian soldiers in the Armeniac theme. a65 Ibid..” Byzantiotz. However he does accept the numbers of Theophanes. r..in tenth-eleventh century Athens was a considerable one. and Nico. n. remarks on the continued existence of a Slavic element in Asia Mlnor. 366. I I Q.000 from among them. Aside from the settlcment of 261 Theophanes. 652.. Gescliiclite. “Ethnic Composition. Vasiliev. 263-270).G.E. “Ethnic Changes. Charanis. It is conceivable that these tenth-century Sthlavesianoi might have been moved from OstrogorskY. p. In the reign of by the addition of 1.%68These are the last references to major Slavic settlements in Persian soldiers who deserted to Byzantium in 834 and were then settled Anatolia prior to the Turkish invasions.” pp. The text reads “ . I. E. pp. In an expedition against the Arabs of Crete during the reign Justinian was so infuriated that on his return he slew the remainder of the of Leo VI. I t i s difficult to answer this question from the text of Constantine Porphyrogenitus. ~Though ~~ this figure is doubt- soldiers posted on the shores of the western Anatolian coast or on the lessly exaggerated in the manner of medieval chroniclers. 666. and the settlement of the tribe of Banu Habih O n the exaggerated nature of the number.250In the course of the seventh and eighth does mention the presence of Sthlavesianoi i n the Opsicion theme in the centuries. Soulis. V I I ( 1 9 3 2 ) 333-335. ~ 50 51 . zond. refers to Thomas as of Slavic origin. . This 2 4 4 ) . Trebi. “Ethnic Changes. Charanis. are to scattered contingents of mentions that their number was 2 0 8 . centuries the question has been raised whether these Sthlavesianoi were their descendants 257 There is an extensive literature on this subject. “Notes SUP les Slaves dans le PtloponnCse ct en Bithynie. for such reasoning neglects the exaggeration with which it is always 252 Constantine Porphyrogenitus. “Ethnic Changes. Some have interpreted this passage to mean that in 688. I 24-125. Muslim merchants in Attaleia. nevertheless eastern borders to fight the Muslims. 625-627. I. II. 737-739). however. or not. 3zg-344).~04 for i n his reign they hrnished 220 men for the expedition northwesternmost corner of the peninsula. 92-93. XXV (1956). centuries. such as the several thousand Continuatus.200 T h e largest Slavic or Bulgaro-Slavic colonization in Asia VII the tagmata of the east were bolstered for another Cretan expedition Minor seems to have occurred during the eighth century. 3. “Ethnic Composition. “Ethnic Changes. 79.” pp. commented that in fact Justinian did not exterminate *a1 Charanis.252Under Constantine Nicomedia... Theophanes’ testimony on the extermination of this group as being an exaggeration. and he converted a Saracen in Ephesus.” Studi theme. and tenth centuries. I.

the eastern regions of Byzantine Anatolia which Zapetra (ninth century). Germans. settled primarily in the towns along the great roads of Anatolia along I n this manner an extensive emigration of Jacobite Syrians to these which flowed the commerce of the empire. was that of the Jews. ”E. 40 ff. I937). 624-625. p. Mastaura in the regions of the Maeander other^. 11. “Les Juifs et le fisc dans l’empire byzantin. Albanians. Ankori.” Eureiskii Miysl. There is.267 ments list a bewildering variety of ethnic military groups in thc various From the seventh to the eleventh centuries there are references to Jews i n provinces ofthe empire-Russians. century. I t is to be found in the southeastern districts of the Black Sea coast. Theseinclude Chonae (c. Chabot (Paris. 1 9 1 4 )I. Gcrmaniceia (Marash). The Jews. (eleventh ‘century). Mardin. Of these highly probable that there were many more such towns but they simply eastern peoples i n eleventh-century Anatolia. Armenians. Figures are given for the Jewish communities of the the eleventh century: Balkan lands of the empire in the twelfth century by Benjamin of Tudela. Abydus (10961. Simnadu. The early tax 273 G. p. P. and Ephesus (eleventh century). from zo7 J. They spread as far north as the Armenian town of Erzindjan Cbanges. Melitene. 167. Cappadocia (seventh their location. Bulgars. no considerable numbers and possessed bishoprics in a large number of the indication as to their numbers. Nicaea (tenth century). and settled in a n area. Hisn Mansur. Neocaesareia (eighth century). Kulpings. 83.VII (1927). 20. Active i n Anatolian commerce. having settlements of Jews during the twelfth and early thirteenth Lazes. Hisn military troops settled increased in ethnic variety. The Normans Roussel and Herve had their estates in Asia not available to. The eastern expansion of the tenth and centuries. 245-248. for they furnished much smaller numbers of troops than the Arme. but the Tarsus. 24. Trebizond ( I I ~ o ) and . however. “Smyrne. as did two tagmata of The eleventh-century docu- in Jewish establishments in over sixty Anatolian cities and towns. Ioannicius the Great (754-846) and the ‘Slavs’ of Rithynia. Amid.271 and in the mid- no doubt of commercial importance i n Anatolia. see chapter vii. which they acquired considerable wealth. 27-30. Caesareia (at least by the twelfth century if not earlier). eleventh centuries. Gangra (1207).000 Latins. I t is not always clear. A. Ziad..000 Latin mercenaries in ”’ Starr. “The Marwinid Dynasty a t MaylfLriqin in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. Chliat. and i n the border town of It was. 197-224.2Bg These Jews were Hanazit with Syrians and to establish his patriarchal seat in that area.A. Strobilus (eleventh century). Five more Anatolian towns are mentioned as contained the majority of the non-Greek populations-Kurds. Tell Arsanias. I I I. Saroug. Les Slaves.” EI1.Dvornik. 103.E. mp Minor. Chronique de Denys de Tell-Mahe.” J.3-23. “Ethnic and Gargar. 1gz6). J. Saracens.E. though a Nicephorus Phocas. In the tenth century the emperor of descent from the communities founded during the Diaspora. 13. ~ 188-194. Amedroz. trap. comprehended the lands of the Turks in the east and i n the west ‘‘Oi‘EPpcilolhT@ PV[WTIU@ K P ~ E I . (~gos). however. 123-245. Actes de Laura (Paris. Vryonis.208 The reference such regions as Amid. Rouillard and P. Laqabin. Scandinavians. Keraites. I. Anatoh not only continued in the tenth and eleventh centuries. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKlSH CONQUEST text.^'^ I t is very dificult to ascertain the numbers of these groups. following the Byzantine expansion to the east and the religious asked the Syrian Jacobite patriarch to repeople the areas of Melitene and persecutions of the eleventh-century caliph al-Hakim. Nisibis.and eleventh-century groups were permanently nians in western Anatolia. Syrians. registers for Ottoman Anatolian show almost no Jewish population at all in the sixteenth e 7 4 Minorsky. I 150). and whether they were permanent or temporary settlers. I1 (1gr6). in!. Normans. Juster.” Bymittion. i n an effort to revive the city of Melitene which had number of arrivals probably entered the empire during the late tenth been incorporated as a result of‘ the Byzantine reconquest years earlier. and it is clear that they were regions took place.” Mdlarges Charles Diehl (Paris.pnssim. trans.pp. Mayefarrilcin. 1895). Manzikert. For the Merwanids of Dlyarbeklr in the tenth and century.” p. Georgians. Georgians. if these tenth. pp.B. 274 Georgians and Lazes were one recalls the Constantinopolitan nature of the Byzantine sources. Mayaferrikin. In most cases they must have been in direct line the Syrians and the Armenians. “St. English. H. and Persians from the seventh through the ninth century) in Gaihan-Barid. 1930)~I. After this their presence is no longer noted. Tell Patriq. Callisura. the radius of their caravans See the basic work of Starr. eleventh century one tagma of RLUShad their winter quarters in northeast BY the time of the Roman Empire. Collomp. “K istorii Evreev v Vizantii VI-X v. 78-82. 1st. The Kurds were numerous in Seleuceia ( I I37). Beneievid. The Jews. Edessa. Amorium (ninth century). XXXI (1961). Kaisum. Bjzunce et Rome (Paris. Pylae (eleventh century). By the eleventh century they seem to have come in actively engaged in commerce and the crafts. Anazarba. Ardjish.. and the Armenian adventurer aoo Ankori. was z7a Cedrenus. the Diaspora of the Jews had resulted Anatolia. p..S. Samosata. pp. 271 Papadopoulos-Kerameus.200 the period of their military service. Ahrweiler. Claudia.2’0 eastern and southeastern towns: Zapetra. “Kurds. the most important were have not been mentioned. and Armenians. Contingents of Russ were sent to the A group about which comparatively little is known. Goubbos.passim. Philaretus based his political activity in Cilicia on a force of 8. Eleventh-century Edessa had 1.. esoF. 59 53 . however. Slavs. Armenians. or were simply temporarily quartered in Anatolia during it is quite probable that they were Christianized and Hellenized. and it is probable that Jews had lived in some of these towns eleventh centuries incorporated areas into the empire which were non- even earlier. and in to the Jews in these Anatolian towns is quite important.R. Charanis. The Practice of settling foreign military contingents (Mardaites. Andreades. Les Juys dans l’embire romain (Paris. Greek in speech and non-Chalcedonian. 7-29. Arabissus. especially when the regions to the northeast of Lake Van. century). where they possessed a monastery. 305-318.” pp. but which was regions of Trebizond i n the region of Romanus 1. Keraites.

626. the translation of the Greek texts. and the neighboring places. had spread on a significant scale in Asia h/finor. Hutoire ztniuerseEle. 732-733. in a sense. 130-146. “Les bvbques jacobites du VIIIe au XIIIe sitcle d’aprts la universal medium of communication were all factors that prepared the chronique de Michel le Syrien. 553.276 Larissa. EinuerleiDur~gannenisclren Grousset. trans. and Gabadonia in the theme of Cappadocia. pp. 616. spread to hnatolia very early. 873.000 men (and presumably by 1 of the Apocalypse. the Christian land their families). p. 168. Maeler (Paris. hkulian. next to Egypt. Abara. p. Byzance at 1es Tiircs seldjoucides dans C’Asie occidentalejusqu’en 1081 (Nancy. p. Cilicia. trans. They were also important as physicians and in I EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST Finally in 1064 Gagik-Abas of Kars received lands in Tzamandus. 492. more dificult to reconstruct. T z o ~ r r n e r e )In ~ ~ Basil I1 transplanted the population . 284 Laurent. p. region for a new religious syncretism. Matthew of Edessa.p. 447-448.529. . and.”285 Armenian princes. the Armenians “spread between Tephrice and Melitene. 175. estates in the province of Byzantine MesopotamiazB1and in the same year and in many provinces local culture.. 375. ein Beitrag zur vorseldsclutken Periode der armenische ”’ I-Ionigmann.O. PP. 288 Ibid.IV (1899). p. I 88. Lycandus. 111. Melitene. VI ( I ~ o I )189-219. Byzantium into the east was accompanied by a large-scale emigration of Mesopotamia. Caesareia. Bar Hebraeus. 222-226. no. 186g). Honigmann. 581. Aristakes. 548. nobles. Arnasaciou. pp. Prud’homme (Paris.R. . they were not serious obstacles to the pene- Paris-Strasbourg. Grousset. When Senecherim. Armenie. 11. 11. la* Grousset. p. 557-559.~~’ the nobility of Taiq. it was. I. 11. p. 734. arabischen. of the principal Byzantine sources of the eleventh century Michael Vaspuracan ( I O Z I ) .280 In 1045-46 Gregory Bahlavouni exchanged his lands for KaT’ C ~ O X ~ V Hellenism . Amaseia.O n the general absorption of the Armenian east.II.287 Hohvannes and his son David received landed possessions in Sebasteia. Michael the Syrian confirms this in remarking that once Senecherim- There had previously existed settlements of Armenians in these provinces Hovhannes had been installed in Sebasteia. church of Asia Minor. Armenie. Byzantium annexed Taron (968).. however. ‘(the Armenian heretics have thronged into Iberia. 111. syrischen und armenischen Quellen (Brussels. p. Chabot. ISG Michael the Syrian. 126. is the religious and sectarian newer emigrants were often posited upon the older stratum of Armenian picture of the peninsula. 97. and Tephrice. The history of the Byzantine church in Anatolia population. 32-38 (hereafter cited as Aristakes). Tais. 11. Aristaltes of Lazdivert. p.z82 Christianization. 443-451. Grousset. Cedrenus. 2 7 7 Cedrenus. the mixing of Judaism and paganism in thought. p. Geschichle (1912)~- 133. A m e n i r . and their retinues to the lands of the empire. ~ ~ ~ large-scale emigrations are The most significant movement of peoples into the Anatolian provinces specifically mentioned in only two instances. Regestert. Honigmann. 11. 32-38. they were accompanied by 14. 4 6 4 Attaliates. and Martisapao in the theme of Armeniacon (also same time the strength of the Orthodox church during the period between at Ani. ~grg). Laurent. Matthew of Edessa.C. and Syria.. Oslgrenze. Armenie. F. Armenie.pp. acquiring of ancient independence were so weak that they offered little resistance to estates in the themes o f Cappadocia. 19471. 54 55 . 580. Honigmann. Grousset. 71. I 935). 111. 133. 160. The presence of the large number of Jewish communities.- I EVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST Constantinople itself. and memories Kakig of Ani gave up his kingdom and settled within the empire. and Charsianon. Michael the Syrian.284 One two converging forces. up to the period of the first ecumenical council. the government As important as the ethnic configuration of eleventh-century Anatolia brought large numbers of Armenian colonists to both regi0ns. and the Armeno-Byzantine general throughout Cappadocia. acquired lands at significance remain to be written. 173.”28o Melias had organized the newly formed theme of Lycandus in the early Religion tenth century and colonized it with Armenians. 1 4 2 . 489. A. Taiq ( IOOO). Anatolia was at the Labaca. Melitcne. Cedrenus. The Greek church of history is in a sense the took place a significant emigration of Armenians. Armenie. after its absorption. and C ~ r n a n a Though . Hislorie de l’drtnenie des origines ci 1071 (Paris. Ani (I045-46). the ethnic languages. zg. tration of Christianity. ~ IOZI the seventh and the eleventh centuries.279and with the annexation of Vaspuracan. Die Oslgrenze des byzantitizschen Reiches uon 363 bis 1071 nach griechischen. it must be assumed that all ofthe empire was. 204. and also the nest of a number of of Baaean to Chaldia. Territorien durch Byznnt iin XI. pp. Asohk. the spread of Greek as a “Malatiya. 33. This transplanting of large numbers of followers. Jnhrhrmdert. 78. Christianity. In the tenth century the Taronites family received cstates in as well as a comprehensive history of Anatolian heresies and their Celt~ene. 1864) pp. I. Dolger. that which brought in the Armenians during these princes and nobles were accompanied by considerable numbers of the tenth and eleventh centuries. Grousset. Tzamandus. religious cults in Anatolia. a’a Michael the Syrian.. Oslgrenze. Cedrenus. 287 Harnack. *lB I-Ionigmann. 11. pp. As a result of these corps stationed i n the cities of Sebasteia. 169-178.~7~ The and. Cedrenus. D i e Mission. brought by such distinguished preachers as Paul and John Larissa. there smaller and larger heresies. 605- G3G. V (‘goo). The expansion of I Attaliates remarks.” R.288 The Christianity that emerged in Anatolia. Grousset. Though there were significant J. 495-511. Byzance et les TWCS. Histoire d’drmenie. So extensive was the number of Armenians in this diaspora that Armenians is closely connected wilh the Byzantine eastern expansion and by the middle of the eleventh century there wcre three Armenian military the somewhat later western movement of the Seljuks. Oslgret~re. Paradoxically. As a result of the Byzantine conqucst of Cilicia and northern Syria.” EII. Kars (1064). Lycandus.

one is nevertheless imprcssed by the striking coincidence of the dating of the sects that arose over much of the early Christian world. Starr. Pisidian Antioch. According to Calder this is almost and by the third and fourth centuries Christianity had not only won over unique. I t would be difficult to prove that its recurrence in later years was anything more than a n archaism. J. the heresy seems to have incorporated m‘1 Two sixth-century inscriptions were found which shed some light on the hierarchical certain religious characteristics generally (though not exclusively) structure of the sect. has left Judaism.”).” I). pp. where it would seem to apply to 281 Sinope. Though Calder has not proved his point quite possibly entrenched itself in some one of the heretical or schismatic conclusively. 64).C.. and the environs. I 923). Lystra. the struggle eighth ccntury. “L’htrtsie. I.291 Xpeioriavoi XpElomavois. In the eleventh century it is used by a scholiast to denote someone who Hieropolis. XI. 1-316. G. 5c ser. “The Epigraphy of the Anatolian Ilercsies. Starr. or “enthusiastic” approach to religion. to perish by the sword. were indigenous to Anatolia. Calder repeats his ideas in “Philadelphia and Montanism. I1 may well have merged with the Paulicians. Grtgoire.L. The Jews. the Cappadocian fathers.294The sect is mentioned in the laws of Justinian I. C. denied that thcse Christian epitaphs are to be vanish as the accepted or dominant religion of a particular locality. 183-227. 329-336. The Jews. They are mentioned in canon 95 of the Council in Trullo (692) byzantin des origines au XUe sitcle. Ecloga of Leo I11 and Constantine V where Manichees and Montanists are condemned 2so {bid. Gouillard. I1 (1925). Biilletiii de la clnsse des lettres et des sciences morales e t emphasis on the role of ecstatic prophecy. Apamaea. 1906).”B. their uniqueness in the Christian world. pp. in thc archaism so prevalent in Byzantine literary and intellectual monuments. A. Some of the sects inscriptions. it attached to the Montanists. Bardy. 206 Cod. Phila. Les Pkrsecutions (1951). (19671.G. Anderson. others were imports from different areas of that these inscriptions also bear witness to a sectarian struggle in central Phrygia in this the em~ire. L I X (1966). The heresy apparently spread most a g o Theophanes. On the other hand. that of Montanism. “L’htrtsie dans l’empire et Mimoires I. For further confusion of Jews and Ibid.. indicates that these eighth-century “Montanists” were actually a Jewish messianic sect. and possibly “Paganism and Christiantity in the Upper Tembris Valley. So the heresy at the beginning of the third century turned north toward the more rural regions of the Tembris valley. Amastris (and other churches of Pontus).293 This Phrygian heresy because Hellenism was the dynamic culture of the peninsula Hellenism continued to exist for a number of centuries.” p. a n area teeming with Hellenized towns. Iconium. 734. Tralles. for Christian tombstones revealing so openly the rcligious afiliation of the deceased belong to the postpersecution era. Pepuza. “The Jews. and their chronological coincidence with the appearance of the Montanists. GrCgoire. “Paulinus. Eumenea. J.~~5A sect that bore the name Montanist existed in the early between the itinerant and local organization of the church. Thyateira. Scharf. I. pp. even a former priest: of Cybele). 37-46. I t is repeated in the 2En Ibid. and esting group of Greek Christian inscriptions from Phrygia which date from the late second and the third century.Z. the Montanists of Phrygia locked themselves in their appeared within the Many of the significant developments churches and set them afire. I (Paris.J. “Montanisme. and Bithynia.” Studies in the History atid Art of the Ensterit Prouinces of the Emlire (Aberdeen. the rise of monasticism. V I I (1923). though its vigor seems to have and Christianity fused. H e goes on to generalize (“Epigraphy. O n the one hand. that emperor.T. though paganism seems to and Procopius records that during the general persecution or heretics by have been effaced without too great a struggle.200 A continuing expansion is observable in the second century. Philomelium. 737-738. and so once metropolitan-episcopal structure. Magnesia ad Maeandrum.” as opposed to Crypto-Christians. as Phrygians. 27. Comana. Montanists in the eighth century.” Travaux et Mkmoires. Otrus. By that time the Phrygian heretical movement had been defeated by the church The most important of these early indigenous Anatolian heresies was in central Phrygia. pp. Charanis.” bishoprics and chorespiscopates established on Anatolian soil by the B.2s7 in such towns as Pcrge. 309-310. Caldcr and Grtgoire. Montanus (according to tradition a converted pagan priest. and even when it did recently. and the Emperor Leo 111.. 18. Therefore cults of the rural areas. Christians to Christians. Lycaonia.” p. 177-178. pp. Derbe. 401. effectively in Phrygia (it was known as the Phrygian or Cataphrygian 20’ The use of the term Montanist survived. Procopius. Gouillard. pp. destroying both themselves and the and struggles of the early church had appeared in Anatolia: the contest edifice~. 2358-2370. p. heresy). H e declared them to have been the work of “phancro- chrttiens. 59-91 (hereafter cited as “Epigraphy. and possibly Ankara. These inscriptions included a number that are addressed as follows. K O I V W V ~ de ~ Stbaste de Phrygia.. Colossae..” in Anatolian Studies Presented to Sir William Laodiceia. Calder.. 735-736. others. X X X V I I I (1952)~ 162-183. themselves to the The sect had by then probably become In the first century of the Christian era. Parium. “Ethnic Changes. Some scholars feel that by the ninth century what remained of the sect “Le synodikon de I’Orthodoxie: Cdition et commentaire. Christian communities arose insignificant . had more church. 56 57 . actual conditions.” Trauaw et Mkmoires. Asia Minor also witnessed a strong more they locked themselves in their religious buildings and consigned development in the cult of the relics. Founded in the second half of the second century by a n area he assumes to have been only slightly affected by I-Iellenism. 23.” Acndimie royale de Belgique. 92. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST however. 20. bore the marks of t h e absorptive process. with the exception the Hellenes and Hellenized of the towns but had begun to absorb the of Rome. J. Prcvious to the period of toleration. 1965).” associated with the regions of Phrygia. p. however. Christians did not dare to reveal so openly their religious identity. II. Sardes. a t which time its members refused to be converted and with gnosticism. “Du nouveau sur la hierarchic de la secte montaniste. Atiacdota.2~2 period. Nacoleia. in Ephesus. Cappadocia. Pergamum. These included a particular Byzantion. thc Montanists. Ramsay (London. as is evidenced i n the philosophy and theology of been spent early. Troas.. who formerly accepted this view.R. in disappearing it re.” Travnux For an introduction to Anatolian heresies. Phrygian Hierapolis. as well as the general emotional politiques. in a most suggestive article. 14.. Paganism did not completely disappear. in the regions of Galatia.R. Imt. has described a n inter- delpheia. v. XVIII. Smyrna.. All this is reflected in the complex network of the unique appearance of these second and third century inscriptions is due to the activity of the Montanists in Phrygia. and the development of the baptized in consonance with the decree of Leo I11 (72 1-722). 25-38. Tymium.61). 52 (Zepos. 299-324.

” passim. Ankara. ~ 66. Jenkins. C. “Euchaites. 253.302 1 long time previous to the birth of the Christian religion. and Pontus. a t least in the sources. apparently originated in the Mesopotamian region of Osrhoene. A. is not clear. pp. “The inhabitants of the city of M a h a are not of the race of the aforesaid Slavs. Olympus of Bithynia. he ments. pp. or due to the actual continuity of the I i And yet. the heresy appeared in Lycaonia.” D. and North Africa. A. Apostatitai. and Lycaonia. I t is a question that can- 0thers. Phrygia. “Das Fortleben der Volkssprachen. Tatianoi. E d sir le dtJiusion du ManichPisme dans l’enzpire romain (Gand. however. R. had appeared in Anatolia. the Greek-speaking population of the southern Peloponrlese who were converted only in E. “Novatiens.303This is and by the second half of the fourth century entered Anatolia. and so wcrc great numbers of term is used to describe other similar dualistic movements. 341-345-c. but opinion has varied as to the degree the Anatolian population was heretical or orthodox. De. but also North Africa. fourth. earlier pagan tombstones have survived which have been in- scribed in Phrygian. . a n d even to this day they are called ‘Hellenes’ by the local in- ‘Oa Papadopoulos-Kerameus. Certainly in the third. were examples of nonindigenous heresies.. think of Byzantine Anatolia as the spawning ground of the majority of and Asia Minor.. Constantine Porphyrogenitus. First.. Novatianism. possibly due to the fact T o what degree the presence of heresy can be related to the survival that they built on top of the remnants of much of the Montanist heresy. But its later history is veiled in obscurity. had a marked effect on the subsequent religious 23 ff. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST 1 EVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST 1 The ecclesiastical authors a n d inscriptions of the fourth and fifth I! Thus Byzantine Anatolia had. The process of Hellenization had been operative for a I that of the PauIicians. and by the eighth century the (prior to their conversions to Christianity). lands where Christianity was establishing itself.” p. heresies that had entered Anatolia 1 I not be answered definitively. dc Stoop. Amphiloclrius sect such as the Montanists. One must view the presence of heresies in Asia t Novatian schism.T. course of the fourth and fifth centuries. in particular I Christian heretics. by the time of the losses to the Arabs of centuries mention numerous less well-known and smaller heresies that t Syria. the heretical sects found support in the local languages. have none of the carly heretical Christian inscriptions. 382. the Euchitai and Novatians. 1 9 5 6 ) p. Lycia. i The principle h a d been enunciated by Holl (and subsequently followed The Euchitai (Messalians).As late as the ninth century there is mention of Nestorians (whether they refer to the fifth-century Christological heretics i s not clear) in the villages at the foot of Mt. all surviving tombstones of Anatolian heretics are i n thc Greek language. 79-96. La uie merueilleuse de Saint Pierre d’dtroa 037 (Brussels. and whether the use of the term in the elcventh century is archaistic. I SOB).” 58 59 . in the towns of seem to have persevered longer and to have left a more marked coloring Cyzicus. He mentions the heresies of t h e Priscillians and Eustathians in Asia Minor.. and they came to be on subsequent Anatolian heresies. enjoyed a respectable history of heresy. I One is struck by the number of sects and also by the continuity of heresy in Paphlagonia. It would be a mistake to 1. Metropolitan of Iconium (c.I. 63-69. and Messalianism) inhabitants. “What are the Heresies Combatted in the Work of 1 extent. or due to the fact that the later sects were in some way similar to the Messalians. H. and Lydia. I stated. Laurent. including Syria.T. Encratitai. Italy.” D. Egypt.2. particularly strong in Plirygia and Paphlagonia. Cotyaeum. i lines i n central and western Asia Minor coincided to any significant “Epigraphy. but of the ancient Romans. Novatians. bccausc in the very ancient times they were idolaters and were worshippers of images after the fashion of the ancicnt Hellenes. I the ninth century. They seem to disappear by the eighth century. p. pp. in fact. J. I 904). Holl. Pisidia. Nicaea. ! habitants.2~8 Of these the more important.So4I t is quite possible or even probable.so1 Later Anastasius I and Justinian i I jectured relation between the survival of heresy and that of indigenous languages. Pamphylia. and fifth centuries heresies were numerous and common throughout many of the from points farther east and west respectively. trans. Egypt. begun in third-century Rome.C. A d m Imp. made its way to Anatolia Minor at this time partially against this background. IX ( I 963).T. Bones. Saccophoroi. and nonindigcnous sects such as the Mani- van Ikonium in &em Vedallnis zzi den grossen Kafpadoriem (Tiibingen-Leipzig. Thus. Hypsistarioi. 816-849. IV. and ii certain parts of Anatolia. Holl. Cappadocia. Nicomedia. so-called because of the preponderant by others) that the heresies in Anatolia were toughest to cradicate in emphasis that they placed upon prayer at the expense of certain sacra. pp. 304The Cappadocian speakers in the flock of St. Obviously many of the pagan Anatolians were Greek-speaking I took severe measures against the heresy. I 237. 395-400) ‘Regarding Falsc Asceticism’ ” The Greek Orthodox TheoloEical Review. been inscribed in one of the indigenous Anatolian tongues ? If. i those areas where the Anatolian languages survived longest. On the other hand where its rigorist doctrines may have h a d some appeal to a portion of the some of these heresies (Montanism.300 i one would have expected to find epigraphical testimonial to this con- The great heresy of Mani also made its appearance in fourth-century Cappadocia. I t is virtually impossible to substantiate Holl’s thesis that the heretical and linguistic 2 0 8 For a detailed description of the inscriptions and the literary sources see Calder. 1455-1465. Bardy. Basil were Christianized long bcfore ‘O0 Bareille. Paphlagonia. including those of the Montanists. pp. a n d they were baptized and became Christians in the reign of the glorious Basil. “Manichbisme. Euchitai. in the regions of Cilicia. These included Catharioi. G. chaeans and Messalians. for mention of a wandering Manichee in the region of Prusa in the first half of the ninth century. The Western world as well. Why then.C. During the I 1 so general a statement that i t glosses over many important points. Holl’s dictum were strictly valid original sect.C.” D.z9g of non-Greek languages is yet one more of those “dificult” problems. 1841-1895. Amann. Novatians are mentioned i n Paphlagonia. and other parts of the I those heresies that eventually made their appearance there. that an indigenous Amphilochius.

“K voprosu o pavlikianskom dviienii v pervoi polovine VIII v.r r a u h ~ v ~ m m Kaiwreich u t d uerwtndte Erscheinungen in &&en (Leipzig.. Further literature includes. I. ~ ~ ~ ance of the term “Bogomil” in the lexicography of the Greek theologians 3D5 Starr.S. the Athinganoi..” Byzanlinische Beitrage. I. but in the Cibyrrheote they went by the name of und mittelalterlicher Daulismus. However the phrase. Tessareskaidekatitai. “Gnosis Phundagiagitai. Theophanes. I . X X I X ( I 936). The latter’s condition. 35-39. .” in Ellinisiiieskii Bli&ii Vosiok. Sabbatians.“Paulikianer-probleme. F. 1961). See also his 311 AS Nov. Grumel. 52-68. Zstznik dlia izGeer2iia islorii 310 I. reviewed by Loos in B. 610-614. would seem to fit much more closely the paw$ that Holl has eleventh centuries.31a A century later St. 2 0 2 . p. Eunomians. S. “Pour I’histoire des kglises pauliciennes. PAC~~TEIV -rriBavwTBpous. having entered Anatolia from period.” Billleiin dc into all of these. is the presence ”Y obsceslua z’ krtliury (VIIIperuia polouina IX v . 111. ” I “Pavlikianskoe dvLenie v metropolitan of Nicaea. Pauliciens. M. one of their leaders. Zonaras.V. A propos des sources be found in Phrygia and Lycaonia in the carly ninth century where along with the Athin- grecques rkflktant des Pauliciens. The sender of the letter. XVII (1956). Regislres. and it is they who have caused *” Rullciman. “An Eastern Sect.C. By the mid-ninth century the sect was strongly the Younger) and the fact that St. ed. to . Maniche% pp. and C ~ l o n e i a . 19-37. X C (1967). .” E. Apolli- PP.. 93-106. “Zur Frage des Paulikianismus und Bogomilismus. XXIV (1963). 382. “Oh en est la question du were known by two names: i n the theme of the Opsicion they were called mouvement paukien?” Izuulia tia inslitula za isloriia. mountain villages. Theophanes. p.” Haruard Theological Review. “ ’ A T T ~ ~ E ITGV ~IS dpqpkvov al ~mCrTGV pavlxalwv a h o G a~row6al.” Byzanlion. a certain Joseph. and Panlinislai. “Le mouvement paulicien ?t Byzance.” B. records that he had bcen present a t a trial of certain heretics in Acmonia The appealance of a considerable literature on the Paulicians in the postwar era of Phrygia sometime between 976 and 1025. Jacobitcs. had written at length to Theodore about the Paulinistai. The Medieual Mcniclzee (Cambridge. Sabellians. X L I I I ( I gso). ) ) (Moscow-Leningrad. &pistoliers. They are described as a numerous group with their center in one of the katolikosa Nersesa Blagodanogo. As late as the tenth century the Paulicians were numerous in Basil I. behind the westward movement of the Paulicians in the eighth century. “TO. 111.. ~KTET~TIKE. pp.” indicates that Philotheus 61) -rob< . 60 61 .Monicltee. In the upheavals among the members of the Paulician com- Heresy in Asia Minor during the middle Byzantine period is closely munity. Bartikian. 156. Ozerki islorii uizaniiiskogo Philotheus. XIV-XV (1964). 116-1 27. and they appear in the hagiographical literature of the tenth and Armenia.” without specific reference to conditions at Euchaita. 509-514. “Origine d u nom des ganoi they appear as the befriended of Nicephorus I.” Listy Filulugicke. Loos.. 135-141.” Theodore then lists the necessary procedures for recciving into the Orthodox Church. though important and dangerous of these “Manichaeans” from the districts of even here it would be wrong to describe it as a “national” heresy. E. and historians. XI (1936).rrcrvhlvlmai (a fourth century sect) is an archaizing reference 308Runcin1an. “Les sources de narians.B. “Autour des Pauliciens. the Paulicians abandoned many of these regions and sought the regions of Euchaita wherc they seem to have caused the metropolitan refuge farther to the east. pp. K a l O.rravAlKlavol.S.” V. R . for the the Cibyrrheote theme and Miletus. Ter-Mkrttschian. 274-176). I 893). The Paulician heresy. Theodore. Tephrice. V ( 1 9 5 s ) ~49-72. moved to Chortocopaeum linked first with the Pauliciaiis (and to a lesser extent with the Athinganoi in the vicinity of Pisidian Antioch in the first half of the eighth century..V. 488. I t was not untiI the region of John Tzimisces considerable that the Byzantine eastward drive incorporated sufficient numbers of The history of the Paulicians of Byzantine Anatolia becomes compli- them to cause further concern.XI11 (1947).. if anything.S. Pierre d e S i d e est authentiquc et Photius un faux. 258-286. Paulicians. J. Sirmondi. XVIII (1957). Arians.” B. 488.” V. to the west. increased. XXV 309 Runciman.” The use of the word Manichee is archaistic and by this time it came to sig- 323-358.dv -robs BntaqpodpovS K a l T+ pavlikianskogo dviienia (Erevan. 95-1 14.2 17. ‘%I 66 uoi rhqebs alpmG6v-rwv -rrapowai&aav-rl 71-poumAdtoaoa .S. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST development in Anatolia and that they left a rich legacy which was The Paulician heresy had also appeared in parts of Anatolia farther partially incorporated by later sectaries. The best guide to this literature is to be found in the studies of M. Cedrenus. of heretics.P. V I I I nify Paulician. Lazarus converted a Paulician in his established as a border principality in the regions of Melitene. “Deux contributions A l’histoire des Pauliciens. 44. “.. it would seem that Theodore is simply repeating an age old procedure l’ficodhie de Be&/fle.” Scheidweiler. 127-131) he discusses among other things the Armenian sources and the reasons KaAowpBvwv.” A. or rather that of his ecclesiastical district. XI ( I @ ) . Novatians. 102-1 12.. 166 ff.H e relates that these sectaries indidates that the interest in this heretical sect has.. a monk from a Constantinopolitan monastery. opens by remarking that he sympathizes with the condition of Vizantii v VIII i pervoi polovine I X v. him concern. Ia. J. TQV dplwv K i ~ w ~ ~ a i b T-r6 o u~ q p iKal M I ~ ~ ~ T OpLaJp & In this. 5 1 z. Runciman. Lipsie. Grkgoire.300 and Iconocla~ts)~~5 and then in the eleventh century above all with the The Paulicians of western Anatolia survived as a sect for a considerable Monophysites.”E. St. their Once the heresy entered Byzantine territory i t also attracted segments of geographical location (identical with that of the Manichaeans of St. possibly indicates that they were to (1964). . XXII ( 1 936). The saint’s life gives a vivid picture of the heretics’ hatred for “Eretiki Arevordi (Syna Solntsa) v Armenii i Mesopotamii i poslanie armianskogo the Orthodox. 357-371 . and medieval periods. “PrCcisions.. Aristeroi.. Grkgoire. 543. Manichee. No doubt . Vizanliia i Iratz (Moscow.pp.” pp. Myra). 1967). Euthymius. Montanists. 1961).V. Lazarus of Armenian church fought this sect (as well as that of the Thondralti) with Galesium converted a village of heretics in the bishopric of Philetis (under as much energy and violence as did the Byzantine Further. 189-324. 52 1-522. 2 .” Also. . 313-333. 955) removed the most suggested in the relationship of national language and heresy. 11. and other studies (“Petr Citseliiskii i ego istoriia Pavlikian. XXIV (1963). own monastery311 would seem to indicate that these heretics were also Pontic Phanaroia. 1955)~places the 312 This emerges from a letter of the mid-tenth century addressed to Philothcus. “PrCcisions. At this later date many of them were cated and obscure in the eleventh and twelfth centuries with the appear- transplanted to T h r a ~ e . 1964). X V I I [1961]. Irmscher (Berlin. 223. Macedonians.” V. Paul the Younger (d. 291-297. K. ~After ~ ’ the destruction of their state by Paulicians. “Vita S. and though the heretics are not mentioned by name. pp. Without going l’histoire dcs PauliCiens. P a d Iunioris. Paul the Greek population. TGV vijv llavhlKlavGv [1956]. Die Paulikianer i m byzanlirziscltetl TO~OWS & ~p. 66 MaviXaLwv.i d v UOI 6 -rrA~iwvh6yos.Z. 35. I 0-39. mctro- Paulicians in the broader movement of dualistic heresies throughout the late ancient politan of that city (Darrouzb.

On this see the articles of Loos and Gouillard.” P.320The important city of Melitene Speeches and Letters of Georgios Tornikes. it was only in Thrace (inhabitcd by Paulicans and Messalians) that such a fusion could have takcn place. which so characterized Bogornilism in the Balkans and the Bogomils before the foundation of the Byzantine Empire. CXL. Asia applied to these Anatolian sects because of certain doctrinal similarities with the Bogomils Minor to the eastern portions of Cappadocia. and so aspects of cultural differentiation. or the movements variously referred to as Messalian and Bogomil at this else they represent a mutation resulting from the grafting of Balkan later date. a fusion of Paulician and Messalian teachings. Byzantine usage OfhereticaI nomenclature had. A-G. Keraites. Regisires.V. I K a l Ehi-ral. XI (1g59). 62-63.S. by this time. and.” V.408. 263-264).” xai ’Ev6outrracrral. a fusion that characterized Bogolimism. Die Phundogiagilen (Leipzig. 62 63 . The kosu. “The tamia. 88-93. Hellenism. or may not. 97. 80. Yuzbashian. aao httaliates. Though the word “Bogomil” is of Slavic origin. “Tondralcitskoe dviienie v Armcnii Sermon of the thirteenth-century patriarch.” a n d its surrounding terrirories became the center of the Syrian Jacobites. There is every is not of Slavic origin (though the Slavic torbeski appears later in the Balkans). Bogomils does not specifically refer toBogomiIsin theNicaean Empire. whereas the Armenians had come as far west as Cilicia.). however. Even the argument based on the supposition that a fusion of‘ Paulician and about ? The processes operative had. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ iItl is~ possible . 10 (1954). become quite loose.. I.. p. Nauk. I1 (1895)~ 720-723.. Obolensky.318 and that heretical Jewish Keraites entered century so that the question is once more obscured. Trebizond. Leontius of largely composed of Armenians and Syrian Monophysites.” B.. come into being Messalian doctrincs. 293. During first half of the eleventh century. 231-234.B. But Anatolia had not been so in late Roman and early time sequence the doctrines entered the peninsula from Bulgaria. Obolensky continues. passim. “Certains aspects du Bogomilisme 31° Such at least is thc assertion of hnkori. “Otvetnoe poslanie Grigoriia Magistra Pakhlavuni Siriiskomu Katoli- A. “Byzantium: T h e Social Basis of Decline in the Eleventh Century. 1948). Thus the fusion of Paulician and Messalian could have taken place in Anatolia as well as in the Balkans (Grumel. pp.” VI. T h e writings of Euthyrnius. v. Puech and 318 Bartikian. On this onomastic confusion in the tenth and eleventh centuries. 62 1-644.531-532. byzantin des I I C et I Z C sikcles. had comc transferring populati0ns. 174 ff. T h e twelfth-century metro- politan George Tornices reports the presence of heretics in Ephesus. many of the This view. of the origins of the Bogomils and Phundagiagitai in weslern Anatolia encounters certain obstacles. XXII (1961). no. Ioanisian. N. Not only were the Paulicians present in western Asia Minor (from the eighth linguistic or institutional phcnomenon.310I n any case it is Anatolia in the tcnth century.S. 130-145. G. and bccausc or the possible Bulgarian origin of one of its propogandists (John Tzurillas) the heresy was heretical population of Byzantine Anatolia in the eleventh century.” voprosy Zslurii. it is possible that the term came to be prior to the transplanting of the bulk of the Armenians and Syrians.3~~ The terms Bogomil and Messalian. H e feels that of course.” Izu. did such a cultural transformation come earlier. Charanis. who came in to Balbissa. is a good Anatolian precedent for this term in the so-called saccophoroi of the fifth century. pp. VII (196z). SSR. \ &es du XII“ congris internntional d’lttudes byzarilines (Belgrade. character of Anatolia can best be described. Rather it is a homily on the holiness of the cross and at the same time excoriating the I 00-108. i n the latter part of the tenth and in the eleventh century. 39-53. X X V I I I (1967). Le trait4 contre les Bogomiles de C O ~ ~ le ~ QPrdlre S (Paris. no. in his very useful book. ”’ v.~1’ I t is possible that the Thondraki may have to be used as exact and interchangeable equivalents in the twelfth come i n at this time. and Melitene were full of them. “BOyOIJlhlKd. Paulician and Messalian. Arm. and the monk Niphon for spreading Bogomil practices in the eastern Anatolian provinces as a result of the Byzantine policies of Ca~padocia..” Also. 11. ‘‘Dvigenie f’ondrakitov v Armenii (IX-XI vv. As these were the salient this double influence.S. rlnD. “The Armenians in the Byzantine Empire. have existed in the eighth century. Registres. For. here linguistic differences coincidcd with heresy or religious this was all the more likely because of the “close” connection between Bithynia and Opsicion with the Balkan Slavs. concludes that as the heresy appears under a Armeniacon. H-C. pp. Loos. The Monophysites constituted by far the majority of the Bulgarian name (Bogomil) and at a comparatively late date (976-1025). 317 Vryonis. The term Phundagiagitai (carriers of a sack or pursc) smaller details of this cultural picture have disappeared. to a certain degree. describe diKerences. Vaillant. Cappadocia. he says. the Hellenistic and Roman periods the Hellenic tradition had struck Finally. Papadopoulos-Kerameus. Bogomils because of their doctrine on the cross. The comparatively late date (976-1025) of Euthymius’ reference to the Bogomils ern confines of Cilicia was predominantly Greek-speaking and of the and Phundagiagitai in western Anatolia does not necessarily prove that because of the Chalcedonian rite.% (1956). to speak of “close” connections between Bulgaria and Bithynia-Opsicion in the profound roots i n Asia Minor and the local languages and cults were eleventh century is to attribute to the eleventh century circumstances that may.314 In 1143 the Con. had by the time OF Constantine I through the eleventh century) but also the Messalians in Paphlagonia and Lycaonia in the existed in Anatolia in one form or another for over a millenium. also shows reason to doubt the Bogornil affiliations of these personages. and to the north- of the Balkans.310Attaliates remarked upon the influx of Monophysites. rg45). 3 1 9 that these Phundagiagitai and Bogomils of probable that the Paulician tradition in Asian Minor played some role in Anatolia were either the older Paulicians under a new name. 112.Ficker. A k a d . R h a h and Potles. 1964)~ 11. they were present in western Anatolia much Byzantine times.. 80-9 I .R.P. speaks of the OQahEvTivcawol as “01 EfipEe6VTE5 KW& d v Kaipbv TOG Ofi&Aevroy TOG pacrchBo5 Boydythoc. “ l l ~ p l MccooaA~~GvTGV v$ poyovlhov.S. and there reason to believe that i n the late tenth and the early eleventh century. however. 424. R. The narrative at this point has focused on the two cardinal points of the Thus the Bulgarian origin of the doctrines he attributes to John Tzurillas is confirmed by languages and religions of Byzantine Anatolia. Grumel.G. How. either as a and Phundagiagitai in Anatolia. could have taken place only in the Balkans is not at all certain. relating that the Byzantine districts of Iberia. Metropolitan of Ephesos (XIIth Century). 169-173. Unfortunately. The Bogomils. Bogomilism onto the Paulician sect in a manner paralleling the relation The most important influx of heretical Christian populations occurred of paulicianism and Bogomilism in the Balkans.” R h a h and Potles. rgo8). on the Holy Cross and the i Pavlikiane. it is by their definition that the cultural Tzurillas must have brought these from Bulgarian lands. Mesopo- 318 G. pp. ~ ~ T OMaaahhlavoi. then. brought to Anatolia by the Bulgars in the latter half of the tenth century.I<. 31-44. A Study i n Balkan Neo. Germanus 11. For if the Bogomils- Phundagiagiati are in reality the Paulicians. B. and fi[anichneistn (Cambridge. Thcse were stantinopolitan synod condemned Clement of Sasima. Browning.

finally presided over the extinction of some of the Anatolian tongues. and Lydia. Second. I t had come to be one of the most relevant transactions. and though one could argue that it supplied f h d s for the whole project and then provided that the new Prospered there because of local receptivity. but a significant one. The emperors and patriarchs were most often Greek. Hellenism and Christianity it was the church that completed the process in the rural areas and fused. In the case of the latter. Caria. The development of Christianity in into the rural areas. Bar Hebraeus. and the local heretical tradition exemplified what John the sixth-century bishop of Ephesus has described in his by Montanism. From the bishoprics in the urban ccnters. there is evidence that even in the Derira. intercourse. Justinian had generously Byzantine Anatoh from the outside. often. The Greek Cip. which though cosmopolitan within the empire and accepted the Chalcedonian creed early. appointed to missionize among the pagans residing in the provinces of cation. task by building four monasteries in the mountain villagc of Derira. Orthodox. Plirygia. that the local cultural forms struggled the longest against both t h e Greek-speaking church of Anatolia spread its organization and doctrine Hellenization and Christianization. sal Jones. I. the local cultural traits on some occasions reappeared under these circumstances. which most of the local heresies were not so vital. producing the Cappadocian fathers. rural b u y and sell were also exposed to Greek. which belonged to thc mation of the non-Greek speaking and non-Chalcedonian elements of the Chalcedonian rather than to the Armenian church. John of Ephesus-Payne Smith. The Christianization of this portion of rural Anatolia seems to have case of a supposedly local variety of “native” religious phenomenon such proceeded rapidly. it spread to the less Hellenized. Though this Christianizing process did absorb local cultural Asia (Ephesus). 298. was predominantly Greek. ecclesiastical. By the time of Constantine I. T h e most spectacular example of this however. called Tzats. In the case of the former.p. . the prevalence of these general conditions favorcd the victorious phenomenon may perhaps be seen in the emergence o f Montanism. within I n Anatolia the representatives of the government were largely Chal- the above-described geographical boundaries. Anatolia Minor. But the point has already been made that this is a great Ecclesiastical History. as well as and polyglot. Again it was in the Greek. Anatolian city life. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST strongly affected. They formed the apex of Byzantine society. First. I t was here. Amphilochius of Iconium. Though Hellenism had partially penetrated the rural areas. John had been oversimplication of the problem and stands in need of rigorous qualifi. expire. and then. and resident in a city. The cedonian and most frequently Greek in tongue. T h e activity of the church in this respect is evidenced throughout Asia After the removal of the imperial capital to Constantinople. toward which the consciousness o f all was forused. it encountered the Hellenic or Hellenized urban popu. I n the long run. two traditions right up to the eleventh century-the Hellenic tradition as Perhaps the most impressive recorded example of the church’s success is typified by the Cappadocians. apparently. have contributed to the Hellenization of the rural areas. and Christianity expanded it came into contact with two general cultural pedagogical institutions. T h e language of the church in Anatolia was largely extensively Christianized of all the Roman provinces. or would soon provincial served in the local military levies. greatest of the early local Anatolian heresies. heresy often came into had evidently been the stronghold of the pagans. H e began his Christianizing variety. or pursued learning and litera- Christianity had also made considerable progress in Anatolia by the ture i n educational institutions-Greek was the usual language for the time that Constantinople was founded. M. though here it is these latter remained far less affected than the towns. One may generalize that There are innumerable specific instances of its success which help to give subsequent Anatolian history is to a certain degree characterized by these a general picture of its effect on the non-Greek non-Chalcedonians. The Greek language enjoyed the prestige attendant upon any towns. 64 65 . o r went to the local courts for his business. H. Whether the Anatolian native languages had either died. who had remained speaking. Greek and Orthodoxy. Montanism is the only really striking heresy to result from it. I t was also the usual language of commercial milieus. though Christianity triumphed in the The process of absorption and assimilation was constantly operative rural areas. pp. 74. by the sixth century. the heretics had been Hellenized Iinguisticallv.321 and others. and consequently the peasants coming into the urban areas to lation. it is in a sense different from churches and monasteries be obedient to missionaries operating from the Phenomenon just described. the progress of the dominant tongue and religion. quite difficult to speak with certainty. Third. within triumphant Christianity. gradually. Undoubtedly.322 as Montanism. azg-233. or in the local administration. though its success varied. was largely Greek. a group that included the Armenians. By the tenth and eleventh centuries there existed even among the came increasingly within the focus of forces working for the transfor. Jones has gone so far as to make the Anatolia from the second to the sixth century reflects the product that seducing proposition that whereas it was the spread of the Hellenized resulted when Christianity confronted these two cultural types. Armenians a minority. A. When language used almost exclusively by governmental. and the rural. . that the new religion first spread and conquered. During the reign of Justinian I. These were the SO- population. the church must population. the urban type of urban center which Hellenized the cities and towns of Anatolia.

new series.B. Grtgoire. Anastasiades. exemption was adopted by the Seljuk sultan of Konya for his newly transplanted Greek “ x ~ i . prisoner to convert. XI1 (1906). 373-390. Anatolietl. attempted. D. 243-245. Also. Cumont. pp. 10. djnhid. for policy toward heretics i n the metropolitanate of Euchaita. wrote his from these villages are to be seen at the Benaki Museum in Athens.000 cavalry into the field. I. and the Settlements of these Chalcedonian Armenians. Tzimisces. chaptcr iii. 625-627. peasants.B. XLVI (1903). “0 proiskhosdenie conversion to Christianity. Toward the middle of the tenth versions of hnatolian Jews to Christianity are evidenced as late as the century. . 121-122.istolieTs. Tornices. I. I. for here the Monophysite population was a majority thoinage autographe sur le si+ge d’Antioche par les Croises en 1098. I 950). at other times as political refugees. or Haikhrum as they are called in modern Greek Christian milieu of Anatolia) also worked for I-Icllenization on the times. Nblique en Belgique. the grandson of St. six nomismata ii-rrhp {EV~C~P{OU(for a yoke of oxen). ~ ~ 4 would be tax-free for three years. Constantine. but the most famous example of a convert from the taxes of kaknikon and synone. 629-631. Each Christian household that would take such a baptized ofthe empire as well. A similar practice of tax Kleinasieii (1850-1859)~ed. and fifty-four mention only the families of Lecapenus. a renegade. were to be found in the Bithynian villages of Choudion (Saradj Ustu). 1.329 or of Photius in bringing the Tessarcskaidekatitai The large group or Persians who fled to Anatolia in the reign of into the church.” kM. and mented this policy of absorption through religious conversion. at various times.. I 34. remarks that Saracen captives settled in the various themes who should potamia. pp. L e Trkfonds orieatal de and Monophysitism was too strongly associated with ethnic consciousncss I‘liagiagrapliie byyrnnline (Brussels. whose grandfather apparently was an Armenian. De Cue?bioniis.N. Marr. The Jews. they and their families fled the Hamdanids. The same forces that worked for Christianization (church. As a resul t of the westward migrations of Armenians in Turkish times Chalcedonian Armenians were also to be found in western hnatolia. pp.” Reurte de l’ijistrnction AS Nov. and settled in the provinces. 694-695. time favored it. “Sainte Sorisanik martyre en Armbnie-GCorgie (14 Decembre 482-84). 111. ”M. a tribe that could put have survived in a manuscript of the early eleventh century. LIII (1935).327A spectacular case of conversion was Formulas by which Jews abjured Judaism and accepted Christianity that of the Taghlabite tribe of the Banu Habib. I 19-122. 131. Catacolon centuries previously. Here he gives a highly probable derivation of the motion. 162-163. The state and church continually subjected Christian heretics to pres- considerablc numbers of Muslims found their way into the Anatolian sure. N. 135.000 to 12. Jews of Attaka in the twelfth century see the document in Zepos. given Greek wives. Mongol’skoe nazvanie Khristian’..R. Adontz. and con. Aside from the individual efforts of such monks as St. converted to twelfth century. Doens. Though it never achieved a complete and unqualified success. they were almost certainly from Asia Minor. X X X I I (April. “ ’ A ~ ~ E V ~ ~ ”EAAquag U U O I Iu XouSiv T$ MWaoiaS.” A. p. Starr.323 The number of Armenian aristocrats who came to Byzantium accept Christian baptism were to receive three nomismata on their and who appear as Chalcedonians is particularly impressive. Syrneoiihagister. unsuccessfully. Hamdnnides. 279-292. The subsequent depart from C i l i ~ i a . were applied. 8-15. Noire. Paschalides. 492. I. “S. Tlie Jews. “La conversion dcs Juifs byzantins au IX‘ sihele. 1 ~ .5 (1891). G.” ‘EPEOVh VIH no. IV (1948). 737-739. Montanists.” A. Mango. 2-3. 793. 1g25). See DarrouzPs.. pp. One need baptism. 3 a 5 Starr. Musele. pp. 5 1 2 . J. “Un eleventh century. I 946). “Arkaun’. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST BVE O F THE TURKISH CONQUEST many of the inhabitants of the districts of Tao-Khlarjeti and Meso.-2f5. where all the Muslim population by N.r 4 5 152. A s Nova IV. 254-256. Thus the assimilative process on the religious plane was constantly in cedonians. Skirren uttd Reisebride ~ I I S 337 Constantine I’orphyrogcnitus. Philaretus of nineteenth-century Icayseri. v sviazi s’ voprosorn’ ob who wished to remain in the land might do so and retain their property by Armianakhl-Khalkrdonitak’.~ k . p. But the imperial effort to assimilate these Muslims The conversionary activities of the church bore fruit among the Jews went further. 543. The meager sources reveal converted Jews from Iate Muslim into the family through marriage received a three-year exemption seventh-century Cappadocia. Babinger (Hanover.x O ’ . El. Mordtmann. Bar pp. Ortakon. and the land the convert received from Judaism was St. a74. V.” @mn% XXIV (1954).. The drr{ov-rrCrS~~ seem to have been converts from Islam. term ‘hat from thc Arabic . I. Of a similar nature wcre the policies of Nicephorus aa3 The fact that the Tzats were Armenian Chalcedonians seems to have been established Phocas during his reconquest of Cilicia. A well-known passage in the De Caerimoniis of Constantine Porphyrogenitus attempts that the government backed with persecution. George Monachus. Those who wished to rcmain Muslim had to Armia-Tsatov. sometime as prisoners of war. 173-180. and were baptized. rgi I ) .. A. ~ 7 3 .3 7 ~ . Nicetas of Amnia. According to their own traditions these linguistic plane. Martinaces. F. I. state. 37-48. see below. Patriarch of Constnnlinople (Cambridge.X. Pceters. LX (1942). to prove that Tzats were not Armenians but Gypsies. “Nicon de la Montagne and linguistic dilferences. and Punduklu in the nineteenth century. For the conversionary process as it affected spaCanard.” V. GG . to Jews. See also Peeters. Cedrcnus. G. ~ ~ ~ studies of Peeters confirm Marr’s identification of the Tzats with the Armerlian Chal.’ P O h ( ‘ A ~ V E V ~ ~ A ~ U C“ T E OMIr p ~ y ) . Paulicians. 5 3 0 C. There are numerous examples of the preponderance of Haikhrum had migrated from the Armenian district of Egin some two and one-half‘ Greek among the population of western and central Anatolia. 219-222.P.32G Chalcedonian Christianity on the various nonconformists of Anatolia.” Miscellnnen hislorica in honoretn Alberli D e Mfyer (Louvain. The Noitdies of Photitls.330 there were the more systematic attempts to enforce Theophilus were settled there. Ecclesiastical vestments and objects Cecaumenus. 11.. The text Monophysites. a Jew of ninth-century S ~ n n a d a . I n easternmost Anatolia it was a complete failure in the 1’Illuminateur dans le Calendricr lapidaire de Naples. I. media of grain for seed and annona-a considerable incentive for a war Taronites.325 Christianity. O n the Haikllruin of Stiategicotz in Greek.32s During the long course of the struggle between Greeks and Arabs. I 958). 30-32. converting Paulicians. Such measures gives details as to the manner i n which the central government imple. Bar Hebraeus. I-Iebraeus. pp. A. Lazarus in regions.G.

Byzantine collapse in Anatolia in 1071 was not complete. so that it was not an accomplishment of the moment but one of the significance of this fact for the decline of Byzantine civilization and the gigantic proportions. and North Africa fell quickly far less upheaval. 1x1 (1935).l Consequently. Most of this difference. 245-248. however. 65-68. 259. I n contrast to the Arab sub- cultural variation. the four centuries spanning (Paris. the political and military failure of Byzantium stemmed Anatolians.334 Anatolia on the eve of the Seljuk incursions constituted the most If. a lack of frequently they forced themselves into the cultural forms of Byzantine significant ethnic and religious homogeneity. first generation Byzantines. and the crucial question is rather the degree. and vital provincc of medieval Hellenism. heresy remained a very vital fact i n the life of the Byzantine pluralism. but centuries. and the northern Balkans before the Slavs. state. T h e does one explain the apparent completeness and rapidity of the Byzantine culture of Anatolia. how and culture emanating from the heart of the empire. Further. This is an inaccurate view. Leroy. Century. as indeed of the Seljuk and Ottoman inhabitants.H. important. Genesius the historian. who played a leading role in Armenian affairs during the eleventh century. 111.O.Gustave Sclilumberger large portions of the peninsu1a. Evidence. recorded the life of his grandfather in Greek. so it is not the social and cultural bonds of cohesion and predisposed the province strictly accurate to speak in terms of a sudden catastrophe. On the partial Hellenization of the Jews of Mastaura T. The Turkish conquest. and that the process by which the 334 Vryonis. far-reaching and complex events stretching over more than half a ccntury It has often been asserted that this cultural variety deprived Anatolia of had preparcd the way for the Anatolian cataclysm of 1071. Trudy. which was comparatively rapid and brought should note that though Syria. disruptive. Strabo speaks of Kap(Gav and OO~OIK~<EIV. and imply as their principal cause. was due to Turkish influence. the to a n easy conquest at the hands of the Turks. there often adumbrate i n attempting to explain the decline of a state under developed in the spoken Greek local variations and eventually d i a l e c t ~ . Matthew of Edessa. Constantinople. and M. Langlois. had been Hellenized and Christianized to such a significant degree. T h e famous Gregory Magistrus. “Grtgoire Magistros et les traductions armtnienncs Byzantine defeat i n eleventh-century Anatolia came as the culmination of d’auteurs grew’’ A. physical and spiritual reservoir upon which Constantinople drew. translated Plato into A~rnenian. exists also for the process of Hellenization of the Slavs of the peninsula and of the Jews. however. Romanus Lecapenus and john Tzimisces.382 I n I I. Reinach. also recorded the affairs of the empire in the Greek language. Actually. though sparse. Political and Military Collapse Some extreme cases Armenian aristocrats came under the literary and of Byzantium in Asia Minor intellectual sway of the Greek classics. Ioannicius the Great. see above. an implication historians Anatolia. Sumer. in 1071 ? Political and military decline before a foreign enemy do not In some cases the older cultural localisms simply disappeared. Tllirleenth International Congress 0s Byzantine Sludies [Oxford. as we have seen in the preceding chapter. and if it a province continuously subject to the integrating power of church. were acclimatized to the Byzantine way of life and alienated from their Armenian patrimonial environment.3~3 The influence of these Greek authors is evident in the continuation of the translating activities of the Syrian Mono- physites of eastern Asia Minor. for the Turkish for all historical societies have been characterized by varying degrees of conquest of Anatolia was a long process. ~ 3 ~ attack by an outside foe. Vasilievsky. central and piecemeal in nature. a number of Anatolia exhibited a split religious personality-Orthodox and heterodox. see chapter vii. O n e b jugation of the Middle East. Egypt. 68 69 . Though clearly facilitated by ethnic and rcligious In religion. process of Islamization in Anatolia remains to be appreciated and Written testimony to this Hellenizing process among the Armenians appears in comprehended. a long series of complex developments. lasting four western Anatolia resisted the Arabs for 400 years. the Turkish conquest of Anatolia was much more before the Arabs. centuries. T h e continued existence of Anatolia as a province of !he dar settlement.. igq). Asia Minor was the principal heavily populated. pp. Though the peninsula was largely Hellenized in speech.S. I 10-132. “St. reflected the disparate elements that had political and military collapse in Asia Minor after the battle of Manzikert been submerged under the appearances of Hellenism and Orthodoxy. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate that bilingual chrestomathies in the Egyptian papyri of the seventh century. 333 v. “The Turks in Eastern Asia Minor in the Eleventh regions.” pp. 263-294. and even destructive.” Supplenzetztary Papem. p. and absorption of the peninsula required another four al-harb is a fact that has been incisively illuminated by Paul Wittek. though of Armenian ancestry.I. but necessarily stem from. so that ultimately from political and military weakness. By the time that Dawkins Since a great deal bas been written about the supposedly peaceful conquest of Anatolia studied Anatolian Greek it had become quite different from the Greek spoken in other (most recently see the paper ofF.P.“ Mdlanges offerts d M. EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST Armeniacon. “Un contrat de Turks conquered and settled Anatolia was a long and repetitive one for m a r k du temps de B a d e le Bulgaroctone.

raids.c POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE the initial Turkish appearance and the final reunification of Anatolia under one political authority constitute an epoch in the history of Anatolia magnates by which the latter sought to absorb the free peasantry a n d the characterized by wars. appearance of consolidation of the beyliks in the mid-fourteenth century). The Byzantine Enpire on the Eve ation of New Rome. I 25-1 29. “La situation mondiaIe dans l’empire byzantin avant lcs Croisades. 1966). and chaos.” Greek Ronian and Byzaiilihe Studies. from these catastrophes a n d survived for three and one-half centuries.” pp. occurred at this time. in K. Setton. Also R. Renauld and Kozlowski in Revue rle I’Orierit latin. collapsed before the Seljuks. and the granting of excuseia and jronoia. during which process large numbers of Turkmen cisms. Toumanoff. are nevertheless manifest in the rise in which stability began to crystallize (mid-twelfth century and the of tax farming. and is C . Both polities were in a sense Constantinople-oriented. von Gruncbaum. interrupted by one free landholdings. the empire made a partial recovery political crescendo.S. prosperous era (thirteenth century) and two transitional periods though not known i n sufficient detail. tribal hordes of the Ural-Altai in one of those many migratory waves that 2 The best statement and analysis of thcse events is the chapter of P. It comprehended i n addition the professors and many of the graduates of the refounded University of Constantinople. but rather that it did not disappear completely and the mercantile endeavors of Venice began to attain a commercial and from the pages of history. and stretching from the Danube to the Euphrates. Evert. some of which became critical in the eleventh he will realize that the Byzantine prostration in 1071 was the result of century. Norman struck the empire in the eleventh century. “The Background to Manzikert. A History of the Crusades (Philadelphia. that they were to establish its prolonged character before proceeding to an analysis of this fact in chapter iii. T h e Seljuks came down into the of Byzantium resulted from events thaL occurred long before Manzikert. even cursorily. peaceful. debasement of the coinage. closely associated with the East in military. people such as Psellus and 70 . It in no way explains the out. 1948). sale of offices. that is. having arisen within the borders of the state. however. Lemerle. Instead. and their gaze and desires came to be fixed upon for supreme political power in the state between bureaucrats and the Constantinople itself. 395-400. 1 21-124. members of the same great linguistic of the Crirsades (London. Silpglenzeiitary Papers. These tribes. 141-143). Thirteenth International Congress of Byzantine struggle between the representatives of the civil bureaucracy in the capital & d i e s (Oxford.But little that is new tribes made their way or were intentionally sent to the eastern Anatolian emerged from the Papers dealing with the subject of Byzantine decline during this borders of Rum. Uzes. religious difficulties. “Byzantium : The Social Basis of Decline in the famiry a n d the products of the same harsh steppe environment. upheavals. The mere establishment of all the dates of this long period would in itself call for a special monograph. that Byzantium declined partly as a result of its victories over the Bulgars at thc Islamic world via Khurasan. equally alarming. 1955)~ I. vulsion of eleventh-century Byzantine society arising from the violent “Solutions contemporaines de la crise: U n quart d e siCcle de rCformes ct contre-rtformes imptriales. M. I 953). Charanis.” and the military magnates in the provinces. pp.IV. Stanescu. All these factors led to the breakdown of the Byzan- Enents Leading t o Manzikert tine military. The paper of C. Thus ethnic and and external history of Byzantium in the half century prior to Manzikert. I1 (I959).pp. the nal nature. The subject of the eleventh century was the central theme of the Thirteenth International Congress of Byzantine Studies a t Oxford in 1966.2 When one looks at the whirlwind that events. Cumans traveled across the Russian steppe and around the northern Toynbee. subjugating Baghdad and a large part of the end of the tenth and in the early eleventh century is yet one more of his literary mysti. The party of the bureaucrats promises much but unfortunately is nothing more than a-xery general survey of Trans- caucasim relations with Byzantium ovcr several centuries.Brunschvig and G. Neumann. the Venetians as the merchants of the empire. at thc intricate events in the internal populations and extensive. “Le notion de dtcadence L propos de l‘empire byzantin. All were of a n inter- prolonged developments and not of a single isolated event. “Socittt el organisation inttrieure dans l’empire byzantin au X I e sikcle: les principaux probltmes” . Relevant to Byzantine decline are. I 77-279.” in R.” pp. naval. His assertion. T h e Venetians.Arnold J. Still of interest their way to Byzantium by separate routes. had the double liability of nonhomogeneous rf one glances. to ascertain all the political and military specifics of this play a role of the first order in the decline of Byzantium during the four-hundred-year period as the task would be enormous and unnecessary for the purposcs twelfth century. but external Turkish victory at Manzikert.J. Svoronos. E.it is necessary to describc a t some length the actual conquest and to Constantinople and in the other emporia of the empire. and administrative systems in varying degrees. 159-175. 72-73. The most significant factor among all these developments was the con- ICappesowa. study of Hislogv (Oxford. plagued Byzantium throughout this period. polyglot and multisectarian in nature. H. I n the west. 1957). century. “The since the beginning of the empire had threatened to inundate the civiliz- Byzantine Empire in the Eleventh Century. made Eleventh Century. T h e BYZANTINE INTERNAL DEVELOPMENTS ( I 025-7 I ) empire. H. in the eleventh century included certain aristocratic familics (such as come at Manzikert and in general is the most disappointing of the papers on the eleventh those of Ducas and Monomachus) who came to be associated with the century. See the very interesting article of P. Vryonis. also insists that the decline shores of the Black Sea to the Danube. The economic difficulties of the eleventh century. however.57-171. culture1 dons I’histoire de l’lslam (Paris. widely separated frontiers. he is not surprised that i t adventurers laid the foundations oT a new kingdom in Italy and Sicily.” trans. “Socidtt et organisation intdrieure au XIe sikcle. Classicisme et dLclin central administration i n Constantinople and a portion of the senatc. N. now became so preoccupied with their comlnercial interests in 19661. Jenkins. 263-177. The Patzinaks. a struggle related to the process of expansion of the landed the past. lands of the caliphate. X (1go5). There is no attempt. T h e Normans had set their Italian state in Byzantine ground on a Byzan- Among the developments that led to Manzikert was the vicious struggle tine foundation. Onto the northern and eastern borders were to spill the of this book.

In Constantinople they were in virtual control of the imperial be subordinate and obedient to those bureaucrats promoting him. 73-74. old. to find a could influence and control him. John Orphanotrophus. By virtue of this combination-great husband-emperors of little ability and with no worthy conception of the landed wcalth and military prominence-the provincial aristocrats duties of such an august oflice. and Nicephoritzes. which violence of the provincial aristocracy was temporarily bridled by policies saw the Ducas family temporarily abandon the bureaucrats and join the of persecution which entailed discriminatory legislation. the representatives of the bureaucratic party. a Cecaurnenus. the fact that the bureaucrats were located in Constantinople. POLITICAL AND MFLITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE XiPhilenus who had risen to prominence in the government because of During the course of these thirty-two years. or blinded is a long and monotonous one. Argyrus.s As the program of the by their possession of great landed estates and by a virtual monopoly of bureaucrats called for the elevation to the throne of men who would be the generalships of the provincial armies. 72 73 . Here they were close to the emperor. or about one every year. They also presided over the vital domain of finances. who major rebellions. The basis ambitions of the generals. and political power was the provincial armies. During this thirty-two year exhausting struggle . executed. and others. were exiled. Upon the illness of able to keep the generals from political power for thirty-two years after Isaac in 1059. Thanks to the appearance of the grim Basil. Within the succeeded in removing the Macedonian dynasty and in dividing the capital itself the patriarch and the guilds had sided with the generals. Botaniates. for the most part ill. I t was this experiencing as its rulers (from 1028 to 1057) emperors of the lowest power of the provinces which eventually corroded and in effect destroyed caliber. Constantine IX Monomachus. O n navy and troops stationed in that area and were in possession of an t h e other hand members of the military class also appeared as candidates . Bourtzes. The bureaucrals attempted. The families of Phocas. The Byzantine state had the evil fate of were an inordinately powerful and ambitious social group. T h c only recourse that the generals had in this struggle €or able to remove this element from power only after a long. their victory was not complete and so their enjoyment of opposition to the political designs of the generals. were Sclerus. the bureaucrats were t h e political fruits was correspondingly incomplete. he were able as emperors to exercise a restraining hand on the political brought the military forces of Anatolia against Constantinople. waged a constant war against the such Philocales. the heads o€ the bureau- their intellectual brilliance. Comnenus. The magnate-generals from the provinces were bureaucrats. violent. In the early years of the reign of Basil 11. the center of and thus the contest between bureaucrats and generals centered on the the empire and its political life. the disrupting of equal importance was the split i n the ranks of the bureaucrats. centralized government i n Byzantium and in this sense constituted a and concerned only with enjoying the pleasures of their oflice. one who would militarists. The fact that Constantine VIII had died i n of bureaucrat power lay in a number of items. not the least of which was 1028 leaving no heir save his three daughters added fuel to the struggle. Often these aristocrats belonged to families with centuries-long military Rebellion became such a commonplace occurrence that the shrewd traditions while others had arisen more recently. the generals plunged the empire into a long civil war that almost would have succeeded had it not been for other factors. As a result of Basil’s successful social groups. the bureaucratic party embraced all cratic group. As the generals had been able to win only with the aid of other their great landed estates. Sclerus. impregnable city. Aided by other Anatolian magnates (most important of whom Nicephorus Phocas and John Tzimisces. question of succession. Finally. and could isolate him from the provincial “bureaucrat” husband for the unfortunate empress Zoe. but fortunately revolted. a n d empire. confiscation of generals. and Cecaumenus). successfully. primarily obedient to the bureaucrats. during the wars of general Cecaurnenus included in his Strategicon a chapter on the conduct Basil I1 or even later. period of civilian preponderance in the capital. “feudalizing’’ element. the sources record thirty The generals consisted of the landed magnates in the provinccs. I n 1057 t h e generals were able to win their first victory in the struggle The political ambitions of the provincial generals had already with the bureaucrats when the Anatolian general Isaac Comnenus threatened to exceed all bounds in the tenth century. and the list of the generals who served as the leaders of the armies levied in Anatolia and the Balkans. or dominated by women and the eunuchs. they succeeded i n and they were able to control the flow of internal politics for a great part promoting to the position of power men who were in sympathy with the of the eleventh century. obedience alone came to be the Mdeinus. though of this social class. I n any case. dominate both the agrarian criterion of selection with the consequence that there was a series of and military history of Byzantium. it is highly doubtful that the generals however. most important of whom were John Orphanotrophus and those who had entered the administration and risen through the ranks. these aristocrats were characterized of a prudent man during the outbreak of rebellions. of this impressive show of force. Psellus and the death of Basil I1 (1025-57). but because of the tight hold that the bureaucrats had on the central Because of all this the civil administrators were possessed of real power apparatus of administration in Constantinople. I n spite activities of the generals. and exile. Melissenus.

moreover he was not proficicnl in mantling of the military apparatus. when Isaac Comnenus in charge of the administration and the latter in charge of the church. 11. was not were diverted to the use of others. the university professors Psellus and Xiphilenus. Cedrenus. from a body that owed tagma of Russians. the western armies were commanded to march on Con. Russians. Attaliates. This overall policy becomes clearly apparent with loyalty. Alans. by the incomplete victory of the generals and b y military strength during the period when the Seljuks appeared on the the persistence of the leading bureaucrats (Psellus and John Ducas) in the eastern borders. 18. they were simultaneously baring the frontiers in important factor in the survival of the empire. Psellus-Renauld. the former capital city of the empire. Uzes. b u t [Psellus]. Manzikert. 11. defended themselves by embarking upon the dis. 74 75 . the state. the emperors began to rely increasingly upon foreign mercenaries. and Normans on the borders. of the bureaucrats was continued in all its vigor even after the battle of mined to use this. 8 Scylitzes. 608. In this case the by the civil elemcnt of the capital or. 7 Cecaurnenus. rebelled in 1057. Theodora. I. presence of these mercenary troops that included a bewildering ethnic The contest was characterized by a feature that usually marks all such array-Normans. Of the troops collected on thc northeastern frontier by converted the army of the province of Iberia.* above all the cutting o f f of financial support of the local. as one blow a key province in the defense of Asia Minor was deprived ofits had been that of Isaac. he destroyed the whole world. leaving much of the Balkans bare of troops. Cedrenus. however. Other segments of society. there werc two tagrnata of Franks.0 H e insignificant. was most unfortunate in this respect. had also been drawn into the power struggle. It was in this manner. Byzantine society lay in the convulsive throes of civil strife by the emperors. Michael Stratiotikos. 646.& And in 1047-48 during the rebellion of crats. and only two tagmata of Chaldians and Coloneians. Armenians. in a sense a t the mercy of the generals when it came busied himself continuously with the useless and unending study of eloquence and to military affairs. the church mercenaries would replace the Byzantine soldiery in primary importance and the guilds in the capital. In other words three-fifths of thcse wcre foreign mercenaries. H. For h e The bureaucrats. English. by the Seljuks. 625-627. political struggles : the determination to attain political power at all costs Patzinaks. Obviously the principal weapons in the By the reign of Constantine X Ducas the depletion of the local levies hands of the generals were the armies stationed in the provinces and so a n d the reliance upon foreign mercenaries was to become nearly cornplcte. that Anatolia was denuded of its military defenses for At thc end of his rcign.' Thus at Diogenes to the throne. but being deceived and beguiled by the consul of the philosophers petent generals. Tornices. the destruction of the armies by the bureau- reasons of political interest. all the armies of Constantine ruled through the forcmost representatives of the bureaucra- Anatolia or the Balkans would be mustered and then directed toward the tic element. without benefit to the state. 725. From the death of Basil I1 i n 1025 down to the fateful battle of It is true that mercenary troops had always been employed in the past Manzikcrt. 11. when the generals rebelled in the east or the west. this art. 562. family a n d the pupil of Psellus. Now the between administrators and soldiers. who were fast being replaced by upon the services of foreign troops brought a double liability: questionable foreign mercenaries. which was already under way during the reign of Constantine IX. 11. 5 0 . their only weapon. in some cases the dissolution of entire military corps. 121.6 The generals were deter. MYdler. more ominously. This included the dismissal of com. Cedrenus. The accession of Michael the face ofgrowing enemy pressures and destroying these forces by pitting V I I Ducas to the throne ( I O ~ I ) . indigenous government. eastern borders were also stripped i n order to bring troops to defend Patzinaks. With the gradual dissolution of the provincial. a scion of the leading bureaucratic the armies of Anatolia against those of the Balkans. as were Attaliates. indigenous With the crippling of the native military strength. The transformation of the By 1067 a military reaction and another split in the ranks of the army into a taxpaying unit not only deprived the area of its defense b u t bureaucrats once more brought a n Asia Minor general Romanus IV also caused many of the inhabitants to go over to the Seljuks. 29. seized power and the generals were once more military service. The numbers of mercenary Constantine IX Monomachus during whose reign the prize moneys of the troops. but thematic levies had been more important. into a taxpaying community. when it was obvious to all that the army was the most In so doing. so to speak. The results of this military-civil hatred were disastrous for armies. Georgians. one crucial for the defense against the Seljuks. Arabs. if one can judge by the information that thc sources relate in soldiers and revenues that were ostensibly marked for military expeditions connection with the revolt of Isaac Comnenus in 1057. the increased rLliance troops forming the thematic levies. had gone so far that the provincial forces were no longer feared either stantinople. This antimilitary policy Constantinople against the armies of Tornices. with the composition of iambics and anapests. and other foreign groups. a n d the empire's armies came to be characterized more and more by the first on one side then on the other. 1894). i n the struggle with the bureaucrats. 44-45. and far greater financial expense. 0 0 0 ( ? ) strong and Catacolon Cecaumenus in this year. and in spite of all consequences. Isaak Komnenos (Plauen. p. 111. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE Constantine Ducas. Turks. But the reign of Romanus was hamstrung. Zonaras.

invasions. AS their only bond of loyalty to the tant in the dissolution of the thematic levies. after having returned to and it was on the basis of a portion of this land of the free communities the services of the emperor. Finally. I 18-120. 625-626. effect. “Deux chefs normands des armCes byzantines au X I “ sihcle: sceaux de Hervt et de Roussel de Bailleul.1° When Alexius Comnenus set out to halt thc advance of reliable mercenary bodies. Schlumbergcr. T h e free peasantry. 140-143. the existence Edessa to the enemy for which deed he was summoned to Constantinople of these free rural communities. In 1057 the Norman community had been o€crucial economic. was then raiding the eastern borders. had been significantly l* Attaliates. I n the introductory paragraph of the novella attributed to l6 Matthew of Edessa. 03-84. and henceforth the numbers of paroicoi (serfs) of the state. Though it has been custom- the mid-eleventh century mercenaries had replaced or supplemented the ary to assign primary importance to this phenomenon in Byzantine decline.000 and because of tardiness i n their payment. consuming as it did the energies of the state The strenuous efforts of the tenth-century rulers had a certain staying ’ Cedrenus. a n d even though some of the expansion of the landed aristocracy and the corresponding decline of the figures often reproduced may be exaggerated. were the growth and thing like exact figures of the mercenaries. did not come to prevail until after the battle of Manzikert. Though thc emperors however. J. then. and social importance chief Herve Vrankopoulus. though it continued to exist. Romanus(grn). POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE also the Armenian levies of Sebasteia. 616-619. or even to where he raised 6. 0 0 0 Normans in his service. but with the death of Basil 11 and the appearance of lesser men lo Matthew of Edessa. G. however. indigenous troops of the Byzantine armies. Attaliates. 11. weakened. 201. rebellion of Roussel.14 I n 1063. they indicate that by free peasant and the free landholding soldier. to the state in the period oiits greatness. rebellion. Melitene. as well as in the socioeconomic difficulties of the state. This free village community had retired to the theme of Armeniacon and deserted to the Turk Sarnuh who formed the basic financial unit for purposes of the Byzantine tax system.G.13 Although it is impossible to obtain any. having on success in acquiring the services of the Turkish chieftains. famine. The pcasants sold or gave their land to the chiefs and generals and for the services of their troops.. this vicious contest for political power between the accordingly. It resulted in the studied and intentional neglect the Armenian rebel Philaretus Brachamius was able to enlist the services of the indigenous armies and i n the reliance upon expensive and less of 8. he betrayed the Byzantine commander of that the thematic armies were largely supported.lz and Roussel himself had perhaps something like Of considerable importance in the decline of the indigenous armies 3 . years of the empire’s history.000 Alans with which he was supposed to suppress the desert to the Turks. pp. been the victims of coercion by the powerful.1° nevertheless they were in the end unable to halt the process. It is true. dissatisfied at not having obtained a promotion. 130. 2. been hired to defend becomes a singularly constant theme in these bleak for one reason or another.” 77 . each side bidding highly for the favor of Turkish tenth and eleventh centuries. pad. it is stated that the law was promulgated bccause “we have great concern for the public taxes and for the performance of military and civil duties. The existence of the free peasant break the slender bond that held them to the empire. This pattern of mercenary against the provincial aristocrats. the peasant abandoned his land or his title to it. bureaucrats and the generals. 188. I.. the struggle between bureaucrats and generals was more impor- inent role in the Byzantine collapse. did not hesitate to plunder Turks from Anato1ia. 11. 288 ff. and ravaging of the very provinces that they had and altered b y the decline of the free peasantry which occurred when. the strife of bureaucrats and generals resulted in the summoning landowner (both ecclesiastical and lay) in the conimunities during the of Turkish invaders.H.16 Herve is only one example from many military service.” R. l a Bryennius. 174.000.R. I I laZepos. On each occasion magnates. realized that the diminution of the free peasant community would have The single most fateful development leading to the defeat of Byzantium disastrous results on financial and military affairs and SO legislated B in Anatolia was. These latter. at other times unwillingly. XVI (1881). provided for a healthy social structure and a balance that would appear as events progressed. any financial difficulties of the state other process had been at work for a long time and entailed the weakening which might delay or lessen these financial rewards would of course of peasant soldiery and of state finances. and Tephrice-O There in a destructive manner a t a time when the external pressures were were enough Normans in Anatolia by the reign of Michael VII so that becoming dangerous. that this empire was based on their salaries. he had in addition to his Norman troops.l1 Nicephorus Palaeologus was sent to the Caucasus and ravage the very lands that they had been hired to defend. inclcment weather. military. victory usually depended taxation. because of their lack of loyalty Nicephorus Bryennius. This pattern. which paid the taxes and performed and drowned in the Bosphorus. The presence and activities it would seem that i n terms of the eleventh century and the Turkish of these mercenaries in eleventh-century Anatolia were to play a prom. l4 Cedrenus. sometimes willingly in order to escape burdens imposed by that the two factions prepared for military action. the dynamics of the process carried all resistance before it. on the throne. BrYennius. p. T h e crucial phase of this decline was the appearance of’the powerful Finally. This social structure was threatened disloyalty.

. 25-30.-Mar. 31-74.” Aanales.20 average condition. especially “Agrarian Conditions in the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages. Lemerle in his study. Ostrogorsky. on Italy. whereas the Greeks were forced to continue paying it. the Ostrogorsky has. 288-308. enjoyed the benefits of a “protective tariff.22 Any government that can sequences to state finance. 10-13. 412-424. who indicates that the effect on finances by the time of Isaac Cornnenus had become ruinous. 43-94. But the reasons for this economic triumph are not that the 1958). nevertheless. N. tax discrimination to the advantage of their Venetian competitors. histoire agraire de Byzance: Les sources et les problkmes. Hohlweg. decline of the Byzantine naval and land forces. changed his views somewhat on the free peasantry in the mono.” Cambridge the coastal inhabitants ofthc empire did not.18 Thus the free peasantry declined i n a process part of Byzantines (according to them it was really a congenital defect that did not provide the state with any sufkient recompensc for its loss rather than an oversight) was a basic cause in its collapse and in the triumph of revenues and soldiery. 1949). roil. “Economic Factors in the Decline of the Byzantine Empire.” insofar as disorders i n the provinces might have interfered. As a result. That Venice did triumph over the Byzantines is clearly illustrated by thc series of treaties and events between the two 1 7 The entire history of Byzantine social and agrarian evolution has bcen cxposed to a states beginning with the reign of Alexius I and ending in the Fourth vigorous and searching reconsideration by P. the magnates became more of Venice. induced Alexius I to accord the first of that fateful series of chrysobulls to A.Z. I 94-213. 22Cedrcnus. however.. in fact. Most recently. played a prominent role in Byzantine economic life. The fisc was was the basis of the tax system. I V (0ct. Many of his inhabitants of the lagoons developed a commercial mentality whereas conclusions and propositions suggest important alterations in the studies of G. 484.” ~ carrying trade. and the specter of political graph. (Avr. because henceforth Byzantine merchants suffered a P. For the sale of offices.. described as ‘Lfeudalization. 1954). 1958). “Some Reconsiderations. 379-394. I. CCXIX (Jan. the Italian cities. But if one examines the question he will see th?t perhaps this powerful and thus a greater menace to central authority..” p. XI11 (1953). “The Dollar of the Middle hges. XLVII ( I 954.Z. 19-20. military. 357 ff. I 939). “Du march6 tcmporaire I 13 colonie cheaper than the Byzantine merchants.-Dec. 21See chapter i for references to this trade.” pp. 389-405. Ecotlonzics- SociPb-Ciuilisaliotis. supposed lack ofa developed merchant class and spirit did not substantially sions was the abovc-mentioned social evolution that weakened the free contribute to the economic decline in the eleventh ccntury is apparent peasant community and strengthened the landowning class. Kacgi. L’Evolution de la politique commerciale au moyen age.w i dWiitdenkaiEfiittfruh.Z. The former from the state of finances at the end of Basil’s reign in 1025. the Venetians could and did acquire almost a monopoly of the One may consult with profit the following works of R. I. Also httaliates.l‘ The increase of the paroicoi was accompanied by the develop a trading class and a commercial spirit such as developed in increase of state-granted exemptions. “Notes on the Finencss of the Byzantine Solidus. The effect on finance by the time of Isaac afford to lcave taxes uncollected for a period of two years is in better than Comnenus had become vcry serious. Kolias. Pscllus-Rcnauld. LX (1967)..” disaster hanging over the empire in 1081were the determining factors that Trnunrtx el Mhoires (Paris. Byzantium was supposed shortcoming has been exaggerated and that it was not responsible in the process of an evolution that.” ao Charanis. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE church. such as excuseia and pronoia.’’ Tlle Joumol that is. for they could pay more for the goods and then sell them Bssocidon Mnrc Bloch dc Toitloitre (1953-19553... “La pujwannerie byzantitle (Brussels.). 11. and the latter received vast exemptions i n such excellent shape that the emperor left the taxes of the poor from taxes.” The Jotmid qf Ecotromic History. Venetian merchants. G.r . “The Byzantine Empirc. I. The appearance ofthe Normans in Italy. Pour l’hisloire de la feodalitd byymntine that contributed so greatly to the economic fortunes of Venicc and (Brussels. Simultaneously.” B.” B. I 956). pp.” I n fact. “Esquisse pour une. the state collected large sums in taxes from both. 39-53. decline and especially its causes in the eleventh century are not sufficiently documented. Gricrson.” R. a 1 indication that this trade had halted in the elevcnth century except debasement that destroyed the purity of the “dollar ofthe middlc ages. 1958). “Les privileges de l’dglise ?I 1’Cpoquedes Comnenes: un rescrit inCdit de Manuel 1‘’ ComnPne. That this Among those developments that had the most serious cconomic repercus. 1941).-Juin. All three studies. and magnates increased greatly. ~ h . 254-284. relates that he had to construct undcr- ground chambers to store the excess in thc treasury.” B. Beginning and regardless of whether the commerce was carried by Greek or foreign with the reign of Michael I V (1034-41)and continuing until the reign merchants. rather it was political events Economic History (Cambridge. uncollected for the last two years of his reign. Lopez: “Un borgne au royaurne des aveugles: La position de Byzance dans I’kconomic europecne du haut m o y e ~age. as well as a mer- documented by the sources. 78 79 .H. Once they acquired superiority in perrnanente. Svoronos. T h e ecorlomic goods they carried. attest to the financial. while the numbers of the free There has been some discussion as to the failure of the Byzantines to peasantry dec1ined. what little source material is a t hand testifies that maritime and The economic decline and especially its causes are not sufficiently land commerce both on a local and international scale. and social significance of the free peasantry and to the importance of its dcclinc. There is no of Alexius I ( I 08 1-1 I 18) the solidus underwent a radical debasement. destroyed thosc of Byzantium.21 grim accuracy the hard times that had beset the Byzantines. thus this social phenomenon brought dire economic con. Venetian fortunes. (Juillet-Set. 91-97.LIV (1961). “Zur Frage der Pronoia in Byzanz. which modifies his earlier study “Thc Debasement of the Bezant in the Eleventh Century. must be for the collapse of the state first before the Turks and then before Venice. Crusade. It was the stipulations of these treaties which made For a brief discussion and bibliography see Charanis. yet the coinage of this period reflects with chant-artisan class. XI ( 1 9 5 1 ) ~ zog-z34.und inittelOyratItinischetr Reich (Athens.. for want of a better word. The proponents of this theory maintain that this oversight on the t behalf of the magnates. Go-Gr. 1965). they were exempt from paying the I o percent ad valorem tax on the o/Econoniic History.

empire to purchase t h e aid of t h e Venetian fleet a t a d e a r price.. they rather to that confluence of political circumstances which forced t h e entered the province of Vaspuracan and put the Christians to the sword. “DO@ treated harshly. between 1015and 102 I . of its enemies from the Danube to the E u p h r a t e s . 237. The English is my own rendition of Dulaurier’s evolution of agrarian society and the g r a n t s of excessive immunities t o t h e French translation and conveys the same sense as the Russian translation of Agadzanov- great landowners. as 2aPsellus-Sewter. in half a century from the first appearance of these Turks eleventh century.A. accompanied by a destroying fire.ah devrinde Bibiik Selguklu The constant appearance of the Patzinaks and Uzes in the Balkans must have meant not Impardorlugu (Istanbul. Though the affiliation of these Turks of 1016-17 is not mentioned in Matthew. The Facing the enemy. Constantine IX Monomachus. 2-3. The Empress Zoe.I ~struck ) terror in the A r m e n i a n s who dwelt there.” E12. (Istanbul. b u t even cut into the money contributed by the place a decade later when a group of Oghuz left Caghri Beg. t h e T u r k s peasant communities. 80 81 . Yuzbas‘ian. T h e death-breathing Armenian lands in 1037-38. “Ca@i-begi.” P. It is related that after one such raid the inhabitants thought 557-601. According to them the first Turkish raids in Armenia were those of 1016-17 (in Vaspuracan) and 1021 (in Nig). XI1 (1965). The most satisfactory examination of these two points. Yuzbalian. for this group may have split off early and made its way westward unnoticed. Greek. 259-274. the Seljuk nomadic raiders would have established an role in the events leading to M a n z i k e r t . “Biiyuk only a cutting off of the taxes from Constantinople but also a serious disturbance of the Selpiklu Imparatoru Melik$ah devrinde bir eser munasebetiylc. pp. but period there gathered the savage nation of infidels called Turks. “A propos de quelques . kept the provincial t a x system out of balance. The public revenues were expended excluded. tax-producing communities. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE the carrying trade.. A. later abandoned V a s p u r a c a n Paphlagonians were remarkably prodigious in exhausting t h e imperial to Basil I1 and settled in Cappadocia (1021) at which t i m e the T u r k i s h coffers that Basil I1 had b e e n so careful to fill.83 Also t h e tax-yielding raiders a p p e a r e d in the Armenian district of Nig. the Armenians saw these strange men. The extravagance of the rulers in t h e eleventh century came to b e C e d r e n u s merely remarked t h a t t h e Armenian prince Senecherim. See the long review of M. He has repeated this in his. the emperors before Isaac Agadzanov-Yuzbagian rightly point out. yet unknown t o them. and Syriac sources has greatly obscured the questions of the dates of off the state tax moneys. but on favors to civilians and on magnificent shows . but they definitely attacked divine portents befell the Christian adorers of the Holy Cross. . the first eruption of ferocious beasts covered with blood. At the t i m e of this Turkish a p p e a r a n c e in V a s p u r a c a n the empire was Even SO. has been altered from 467 to 4. 1953). is that of Agadzanov- But there were also serious external developments. the Byzantine insurgents collected the taxes for themselves. 149. .. Cahen and Kafesoglu have resumed the discussion in J. has suggested that the first Seljuk attacks were those The Norman bands alternativcly pillaged provinces and “collected” taxes for themselves. Setting out. G.. “I< istorii tiurskikh nabegov na Armeniiuv- extravagance of the rulers. The confusion in the Muslim. S u c h financial difficulty was of course disastrous the early Turkish invasions and the affiliation of the earliest Turkish raiders with the for a state that functioned primarily on t h e basis of a m o n e y economy.” J. In 1019 a ( I O I G . for there arrived T h e commercial victory of t h e Venetians was not due t o their superior winged serpents come to vomit fire upon Christ’s faithful. while the military were of course being stinted and articles de Koprulii Armagani. 11.000 moved west. but the former is fixed by the text of Ceclrenus. and so contributed neither to t h e socio.” in Fund Kobrulii Armngani a4 On the eve of a rebellion. The date. who were armed with superiority of the Venetians lay primarily in their privileged and tax-free bows and had flowing hair like position in contrast to the position of their Byzantine competitors. however. and again in Cahcn. Both 465 and 467 occur in manuscripts of Matthew of Patzinak raids. T h e economic decline of t h e Nevertheless. and above all by t h e military rebellions. I. and the depredations of the mercenaries. i n this language. XVII ( I 953). were defeated.A. The Greek chroniclers economic nor to the political decline t h a t led to Manzikert. They may have participated in the attack of local In the beginning of the year 465 a calamity proclaiming the fulfillment of Muslim forces on the regions of Lake Van in 1033-34. being commonplace.S. their afiliation with the Seljuks is not necessarily exhausted the imperial treasures on personal whims. The apostolic and prophetic books trembled. Koymen.” Belletan. At this commercial spirit and to t h e Byzantine congenital defect in t h e same.. and m e r c e n a r y r a p a c i t y in the provinces which choked Edessa. CCXLII (1954). and struck the believers in escaped forever the coffers of t h e imperial treasury in Constantinople. though Turks had raided Vaspuracan as early as 1016-17. But the Turkmens who made these raids wel-e prob- THE FIRST APPEARANCE OF THE TURKS ably not Seljuk Turks. I wish to describe. 464. not on the organisationof the army. Stemmingprimarily from t h e social 2 5 Matthew of Edessa. ZG Cedrenus. eventually to Adharbaydjan. economic conditions were further aggravated by the Yuzbaiian. “As I have often remarked. main Seljulc group. group of Seljuks rebelled against Mahmud of Ghazna. Sultan Melik.. date of appearance of the first Turks in Armenia and their tribal affiliations. 24 The n u m e r o u s rebellions. and 2. CCXLIV (1956). Thcy represented tribesmen (as well as Turkish gulams of local military potentates) who had moved into Adharbaydjan and been received in the The first appearance of t h e Turkish raiders in the district of Vaspuracan military forces of the Rawwadids of Tabriz and the Shaddadids of Gandja.. 1g53). Kafesoglu. 129-134. though still imperfectly understood. pp. Armenian.2G Though the Byzan- provinces in the Balkans and A n a t o l i a were disturbed by o t h e r events tines and A r m e n i a n s had seen Turkish slave troops and generals in the above and apart from the socioeconomic developments affecting t h e Arab armies and had had c o n t a c t w i t h Patzinalts and Khazars. of abandoning Europe. and t h e u n d e r pressure from his A g a r e n e neighbors. . the 10 p e r c e n t ad valorem t a x o n all those cargoes dragon appeared. Agadzanov and K. 275-279.p. people to the public revenues. 40-41. pp. Cahen has put forth the thesis that the events Matthew ascribes to 1016-17 actually took they not only emptied the palace treasury.” Anadolu’ya ilk Selpklu akinci (IOI5-2 I ) ve tarihi ehemmiyeti. t o o k almost no n o t i c e of this first a p p e a r a n c e of the T u r k s in A r m e n i a . XI v. played a serious in V a s p u r a c a n . Italian commercial supremacy and its consequences occurred e x t e n d i n g its power i n t h e East and its armies inspired fear in t h e hearts after the battle of Manzikert. the Holy Trinity.65 for the reasons given by S. N. t h e countless foreign of 101G-17 ( w h e t h e r or not they were affiliated w i t h the Seljults) w e r e a s raids (especially in t h e Balkans).

As the Ghaznevids had d u s e d to grant these the power of the Turkish Karakhanids. V. the Oghuz. “Die Karahaniden. I 10-1 I I . their separate histories. “Iraqi. Seljuk and his followers were called in by the Samanids against Kizil Avrat. In this region and toward the end of the tenth compatriots. The issue was decided in the service of the Karakhanids for a period. Barthold. whereas the Iraqi Turks Mongolia. ~ ~ vassals of a “Khazar” khan in the Asiatic steppe. 3o Barthold.” W . or that at least their thumbs the SeUuks.” Belleten. 0 . 111.. One officialhad suggested. the Turkmens were defeated and scattercd. 82 83 . 42. After the breakup of the great Turkic empire in played little role i n the events that rollowed. What the Seljuks themselves purported to believe about moved to the regions of Balkhan and Dihistan to the northwest of Kizil their origins was not committed to writing until the latter half of the Avrat. Ofthe twenty-four tribes which the eleventh century author Kashgari says made up “Ghaznevids. p. were probably proper (who had remained under Toghrul and Caghri). to the east of ethnographical alteration of the Near East. 31-65 (hereafter cited as Cahen.” J.000 tents moved south to twelfth century and this work. and abandoned were occupied a n d did not oppose the occupation of these more northerly regions by by the larger group of Toghrul and Caghri.. and Kizil Avrat (Farava). but the Muslim authors seem not to have known that followed. 88-90 (hereafter cited as Barthold. 194-207.” Oriens.30 and in the campaigns and history ofthe Seljuks.M. those of Arslan. According to when they would appear in Iran and Mesopotamia. complementary to each other. the main body (under Toghrul and Caghri) remaining the fate of the key Muslim province of Khurasan.. 179. was on Therefore it is of some profit to trace. One group a great deal more. and by the 1040’s was raiding as far west as Meso- Se$ tribes entered the Middle East via the steppe regions to the east potamia. R. but nevertheless.” p.” Der Islam. LI (1948-52). This date marks a decisive 4. they had temporarily settled. by trial of arms. Sarakhs. For a while they had remained with the Seljuk then broke away from the khan.S. this second group of Arslan constituted the advance guard of the temptation to enter Persia and the lands to the west. briefly. In the bordcrs of the Islamic world. But no sooner were they installed than their disturbances Christian sources that the Byzantines knew very little as to the origins caused the Ghaznevids to make war upon them.pp. Sayili. Turkman People). that these Seljuks should be exterminated. and a second group of a t the fateful battle of Dandanaqan in 1040. XXXI ( I 953-54. another Turkic people. Kurdistan.28 The Seljuks were of these Oghuz Turks. Spiiler. “Les tribus foes of settled life had preceded them. The great problem now facing the “Cahen has made a careful reconstruction of this work in “Le Malik-nameh et Seljuk princes was that of transforming themselves from war chiefs of l’histoire des origines seljukides. 1962).. their point of departure. N. Turan. prior to their installation Cahen. Abivard. the Kinik was the princely tribe. which was to remake the O g h u ~ were . that of Toghrul-Caghri. the original body of followers o f Seljuk had Turkic peoples as early as the sixth century of the Christian era and the split into the three rollowing divisions: Balkhan. served as the advance guard for the Seljuk cxpansion that was to follow from the eighth and ninth centuries.A. and henceforth fought his pagan “compatriots” as a ghazi defender Khurasan and occupied the lands reccntly vacated by their tribal of the Islamic border lands. This area had begun to be occupied by third decade of the century. century.). A History of tire Twktnan People (Leiden. Their notoriety as Barthold. the history of the Oghuz Turks concentrated increasingly. From this time the Seljuks into the Islamic world. 104. “Ghuzz. nomadic tribes. Khurasan. and Armenia. who were preoccupied with pillage and with procurement “v. ~These 7 Kirman and Isfahan. Selguklular tarihi ve Turk-Islami nieden9eti (Ankara. Cahen. whereas a second group of perhaps 2. Frye and A. and as they advanced. “Dendanekan. By I034 they had moved into Islam. should be hacked off so that they might not draw their terrible bows. but then moved on to Khwarazm near following in the regions of the Jaxartes Rivcr where he was converted to Shurkhan on the Oxus (Amu Darya) River. plundered. Turkman People. the Malikname. “Le Malik-nameh. t u r W s d’hie occidentale pendant la ptriode seljoukide. wc+d have destroyed The Ghaznevids first settled Arslan and his Turks in the Khurasan Byzantine power in Anatolia. LXIII (IQ43). It is obvious from the the Caspian. I n Islamic world. on the northeastern borders of the and would in some instances join the main body of Seljuks at that time Islamic world. s1 R. to whom the early Arab geographers refer. Abivard. 2 K. pp. The first group their descendants. their traditions a certain Dudak and his son Seljuk. As a result. of the IGnik tribe of It was the third group. I 965).31 This first possession of the Seljuks. Zakhoder. Turkrnan People. has not survi~ ed. they were thereafter employed lands to the Seljuks (no doubt as a result of their experiences with the by the latter and so became a permanent part of the political scene in the Seljuks of Arslan) Toghrul and CaghrI took them by force of arms. M. But by 1025 the followers of Seljuk had split into two this manner began thc final struggle between Seljuks and Ghaznevids as to separate groups. I1 (194g). “Turks in the Middle East before in Khurasan. in the districts of Nesa. the Kipchaks.O.” EI. the history of the Middle East.” and the Seljuks Oghuz Turks. 17-68. established himself with a modest Karakhanids at Bukhara. Pritsek. by the early years of the and northeast of the Caspian Sea. Four Studies 012 the History of Central Asia: vol. 581-587. and others. On the history and society of the Great Seljuks there has now appeared the compre- hensive work of 0.” EI. X V I I I (1954). and would have begun the last major steppe around Sarakhs. those places that Seljuks no longer thought of the Jaxartes region. Henceforth these two groups had different the Seljuks became the possessors of an cstablished territorial state won historical experiences. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE empire reaching from Afghanistan into Anatolia. “Le Malik-nameh”). N. presenting the Seljuk princes with the a sense.000 tents under Arslan which broke away and took service under the point not only for the Middle East but also for Byzantium as Iienccforth Ghaznevids in Khurasan.

“Mahmud a1 Kasghari At the same time the indigenous provincial armies were being dissolved. PP. F. Minorsky. Ibn Fadlan. 70-95. D. 150. “Dvin. were not in these areas in an effort to stabilize the frontiers and to maintain some frequent in the beginning. XIX (I 955). Romaskevi.Minorsky. Finally.. Gord. Ptn. 113-154.” K. “Turkei.” W. I. to the deteriorating internal conditions of the empire in Anatolia and the There were actual military campaigns of the sultan or his representatives Balkans.” B. “Qutlumush et ses fils avant Marwanid Dynasty a t Mayyafariqin in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries.C. I 11111.” I. “Die Ghusenstamme. who in the end Toghrul’s primary concern was the conquest of Persia and Meso.”) . Transcaucasia. caused by the increasing number I n the three decades between the accession of Constantine IX (1042) ofTurkmens either fleeing Seljuk authority or else shunted northwestward a n d the battle of Manzikert ( I O ~ I ) one .Sumer. The Islamic materials on the Turkic tribes are conveniently collected and trans. and permanent. R. tarihine bir baki. 182-192.” in A History o f t h e Crusades. F..A History of Sharuiin arid Darband i n the r o h . “Le Malik-narneh. It was in this manner that the potamia and so it was here that he concentrated his attention and military eastern frontiers of Byzantine Anatolia were eventually threatened by a efforts... I (1921-25). has introduced a slight (1965)~ 99-109.” E12.pp. Transcaucasia. The raids. 93-113. the Turks were raiding deep into Anatolia with Turkmens either in rebellion or simply not recognizing any Seljuk little danger from Byzantine forces. Yakubovski. A.V. llre Royal Asiatic Society (1903).By 1055 he had secured this conquest and enjoyed a triumphal deluge of Turkmens in the reign o€ Constantine and thereafter. Togan.“The delphia.35 Quite often the by sending the Turkmen tribes westward to raid the frontiers of the Muslims hired the services of Turks in this advance guard of raiders. For Transcaucasia. borders of Armenia were saturated by the newcomers. lated in S. to monarchs of sedentary. ilbcr die Sprache und die Stamme der Turken im I I . “La conquOte de 1’Azerbaijan par les Scldjoucides. si&cle. 1953). ofToghrul and Caghri. Urnumi T u r k tarihirze girls (Istanbul. pp. T h e armies of Anatolia were turned against Con- Cahen. 144-147(hereafter cited as “Turk. XXI (1957). or submitted to the commanders of the Seljuk sultan. replaced many of the local dynasties.” Belleten. stantinople and the bureaucrats. Houtsma.” E L .K. XIX-XX turkisch nadas. 311-312. XXIV (1960)..33But previous to this consolidation of power i n Mesopotamia. Hudud al-Alam-Minorsky. end the satisfaction of the tribal instincts and appetites for plunder and O n e gets the impression from the Greek chronicles that. Y. H. “Three Arabic MSS on the History of Turkish Invasions: The Selchukids. there had taken place a rapid expansion northwestward into Adhar. 26-40. TURKISH PRESSURE ( I 042-7 I ) baydjan. 1960). in the reign of the bureaucrat emperor levslti.” Jotlrnal of the Roynl Asiatic Society (1902). or to for in all these areas there were numerous dynasties.” EI. civilized Middle expansion greatly facilitated first the Turkish penetration and then the Eastern society. L. starting out in a somewhat cautious manner.” Dcr Islam.On the problem of the degree to which the Oghuz had accustomed themselves to urball life and on the Balkans. 62-64.. A.pp. . hmedroz. 19 fl‘. 1958). “Marwanids. “Adharbaydjan. in the reaction of the Turkmcn groups building up on the eastern borders Their movements are dificult to follow but certain patterns appear. C.A. Jahrhundert. “SelFuklu stantinople against rebellious generals a t the head of the armies in the devlctinin kurulusu sirasinda Horasan. Sirtiskie i s l o k k ob Azerbaidranc (Baku.429-447. 567-596. and as the number of Turks on the borders increased. frequency. 311. “Azerbaycanin turklcsmesi Tiirknienii (Moscow. 491-527. There were weakened each year. also raids of the sultan’s representatives which often had as their primary the audacity. On the Kurds see also Minorsky. ) ~ I 24-129. and most important. pp.32 By this time soon they acquiesced in the political domination of the succeeding waves (1040)there had occurred a large accretion of Turkmens to the standards of Turkish invaders. and extent of the raids increased considerably. 1960). 146-148. “Anadolu’ya yalniz gocebe tiirkler mi geldi ?” Belleten.” Belleten. But as the condition of the empire progressively kind of authority over the tribesmen i n the border regions. I aqo). It is no mere chance that the Seljuk incursions became prominent for the Togan. Huseynnov. I1 (1888). character of their society one may consult. first time. INTERRELATION O F BYZANTINE DECLINE AND Iran. even before djihad.M. A. K. the struggle between the pro- The political conditions prevailing in these areas of new Turkish vincial magnate-generals and the bureaucracy did not abate but rather became more acute. ed. IV (I 966). POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE of pasturage for their flocks.”). or they were brought to defend Con- Turkestnn down 10 the Mongol Invasion (London. Zakhoder. but that isolated VEUT6S. auth0rity. in Caucasian History (London. Brockelmann. or else to combat the Patzinaks who had crossed the Danube. both Christian and protect it from the pillaging of the nomads. and the of plundering new lands. “Azerbaycan. 84 85 .” Journal I ’ h i e Mineure. “The Zettersteen. For the most detailed political and socio- economic survey of the background to the Seljuk appearance in Khurasan see Barthold.. Sctton (Phila- the City of Mayyafariqin. and Armenia. V. Studies s* For details. 254-304.219-233.A. 1955)~ I. Transcaucasia. M n t e r i a b p o istorii Tzrrkmen i 1946). 12-13 (hereafter cited as “Prem.”Byranlion. Theodoridis. I gr8).Z. X V I I I (1946-48). Sumcr. Spuler. and Byzantium. 758-812. “La premiere pPnCtration turque en h i e Mineure seconde moitit du XIo Cenlziries (Cambridge. Volina. entry into Baghdad where took place his celebrated audience with the caliph.1 0 1 . There was the alternative before Toghrul of giving free conquest of the Seljuks in Adharbaydjan. states that the modification on one aspect of Sumer’s study.” EII. in a state of constant war with one another. Inv. pp.” pp. can discern a definite pattern by the Seljuks in an effort to save Mesopotamia-Iran from their presence. 1 0 0 . deriving the Turkish n a d a s f i o m the Greek basic conquest of Adharbaydjan took place after Dandanaqan ( IO~O). Toghrul achieved the latter Muslim. Izbranyie Sochirieniia (Moscow. Georgia. I 9 5 ~ pp.~ r t h 34 Cahen. Iran itrfru/i-islamisclrpr Zeit (Wiesbaden. rein to the Turkmen instinct to plunder the sedentary society. raids occurred earlier. X X X I X (1964)’14-27. a n d Armenia. K. attracted by the great victories and the prospects Thus portions of Adharbaydjan. but Christian states of Armenia. there were the activities of the Manzikert took place. pp. Kurdistan.Canard.” Zeitschrift Jiir Balkanologie.~4 I n this period of roughly thirty years.K. “Kurds.

Laurent. 627. among the most vital regions in so weakened the defenses of the eastern borders.~~ Because the capital itself was without emperor removed troops from Anatolia to bolster the Balkan front. where he remained for a number of years. and probably their troops also. (instead of ro55). supported by the Anatolian generals. M. In defenders. as 1053.608. indicates that the Byzantine right and left wings drove the Turks mercenaries of Armeniacon under Herve made common cause with him. to meet the Turks In battle. but the outcome 4* Catacolon Cecaurnenus a n d Herve Frankopoulos. and as a result in Armenia. for according to Attaliates. 46-47. . brv-ri . viz. and even after the arrival of policies.4oIt was as a result of these events. Byzance et les Turcs seljoitcidcs dans I ~ p o ~ p o uK ua i Tois Pappdrpois T ~ EVt s TUS Pwpaiois firomptvag Xcjpas ~ T T T E T E J x ~ ~ o v 1‘Asie occidetrtalejusclu’en 1081 (Nancy. O n at least two occasions the marched on Constantin~ple. Cecaurnenus. 49. there being no mention 4 2 On its wealth. Vie et mort (Paris.” 4 0 Ibid. kEivoS TOJVUV 6 appearance in 1054. Isaac Comnenus. 1054. Cedrenus. . and it is quite probable that the Macedonians were brought then upon the Turks in their disarray while they were plundering the Byzalltine camp. he was forced to conclude unabated. Population. had been disturbed previously by The Patzinak raids in the Balkans during the reign of Monomachus other events. 61 I.577-578. a body of Turks under Asan descended from Manzikert underwent a difficult siege.Cedrenus. and I n the years 1056-57 the Turkish chief Sainuh appeared with 3. pp. Byzance et TapoFv. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE Constantine IX Monomachus ( 1 0 4 2 . ~ ~ of the Anatolian forces marks the beginning of the sacking of many of the important urban which had not adhered to the rebellion. it the regions ofTabriz and proceeded to lay waste Vaspuracan. It was for this reason that Cecaumenus devised the ruse and Monomachus died in 1055. have already been dis.36 Constantine’s inept military to meet the Turkish armies in the beginning. mercenary. As a result of the civil strife i n the empire. But no date is given in the KUplEVOjvai PappapiKG. 1913) p. made it probable that they were prcsent when Toghril appearcd in Cedrenus. Aaron. 11. 11. Monomachus summoned the magistrus Constantine from the 1050 troops were brought from the east to augment the Byzantine armies eastern borders where he was waging war against Abu’l-Scwar the Shad. The text clearly states that the troops of the Cedrenus.575. 1947). Monomachus employed eastern armies in the Balkans as late peace with Abu’l-Sewarand to bring the eastern armies to Constantinople. 579.. 641. 11. had was indeci~ive. by erroneously placing the death of Constantine IX in 1054 Frankish and Varangian mercenaries. Matthew of Edessa. Bar Hebraeus. the crow of the cock. 597. which led to the dissolution of the indigenous soldiery of the the Georgians. . pp. p. in ro48. The cities Constantine. p.O~n~ the arrival of the Georgians. g8-1on. and the key city of Turkish raids when. However. gives the exaggerated figure of I OO. 37 Cedrenus. raised this considerable Turkish force captured and plundered the important the majority of the thematic. p. It is true that according to the text of Cedrenus. 11. . thcy had not been able to destroy the Turkish forces.5 5 ) . Brthier.~’ invaders and so he summoned Cccaumenus the governor or Ani. Honigmann. 11. the troops of the Anatolic and centers in Byzantine A n a t ~ l i a . Fog. over after Toghril’s appearance. Cedrenus. as well as the destruction of Artze. from the field and chased them through the night until “. 11. 617. 257.Zonaras. Ostgrenze. According to popular belief the Turks would be destroyed by a 3 8 Attaliates.While~ ~ the Byzantines awaited reinforcements peninsula. 11. 4a Attaliates.s’ These border areas. “ &AX& K a l xwpGv oiraGv.enters this event just before the plague of the seventh and eighth Anadolu’nunfetlri (Istanbul.48 resorting to a I n I049 a larger army of Turks appeared in In the face of the growing number of Turks massed on the eastern frontier Vaspuracan under the Seljuk prince lbrahim Inal. But his account errs in two points. 33 (hereafter cited as Laurent. in 1054. in the Patzinak campaigns. the military aristocracy of Anatolia launched a revolt that Cecaumenus and Aaron had to await the arrival of Georgian reinforce. were accompanying conversion into tax-paying units. 11. 11.573-574. gg. I. 38 Bryennius. 46-47.. G I I . 4 v&oa6+a “Pwpakfi x ~ l p vhfiv 6Afywv. marks a turning point i n the acceleration of the Turkish raids into the ments under Lipa ri te ~. $Twos ~pbpous Tais Xchpais ivirCrcas 1qXMauE T&S ~poupdrs.45 I t was soon after this. p..44 but as the Patzinak ravages continued dadid. 31-31. 593-594. as it supported by many of the dissatisfied and idle western generals. 18. .rr&uqstjaupo~opias6uoXwpiaS Macedonian troops and soldiers were sent. the Turkish and Byzantine forces came to blows a t Kapetru. 4 6 L. 561-566. 89-84. the Byzantine defenses were under Basil Apocapes. 4 7 Cedrenus. and Laurent has. forcc similar to that of Alexander the Great which had conquered the Persians. and not all of the troops of the west. Cedrenus. The destruction of this city and marched them toward the B o s p h o r u ~Those . no doubt the consequences of the revolt of the western generals which had cussed e1sewhere. 111. 1054-55. 44-45. years of the indiction. the would seem. Ibid. p. the defense of the eastern provinces. implies that the Byzantine armies were not strong enough Macedonian theme were brought over. Matthew of of Bryennius Edessa. K&vTEOeEv les T i m s ) .38 In I047 there had taken place the revolt of Leo Tornices. 11. . 181. The Iberian theme and of the region of Byzantine Mesopotamia with their incursions of Asan and Ibrahim. and Matthew of “ Ibid. Cedrenus. were a more visible and far more immediate threat to the empire. 1g44). 606. Edessa. J. 616. that Monomachus subsequently transported the troops lrom governor of that province.000 upon the arrival of the latter thc combined forces defeated the Turks by Turks in greater Armenia.” In the place of the local soldiery were to be found some text. As has already been indicated above. Thus a1Tois PauihEOuiw 06 Gaupoirs U U V E ~ U ~ ~ ~M OAV ’. commercial center of Artze near Erzerum. 11. appeared Soon after the revolt of Tornices and the withdrawal of the magistrus in the regions of Lake Van where his army spread out to raid.~~The Byzantine forces had not been numerically sufficient already been transferred to Thrace before 1050..that the sultan Toghrul. .OOO. Yinanc. 207.647. 111. did not have suflicient forces to meet the the Macedonian theme to the east under Bryenni~s. western hvhp a h o s Tois h a E x Aoyo~op6vois KplefiuETaI TOG ~ f E+av i ~poipaw tjoupi troops had been moved to Anatolia undcr Constantine IX. and Armenian troops of Anatolia. seemed virtually impossible to halt them. asserts that all the western arrnics were in Asia Minor a t the time of Toghril’s "pas Tas PwatGas xhpus @mqTois pappixpols VETO mipotjos. ” 86 . Zonaras. and the Turkish booty. the dissatisfied Frankish Cedrenui. the empire’s Anatolian frontiers became the object of serious of Paipert and Perkri were besieged and sacked.

Ostgrenze. When the pressure of “public opinion” 53 The armies had been preViQUSly subject to extensive decimation at the hands of the becamc too great to withstand. It was during this time of 6qVodov x p q p & T ’ w v ~ T I VO T ~K a l o k iv ~O. the second column besieged Melitene. 103-104. Even Psellus. So to speak it was the worst section [of the army]. met in a sanguinary battle of the urban hearths of Anatolian Hellenism. for the better soldiers were provinces characterized this period of slightly more than a decade. we have a firsthand witness to the military victory. KCd ~b KUT’ i@volctv 6lKUCJ”rlKbV. Constantine X In the twelve years between the death of Isaac Comnenus and the battle was finally obliged to send an army to halt their ravagcs.E2 Both were correct. pp. Attaliates of Manzikert. Bar Ilebraeus. . p. I just outside the city of Nicaea. 85. I n such a situation the mercenary units began to disregard the commands 67Cedrenus. the mythological expedition of Dionysus. joined the western military contingents loyal to the Anatolia almost without hindrance. On Isaac’s death (1059) it was noticed that his corpse swelled with ylvso0ai . baCedrenus’ account follows that of Attaliates faithfully. 78-79.50 The dis- plunged the whole Greek nation into mourning. I. just one month after the entry of Isaac into Con. in 1059 the government was once more completely in the hands of the stantinople. p. administrative. Michael the Syrian. Psellus-Renauld. 69. T h e temporary interregnum of the generals but the borders were left unguarded.60 One chronicler states that o n that day Isaac Comnenus campaigns and who was present a t the battle of Manzikert. administrative. and Greeks and Syrians. when he marched against the Indians. 108. markcd the under Isaac I had not lasted long enough to effect any significant change departure of the traditional Byzantine armies from the Anatolian scene. 69. the bravest and great commercial centers of the eastern Anatolian regi0ns.” aa 89 . 212-213. Matthew of Edessa. Macedonia. The ethnic groups of Byzantine Anatolia-Greeks. Vie el mort. left the capital with such a small army against such a powcrful force. marched against Coloneia. for nothing brave or in keeping with the the final disappearance of the locally levied troops as effective military former Rhomaic magnificence and strength was accomplished [by the army]. 5n Attaliates. 55. One column the day. T h e I removed from military service by reason of the greater rank and salary [involved].63 Constantine X (1067). this army was not satisfactory. east and west. Attaliates. well on the way in the time that Isaac’s revolt brought misfortune to Armenia.rrpoacj. the home of Catacolon Cecaumenus who had I The very soldiers thcmselves abandoned their weapons and military service just raised the armies o f that area for the civil war and had left his and became advocates and devotees of legal problems and questi0ns.” liquid. silver. Armenian. in 1057. a n d the booty the Turks took-gold.6~Melitene and most able troops being completely withdrawn from service because of its population of wealthy Syrian. This battle. 257. 111. approached Camacha where it spread out. estimate to Honigmann. KUi Tb K a T U T p O V q T l K b V TqS UTpCTTIOTIKqS E h p c r y l U S K a l 0 T P C n ~ ) ’ l l c ~ S military. 677. p. 6 ~ l C r r c t V h J W VP U P P a P I K & S 61h T b Vfi KaTh hbyOV TbV CJTpUTlWTlKbV KUTdthOyOV 6o “Attaliates. . exaggeratedly. Matthew of Edessa. the historian Michael Attaliates west were locked in a mutually destructive struggle and the number of the who served as a n oficial in the armies during many of the Anatolian dead was great. He refused to send an army to halt the Uze depredations in the 1057. march out against a horde which the contemporary sources. Many saw in this a divine punishment for his responsibility in the great slaughter of 68Zonaras. 76-77. in this demilitarization. passim. and Thrace. for the soldiery of east and deterioration i n the Byzantine armies. a Turkish army under the emir Dinar. finding the east bureaucrats. 111. and open warfare broke out between military forces. . as great numbers of the inhabitants were felt constrained to protest at the extremity of the emperor’s cuts in the either killed or enslaved. pp. 146-147. have numbered 60. of Constantine IX. and military budget.~7 province undefended. 11. BrChier. one of the The military catalogs were no longer fully maintained. was largely consummated by the end o f the reign of for not only did the slaughter further exhaust the already depleted armies. 184. Their antimilitary sentiment set the fashion for the society o f undefcnded. and the Turkish tribesmen continued to saturate the border lands.58With the appearance of the Turkish chief Samuh and other loot-was greatVE5 the Khurasan Salar and their raiding Turks in Anatolia. But. 11. ~b 6E C ~ E I ~ Ka\ C ~&yav ~ V I T O P I O T I K ~ V TGV of the government and to act as free agents.61 and another remarks mantling and demoralization of the military. and started the systematic pillaging government. and when Constantine X ascended the throne On October 3. bureaucratic fear of the armies and financial difficulties of the state caused That which occurred was blameworthy. and though the Anatolian generals won the For this twelve-year period. Armenians and Syrians. fiyEIpET0 yhp TOhbS YOWVGLlbS. and Greek merchants expense and fear of the generals. and T h e same emperor virtually handed over Ani to thc Turks because the Armenians-were at the throats of one another as separatist movements Armenian Pancratius promised to defend it without spending money on among the Armenians commenced. a n d fiscal anarchy that the Turks began to raid Kal &PITIK?S ~imaB~Ia5 vohh6v K a i U X E ~ ~ &V V T W VTGV SIT^ ‘Pwpalo~sTEAOQVTWV h U ~ U V T l K b V &~TI{OVTO.G9 units. G52. with the maenads and silenoi. Syrians. regions of Hcllas. T6V KaTa6pOphS Attaliates. Constantine finally mustered a tiny force of 150 men to Patzinaks in the Balkans. This left Ani without military defenders and caused it to Greeks and Armenians. The two armies. 1057. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE i POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE Charsianite themes. Thus the financial. 107-108. and military collapse of the Anatolian because [it was] unarmed and uneager as a result of thedeprivationof ilsprovisions. 158-1 59. and it was like . the archbureaucrat. suffered the fate of Artze.000! “Upon which everyone was amazed that the emperor should have 66Matthew of Edessa. the empire actually suffered defeat.rro~~ahlas. ’’Aristaces. the internal crisis of the empire became further aggravated remarks.

G1 a t hand. Amertices. he returncd [and this1 not during a period of peace. forces. Scylitzes.02 sufficient funds to live up to its terms of hire. did the best he could with the poor material were in an abased and deprived state. and when Samuel Alusianus customary provisions had been stripped away. experienced were without horse and without armour. When the central and provincial administration But they were without military experience and without horses. 674. he mixed them with what veterans were the consequence that the Turks sacked the city of Caesareia.6~ The Armen- Rhomaioi but one which the times furnished. Attaliates. Turkish enemy had by now become a n almost ingrained characteristic. Inasmuch as no emperor had taken the field for many years.aoShortly after Constantine Ducas’s death in 1067 and were without military experience and unaccustomed to the military struggles. and more or became weak in this period. ments and their pay. and morale to the Turkish troops clearly being in want of their salary a n d deprived of the provisions usually supplicd them. “La campagne armdnienne du sultan salgukide Alp _ _ . it would take to bring them back to their former condition. to the Armeniac theme and there raised the Latins in revolt. These. naked and not even [provided] with daily bread. 660. and chaotic. These were infantry caused a major crisis by threatening to rebelsa8The rebellion bent Over by poverty and distress and were deprived of armour. The tax they were for this reason unprofitable and useless. armies by Romanus for his first great campaign against the Turks i n I 068. set out hastily. The conditions of the armies were obvious The Turks. Matthew of Edessa. with were completely inexperienced.” Revue des Dudes armkienaes. task before them and their nervousness and cowardice in the face of the but again the miserliness of the administration paralyzed these efforts. who had served Byzantium. Cedrcnus. . expecially from the Balkan tugmutu. the soldiers took it and then T h e mercenaries. This twelve-year period. persevering. i t seemed as if the whole military expedition against nhomaioi had fallen. On many occasions these tattered remnants of the military forces suitable. These things being observed by those present.. 11. They were cowardly and unwarlike (the general of the five western tugmata encamped in that area) took the and appeared to be unserviceable for anything brave. Arslan et la prise d ’ h i en 1064. Romanus. scattered to their homes leaving the enemy forces free to ravage the began to demonstrate clearly that their loyalty depended directly on. pp. in witnessed an intensification of the unruly conduct of the foreign soldiery. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE fall to the TUrks. I1 (1965)~239-259. and then played The emperor. who were raiding the east again came against the Rhomaic armies to t h e Byzantine contemporary observers. the state of the armies had become Whereas the enemy was very bold in warfare. in addition also of Franks and Varangians. his armies were not equal to the enormous regions about Antioch. For the older a n d O3 Cedrenus. during the brief regency of Eudocia. I 13. Scylitzes. the strength of the central and provincial govern- fcw raw youths. experience. 79-82. a n d they had few and poor followers. and as the government no longer had less without armour. Canard. Having and other military weapons. and neighborhood of the city. 93.” U O 0 Attaliatcs. s o this time an attempt was made to levy a was proportionate to. All were mustered b y appeared before Sebasteia in 1059 the Armenian princes and their impcrial command in Phrygia. 668-669. describes the mustering of the The Muslim military leader. All this having occurred as Romanus was setting out on his second they were filled with despondency as they reckoned how low the armies of the Turkish campaign. Nicephorus Botaniates tried to muster an army. to the southeast. then.. Attaliates. H e collected youths from all the regions and but as they Because of this condition they refused to go out against the invaders. leading an army such as did not befit the emperor of the a major role in the raids in Anatolia and around Anti0ch.. they were bearing hunting spears and scythes considered his reward from the emperor as unsatisfactory.. I I 1-1 17. and they were without war horse a n d other equipment.] the famous champions of the Rhomaioi Romanus Diogenes’ army was before Syrian Hierapolis. but especially against those around Melitene. and by what manner and from what moneys and how long the Turks would have to be redirectcd to stay the rapacity of the Franks >. J. combined Turkish and Arab forces raided the emperor was a capable soldier. upon whom the Byzantines were forced to rely. a t hand.R. 11. G G Zepos. 104. and their great inferiority in encamped in Mesopotamia.G. Instead of swords of t h e Frankish leader Crispin in I 069 was of a major dimension. where troops abandoned the city to its fateaa7A decade later (1068) while there was to be seen the incredible [viz. 11. pages filled with Gibbonian melancholy.661. experienced. 247. XI. however. M. terms of equipment. 94-95. the Armenian who had enslaved all the east and west [now] consisted of a few men. 661-663. Constantine X Ducas. O 2 Cedrenus. noted. Attaliates. Though this energetic When. deserted t o the Turks because his pay had bcen witheld. As only a portion of the salary was paid.“ K a l d~ ~ a u q gXwpas K C ~ I d h e o s U E ~ T ~ TCWAAEE~VEVOS. the mercenaries showed Having temporarily overthrown the bureaucrats.sa and when the Turks and Cappadocians and Uzes and the other foreigners who happened to be about. and their salary and the collectors and the land were plundered. having a squalid appearance as if darkened by thick smoke. 11. I. He had previously attempted to assassinate the emperor G s 16id. The very standards spoke field.Gs simply retired to the safety of walls and refused to march out and oppose This is the military instrument that Romanus inherited from a quarter the Turks. century of bureaucrat policies. Crispin defeated him and inflicted severe losses on these western out taciturnly. and the fresh detachments O4 Attaliates. 90 9’ . 94-96. that is in the theme of the Anatolicoi. Cedrenus. Diogenes found the armies in an even more dreadful state. of Macedonians and Bulgars ian troops had an old tradition of instability. the general Romanus themselves to be independent agents.

Against this background of ghost armies. They even eleventh century. there is the contemporary obtained permission to return to their domains in Anatolia. 92 93 . The Armenians similarly experienced considerable imperial Georgian and Armenian princes and aristocrats joined the Turks and in some capes pressure in this matter. XI. and Constantine’s attempt to enforce the X. 111. swore that he would destroy the Armenian faith. Syrians. like the Syrians. unleashed the specter Chalcedonian creed upon them during this period. in at the religious discussions that followed. 678-680. the Armenians had been more violent and unpitying their disloyalty severely hampered the defense of Anatolia against the toward the Greeks than had the Turks themselves ! So it was that Romanus Turks and contributed to the chaos and disruption of provincial ordered his troops to attack Sebasteia. leading to the breakdown of Byzantine authority in these critical areas. the Greek bureaucrats in hiring such large numbers of mercenaries at the expense inhabitants complained to him that when Sebasteia had been sacked by of the local soldiery was dramatically manifested during this period. pp. Scylitzes. There is further evidence for this phenomenon in which Macedonia. Neue Folge. 161. “Barsalibi’s Treatise he instigated what amounted to open warfare against the Greeks in his against the Melchites.09 Taurus before he could do so. refused to give V 3 At least this is what Matthew of Edessa. but at that timc Byzantine authority was effective in considered taking the famous Syrian monastery of Bar Mar Sauma.x66-x68.” in Woodbrooke Studies (Cambridge. the mercenaries were busy ravaging the environs. 4 Heft. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE who were ravishing the very provinces they had been hired to defend. 51. The border Chalcedonian creed in Melitene were to be expelled from the city. 135. I. Charged with spreading their Beg. The Work of Dionysius Barssnlibi the Bagratid prince. that Kakig intended tine Mesopotamia at the same time that the emperor was forced to to desert to the Turks. but unlike the Syrians they 74 Michael the Syrian. 152-154. the tension between Greeks and Armenians and between Greeks and hostilities of the three principal ethnic groups i n eastern Byzantine Syrians. and the Turks (1059). pp. when the emperor was the Armenians and considered the areas in which they were settled as a encamped at Cryapege. I. 217.7O The shortsightedness of the C e l t ~ e n e . 71 Romanus had considerable trouble with On the eve of the battle of Manzikert itself. Tekeyan. 1931) . tract of Dionysius bar Salibi (d. returned to his lands in the province of Cappadocia against the Armenians.Two years later (1065) they were once more ordered to appear somewhat subsided. Religious discussions between . Bar Hebraeus. ed. no-man’s land that was not safe for his armies. 162-164. -~-- ~~ but especially in the Turkish epic. in a policy recalling events of the sixth and seventh centuries. of Amid. “The Work of Dionysius Barsalibi against the Armenians. 683. the Latins then proceeded t o ravage the regions of Byzan.and the latter’s ill-conceived religious policies. the Syrian ecclesiastical leader (the metropolitan of Melitene) was exiled to 7l Vryonis. and then he administration. who for this one year later the Syrian patriarch was arrested and the leading Syrian purpose had entrusted command of the Anatolian borders to Yakuti clergymen were brought to Constantinople. 166-167. I 939).” in Woodbrooke Strtdies. Fethi. a Byzantine city. rampaging mercenaries. numbers. and Armenians in hc first ha1 of the and roamed the countryside attacking the Syrian population. were among the factors of ethnic and sectarian strife from Antioch to Sebasteia and Caesareia. The existence of these diverse ethnoreligous groups in the eastern The disruption of provincial administration in the reign of Constantine provinces of Anatolia. but he was eventually slain by the Greeks in the proceed to Caesareia to meet a serious Turkish raid. In 1063 all who did not accept the ance with greater frequency. The Armenians. “Die armenische Kirche in ihren Beziehungen zu der syrischen Attaliates. The state. and warfare of the Turks was loosely controlled by the sultan. the Germans attacked paign of I 069 Romanus was obliged to halt to receive the stragglers from the emperor in force and the remainder of the army had to be mustered his army lest they perish at the hands of the Armenians in the regions of in order to put down t h e Gerrnans. Michael the Syrian.” 169-172. When Kakig. . 146-147. and trans. 2-95. This is clear not only from the Armenian and Georgian chronicles bishops were summoned t o Constantinople and held virtual Drisoners. Attaliates. 7When ~ h e made his appearance at Sebasteia. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE . 193 I). There had been tense moments in the about Melitene where the Armenians raided the Syrian monasteries relations of Greeks. vicinity. and effectiveness. P. but i n the end had to be imprisoned. Matthew of Edessa. P.75 T h e Turkish bands were considerably increased in number when own religious doctrines a n d having refused to accept Chalcedon. That these regions of Anatolia were thrown into a state of Crispin finally made his submission. Ter-Minassiantz. Social Basis. Matthew remarks. 95-98. I V (Cambridge. 76 Yinanc. Controuerses christologiques en Armtho-CiEicie duns la in Constantinople. 122-1s5. Orientalia Christiana Analecta (Rome. p. I927).7n these eastern provinces and a semblance of order and regularity prevailed.” Texte und Untersuchungen. During his eastern cam- ASRomanus attempted to halt their depredations. there was strife between the Syrians and Armenians in the region Anatolia came into full play. Byzantines and Armenians resumed in the twelfth century when religious passions had (1060-63). reports.I3 In addition to the With this paralysis of the provincial governmental structure. were also summoned. Kirche. ethnic war seems to be confirmed by a number of incidental facts. Mingana (Cambridge. 111. the Danishmendname.4 dii X U e sidcle ( r r65-rrgL?). I I ~ I ) bishop. but this time the Bagratid and Ardzrouni princes seconde moiti. outrage of the Armenians was such. the Turkish invaders make their appear- both Syrians and Armenians. The retaliation. A. 11. 1-212. as the Armenian catholicus and manv of his converted to Islam. Attaliates.Scylitzes. and attempted to force ecclesiastical union and the Chalcedoniall creed on ethnic warfare in the provinces. O n religious polemic of the Syrians with Greeks and Armenians in the twelfth century. 11. E.

Instrument of divine vengeance. I. his sons were pardoncd and sent to fight on the Anatolian The most important Byzantine city in Armenia. carrying away all the holy items of the next years.. and attempted to break into the structure housing the saint’s the comparatively large and wealthy town of Sebasteia. pp.'^ The names of the raiding chiefs now begin to appear in greater of the inhabitants put to the sword or carried OK into slavery. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE I POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE the Turkmens of the rebel Ibrahim Inal were moved westward by t h e with its flamesthe faithful of Christ. was taken and many border^. The urban centers in established himself on Mt. the little defense. 57. and were now to threaten the more centrally located regions of been let through by the recalcitrant troops guarding Melitene. and for the second time i n the long history of the Christian- Muslim holy war. 94-95. reducing it to ashes and taking essentially different type of military procedure followed by the Byzan- a great booty and many prisoners. destroyed.78 Amertices about southern Anatolia and Coelo-Syria. I. the Turks passed through ‘LIAttaliates. hoping to attack them in the mountain passes when they were returning When Constantine X Ducas ascended the throne (1059)) the Turkish from Anatolia i n disarray and laden with booty. the more westerly provinces had emperor. 684-685: bqD 94 O1 Ibid.90 I n the same year. “Qutlumush et ses fils avant 1’Asie Mineure. Attaliates. They Anatolia. but initially they and lead-off captive. singling out the famous hands of the Turks. and in any place. 217. In 1069 while Matthew of Edessa. . the sultan. but also the Turks remained in Sebasteia for eight days. where the larger towns which had been spared the perhaps the most active of these was the emir Afsinios (Afshin) who rigors of siege for centuries now lay defenseless. around Coloneia.000 Turkmens 1 sword and sIavery spread their ravage here. Matthew of Edessa. Attaliates.” Der Islnna. T h c Iberia and Mesopotamia. and burned the city.sGT h e sultan himself took the field in tines and their foes.8D famous shrine of the Forty Martyrs. Fethi. PP. p. 122. Romanus was in the district of Celtzene. I I 1-1 13.87 revolted against Alp Arslan i n Rayy. pp. the location of the remains. the famous city of Amorium was sacked by a Muslim ’’ l b i d .B8 By reason of the weakened resistance at the end of Constantine’s reign. Cahen. 120-124. . I. daring to raid. and its citizens massacred. and precious stones. of the enemy to sack such a n important Anatolian city indicates not only less. and the Turks had become even bolder and so began to push their incursions Seveverek. p. 68. The land was inundated with blood. 7 9 But farther to the west. 77 Matthew of Edessa. 111-113. Basil. places at any given time. 218. even though hesitated to attack mistaking the domes of the many churches for the Romanus was encamped i n the eastern theme of Lycandus. while Romanus besieged Proud of his success. 678. 162. the Turkish bands raided farther into nation. At least eight major urban centers were to suffer pillaging a t the plundered. Matthew of Edessa. the region. 11. 11. 653-654. his wrath spread over the oriental the Syrian city of Hierapolis. The ability tents ofthe defending army.. and then again i n 1063 when Kutlumush with 50. 84 Matthew of Edessa. Scylitzes. Cappadocia pillaging it en route and continued westward in the Bar Hebraeus. for though Antioch81and MeliteneE2 as far west as ChonaeaE3The emir Kulnush protected from the invaders by a greater distance. numbers in the sources. I 15-1 18. this dragon of Persia. 11. the inhabitants of Neocaesareia. p. pearls. 8oIbid. and the SeQuks.91 Hereafter. p. strengthening eastern borders where they often let the Turks pass through unhindered. This they looted. They soon realized that the city was defense. pp. Samuh in the regions of Sebasteia and else- the Khurasan Salar in the districts of Thelkum. and SO massacred pitilessly large numbers o f the inhabitants. disregarded the emperor and his armies in Anatolia.. the mercenaries a n d other available troops were kept on the sultans themselves made occasional appearances there. Nisibis. 157. The church was desecrated and the inhabitants massacred. Thus once the Turks had raids had previously devastated Armenia. Amanaus in 1066-6780 and raided from central and western Anatolia were in a peculiar situation. In 1059the emir Samuh and other I n the following year the Turkmens became bolder. and others were to experience difficult sieges in the shrine of St. The first of the important cities to be plundered was church. Aaqupuywylav ~ ~cpbvov t l &vSpmv &vb8qToV. 107. With the dissolution Gedrigdj-Chrysoscule raided northern Anatolia before deserting to the of the larger part of the thematic armies. The how completely the system of local defense had collapsed. Melitene. The sanctuary was so strongly built Lhat the a6 Matthew of Edessa.84 whereas the protecting forces that the border cities possessed. which he forced to drink the vial ofhis malice. emirs suddenly appeared before the unwalled city. army. Turks contented themselves with stripping it of its gold. the raiders contemptuously XXXIX (1964)~ 14-27. Bar Hebraeus. the Turkish forces. says as far as Constantinople! Yinanc. Bar Hebraeus. After the defeat and death of Kutlumush. Attaliates. 53. 78. Scylitzes. . T h e numerous Turkish bands might strike at any time 1064 with a large army and appeared i n Armenia. Attaliates. Scylitzes. that year pounced upon Armenia. 2 2 0 . Ibid. and Turks reached the important Cappadocian city of Caesareia after having Chaldia. 156.” 95 . 79-82. b u t the Byzantine army was usually in one or two ~.86In addition to the ever-present bands on the borders. Ani. sack. 93-94.. pp. 6G1. The fire of death enveloped Anatolia.. the Byzantine provinces of overrun the border defenses they sacked the interior almost freely. p. they did not have even Tekin operated in the vicinity of Thelkum and Edessa.

caverns. who severely criticized this supersititious behavior as Byzantine. neighbors. Nicephorus I1 Phocas on his way to the conquest of Crete stopped with the fleet on the Anatolian coast at one of the many port towns. Contrary to 0’ Bryennius. I. Sebasteia. were all drowned when the river suddenly flooded. this was very definitely unlucky. a n d ugly spectacles studded the beginning of seen the corpses of their former comrades. comments upon the desertion of these century Athenians. the Greeks had complained about Munzikert (1071) Armenian cruelty. The prevalence of superstition at critical points in Byzantine history is striking. to the theme of Anatolicon to muster the Anatolian armies. 346. . Mesopotamia up particular was interpreted as a bad omen. to the eastern front. a demoralizing effect on the soldiery for they had seen many frightening signs. the emperor’s coming misfortune seemed to be announced. 11. select horses. Romanus next crossed the had the emperor received this news i n Constantinople than an even greater Sangarius River at the Zompus Bridge in hopes of collecting the Anatolian disaster was reported to him. H e himself encamped with t h e remainder of the army a t Sebasteia where Though some of the animals were saved. h e was informed had been raised. eventually making its way to the region with murder. and the raiders “filled the The expedition crossed the Halys. 148. to avoid it as the name was not propitious to the expedition (pp. the city sacred to the Arch. to Lycandus. and on being told that it was Phygela. signs and moved on to the important military station of Dorylaeumo7 and stantinople to keep a n eye on the bureaucrats and the Ducas family.. So h e set out in an effort to catch up with the rustics. living torches.Q4 Upon the pitching of the imperial haps. his march on Damascus and retired to the east with such haste that his 0a Scylitzes. per- a forewarning of evils to come. Gibbon. T h e following station. asked the name of the port. The Asia. but upon arriving at Heracleous Comopolis. Indeed. 327-328. 140-141. but felt by many others to be decision to dividc the armies on the eve of the fateful battle was due. the emperor receiving news of this only after he had that inasmuch as the place was called Eleinopolis (miserable city) by the arrived i n Sebasteia. areas. 11.” The inhabitants. the central pole supporting it gave way and the tent. A gray dove alighted on Romanus’ ship and came to T h e armies continued their march to the northwestern shores and the the emperor’s hand as the imperial vessel was crossing the Bosphorus to vicinity of Lake Van. he ordered the fleet O0 Zbid. Here again SO the armies were sent out under the command of Manuel Comnenus. as witness the events surrounding the fateful Sicilian expedition. intending to take Manzikert and Chliat. The sultan had not been interested i n attacking the Byzantine fell on a day not propitious to him. 0 8 Attaliates. I n 1070 Romanus had been forced to remain in Con. bridles. who were accustomed to flee to military station of Cryapege.Scylitzes.. they decided that henceforth by the foreigners. armor. Upon arrival in Erzerum. Comnenus was forced to I structure built to house Romanus and his retinue caught fire. 144. a sight that was morbidly Romanus’ final campaign ( I 071) against thc Turks as his armies journeyed suggestive. a sign interpreted by some to bode well. 683-684. emperor himself seems not to have been perturbed by such superstitious angel Michael. were taken by Byzantine society to be a n indication of troops were treated to the sight of the corpses of Manuel Comnenus’ God’s wrath. where the river went underground in the vicinity of the attacked Romanus. 144. No sooner wildly through the camp. he broke off 02 Ibid. the soldiers remarked as Alp Arslan had received news of the Byzantine advance.”OQThe march to the eastern front must have had quite “not only correct belief but also living the faith”03 were necessary. 35. Liparites had refused t o fight the Turks at the appropriate moment because it Euphrates. The sack respite. others were to be seen running he was defeated and captured by the Turkish emir Chrysoscule. brought Romanus no sanctuary. 223-224). 143. and it was here that the German mercenaries the caverns. Attaliates. stitious behavior was not peculiarly Byzantine but was also characteristic of the fifth I M . and carriages were consumed by the flames. The One year later it was the turn of Chonae. and just before reaching the borderlands they had Accidents. for the Greeks of the city complained against their Armenian of Chonae. On the road from Sebasteia to Coloneia. and his divide his army and to send a large portion ofit to relieve the besieged city. 689. Romanus took few of them. Brosset. 145. to the intelligence report of Leo Diabatenus who wrote that as soon pavilion a t Helenopolis. Attaliates. He 05 Ibid. that the Turks had already sacked the cityaQ2 collapsedY06an event too obvious in its implications to pass unnoticed. evil omens. Gkorgie. The famed shrine of the Archangel was profaned places of refuge (because of the Turkish raids). But when the ravages spread to march through uninhabited land which had been trampled underfoot to the regions inhabited by the Greeks.. and this in the devastations and incursions of the Turks in Iberia. and other pillaged by the Turks. But as these had scattered to the mountaintops. 135-137. and Melitene to be a sign of God’s anger with the Armenian rations for two months were passed out to the army as “they were about and Syrian heretics who inhabited this area. army virutally disbanded and the animals were drowned in crossing the O 4 Attaliates. for the As Hierapolis in Syria was under a severe siege. Romanus and his ground caverns. Cedrenus relates that formerly the Greeks had interpreted army that had been handled so roughly by the Turks i n 1070. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE i direction of Iconium. 96 97 . this super. T h e mercenaries had rebelled. and especially the drowning of the fugitives in the under. after the imperial tent marauders. 686-687. and turned into a stable for the Turkish horses. instead of at Neocome. the city of Chonae had been savagely levies.

making noise and shooting their arrows. does not indicate that this occurred prior to Romanus’ expedition. still unaware of the were still supposedly encamped before Chliat. possibly for this very same Sometime previous to Romanus’ final campaign. to Chliat under the leadership of buying goods from the merchants. and the pursuers could not be informed of later developments. however. Romanus retired to his camp outside leader Tamis. which had called for the splitting of the armies mercenaries rushed backinto the enclosed camp in such disorder that those and which had left him with the weaker portion. w h o had taken a donkey from a Turk. but messengers to summon them. Basilacius and in time. recrossed the Dosphorus. The emperor sent out Nicephorus Byrennius to oppose the Turkish forces immediately and thus to determine the issue without them. the Turks attacked them by riding Joseph T a r c h a n i o t e ~ . of Bryennius. “La campagne d e Mantzikert d’aprhs les sources musulmanes. and this suspence across the regions of Byzantine Mesopotamia to Anat01ia. I. 154.” consider the proposition. ment. In spite of the man’s supplication before the icon of the Blacher- that the sultan was afraid and his forces weak. major portion of the army. Manzikert ~~~ fell almost without resistance. The Turks.627-628 (hereafter cited as Cahen.1EVOV. 38-39. under their After having captured Manzikert. deserted to the Turks. the Byzantines began to fear.102 around the camp and raining arrows upon them from horseback. “Manzikert. CJWpWAOKUTSK d TOIS &hhOlST O h 8 p O l g TTpOKIV6IVEfiOV K q i Tpou- pq61. but quietly. Chliat.lO4 On the re. The sultan was merely stalling for time. had dispersed upon hearing of the sultan’s though seriously wounded. however. gathered his forces and marched on Manzikcrt. which is not what Bar Hebraeus says.remarks t h a t even in this moment of victory portents of impending to withdraw from his present camp and let Romanus occupy it. arrival. Tarchaniotes and Roussel. H e implies also that Alp Arslan received news of lD6 Attaliates. his troops charged the Turks. sent to Anatolia to fight the Seljuks. Romanus immediately marshaled his force and set out by the sultan in the previous year). a n d returned to the Balkans.lo8Whatever the reason. O n the following day a portion of the Uze mercenaries. this after Romanus was already i n Armenia. the counselors lo8 Bar Hebraeus. Basilacius was captured near the encmy defenses. Romanus himself wished to come to close quarters with under some emir. Attaliates remarking that to the Byzantines the fugitives from Manzikert. forced them to retreat. looThcir unreliability had been dramatically displayed in the time of Constantine IX lo4Bryennius. he informed the envoys. ‘‘ fiV 68 T b 6 y X E l p l U & kKE[Vy U T p U T l u T l K b V T b k p I T 6 V T E KCri s t i r conditions on the opening of such discussions.. the sultan would have lo2 Ibid. the emperor felt that they might not arrive evenlually sent another force under Basilacius to aid him.” p. “Manzikert”). but as he was soon being hard pressed by the Turkish force he sent further delay.” B~zntziiot~. Romanus further weakened his army by sending the T h a t night while the Uze mercenaries were outside the encampment majority of it. and for and fear of the unknown were spread throughout the camp by the this reason the advance of Romanus had caught him by surprise. and the very best troops. 152--153. Reasoning disaster were present. It was a moonless night.106 was negligable. they simply deserted. did not attempt to enter but remained before the camp during the Afsinios had raided central Anatolia with such ease that he reported to the whole night. 1 2 0 . As the body of Turkish and Daylamite defenders in Manzikert they were nowhere in sight so the emperor returned to camp. for peace.100 sound and sight of the many returning troops who had been wounded by In dividing his forces. so he decided to march out against the Turks on the next day. Romanus. first accused Bryennius of cowardice. A soldier.lOOThe sultan’s army came upon Byzantine forces that were foraging in Byzantines achieved a temporary success when their archers marched thevicinity ofManzikert. 99 . the sacred vanguard of t h e army. but. the sultan depicts the sleepless night passed by the terrorized troops in the encamp- hurriedly. remarks that the sultan had prepared an ambush. sultan’s pcace offer. is not to be preferred lo that of Attaliates in the details that follow. This brought t h e fear of divine rctribution upon many of the soldiers. who appealed to him to come to their aid. But Diabatenus failed to keep him all would be lost. the Turks and Uzes looked alike. Attaliates. Cahen. but as they had retired before the charge of Basilacius.l~~ Unexpectedly an embassy from the sultan arrived bringing proposals loo Cahen. As yet the emperor had not realized that the sultan out and drove the Turkish forces away from the encampment with heavy was present. and then to rejoin his forces before to seek the enemy. a nd he believed that this was just a raiding force of Turks losses to the latter. in thc pursuit Unknown to him. the Turkish emir reason. Attaliates graphically sultan that Asia Minor was defenseless. H e had hesitated. with the Frank. lo‘ Attaliates. and that followed. Uze. I t was a t this time that the advance body of the because they now feared the remainder of the Uzes would desert. as the majority of his forces an urgent message for reinforcements. IX (1934). and. KUl E f S Whf@OS TOhb T P O 6 X O V T G V hTOKpUTll88VTWV Te pUUlhEi. 628. This increased the fear of the the city and planned to march to Chliat on the following day to rejoin the Byzantine generals and further undermined the morale of the troops. seemed justified on the inside feared the Turks would enter the camp simultaneously and then basis of his intelligence reports. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE borders but was occupied with his schemes against the Fatimids. they had fled port ofBasilacius’ capture. the emperor disregarded his state of asylum and strengthened the emperor in his resolve and advised him to reject the had his nose slit. Bryennius. 149. returned to the side of the emperor. The The strategy of the emperor. he placed Attaliates. Romanus wished to reduce Manzikert (captured Turkish arrows. As Romanus was not disposed to accept the offer. for on his way eastward Alp Arslan received distinguished from the pursucd. Even though he sent true nature of the situation. was punished most severely by Romanus. 158. without bothering to inform the emperor. Byzantine troops under them. the emperor’s counselors nitissa. The narrative when. 155-156. Before he would o V Tar5 6 U a p ~ d T ~ ~ K&V .

I00 I01 . exccllent in other respects. but to Andronicus his cousin. il est inutile de salir. 161-162).6 ~ TGV i PTE~PEU~VTCOU a h q TIS. Both are reliable. and it is his Eastern Christian sources spread themselves from this time until the late thirteenth century account that deserves the greatest degree of credence. Scylitzes.rr&vu 6$ qihlos Exwu n p b s paothia. though Matthew is confused and adds a few Michael Ducas. O ~ E ~ O U ~Exwv ~ V I-ripouhjv E V ~T+V ~ V airrbs 61’ iavToG T ~ V Manzikert. was born in 1062 and therefore was only nine years of age when Constantinople because of the hcightened tensions between himself and the Ducas family.ras drvaAaPcjv Taxljs ~ f i sources. Sometime before departing for his final b u t by and large the narrative of Attaliates is longer and more detailed. ‘‘ 06 . nevertheless they were removed from between the Ducas family and Romanus before the battle. and so the emperor needed everyone he could muster on of Michael VII whom Attaliates’ hero. Michael Ducas. 43). avec le scrviteur de Botaniate. acceptcd. Nicephorus Bryennius. Who was this cousin of Michael Ducas? The other Greek texts tell us. I to retire from the pursuit and to march back to camp. even Bryen- the Byzantines en masse. Scylitzes. 6QPaoihBwv ~ < & ~ E ~-T~ o~ sP. participated. Cahen’s article.) And with this. the battle occurred. is confused and contains considerable VapEDpohfj lTol-rquev. 635. This is obviously a reference to the withdrawal of Andronicus who battle. and thc remaining Muslim and the memory of Michael Ducas. but otherwise it must yield to the version of Attaliates. then has interpreted this key passage as follows: Attaliates blamed Michael Ducas for the catas- guard the camp. did not leave pursuing them until evening. “ ~ 68 b nhrimov cpuy4 71s KaTEIxEv guard with the archontes and the hetairoi: “ofipayeiv 6Q~ T ~ T U K T6O TOG Kalaapos ulos airro65. 169. He now h a d before him the sultan himself. prefcrring the narra. There were other factors that must have heIped persuade him. So Romanus ordered the army Romanus. as mentioned above. H e does give certain details that Attaliates omits. Although it may be true that later authors relied T h e behavior of Andronicus during thc battle is in consonance with the great tension upon valuable archival material that is now lost. a similar opportunity OIKEIOUS 2rvaAaphv (P~TEIT~OTWTO y d p -rap& ~ i j sTOG PaaihiwS KahoKayaBlas ofi ~ I K P ~TI U ~. of Alexius Comnenus (ro81-r1IS). But in so doing. leaving none to the son of Constantine X Ducas. are quite different. I b n al-Qalanisi. did not write Cahen’s grounds that ostensibly the historian has distorted the facts in order to blacken his history of Damascus until sometime aftcr 1145. 701. ” tradition of Andronicus’ Attaliates as a primary authority on the basis of this mistranslation. Bryennius and Anatolian compaign in 1071. Then it had been difficult to catch the Turks during his four year and even later. Nicephorus Bryennius. lo8 41. Psellus and the Ducas’ were spread the false rumor that Romanus had been defeated. eyewitness whose record has survived.” G~ Bryennius. for they were always on the move. and Andronicus Ducas was placed in the Let us look a t the text once more: B<&G~Acpos$u TQ TOG P a o i h b ~-rrpoyovg Mixafih. 41. preceding year he had not been able to leave Constantinople because of “ c j s 6’ ol ~ o h h o l-rhqpo~opoOo~v. and so did not see them. removed from the the fighting line. 41. H e began writing his work probably in the latter years of the reign H e arrested the Caesar on several occasions and even considered putting him to death. the only commanded the ~ ~ X O V T ‘ E SSee . that Romanus and his nobles were divided and that most of them abandoned him on the Of those authors who have left us accounts of the events that took place at the fateful field of battle. T h e battle of Manzikert “p6hhov 68 TIS TGV~ ~ ~ E ~ ~ E U ~ V T C ’AvGp6vt~os W b TOG Kaluapos $v ulbs TGV has been thoroughly investigated from the point of view or the Muslim sources by Cahen. &v TQ TOO PaathiwS -rpoyov@ M i x a j h ? Cahen has taken the phrase to refer to O n the day of battle Romanus drew up all his troops. according to Attaliates.loORomanus halted the pursuit. cnrvTE-ray@aS t66vras -rds TGU‘Pwpalwv cpuhhayyas Pv T&<EI K a l K~CTD-I(?) Kal b 1~pb~6pos O S TE TBV8-ralpwv T&&K Exwv K a l ~ h TBV ’ A V ~ ~ ~ V I KT&S s +X~VTWV.lo8 When the emperor The correct translation is. deciding to Constantinople at this time and so was not present a t the battle. Therefore we must not reject Attaliates on details not in Atlaliates. and their promptness in remov- the events in time and place. Zonaras. and that h e then took his men constantly plotting against him in Constantinople and during the and left the emperor on the field of action. Attaliates remains our most reliable source. At one point in the battle Attaliates records that one of Romanus’ personal enemies intentionally other issues as well to be considered. the emperor Ducas and not Michael Ducas himself. In 1070 it would seem that Romanus had remained in account Cahen prefers.” I n other words.” Zonaras. “Being a cousin to Michael the emperor’s step-son. Cahen. he was really attempting to blacken the character invest Chliat. Alyattes the right wing. as they had done previously. also remarks that the Turks feared to opposc Bryennius adds. 698. So Romanus made what seemed to him the logical choice: hripowh4v. and then following the mistranslation of the critical passage. Michael Ducas. and it was not standard was turned from the direction ofthe enemy toward the camp and Iikely tha t the emperor could muster another such force in the near future. whose ing him from the throne afterward. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITrOAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE argued. the passage in Attaliates refers not to the future emperor of Edessa repeat the version of Attaliates. His mistakes result from the mistranslation of constantly plotting against Romanus. thus precipitating the rout (Attaliates. a n d in this the counselors succeeded in persuading I and attack it. 111. so far as we know. who records tive of other historians. 11. and is. disloyal to him (Psellus-Renauld. the future Michael VII. 160-161). B & ~ E ~ T o ~ &V T$ T O O paUthhs TpOyOVq MiXafiA. The accounts of the defeat given by Attaliates and Bryennius nius (Cahen’s primary authority) knew of the instability of Andronicus Ducas. it can be premeditated plot. Attaliates give two entirely different versions of the battle. Nicephorus I11 Botaniates.rlposAaoO) cpuyhs E ~ TS ~ -rrapE@ohGu V P-ruv8SpapE. had been sent to trophe a t Manzikert. 160-161. 11. a h b s T ~ VTOIOGTOV A6yov rois o-rpa-nh-raiS ~I~~ITEIPE. he exiled the Caesar to Bithynia (Bryennius. lTpOpEpOUhEU~8VqVBXWV TGV KC& T O b T O U this fact. he rejects Iq~fiFp~uov T@ PautAei K a l &cpavGS P T E ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ L J O UThe . Attaliates is the only one who was present. Cahen discredits the account of Attaliates. his account 11. Bryennius. &EI y h p 6 TE Kaicrap K a l 01 T O ~ T O U VIEIS Attaliates.so that pcrhaps as much as forty years had elapscd But h e had to satisfy himself with an oath that the Caesar and his sons would never be between the battIe and his writing. 308-309. and as soon as his forces should be augmented he would return ~ return to the camp (now divested of guards) lest the Turks return at night a n d attack the empire. la memoire de Michcl Dukas. K a l T O ~ Sr e p i a h b v crrpcrrth. Romanus the throne. remarks that Andronicus. the sultan’s forces gave way and retreated. Bryennius commanded the left wing. “En fait. and Matthew When properly translated.” Who was this E E & ~ E ~ Q o s would never present itself again.K a l T+QJ T O ~ S force the issue with the enemy of the empire now.” I T O ~ E ~ I K-rrapatrrfiNa-ri. betrayed Romanus was a cousin of Michael attacked. thus Andronicus was the cousin of Michael Ducas) had been put in charge of the rear 100 Such is the account of Attaliates. Most of his army. the son of the Caesar John Ducas (the brolher of Constantine X Ducas. There were Cahen has rejected Attaliates’ account of the battle on the following grounds. center. split up into small but rapidly nearness to thc event itself. but as Attaliates was an cycwitncss. The imperial T h e military activities h a d been extremely expensive. iii.” (Cahen. The oldest of the Muslim sources.” but strangely it has not been critically examined from the side of the Greek TOIOGTOV hbyov ~I~UTTEIPE. Thus the account of Attaliates has incontestable superiority on the basis of reign. striking bodies. also Sawirus ibn al-Mukaffa’. 111. remarks that the Caesar and his sons were error as a result of misuse of the Greek texts. dcsertion is echoed cven in the clironiclc of Michael the Syrian. therefore. When Bryennius’ account coincides with that of Attaliates. repeats Attaliates’ charge that Andronicus Ducas bctrayed the emperor by a must be preferred.” Thcrefore the man who. rear with a large body of hetairoi and archonles.

no. Thus Matthew also remarks (42). history in the empire’s evolution during the eleventh century. 41. informed the sultan and so they came out to attack the to these internal developments i n the Byzantine Empire which had fuscd emperor who had been abandoned on the field by much of the army. bringing them to the camp. 101-126. ‘‘ €ljb!q 6’ ~ V E X ~ ~ OKUal V01 m p l TT)V oirpayfav. I02 103 . He confirms it. The whole episode is vaguely but definitely echoed in the a n antidote to the power of the generals. when they first came. 118 Michael the Syrian. then. Regeslen. has to be corrected. Romanus and those about him dcfended themselves bravely and for a long time. but according to the others he had been killed. On this interesting episode and the famous dialogue between the two sovereigns s h i n dei trattati tm la Cirristiarzitn orienlale e le patenze niusulinnne (Milan.” Though his account of the battle differs from that of Attaliates. upon seeing the reversal number of factors that.” 113 Attaliates. but especially by the Greek Cornntne.who asserts that all the Patzinaks andUzes deserted. Laurent. the anarchy in the armies thus begun by the activities of religious persecution.I ~ I Z ) . 1950). remarks of Andronicus. The Byzantine sources state bureaucrats and militarists.l15 I n lla Michael VII rewarded his relative with gifts of land and immunities in the regions lo Attaliates. 111. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE the soldiers in the vicinity of the emperor evidently performed the move. had already enjoyed a considerable of the imperial standard. thought that the emperor had been defeated.” Bw<ccv~L~ I1 (191I .11* The Turks on the heights. presents a sketch of diplomatic relations between Byzantium and the Seljuk- Ottoman Turks. the latter or whom tells us that the archantes or nobles were when Romanus had stopped a t Sebasteia on his way to Manzikert.G. There is no indication that they attempted to found a state By this time the Turkish horsemen were attacking the fleeing troops. 992-994. Dolger. policy much employed by the bureaucrats as Andronicus. Per la historians. prirent la fuite des premikres et tournkrent le dos dans la bataille. reexamining the details of this most important battle. a minority of the whole. Bryennius does not contradict Attaliatcs’ charge of the treachery and Only the followers of Tamis. to produce the situation prevailing in the Byzantine ranks in 1071. as a result of soldiers. the Byzantine armies in 1071 h a d opened Anatolia to the Turks. I 62. On this question and on thc treaties between Byzantium and the Seljuks. development. and trampling them underfoot. Vismara. that is. 11* Michael the Syrian. Andronicus Ducas intentionally spread the false rumor treachery of Andronicus Ducas was purely and simply one of the more that the emperor had been dcfeated and withdrew his men from the field dramatic a n d consequential acts i n the long and bitter strife between i n haste. the demobilization of the local armies Romanus had arrested and exiled the Caesar John Ducas. Ibid. act from the same drama.. i t was instead the Turkmen tribes that The terrorization was finally completed by the gradual desertion of the consummated the military victory by swarming into Anatolia literally Cappadocians and the appearance of the imperial horses in the camp. under the command of Ducas. Romanus fighting expanses of Anatolia and thus disrupted what little was left of the Byzan- until he was wounded in the arm and his horse shot out from under him. Leurs traitis anterieurs B Alexius ll& I n actual fact the treatment that Romanus Diogenes received at the hands of the magnanimous Alp Arslan is highly praised by all the sources. 44745. The More specifically. capturing.” pp. 114 Ibid.114 tine administrative and military apparatus.1l0 But those who were far away. “Manzikert. 111. then. of Miletus in the year 1073. great victory at Manzikert. traindre B adopter leur htrtsie. 163. deserted. Rather they came to raid and plunder in the vast slaying. G36-637. by now becoming awarc of this amazing T h e great victory of Alp Arslan in 1 0 7 1 was due to a large degree. The enemy. father of and use of hired foreigners. 169. and finally their settlement. it was not to categorically that Ducas was executing a premeditated plot. one is struck by a ment correctly. 161-162. and then that most of the nobles abandoned him in and Germans had attacked Romanus at Cryapege. he Uzes specifically states that they remained loyal throughout the battle. see Attaliates. All this was compli- the battle. that the rear guard immediatcly withdrew after the Turks made their ofEdessa (p. Bisanzio e l’lslnm. 164-166. for he and his be the final act of this drama. “Les troupes des Armeniens. 161-162. Even Bryennius. but as the men fled toward the encampment. pp.ll6 Unfortunately for the empire. It is true that the defeat of the For the first time in the long history of the Byzantine empire. the rumors began biitial Turkish Conquest and Occutation of Anatolia (1071-81) to spread among the demoralized men. were the first to flee and that all of them fled from Andronicus Ducas spread rapidly and the emperor was unable to halt it. 169). 69-78. J. Given the already nervous state of the Michael the Syrian relates that the Armenian troops.ll8 unopposed. first contact with the Greeks. 169. by 1071. the battlefield. qu’ils voulaient con- withdrawal of Andronicus. 158-159.” I n essence. nobles were at odds.l17 The Franks of Roussel and the later account of Michael the Syrian who remarks that Romanus and his Uzes who were sent to Chliat simply fled on news of the sultan’s approach. “orlr T&VV 68 q~tAlwS 117 Attaliates. “Byzance et les Turcs seldjoucides en Asie Mineure. Cahen. were greatly faciliated and Basileus Rhomaion had fallen into the hands of barlsarians. who personally administered the oath to the remainder of the BXEW vpb5 pacrthia.l12 This is in complete accord with the accounts of Attaliates and cated by the enmity of Greeks and Armenians.. and the struggle between administrators and family had been waiting for an opportunity to do away with their hated soldiers was to have dire consequences in the decade to follow. so ominously forecast Bryennius. According to some the emperor Alp ArsIan was apparently not interested in exploiting directly his had defeated the Turks.111 desertion of the Uze mercenaries under Tamis to the Turks is again another One must recall in this conjunction that prior to his expedition in 1071.llDbut their supreme disgrace had occurred: the august and living person of the appearance.

121 a pattern that was to become firmly established in Anatolia seemed to add a certain zest to the struggle as each side in the internal strife of the next critical decade. to reaction came. Michael V I I immediately hired attempted to found states.lZzIt is significant that up until the time he reached state of war and unrest. but the desire for the imperial crown was left of the armies in the west and the east in a suicidal war.” Actes du XII‘ con& international d ‘ h d e s laaAttaliates. the Seljuk princes founded a During this rebellion in the west. 168-175. two generals. were able to control the considerations outweighed all other factors. and marched the western armies on Constantinople. Scylitzes 11. The captivity of Romanus had enabled the Caesar before he was able to reach Nicaea. In short. Botaniates had been able to gather no more than 300 men with and political conquest of the large peninsula. ~ ~ ~ he probably had his what was left of the Byzantine armies. in 1077. Again one sees how complete was the following Manzikert. enduring until the final Ottoman reunification Nicaea. Simultaneously. I 17-1 18. 735. then in Cappadocia. Palaeologus. Even so. Scylitzes. Byzantium to the brink at Manzikert. The same author (gg). “Un aspect des relations byzantino-turques en I 073-1 074. Fortunately for Botaniates. dcrrooraulai. knowingly o r unknowingly. is a fitting finale to this act in the 12a Scylitzes 11.lZ0The Turks raided and plundered the whole of the east. and finally at Adana to alter his evil fate. I I 8. Because his brother and Basilacius were likewise slighted by the craggy Taurus area. T h e strife between the generals and Still more fateful was thc precedent of Romanus in appealing to the Turks bureaucrats not only did not abate. at last had a good opportunity to throw off the hated bureaucrats in the capital. resulted in the destruction of a comparatively stable political unity in capitalized upon the provincial dissatisfaction with the government’s Anatolia and substituted for it a relatively unstable system of smaller neglect and inability to halt the Turks. 57. Consequently. Andronicus Ducas. and in the vacuum Turks. on the very Anatolian soil that he had so 707-709. creating ever greater difficulties. 11. the Turks caught up with him defeat and capture. valiantly but vainly fought to protect. immediately which to take Constantinople. was to be assassinated by the agents of Nice- princes and adventurers. Byzantine administrative authority collapsed breakdown that the provincial military system had suffered. political collapse of medieval Hellenism in its foyer. the Ducas family in the capital was faced with a support Botaniates. out of all this chaos and upheaval. and Normans news of the outbreak reached the court. intervened with promote his nephew Michael VII to the throne. speaks of the many r a p q a f . 11. as a a new Normandy in northern Asia Minor during the chaos that enveloped reward for his suppression of the Bulgarian rebellion at Skopia which had Anatolia following Manzikert. but the very appearance of the Turks for aid i n the civil war. the Patzinaks. first under the leadership of the Caesar John and then power. contributed to the Turkish Botaniates to abandon the regular roads and to travel by night in order penetration of Rum when he released Romanus Diogenes after the latter’s to avoid his Turkish pursuers. 45-55. the services of Sulayman to halt the advance of the rebel. thereby causing Alp Arslan. the Turkish danger included. secure in their mountain strongholds in the phoritzes. who was with him. Nicephorus Bryennius and Nicephorus Botaniates rebelled The mercenaries. them. V- POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE accelerated by the continuation of those very factors that had brought moment when the borders were completely open to the Turkish tribes. Antoniades-Bibicou. a t the northwestern extremity of the peninsula. and accompanied the serious problem and the result was a civil war in Anatolia which involved insurgent to the shores of the B o s p h o r u ~where . Iza Bryennius. Straboromanus. Bryennius. Goudeles. OT&UEIS in the east after Romanus’ death. 726. declared Nicephorus Byantine authority and to give expression to their own separatist desires. other Muslim dynasties were arising in the political Nicephorus Botaniates. Finally. government for six years after the death of Romanus. I 04. Romanus tried vainly. 15-15. Farther to the south. Simultaneously. the John Ducas to seize control of the government in Constantinople and to Turkish renegade Chrysoscule. 1073-1074. the 1241bid. but without success. Armenians. Bryennius emperor.lZs When in Asia Minor. But when the military By this time the true nature of the Turkish menace was apparent to all. Thus Sulayman changed sides. debris at the end of the century in northeastern Anatolia. supported by the Anatolian magnates Cabasilas. Bryennius. Nicephorus Bryennius.. In the end he was defeated and captured by the very 1 8 1 Bryennius. finding no armies before new state in Nicaea. T h e emperor Michael had negotiated not only with fragmentary Byzantine armies were used to fight one another at the very Sulayman but with Ivlalik Shah as well. they also rebelled. and Melissenus. I 20. it was violent and once more mobilized what was both bureaucrats and generals. the Armenian previously broken out. Upon receipt of the news Sulayman and was able to bribe him t o abandon the emperor and t o of Romanus’ release. first at first sight of the city destined to become the center of Turkish might Doceia. H. strove to outdo the other in purchasing Turkish military aid in a quest for The bureaucrats. This graphically illustrates how narrow and selfish political under the notorious eunuch Nicephoritzes. At that time overpowering. and so raised the standard of quarreling states which would keep Anatolia in a more or less constant rebellion in the east. Manzikert Synnadenus. relates that it was after the Sultan heard of Romanus’ death that the man who had betrayed him at Manzikert. Oyrnniines (Belgrade. ‘05 . raided t o the very walls of Adrianople unopposed. description of his brutal blinding. attempted to found in the Balkans and Anatolia respectively. x964). 1x9.

lasIbid. AS the Turks were the military masters. 130.~ i c u s . the Caesar. 77-80. Derfratikisclie Krieger Ursel de Bnilled laa Attaliates. subjected all the towns in the region of the Sangarius River to now long rampant. with traditions going for fear that the Turks would utilize him as Roussel had planned to do.” Bryennius. Michael VII enlisted the services of the during the course of the subsequent civil war. Michael VII was forccd more grandiose scheme. that of Basilacius. Roussel withdrew to Armeniacon where he drove to send Isaac Comnenus with an army in an effort to halt their ravages out the Turks.H. but as he was drasti.130 It The civil strife in the empire did not cease with Botaniates’ accession soon became clear in Constantinople that this was not the customary to the throne for he still had to deal with the rebellion of Bryennius in the mercenary rebellion.. 190. but not before thc rebellion of number of 1. l ~ ~ regions of Galatia and Lycaonia. Here he hoped to found a more modest state. 263-268. As Botaniates had been short of troops. These cities opened their gates to Melissenus t Roussel proceeded to acclaim the Caesar John emperor. “Les Francs au service des Byzantins. and marched through Bithynia to the Bosphorus where he he sought and obtained their alliance.120 who found conditions i n the peninsula Roussel escaped the imperial authorities. h e had embodied rebel.O. de Bailleul. (Athens. Bymnhn. Roussel used this incident as a pretext to af&r incorporating the troops of Nicaea into his armies. Attaliates. Bailleul. The Caesar John and Nicephorus Botaniates horsemen furnished by Sulayman and Mansur who a t this time were were dispatched with military forces to put down Roussel before he could still in Nicaea. 153-165. 81-83. There seemed to be no way to stop Roussel after this victory. 77. Attaliates. and England. Ia4 Bryennius. another broke consolidate his position. 73-74. the state of imperial impotence in the province Roussel would succeed in cally short of troops. back zoo years and extending to . and subject the cities and towns of the Ruphinianae. Nicomedia. the descendants of thc Norsemen camp. XX (191 1-1912).000 Turkish establishing a new state. 188. but i n the battIe fought a t the Sangarius River. 149 ff.Russia.128 and also to collect the taxes from the cities. plunder. opening large numbcrs of towns of burned Chrysopolis. Schlumberger.” R. 158. having been ransomed from the ripe for his attempt to establish a new Normandy in southern climes. succeeded in Franks. Pylae. Subsequently many of the Turks in the Armeniacon. Attaliates.700 to 3. Ian Nevertheless the court had moved hastily to ransom the Caesar had the most highly developed political instinct. H e began to besiege. Marquis de la Force. hoping thus to when he appeared as emperor. The most spectacular of these of Metabole with a large contingent of Turks. and other towns. R. and for yet one more time the provinces were lcft unprotected. XI (1g36).” E.12’ When Alexius rebelled (1081) the tattered Roussel and his Franks were victorious. profiting from his victory over Alexius’ brother-in-law Nicephorus Melissenus complicated the chaos. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE almost four centuries later. had flocked to his standards to the removing Botaniates from the throne. Attaliates. in Anatolia.12*Once the rebellion ofBryennius was stifled. Of Turks by his wife before the imperial envoys could reach the Turkish all the mercenaries in Byzantine service. for Roussel had no doubt been planning his rebellion for some passed-Nicaea. forcing them to pay him tribute. separatist political move. G. (1073). 189. “Les aventures d’un chef normand en Orient au XIe sikcle . even mistreating a local inhabitant. Actually the punishment of his soldier was only an were posted as guards to hold the various cities through which Botaniates excuse. “Les conseillers latins d’Alcxius Comnkne.00 Normans and marching northward toward his estates the Turks of Sulayman i n his forces. and raiding Amaseia. Chrysopolis. and the emperor with his advisers feared that given west.1~5Having renounced his Turkish flood poured into the whole of Anatolia. XXIx (1930). On his return to Pontus with a force . Sicily. Out. at the head of the western armies.. XVI (1881). Janin. Norman dilemma. Chalcedon. he was i n the end forced to rely upon 2.132 Roussel. Ibid.000. and C y . The government in Constantinople was no nearer to the solution of its las Bryennius. and so sent Nicephorus Palaeologus to the Caucasus la‘Ibid. Alexius Comnenus was sent to face Bryennius.but en route he had occasion to punish one of the Normans for forced the urban centers to pay their taxes to him. his authority. Roussel was defeated and attempts to found a state on Anatolian soil was that of the mercenary both he and the Caesar were captured and held for ransom. 196. taking his 4. The Alexius Comnenus. the Byzantine army suffered a armies of the east and west were mustered. Praenetus. to raise a new army of mercenaries. Roussel lsa Bryennius. Brthier. 61-72. 1939).la3 Defenseless before the In the rapid disintegration that followed thc battle of Manzikert and victorious progress of Roussel.” Reuue des c o i m et cotlfretices. While the and thus enter the towns and collect m0neys. time. I<.81-82.. were marched toward the crushing defeat and the Caesar was taken captive. .. But once more leader Roussel of Bailleul. lZo L. Neocaesareia.. I 06 ‘07 . 190-192. T h e rebellion took on even more serious overtones as western Anatolia to them. upon hearing oE his rebellion. emir Artuk who had appeared in the regions of the Bithynian fortress ments began to crystallize in Asia Minor.131 Bosphorus. and then he turned them over to his obtain the allegiance of the remaining Byzantine soldiery in Anatolia Turkish allies. 289-303. Mekios. “Deux chefs normands des armtes byzantines au XIe siCcle: sceaux de Herv6 et de Roussel de IS1 Ibid.

Cilicia. with the Byzantine reconquest o f the tenth century when Armenians The desperation of the government in this situation is reflected in the colonized Cilicia. i gGz). I n a last attempt the planting of the Armenians i n the eleventh century. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE of 6. Kharpert. 173-174. His domains eventually came to Taurus. and finally however. for the ro‘A d s were against recalcitrant Armenian princes145or even to apostatize to Islam. and accelerating the Turkish penetration of Anatolia important ofice under Romanus IV. and Tarsus in Cilicia found its satisfaction in the years immediately following Manzikert. 18. 367-449. I1 (Philadelphia. 301. I 52-1 54. ordering his soldiers to control.141 The rebellion of Roussel illustrates how unreliable a n army based so Independent Armenian princes were to be found in Tarsus. Bryennius states that of all the upheavals. E ~ S aux CroisCs. and Cilicia. he began to take over the emperor Romanus IV. but with a more durable effect.” 143 AttaIiates.1~~ The basis of little if at all in his evaluation of the significance of this event. and Antioch in thc east. that o€ Roussel was the cause of the greatest many of the Byzantine cities and fortresses that had been isolated and cut of all evils to the em~ire.” O S Ibid. Philaretus Brachamius had held Constantinoplc. thus encouraging thcm. h e set out to make himself independent in the Taurus mountains. It was a Byzantine oflicial. . 23 I. the these strategic regions of Anatolia. 11. gg. he had succeeded only because he had appealed to a Turkish violate the wives of the Greek aristocracy. “The IGngdom of Cilician Armenia. Byzance el les Turcs. pp. Armenian by birth and Greek in religious afiliation. Laurent. were the separatist violently. 108 109 . killing the Greek metro- Roussel.r a p q a l K a l h o m a u l a i K a l u-rdrueis 2N+@-p&v TE sous le curopalate Philartte..ooo Franks and various Armenians and Turks who in the calling i n of large Turkish forces as far as Bithynia. who upon the Turks. on the south.!?tides dnnhienrtes. but in return he was played a n important role) . “Byzance et Antioche P a o i h h s KaOaipEoiv. p. p. p. Shortly after his capture ofAntioch. p. Nicephorus was unable to pay their salaries and con- southeastern Anatolia and also by the presence there of a large Armenian sequently most of the Alans simply abandoned him and returned to their population. . the government had to rely first on Alan soldiers.14~ swarming with Turks. 78.Ia0 began to assert themselves as independent officially given charge of the remnants of Byzantine forces in the southeast political factors. largely on mercenary loyalty could be. I 96. Mopsuestia. taking advantage of tlic Botaniates concluded a treaty with Philaretus by which the latter collapse of Byzantine authority (in which collapse they had already acknowledged the suzerainty of Constantinople.61-68. I 75-1 76.” Revue des .. l a 7 Bryennius. Roussel easily defeated and dispersed those few who remained. H6ya &pOEiuuK a l ~ E Y ~ ~ TKUK& W V ahla 7ij ‘Pwpalwv yavopivq . Because of its own military Mudaresun. Andrioun. Laurent. pp. p. and Mesopotamia.13* I n spite of the fact that both the Armenians and Greeks hated Philaretus Less spectacular. I 83.” B’zantion. Mesopotamia on the north. 81-89. Kakig carried on open warfare in purchasing his enemy from the Turks by bribing the latter to betray against the Greek inhabitants of Cappadocia.Bar Hebraeus. i n this case a certain T u t u ~ h . he succeeded were now free of all Byzantine authority. 173.147 he succeeded in establishing himself for a number of years in movements of the Armenian princes in the regions of Mesopotamia. The ethnic character of these regions had begun to change homes. Attaliates. l a 0 For general rcmarks seeJ. I 99-206. he was forced to cost a n d in this he did not hesitate to call in the aid of the Turkish emirs take ship at Heracleia in order to reach the capital. Kal dual . I (1g24). 83-90. Der Nersessian. Though Alexius once more brought the cities under imperial politan of Caesareia. ‘ka1 r b h ~ i sf5acrihiKhs € 1 ~davrbv O I K E I O ~ ~ E V O S . pillaging his rich estates. They were aided by the mountainous topography of a n d received the title of couropalates. 571. and Melitene in Greeks. Byzance et les Tiircs. This was in fact to recognize his Matthew of Edessa. pp. Attaliates. Ibid. 1 4 7 Matthew of Edessa. I. 301. who gives 13O Bryennius. Byznnce el les T w c s . l ~ ~ found his death at the hands of the Greek landed magnates.“Des Grecs K a i C t m S i a p i a e q a a v . to cope with the rebel. 63 I -634. pp. It resulted his army was a body 0f8. Bymiiceel les T i m . Adom and Abucahl of Vaspuracan.142 rebellions.1~7 Bryennius has probably exaggerated very off from the capital as a result of the Turkish invasi0ns. and finally by the government dispatched the future emperor Alexius Comnenus to Amaseia flight of Armenians to Cilicia for security from the Turkish raids. Lampron.” in A I~idoryof lhe Crusndes. K a I (55 ti PEYbTIl raaijv -rupuvvist q q ~ Sil l TOG 06pUEh[OU. good reasons for dating these events after 1071. 74.144His primary motive was to establish a state at any Alexius returned from Amaseia with his captive Roussel. energy. and above all to Turkish aid. and Kalcig of Ani Thanks to his cunning. so vividly revealed in the vitriolic pagcs of Matthew of Edessa. IX (rgzg). But both government and rebel did not hesitate to court coalesced thesc centrifugal forces to found an extensive state in the the Turkish emirs. and as a result eventually emir in the area. 1 4 5 Matthcw of Edessa. revealing the weaknesses of Taurus. 81-89. and when served under him. Laurent.lS0 The violent hatred of the Armenians for the include the regions between Romanopolis. S. weakness. and revolutions that took place in Anatolia after the reinoval of Refusing to recognize the authority of Michael VII. Laurent. ““Ooa piv 05v @v@q ~ m T h~ E Vw PET& T ~ VTOG Aioyivou5 TOG 142 O n his career. T h e numerous Armenian chiefs and adventurers. Laurent. 93-95. Anazarba. and h e arrived there without soldiers or money! In Cappadocia. but in the chaos following Manzikert and the ravaging of the towns. This settlement was further reinforced by the trans- final victory that it achieved over Roussel (1074). 1 4 0 Ibid. and elsewhere. laciCecamenus. Kal €15 ~ ~ K t@X[pWV 7 f i V 18faV KaT67KTllOlV. pp..000 Alans. Cedrenus.

and they ’ succeeded in founding a state because they were small in number.lb3 This occupation of the authority in southeastern Asia Minor. 81. Erzerum. Attaliates. Anna Bryennius. 0~fiha~6s ‘I I TI^ dpyfi ~ f i vk$av KcrrkhapEv. “ 6 ~ 1 V 6 5 KcrrEhvCla~vovTOK d KQT$KI<OV Taka Tais uuvexduiv &ri6popaig. p . Manzikert. fiom Armenia to Bithynia. This geographical range regions of Armeniacon and Pontus as well as into Bithynia. Gabadonia in Cappadocia. Sevim. 92. 160 Attaliates. collect happened to be raiding the eastern regions a t the time. This armylG4 soldiers i n Iberia and Cappadocia. . Henceforth.”165 tually to occupy the towns and cities. 10.” T ~ V returned to Ankara. and march all the way from Cilicia surprised Roussel a t Metabole. made his way to Constantinople. m Bryennius. “Artuklularh s o p 14g Ibid. Didymon toward the town of RousseI. .. I.” All the themes 649-691. . . they were Taurus. 1 21-146: ‘‘Artukogh of Edessa. Cities to occupy Asia Minor or to raid on any extensive scale. 123-126. I‘ . receiving ransom money returned to eastern Anatolia.” Belleten. Cilicia. adds Sebasteia. remarks. In this manner many of the towns in this early period remained the Ducas’ and Romanus IV. Attaliates opportunity to send the tribes into Asia Minor on a major scale and even. 301. Soon Byzantium had treated the sovereigns of Armenia and Georgia. Alexius barely escaped when he returncd from Amaseia to Constantinople with his prisoner capture at their hands while fleeing via Mt.’ ’Belleten. V O V fiuav y&p h k p T&S BKOT~V XihiCr6as 01 p&ppapo~. stretching from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. XXVI ( I962). Comnena. but began to take control of many of the key arterial routes stretching across Philaretus and the Armenian princes had a t the basis of their political Anatolia.lG8 was sent to Caesareia to halt the sacking of the towns and villages in Though these towns were once more under Greek control.152 Thus when Isaac and Alexius set out from Ankara for separatism a whole nation. 62-63. I I0 . Tyropaeum. 168 Attaliates. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITIOAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE actual independence and to treat him much i n the same manner as brother Isaac.rews.” Bellelen. 206-207. Alp Arslan. In the accounts of contemporaries. 167 Bryennius. 184. 170. for the Turks. adds Melitene. came early in the reign of the feeble Michael VII. Doceia. Upon his return to Ankara in late evening he found 16. 183. picked up the ransom money. En route he stopped at Castamon to see his ancestral estates. Amaseia.’J 165 Attaliates. Adana. Podan. Sokmen’in siyasi faaliyetleri. Isaac was and the roads were no longer safe. 166-177. n. 501-520. Melissopetrium. was characteristic of the The Turks do not seem to have taken immediate advantage of Manzikert first phase of their occupation of the peninsula after Manzikert. With the defection of Roussel and the Normans.” Matthew of Edessa. the Taurus. upon hearing of Romanus’ blinding.148The Normans o f Roussel had not had come in. 198. roads and passes by the Turks. ‘‘ . relates that the “Turks had scattered out into all the Rliomaic themes. ” . but by now other Turks independent and did as he pleased. who had defeated and captured his 164 AttaIiates.” Bryennius. See the remarks of Melikoff. He was afterward this particular band left Asia Minor. about them occupying the countryside..5 Bryennius. . Coloneia. I. 223. Darzidttiendtzatne. See n. . TGV68 E1S ~b KaT6wtv hay$Gv-rwv 3 m ~ +~Crppou I‘ p ~0615~ p. A.pp. wishing to ransom his brother. and 16s Attaliates. deep in Anatolia. 190.” l48 Attaliates. But it would seem Following the defeat of Romanus and as a result of the voiding of the that many o f these Turks remained behind to raid and that others had treaty between the emperor and the sultan. for the defeat of Isaac left the borders defenseless.161 Alexius. . . but they suffered isolation as the Turks swarmed especially in that of Attaliates (who was in Anatolia at the time). 86. The events of Roussel’s revolt brought the Turks into the northern tus. I 19 above. I 99. ETBE~b miTos TGVToirp~twvdtTTEipoI6q3kS Kal 0ahCtuaqs drrrhhou ~ I ~ O ~ ~ EKirya-ra. T ~ V6Oav r6uw ~ ~ ~ O G VKTalO ~hhT)i(OVTO. 189. suffered. The degree to which the Turks had defeated and captured by the Turks near Caesareia. Iberia. I 70. and RousseYs victory over the Caesar and his appearance at Chrysopolis. securely ensconced in the rocky heights of the Constantinople via the highway leading through Nicomedia. Because of is considerable. Thus the Armenians consummated the disruption of Byzantine surprised on the road by 200 Turks at Decte. the gates locked. Bryennius. defeated and captured him.See below. 46-50.lneBut i t was to be the last time that Byzantine Mkhael secured the aid of a large Turkish army under Artuk who armies and officials would be able to cross the Taurus passes. VET& r h d u r q S %I &uvCrl.l60 The and proceeded to remove them. when Isaac Comnenus T h e cities of Pontus were brought under Byzantine authority again. were encamped nearby watching the city closely. Bar Hebraeus. 66. in Byzantine hands. another and from Constantinople and its representatives. and Matthew ve Artuk Bey’in siyasi faaliyetleri. directed his troops to take the Q-rromaa0ELor)s. . That this was so is such as Ankara and Gabadonia had been bypassed. protected as they were clearly indicated by the course of events during the civil war between by walls. I. the Turkmens were to When Roussel returned to the Armeniac theme he found it full of Turks carry their raids into almost every corner of the vast peninsula. and after to Cotyaeum in the west unhindered and unaccompanied by Turkmens.” land of the Greeks and to shed the blood of the Christians. Bryennius. “Artukoglu Ilghazi. cutting them off from one tine authority was still recognized in Trebizond. The victors followed penetrated can be ascertained from the narrative of Alcxius’ experiences up their success by scattering out to plunder. pp.lsO Michael VII called in another Turkish last attempt to halt their Anatolian inroads by meeting them in the east army under the chieftain Tutuchl57 and Roussel’s rebellion was ended. -57. “ol 66 TOG~KOI i6tav EKTOTE Ka-rdTpExov dt6EQS. Alp Arslan took the occupied various regions which the sourccs do not mention. Byzan. and Cotyaeum. the countryside Cappadocia.

Byzantins et Francs d’apres le Anatolian levies. Grtgoire. 1952). 213-214. “ . 269. 272. &Ahov K a i y&hicrra b1~6uoillaycpwhtav TE K a l KihiKaS lrapapeipovTaS E ~ S~b -rrkAcryos ISpvroG &vi 7 U ~ p ~ paves. 23. VI. but an imperial then that the passageway to Constantinople was opened. and with their support regions in considerable numbers. ‘‘ b 6B K a l &wv TOTS Toirp~oig~JEXE~PI(EV.” V Attaliates 21 I.” E. 97-98. and it was only in Heracleia and organize a defense against these raiders.. p Q)ihohoyi~fi. relates that the “evil” reached its 171 Anna Comnena.la4When Botaniates revolted with the magnates of the Anatol. 158. cities and forts lived in fear and terror. 129. The troops who finally joined Botaniates in Sulayman took Iconium from the Byzantine commanders Marta and Kusta. Consequently Alexius wished to stay he was able to outbid Michael VII for Turkish services. ‘‘ Ets y h p ~b pip05 T O ~ j O pauihda‘ Pwpalwvdsrobqa-rov height in 1076 and following years. 240.100 The soned were Pylae.106 Botaniates managed to reach the military station of Cotyaeum of the central and western Anatolian towns to Turkish hands. I. Anadolu Selcuklulari Deuleti Tnrihi. Thus he took the regions from Chomatenoi were formed in a desperate makeshift effort to compensate for the lost Iconium to Nicaea. I t was in the reign of Michael V I I that the Immortals and nciglihoring fortress of Kavala from Romanus Maeri. by F.” A. I 19-120. ~ Botaniates. K&K T O h O W TOG TpbITOW ITaUaV T 6 V TEPl T t V ’Auiav TE K a l Q)PUyhV 1. Asia Minor was going up in flames. looAttaliates.l~~ But if the Turks were not definitively of Michael VII. T h h y l O y p a ~ l K hKEINEVa TOG 6 d O W xplUTO6O~hOU.lsa but any further progress toward Nicaea summoned the Turkish armies and their leadcrs. Uzluk (Ankara. 170 Ibid. h b ~ f i s’Auias x o p q y o u ~ i v w vTO75 Tapdois &nocpvyobuqS 6~ TOG T ~ ’Ada5 Y a-rrdctoqs Ia5Attaliates. p. I 72. certainly the reign of the new around Latrus. lo8Bryennius. Miklosich et Muller. Cosndnrsluo. I.” Bryennius.” Attaliates. N. records after the revolt of Nestor.173 The revolt of Nicephorus Melissenus finally delivered more where.. G I . VI. 327-328. T ~ Toirpltwv V ~ j hv b 8ahkuuqS p i x p i NiKa[aS vapo. ” K a i T~)V raAaTiav T ~ A E W V KccraKwpiaGuat T O ~ ST o ~ ~ ~ K o w s . PpaXCOs KUlpOG. and the fall of Strobilus was imminent.0.18vwv mpixwpov. and the Turks were every.lo7 Thus the rebel was forccd to avoid acquired the submission of the cities. He left the Turks as his represent- the regular road and to travel by night in order to avoid contact with the atives to garrison these towns so that with the failure of his revolt. Bar Hebraeus. VranOUSe. in fact. Botaniates spelled the end of Byzantine Asia Minor as the future major most reaches of Asia Minor in the reign of Michael V II but without recruiting ground for the armies and as the principal source of tax taking. 6UCi ECcEivoU T6VTOW 6UTl paTacb ’EITE~SB KC^ T+J i+av 01 PKEiuE Ka-ravahlmov. 74 L a o Attaliates. Historic des SeGoukides army of the Caesar John Ducas.. SkahalanoviE. *’’ I lal Miklosich et Miiller. Tqs y h p T 6 V XpqpI. 225. 18-19. and he barely escaped capture at the hands of Tusks of Sulayman and Mansur. The Arabs succeeded in retaking Menbij from the Greeks only in 1075.” Miklosich et Muller. Turks. The rule of Nicephorus sometime between I 07 I a nd 1075. apparently. L. According to the anonymous Selcukname of laaThe last recorded levies of troops from the eastern themes were those in the ill-fated the late thirteenth century. Of the towns that Botaniates so garri- from the imperial capital. Attaliates. “ b r q v k a htopWqh8q ~b K a ~ b vK a I ‘rravraXoG 6hTlh38El. )~ Kal ~ o h i y w v lrav-raXbOEv b a p p i l r i ( o p i v ~ vucpoSpG5. 267. and the Nicaea were all mercenaries. many of the urban centers. FI. and Galatia were in the hands of the lSu Bryennius. “Seljukides de Rum. Turkmens had reached the sea in the west and north as well in the reign Chalcedon. who by now were well and Constantinople seemed hopelcss.. XI (1951). Praenetus.raS quav pdcppapoi K a l rop8ohTES K a l K a \ Aiyatow TE K a i Xwpimot lr~hdcyows(Kal) Xhpou TE K a l TGV Ka\ ‘ E A A ~ U T ~ V T O W KCXTap&hhOVTEs. already these corps had all but disappeared. ou 1’Islam et Byzance dam Seljukname anonyme. I 95G). “ K a i ‘rr&uav T ~ VI+av lrohaplois &V&UT~TOV . Chrysopolis. pp. 174 Bryennius. Nicaea.172 most of Ionia having been icon. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITIaAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE only to find them deserted. 11. many of the towns of Asia. IS). I‘ xp6vos y a p ‘rrapEhjhw8Ev iKavbs &cp’ TOW ‘Pwpaiows oinc ~ X E V 6 ~ 6 1 ~~0K sE ~ V Ohricpaviv-ras S ~b uhohov. o‘i T ~ 6Vv p8uw xispov ~ C Y E A ~TGE~~V~ ~ ~ E X O V . 111.lSD Turks apparently had their first major introduction into the urban I n this disastrous reign of Michael VII. and Chrysop01is. 111. 45 1-452. 18. Tdc TE y h p &?aT 6 V UTpaTEUp&TWV 6hhO C?hhqOG 61EoK&VJTOT 6 V T o i r p ~ ~ &IT€T&Ueq~h 8fpmpa T ~ tx8pisv. After the agreement with Botaniates. . 111.H. ~ K d i T T O W U lTb Alyinrriov.1s2Thus they spread out into the farther. 268. By 1076 they had spread their ravages to the Aegean introduced into all these towns at this time. in ordcr to join Botaniates. became a lair of Turkish raiders. lea Anna Comnena. occupied. See Cahen.lo3The actual seizure of revenues. VI. VI. Kal ~ t j s KOTcnCWptE~U~t 70215 T O ~ ~ K O W S .171 last years of Michael VI I and during the short reign of Nicephorus I11 By 1079 the Turks had reached Melanoudium on the western coast. 65-66. l’epopde franpise.I. but fortunately the Turks attacked him once again.. 62. Sulayman’s Turks permitted 103 Michael the Syrian.266. to pass through Bithynia. Christodoulos (Miklosich et Muller.O. The case with which Roussel defcated them shows that d ’ h i e Mineure par un anonytne. hpTlThW8bTWv K a l TTkVTa UXE6bV TTEptUXO~VTOV. Turkish trans. Ruphinianae. T O ~ ~ ~ KyChOp VElrl TGV j p i p w v TOG Mixajh 6Y[V&TOK a T c r f W y l O V . 92-95. I 19. 239-24.rrap&Souis K a l ImopiKal p a p w p i a i (Athens. cbs uwppqvai 6th la7Attaliates. On arriving at the Black Sea port of Heracleia Turks caught Botaniates berore he could reach Nicaea. ” I I2 1’3 . Nicomedia.lG0 Having ship arrived ordering him to proceed to Constantinople by sea as the occupied much of the rural area of northwestern Asia Minor. .l8* I n spite of these precautions the the Turks pillaging the area. across the straits centers as garrisons of Botaniates.S. Sulayman’s Anatolian roads to the west were infested with Turks. records that during the reign of Michael V I I the Greek all those coming rrom Constantinople. . as the Turks had flocked into thcse versed in the intricacies of Byzantine civil strife. “De Marsile A Anderna.ldrrWV 6lrElUpOfiS TGV xg66). ‘I. Cyzicus.lol and Trebizond was temporarily captured by the Turks emperor was the decisive step in their occupation. by the end of his reign Asia Minor was with a few the towns of central and western Asia Minor became critical in the very exceptions in foreign hands.P.” in Miscellanea Giounnni Mcrcati (Vatican. ” TO+KWETL [ E O ~ I U T6mcpopti(s. Phsygia. The rebel with no more than 300 troops. 1134 St.

Comana. and Chios.177But as Byzantium was to eclipse the house of Kutlumush.lsO I n I 085 Sulayman captured the important eastern city of Antioch. nevertheless the was in control of Cappadocia. and whose the Norman threat. Fcthi. 73. 43-47. Trebizond. 11. Malik Danishmend. There established a maritime principality that at its height came to include were. Bisanzio. Karatekin was directly obedient to Malik Shah. 256.ls0Farther to the west. But on the further vicissitudes. Essui sur le rkgne d’dlexis ICr Comnlne . Vismara. Alexius was forced to summon the Byzantine military ambitions included the conquest of C o n ~ t a n t i n o p l eThe . There immediate pressure in the west. to the north along the Propontis coast were Elchanes (at Apollonias and an act that enabled the Turks to advance in these areas. The same year marked the death of were still Byzantine oflicials in Heracleia on the Black Sea.181 Abu’l-Kasim declared himself sultan in Nicaea. By the time of the Crusades. as the leader of the Holy War the Turks from the environs of Nicomedia. I.18G The other major Turkish political capital in the regions of Bithynia and Thynia. the Turks violated it.” Akten des It is quite possible that the Tzachas mentioned in the Danishmendname refers to this X I Iniematiowlen Byzufr~inis~etiko~rgre~~cs 1958 (Munich. . The major problem on the emperor’s hands in the western littoral a large number of emirs emerged. 170 Anna Comnena. succeeded in carving out a domain that threatened treaty setting the boundary a t the Dracon River. Melikoff. When Alexius mustercd the armies against Guiscard he 184 Anna Comnena. Anna Comnena. regions of the in no position to enforce the treaty. 136-138. “ bn6ooi Tpoirpia TE K a i ~ 6 A ~ Ki Us ~ X O V T E S IE5 Ibid. and Malatya. 64. it is possible that the appearance of Alexius marks an important turning point in Byzantine sultanate of Nicaea retained some sort of general control over the regions Anatolian affairs. who Robert Guiscard was planning the conquest of Constantinople.rqvrKaij-ru ~ i j s~ m ll6v-rou h ‘ H p ~ h ~K i~~ I slla+ayovias iT ~ X ~ ~ ~ W ~ ( O V KTa U U mendid dynasty and a complete bibliography are in Melikoff-Danishtrrendnu?~ze.ls2 consequently. It came to include Sivas. I 10-1 15. 23.rrdtpxoi of Anatolia. There were also the Armenians in the region of the chieftains. 195-196 (hereafter cited as Chalandon. in Choma. the raids of the Patzinaks in the Balkans. p. Scaliarius and others. 736-737. pushing their Kizil Irmak. KCd KCrrUTp6XOVTE5 K U l T 8 V CIEylOTWV 66 ’AVWOAIKQV T 6 h E W V K C I T E ~ O U U l & { O V T a s .. Fethi. in I8O Ibid.T & U V TT)V iJ9’ EW X d p a V K C i T a S p a p 6 V T E s account of his interesting career. as a number of these emirates had nothing more than an ephemeral But in that year two important events occurred which enabled Alexius existence. Amasya. I O I ) . Ankara. . aside from the sultanate of Nicaea. Phocaea.Dblger. “OTETT)V pauiheiav T G ~ V‘Pwyalwv TapAapEv. Karatekin emir Karatekin took the city of Sinope and the neighboring t0wns. I). Caka ortnzamanda Izmir ve yakinindaki adularin Turk hukimi (Istanbul. and in other had left in charge of his domains. though actually independent. .though plausible is improbable.ls4 while and from other regions i n the east still in the possession of the Greeks. that but by 1085 these were restored to the Byzantine emperor. Paphlagonia. where the ambitious Norman adventurer whom was Tzachas (assisted by his brother Galavatzes-Yalavach). Things would improve. I 83. 158-161. I. p. Tokat. Chankiri. 125-127. in parts of Sulayman in his eastern campaigns which permitted the emirs. 114 1’5 . especially in the westernmost as officials of the emperor. 63. 47. yEVVakd$ TOT5 TOQPKOIS &VTIKaebTaVTO .17Gthough in actuality life of the empire itself. 67. Anna Comnena.” (ro81-rrr8)(Paris.. For a detailed E6fX TOb5 TOQPKOUS Ob$ K a t n8pUal. that he was an I’?Anna Comnena. Mitylene. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE Byzantine Counte~attack(1081-1143) to begin a limited offensive in northwest Asia Minor to push back the Mexius Comnenus ascended the throne at a time (1081) when it seemed Turks from the Propontis and Bosphorus where they threatened the very that the whole ofByzantine Anatolia was lost forever. Cappadocia was under Hasan. “Alexios Koinnenos zwischen Normanner und Tiirken. were governed Bosphorus respectively. Clazomenae.17~A conquered and held for a brief period Sinope and the neighboring towns. few years later. 73. where Alexius had been force in Anatolia. p. 11. Samos. 181. 131. 11. particular chieftain.17*I n northern Anatolia the Niksar. KQAOGyEV. 147. Beck. Chalandon. relieving Alexius of any the Turkish conquest seems to have bypassed a number of points. Bobp-rcqv ~ o ~ r h p 6x n~apK a T r T a 8 o K i a S K a l XGya-ros K a l -robs homorjs AoyaGaS .” But as to Malik’s ethnic origin the report by Matthew of Edessa. Is* Anna Comnena. 79-81. 1 7 8 Anna Comnena. goo). M. the most important of earlier years was in the west. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. Because of Smyrna. his brother completely hopeless in the beginning of Alexius’ reign. If to contemporaries the situation appeared regions. Anna Comnena remarks with some exaggeration. Armenian (an opinion shared by Yinanc. 111. F. Regesten. Choma.” E12. 111. . but they would do so only after stretching from Nicaea to Konya and eastward to Cappadocia. 1065. The list of principalities in the list of Yinanc. pp. 64-66. I 31-134 is not to be accepted without reservations. Danishmendname Melikoff. . For general considerations of his situation a t A. Indeed the death of Sulayman seems to mark a proliferation Taurus and Anti-Taurus who. was the dynasty carrying on a limited war with Sulayman of Nicaea in a n effort to remove of the Danishmendids. often posed of these independent emirs in Anatolia. Ibid. Matthew of Edessa.. In 1085 Guiscard died. pp. incursions to the Propontis and Bosphorus. Cappadocia. p. 1936). Yeshil Irmak and Kelkit Su. 144.ls7 The regions t he boundaries of‘the empire in the east and west were Adrianople and the of Armenia. in addition. contrast to many of the other emirs. “Danishmend. Kurat. summoned all the -ro. 26. I. he was forced to conclude a i n northern Anatolia. gripermes and Merak ruled Ephesus and the neighboring towns. ~ ~ ~emirs Tan- forces from thc regions of Heracleia. 11. TbV Aiapa-rrpbv TOTTOTI-~T~T~~U The most recent discussion of the complex history of the founder of the Danish- . ‘I 183 Zonaras. no. I gGo). more accessible to the armies or Malik Shah. Anna Comnena. this time. whom he Paphlagonia and Cappadocia. 11. passim. I. 111. Closer to the Cyzicus) . to establish themselves as independent ~nspecifiedl’~ regions.

71. Comnena. Taking advantage of the expulsion of the Turks from north- great sultans. Anna Comnena.He was an Ortokid. 11. the Turks had not succeeded in conquering the whole of the (Mamistra). 248. “The Crusade of I 101. Marash. lol Ibid. “Chronologie de la premitre Croisade (1094. Tarsus. ed. Adliarbaydjan and the Euphrates. 11. This half century had. 111. and “Artukids. 1955).’’A History of the Crusades. however. “Les fortresses construites en h i e Mineure face A l’invasion seldjoukide. the emir Ismail. “Smyrne.1D3 west Anatolia.L. and all cities between the Cydnus and the Hermon the Turkish plans of Alexius.. I n the treaty of 1108. Amorium.Ahrweiler. The Turkish invasions had brought a n end to unified Matthew of Edessa. 204. Soon after the death the Byzantines reoccupied Ephesus. Io6 Ibid.O. VI (1898).205By the end of his reign. Byzantine land and naval expeditions even- Farther to the south Byzantine naval forces began to reduce the powerful tually reclaimed the southern Anatolian coastline from Turks and Tzachas.166.lo7 I n the years that followed. lgsIbid. brother central plateau and the eastern provinces leading into the regions of of Malik Shah. 111. Adana. and the whole of the southern across the length of Anatolia.” EI. and Polybotus.. Anonyrni gestu 1°7 Anna Comnena. I. H. conditions. 271. K. 198.p. 211. These invasions resulted in the proliferation of l o o Ibid. Laodiceia.. of the peninsula. J. Anazarba. The It was the knights of the First Crusade who dealt the Seljuks of Anatolia Anatolian provinces of the empire i n 11x8included the province of their first major setback and enabled Alexius to reconquer western Ana.2o2 the important regions of Cyzicus. TheByzantine reconquest had succeeded 180 Matthew of Edessa. Smyrna surrendered without resistance.See also the commentary of H. Cabras had rccovered Trebizond earlier. Chalandon.. and Buzan. (1092) the naval arsenal that the Turks were using at Cius. 195-198.Runciman. Anna l o g Ibid.201 In the more easterly regions of the Sukman the son of Artuk also appeared in the regions of Edessa. IV. in removing the Turks from all coastal regions and from the critical IDoIbid. he was able to advance as far as Philomelium with relative ease. Philadelpheia. but in these areas this worked less the authority of‘the sultans i n Persia frequently made their appearance in to the advantage of the Byzantines than to the benefit of the Armenians Anatolia in an effort to bring the recalcitrant emirs under control of the a n d Latins. Kontogmen. seen lo2 William of Tyre.. Setton (Philadelphia. Philomelium. progress in his efforts to reassert Byzantine authority in Asia Minor.8-19. Dory. Lampe. For the details.” p. 11. 80. The Byzantine forces pushed into the of Sulayman. all the land to the west of a line passing through Sinope. Glykatzi. 37-65 (hereafter cited as Gesta Fruncontrn). ed. 108 Such were Monoiycus. Rather they had secured the major portion of the Matthew of Edessa. In 1097 the Turks were defeated Gangra. 5. political control. H. Hagenmeyer. independent political authorities on the Anatolian soil. coastline up to the duchy of Antiocha204 laeum.188A certain Baldukh established possession once morc of the important city of Ankara and a portion of the himself as emir of Samosata. Chalandon.lgo Anatolian plateau in the north. p. 210. 29-30. proposes the date 1093-94for the Byzantine reconquest of Smyrna. pp. in Anatolia.” R. 214-215.1o2Other emirs directly under further weakening of Turkish power. . for if the Latin troops could be controlled. pp. and trans. Tarsus. the emperor recovered Sinope and the neighboring coastal adjacent hinterland and onto the western edge of the plateau. pp. the regions of Caesareia. 36.” in A History of the Crruades. Trebizond. up until the appearance of the Crusaders.. a factor of prime Ahrweiler. Ankara. Alexius sent joint naval and land forces to liberate the For the next decade. Io1 and Taurus and Anti-Taurus. Brdhier (Paris. 285-293.18DAlp Ilck temporarily occupied Edessa.Chalandon. 111. of Edessa. 179-238. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE by one of his oflicials. Mopsuestia setting out for t he East. 69.1g4Nearer to home he destroyed Turks from Sardes. 23-29.200The Crusade of I I O I brought the Byzantines into Anatolian peninsula. Anna Comnena. following which was able to make slow but definite progress in Anatolia. being forced to retire from Nicaea. Mahmud. I C J Z ~ ) .” a warfare whose intensity had never been previously recorded in the annals EI. pp. pp. “Balas. 280-304. “The First Crusade: Con. Gate... and therefore an end to relatively stable political lo*Anna Comnena. stantinople to Antioch. 111. 354-355. and Apollonias. It is apparent that after a half century of uninterrupted warfare and Plastentza (Comana). I. 158-161. 1890). Hagenmeyer.100 I n a sense. 495-510. driving the regions by bribing an official of the sultan. 203. I 16 117 .” ilkten des X I Internationalen Byrantinisten-kongresses Miinchen 1958 (Munich. the appearance of the Crusaders resulted in a Balas ruled Suruj in the same general area. I gGo). Antioch of Pisidia.. Anna Comnena. G E ~Francorurn Q el aliorum Hierosolimitunorum. Francorurn at aliorum Hierosolymitanorum (Heidleberg. I. tolia and reintegrate it into the empire. Alexius was preparing to deal with the Turkish problem event in this phase of the Byzantine reconquest. p.03 Anna Comnena. I IOO).1s6 built Thus when Alexius set out in June of 1098 to join the Crusaders at Cibotus to command the regions of the Gulf of Nicornedia. Heracleia. Adana. pa 210. the defeat of Bohemund in Europe constituting the critical against another. who was active in the regions of Paipert. 134. and Mopsuestia disruption. 111. Poimamenum. Anna Comnena. Anna Comnena.108 Now free of the Normans and setting one Turkish cmir Crusaders.pp. western edge of the plateau itself.65-66. Alexius western coast. the timing of the Crusades fitted (Mamistra). 205.lgoand retook Antioch. He builds the fortress called Iron. Alexius had been able to make serious they could be harnessed to his plans to reconquer the eastern provinces. 111. L. 205. in a more decisive manner when news arrived that Latin armies were Alexius received the theme of Podandus. Iconium.Matthew 182-185. L. Cahen. 6. rivers. He is probably not to be confused with Ismail. pp.

The upheaval. A. Armenians. der Wiss.. hands of the Greeks. had occupied Laodiceia.H. Sztz.S. P. Akad. Turkmens. “Deux chapitres de Sathas. 195-197. B. Bachmann. The major outlines.O. 33-42. who. was free to concentrate his efTorts on the Danishmendids in twelfth century parts of Anatolia continued to be the chaotic scene of the north and against the Cilician Armenians in the south. Tzykes. 232-234. phites. edited a “Le Diyar Bakar au temps des premiers Urtukids. the Turks and Turkmens i n his own armies. and other regions i n the vicinity of Attaleia. Elbegkou.P. Artukids. “Mengucukler. Seljuk sultans.M. Theodore Scutariotcs-Sathas. and Turks alike. 55-64. 688-703. He was succcssful in and Laodiceia to Attaleia. 111. Vizantiei i kilikiiskim armianskim gosudarstvom v kontse X I 1 v. Latins. Castamon. a between the Danishmendids and the sultan of Konya were inimical. Philomelium. I 18 “9 .207During the years I 137 and I 138 he was busy restoring order in nevertheless would be the scene o€events affecting the Byzantine position). collapse of Byzantium in the greater part of Asia Minor and in eroding John Comnenus ( I I I 8-43). See also his poem in the edition o f C. Rlazan. and Oenoe. 75-83. Rebellion and dynastic strife plagued Greeks. Amaseia.” Amorium. h a l e s . Dadybra. Bartikian. “Zu den arrnenisch-byzantinisch Bcziehungen am Anfang clcs 3. Byzantine princes. Ausararis. and Danishmendids fought along a similarly fluid border.A. the Greeks raided as far as Iconium.I.” A Histoy aftlie Crusades (Philadelphia. 21-31. Invasions.. pp. i n I I 39-40 Greek arms were once more feared throughout Anatolia. Caesareia. and again i n 1124 he undertook operations in western Asia edge of the Anatolian plateau. 197-200. speaks of a victory a t I’histoire dcs Turcs de Rum. however.” Bessarione XIX (1915).-/&. Theodore Prodromus. up until the emperor suddenly departed. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE importance in the Turkification and Islamization of Anatolia.G. Adana. Paura. F. 5-6.. “Un imperatore bizantino della decadenza: Nicetas Choniates. but at the same time it Danishmendids. XVII (rgGo).. 323. Cinnamus. Whosoever mentioned Such unsettled conditions encouraged intense dynastic and civil strife the name of the emperor. 250-253. 13-15. waged against the Danishmendids in the north at a time when relations Seljuks. “Le sultanat de Roum.” Byzantion. ICallinoglu.206 But his most important compaigns were those as far as the Aegean coast. Michael the Syrian. I n the west on the mountainous I 120-21. (rgzg). seems to imply this. in violating the treaty betwecn waged a relentless and harsh struggle along a line stretching from the Alexius I and the Turks. 82-91. 249. Balzon. Cilicia where the Armenian Leo had taken many of the cities from the Georgians. Turkmens. D i e Rede des Johntines Syropoidos an dent Kuiser Isauk 11Angelus (rr85-95) (Munich.Z.” J. 245. have been established. Sozopolis. 285-319. “The Turks in Iran and Anatolia before the Mongol Tlteodori Prodrorni et Stephani Physopalarnitae (Leipzig. 11. and his children inasmuch as any potential rebel could usually rely upon support from and house were taken.Z. I 9 I 0 ) I ao7 Cinnamus. Elelden. Castamon. received the sword. M. CCXXVII (1935)~219-272. Crusaders. and ‘Ayn al-Dawla at Albistan and Melitene. I n this manner many perished in Melitene and in other lands. VI. 111. In a conflict that observed no hard and fixed driving the Turkmens from these towns and enrolled a number of them boundaries. M. Cahcn. 52-56.G. CXXXIII. ease as Mopsuestia. 1382. because of the relative weakness of the sultan the political basis of Hellenism in large parts of the peninsula. 1373-1383. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas.. of Anatolia.” IT. enabling the emperors to exploit the rivalry of the sons of The events of the next century were instrumental in determining the sultan Mas‘ud and the struggle between Danishmendids and Seljuks. Michael the Syrian. and Byzantines insured the same Byzantine authority. “Selgukidcs Turco- mans et Allemands au temps de la troitsime croisade. Chalandon. fear of the Muslim rulers was such that Turkmens. A border that pivoted about the towns of Claudiopolis. Shaddadids. thc fury of the Turks against with hypnotizing monotony. 199. Here he accomplished his goal with comparative Tephrice. Hieracory- Sangarius and Dorylaeum to Cotyaeum. Armenians. Welz.. Theodore Scutariotes- Isaaco I1 Angelo. poem on the second fall of Castamon. Sozopolis. “K istorii vzaimootnoshenii mezhdu emirs Toghrul of Amaseia. Analecta Byzantzna. P. Tarsus. dnr buy. and Anazarba again recognized Ayyubids. VI. and Arabs made ‘their military appearances When the emperor began to attack Neocaesareia.200 one or more of the Anatolian states.K.V. P. Cinnamus. X V I (1907).” R. Chalandon.. Jahrhunderts. In 1119. LVI (1960). 1962) 11. Menguchekids of Erzindjan-Coloneia. 190-191.With his This proliferation of independent political authority and of dynastic death the Danishmendid patrimony was divided into three mutually hostile and warring states. Kurtz. In northern Asia Minor the Greeks. In southern Anatolia. K1. and Armenians became familiar sights at the various represents the high tide of the attempted Byzantine reconquest of Asia Anatolian courts where they passed their time in plotting the overthrow Minor. 1935). Heisenberg. Choma. and Turkmens Minor against the Turkmens. even by accident. Dhu’l-Nun at The complicated history of Anatolia in this critical period has not as yet been written. 16-18. Les ComnBnes.. Nicetas Choniates.206 the Christians increased in all the lands which they held. Yaghibasan ruling at Sebasteia. Aitougdin. Wittek. 15-29. This failure was. 111. CXXXIII. and desolation. the Nersessian. “Artukids. Comana. The expedition against Neocaesareia failed. unabating and often savage warfare. XI (1g36). In eastern Anatolia Gangra. soon partially compensated by the of their kinsmen with the aid of the forces of the enemy. Phil. for in the of Iconium.” IA. Alpsarous of Gangra.” W. Zangids. Prachinon. “Cilician Armenia. Sumer. Nicctas Choniates. series of campaigns between I I 30 and I I 35 enabled John I1 to recover Gangra. Cognasso. “Danishmendids. the Byzantines. I 7-18.” EIa. Melikoff. p. Der mentions among the towns and emirs that he subdued: Alamon. * O D Michael the Syrian..” E12. emirs. Theodore Prodromus. Seljuks. death of the Danishmendid ruler Malik Muhammad in I 142. however. Greeks. Gregory the Priest. Danishmendids. This relieved the 11. Kurds.208By the time of his expedition against Neocaesareia conditions-that the region would be one of considerable turmoil. as we shall strife at first favored the Byzantine designs to push forward the reconquest see in the next chapter. Armenians. and a number of other towns and to subjugate various (a region that though outside of the Greek portion of the peninsula. 661-692 . Saltukids of Erzerum. Caminn inedztu A.

218 Cinnamus. 286. Nicetas Choniates. 22. 11. PG. Longinias. “Danishmendids.Thoros was freed from this quarter. 247-248. Tarsus. Nicetas Choniates. This westerly route toward Attaleia and thus avoided these more dangerous ascendancy of the house of Kutlumush was accompanied by a corre. Les Cornndtzes.al1 recent conquest of Melangeia. Istoriin Vzzuntiiskoi Zrnfieriz (Moscow-Leningracl.2ld Much more spectacular was the campaign of I 14G when. from I I 59 to I I G I Manuel was on a cam- result of the Turkish capture of Pracana in Cilicia and Turkish raids into paign against the Turkmens in western Asia Minor. Les Comnknes. N.21a the Seljuks as the dominant Anatolian power coincided with the reigns I n another region the Armenian ‘I‘horos had begun to enter the cities of ManueI Comnenus ( I 14. fortifications with a view to making the Bithynian bordcrs safe from their Anazarba. On its return from the the Thracesian theme. areas. was in a much stronger Pannoura and Sibyla from the Byzantines in I 1 5 7 . 310. 36. 38-46. V. KYlidj Arslan. but the disintegration of Danishmendid rule was soon to upset considered to be well within the Byzantine boundaries. Deprofeclione Ltdouici VII in orientern. a state of affairs reflected in the successful character of Manuel’s of peace between Manuel and Krlidj Arslan in I 158. Odo of Deuil. the object of which was Antioch. 51. They were chased out and Manuel made his way to en route to drive out the Turkmens besieging Sozopolis and to make his Bithynia. It is of interest to note that the Greek in. 211 Nicetas Choniates. Nicetas Choniates. William of Tyre. Then the impcrial near Cotyaeum in I 159. 45-49. Bksanzio. inasmuch as he inherited Mas‘ud’s successor. startled by the unannounced presence of the tents of the Turlcmens of a tolian campaign ( I 142-43).213 Manuel. and Tilin21s raids. 109-113 (hereafter cited as Odo of Deuil).” IA. Chalandon. Uspenskii. Muslim cemeteries outside the walls. the emperor turned campaigns and policies up until his distraction with and absorption in to Cilicia to settle accounts with Thoros. 50. 50-51. Vismara. for with the death of Mas‘ud and the accession Cilicia and attacked Thoros in I 153and again in I I 54 but he was defeated. 1422. and Philomelium. 194U). forced Manuel to lift the siege and to 210 Nicetas Choniates. Calograias Turkmens in the neighborhood of Dorylaeum and it is no doubt as a Bounos. ed. P- POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE Byzantines from the pressure o f the most powerful Turkish state in retire to Choma via the road along Lake Pousgouse. 214 Cinnamus. and once in Cilicia he took the cities of Cistramon. XVI-22. and John was forced to take the islands by force. driving out large numbers of the nomads with armies marched to the Seljuk capital itself wherc they desecrated the 215 Cinnamus. Manuel was the balance ofpower in favor of the Seljuks of Iconium. 300. pp. a17 Chalandon. and Attaleia the Byzantine attempts to reconquer Anatolia and the establishment of itself had hostile Turkmens in the environs. Regesten. 81-84. the sultanate of eventually forced to retire to Nicaea. Chalandon. 11. Nicetas Choniates. no. both Manuel and Byzantine authority in the area. “ICXc Arslan. Les Comntnes. G. Les Cornnines.G. 766.34. Michael the Syrian. 249. 71-72. Bisunzio. and trans. Les Comndnes. Chalandon. Theodore tion that prevailed in much of western Asia Minor. Manuel burned the latter city and released the result of this that he appeared in the valleys of the Tembris and Bathys Greeks who had been held captive there for years. Chalandon. 430-4.. 89. Berry (New York. 304. Mas‘ud concluded a treaty (1147) by which Pracana and other places habitants of the islands of Lake Pousgouse who recognized the sultan and were returned to the Byzantines. 134-1 35.3-80)and Kilidj I1 Arslan ( I 155-9r).1 ff. 11. 11. they were severely harassed by the Turks. 281- Scutariotes-Sathas. John paused certain Rama. no. of the Danishmendid Yaghibasan. there was dynastic strife complicated by the intervention and with the death ofMas‘ud in I 155.215 who had established a satisfactory modus vivendi with the Turks refused to T h e Crusaders found hnatolia difficult terrain in spite of Manuel’s receive the emperor. as a Despite the treaty of I I 58.11. from the Danishmendids. of Kilrdj Arslan. The final failure of toward Laodiceia. Nevertheless. Cinnamus. invaded reigns of the two men. I@). The arrival of Muslim reinforcements Vismara. I 79-180. 2 I . having succeeded at Tarsus and this would be the final issue was not a t all evident in the early years of the Mopsuestia by 1152. Upon the approach of the Second Crusade. settled the Greeks from Philomelium and built the fortress of appearance among the other Phrygian cities in an effort to strengthen Pylae. 24. 2 72 [r basan took Oenoe and Baura on the Blacksea from the Greeks. wcnt so far as to take the cities of the situation in Anatolia from his father John. 752. The emperor’s eastern march European affairs. Manuel’s army had been attacked by the defeated the forces of the sultan successively at Acrounos. 120 I21 . He Cilician and Syrian campaign. 111. Dolgcr. Dolger. at the prompting of Manuel. Even though Conrad and the Germans were able to advance as far as Melangeia without incident from the Byzantine Retreat ( I I&J-I204) Turks. Cinnamus.~l~ That held by the Byzantines i n Cilicia.8-158. Regesten. Mas‘ud. At the same time Yaghi- zla F.. pp.” EIa. Cinnamus. Theodore Scutariotcs-Sathas. Cinnamus. Les Comndnes. I 76. 11. p. En route he defeated the Turkmens the Turkmens from the regions of Melangeia and in the rebuilding of the i n Little Phrygia. 71. As Choma was Anatolia. 205-207. 44. Theodore Prodromus. 11. This is brought out clearly by his early success in chasing i n this year was highly succcssful. 1352. ~ ~but’ with the making position. Manuel decided to attack Iconiurn itself.H. 208.210I n his last Ana. Turan.C. Chalandon. Louis VII led the French by a more Iconium gradually emerged as the major power in Asia Minor. R. they were defeated at Bathys by the Turkish chief Mamplanes and With the division of the Danishmendid domains. however. as they entered the Macander valley and progressed sponding decline in Byzantium’s Anatolian fortunes. 0. p. gives a graphic description of thc desola- ala MelikofT.

Michael the Syrian. for fortification of the regions of Pergamum. employed these troops for quite a relinquish Albistan.. 357. tenth and eleventh centuries been one of the important and most ingly involved in western afairs with a consequent neglect of the Turkish prosperous urban centers ofAnatolia. 303. informed Manuel that he would hand supporting the intrigues of his enemies. Michael the Syrian. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. ’ . but the Turkmens had razed it to the problem. 194-198. 111. der Festung Dorylaion.” B. Les j aeo Cinnamus. and as Kilidj Arslan had suffered over to him a number of cities if the emperor would send an army to defeat at the hands of Yaghibasan in 1160 and had bcen forced to occupy them. Michael the Syrian. Kilidj Arslan was left free to deal with his brother Shahinshah ground and caused it to be abandoned and deserted. 11.” 692. The death of the last capable Danishmendid. further eased his task and emboldened the sultan to fications and the town in I 175-76. and to this purpose temporarily saved. Bar Hebraeus. Dorylaeum had in the Minor front. EIS TbV ahOK- i : . I. Chalandon. Dolger. 1446. 155-156. stopping a t Chonae to visit the church of the Archangel Seljuk strength and a. 546-547. 306. alD Cinnamus. appeared in the area he drove out the nomads and rebuilt the forti- Yaghibasan. ph-ropa Mavow~AA’ Kopvqhbv ( I 143/80). 369. 283. Papadopoulos-Kerameus). has an interesting account of the Sultan’s stay in Con. Icilidj Arslan once more concluded a considerably and so he decided to make a definite effort to curb Kilidj peace treaty with Manuel. once disengaged from his grandiose western the inhabitants of Laodiceia. meant a formidable growth in Laodiceia. “ I W c Arslan. 111. Papadopoulos-Kerameus. where the Maeander River rises.228 I 165. I 63. Vatatzes to take Neocaesareia and the emperor himself took the major I caesareia. 51. 499. 11.TTls). the city of Amaseia.” 691. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE their animals. aal Nicetas Choniates. Chalandon. i and the ridicule to which the guildsmen subjected him. Cinnamus. 538-539. Les Comntnes. Geduk. 503-504. Bisnizzio. became increas. Ankara.220I n late I 161.228 and he seized portion of the army southward. nos. I%A. Regeslen.226 the regions of Sarapata Mylonos. “K& Arslan. Bar Hebraeus. and Comana. 6bO iyKCdylaUTlKOi AbyOI. using them to subject cities that had previously resisted new Byzantine treaty of I I 61 For this reason in I 162 he made his I him. 296. given a false sense of security. DGlger. ‘‘ EOBwplow TOG Mahkq pIlTpOTtOhlTOW Ndwv r[mpGv (‘YIT&. Michael.H. including Sebasteia. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. “ Efbplow T o ~ v I K wyypagrai. 2~7-zzg. There is rebuilt fortress of Choma-Soublaion and finally to the abandoned mention of the appearance of the Turkish nomads in the cities of the fortress of Myriocephalum. Michael the Syrian. Farther to the south he rebuilt the conquer the regions of Albistan.” ~ in Noctes Euthymius Malaces in K. Darende.” OEohoyia. the sultan did not feel sufficiently secure with the different purpose. 1444. (st. R.OOO captives. The sultan. and Chliara in when he retired the Turks came in the van of the withdrawing army. Inasmuch as the Byzantines were actively Arslan. I9 IS). One year later. killing them by the aa4 Nicetas Choniates. however. 499. selling them on the slave markets. after suffering defeat at the schemes. 1520. 268. 253-254. Petersburg. Adramyttium. in I I 75. most of Danubian regions. Pelropolzhm. 191. fell to Kilidj Arslan. was forced Manuel and here he succeeded i n putting an end to the Byzantine to receive the garrison of Kilidj Arslan. ’447.C. I22 ‘23 . soon realized that the political picture in Anatolia had changed hands of another Byzantine army. formerly held by Shahinshah celebrated journey to Constantinople where he was lavishly received by and evidently ready to recognize the authority of the emperor. 11. 11. four years later he took Caesareia. COWVIdneS. 11. H c sent one force under his nephew Andronicus i the remainder of the Danishmendid lands. X I X (1941-48). 111. for Manuel. Tzamandus. and In I 176 Manuel made the decision to put an end to the power of the ! Gangra.Z. but with the latter’s death in I I 74. All this. But his campaign must have been ineffectual. 458-459.227 Manuel had previously decided diplomatic intrigues. 332.2l0 I n I I 60-6 I setting out from Philadelpheia he plundered Laodiceia and carried away many of the inhabitants and the livestock. but evidently aa6 Nicetas Choniates. 165-1 87 (hereafter Euthymius Tornices. Bar Hebraeus. order to keep out the Turkish raiders and to protect the villages and rural captured the town of Philetas and killed and enslaved large numbers of populations. 355. Bones. Regesten. Vismara. Thc emperor’s progress had been orberly Phrygian Pentapolis in search of pasture for their livestock. “Kaiser Manuel I Komnenos und dic Ostgrenze: Riickeroherung und Aufbau 2aa Turan.22fThis date marks the turning point in the rise of the to drive the Turkmens from the regions of Dorylaeum because of their fortune of Rilidj Arslan and the reversal of Byzantine success on the Asia constant raids and devastation of Byzantine soil. 500-504.22sBut Manuel. Chalandon.. 253-254. I. in I 164. P. Les the emperor drove them I n the same period the Turks sacked Comndnes. According to a23 Turan. no. 526-529. Wirth. Chalandon. He advanced on Iconium via Phrygia and Melitene two years later. the Tohma River in fortress town of Choma-Soublaion. and afterward moved on to Lampe and Celenae-Apameia I The sources do not say very much about the events on the Turco. IOO. upNicetas Choniates. 162-164. stantinople. sensible shift in the Anatolian balance of power. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. including an account of the games in the hippodrome which he witncssed 2 a 8 Nicetas Choniates.222Thanks to the intrigues of Nur al-Din. VGV Tb I T p 6 T O V &K6166VEV01. especially Latins and Uzes from the freed of his last powerful rival in the east.Cinnamus. regions considered to be the domain The most important action of the emperor during this interval was the of the emir Solymas. stalling for time.L V (1962). thousands I n retaliation they entered Byzantine territory in the north and took away Les Comnlnes. Simultaneously. 21-29. 297-298. 194-195. Thence he proceeded to the recently ~ Byzantine border during this period between I 162 and I I 74. pp. Chalandon. 293. the Danishmendids were suItanate by taking Iconium and capturing the sultan. Kilidj Arslan was he levied great numbers of troops. P. The latter. of course. Neo. h e set out to attack the Turkmens. I. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas.. I. Doceia. Les Coinndnes. When Manuel and with the Danishmendids. rgz-293.

” dmohou$~~vovT&V I v T+ X&pmi. Tzybritze. I t was perhaps a combination of these reasons.234 Certainly the harassed the army in groups of 5. F. “Manuel Comncnus and Henry Nicetas Choniates.237 Turks who came into the vicinity of the camp and called out to the Chris. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. 111. cisterns. o h p ~ ~ ~ V T ~ &Op cUp oV ~ i p ~hc i i ~ PauihiwS Ka-r& -rbv T ~ SE ~ P ~ V ~ S 11. H e relates that the advisers of the Turks from the regions of Mesopotamia and from the regions farther to the sultan had been in the pay of the emperor in peacetime and that they ea~t.000 of them pillaged the emperor’s camp. nos. Roger de Hoveden. mentions that the emperor paid IOO. “numerous as the locusts. 371. appearance of the Turkmens.” Theodorc Scutariotes-Sathas. The Turks had done this so that it would not be possible to to deal with the invaders. 25. more important. and springs were contaminated with the the numbers of the fallen on both sidcs had been great. cjs 3Na cpwd iKKa7iPWV T 6 V UTpOrrOd6WV KCiTapAQ06VTCW T O h h 6 V . p. 371. pp.280Finally. it was in any case unable to control them.v. with the subsiding of the storm. an action that he later regretted. 1952). the Turkmens began to harass his army and to raid the by the Turks in the narrow defiles. Manuel. 248-249. ignoring the difficulties of the army and the vigorous losses of the Turks would be obscured. Uzluk (Ankara. burning the villages and grassy plains and the treaty when thc Greeks began to withdraw. Riley (London.Z. upon the Greek asl Nicetas Choniates. 290. the sultan had withdrawn persuaded the sultan to propose peace t c r r n ~ After . A fierce sandstorm SO obscured events that Greeks and the wounded. ’ E d €2 vbc &rr?@e K a l r b v ~ A E U O E~CWUEV.2~1As the Byzantine army had advanced. 1524. the sultan occupied the pass of and their commanders had succeeded in regrouping about the emperor. 371.000. safely within Byzantine troops were further demoralized during the course of the night by the territory. 124 125 . strophic nature of the Byzantine defeat.~33 The plight AnatoIian soil since Manzikert ( I O ~ I ) . 111. N. considerable portions of the army Upon the refusal of the emperor. p. Turkish trans. Michael the Syrian. Vasiliev. 1944. horses.. d’Aste Mineure par un anonytne. which is preserved in the chronicle of Roger of I-Ioveden.” Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. ~S K a l T& ahuq rois 0vqutclaiois ~ E K & ~ U T T T O . The nomads Dorylaeum and Choma-Soublaion should be destroyed. trans. The emperor protested the violation o€ the treaty but Turks were not able to distinguish friend from foe. but Nicetas Some 50. 291. on the disaster. 243. with the result that they Kilidj Arslan replied that the Turkmens were independent of him and he killed indiscriminately. A.”220who realized The principal demands were that the newly constructed fortifications of that the emperor had come to chase them from their habitats. ‘‘ a t TE y a p cp&payyaS EIS~ Q & T E ~ O V&v@aivov. and cloth. O Iva pfi TOG kpophmou 01 pappapoi cpovais & Y S K ~ ~ ~ O TWOV ~ bpoEfhiS. 231-232. Kap-Herr. vohhol 6QK a l T O ~ Sl0uqdhhous hE~auhtuOquav. The Byzantine relax their vigilance until they arrived at Chonae. Regesten.OOO gold and IOO.000 t o 10. All the wells. 372. 419-423.and i t meant the end of Byzantine of the army was such that Manuel seriously considered secret flight and the plans to reconquer Asia Minor. vapauupds y a p ofi-ros TaiS r & v pEyim&vWv afT0G Plantagenet.). rejected the offers of peace. XXIX (1929-30). the Byzantine army was subjccted to a countryside in small bands. Die nbendldndische Polilik Kaiser Mnnuels !nit besonderer Riicksicht Dolger. Michael the Syrian.230The sultan had made Chroniates mentions two facts that may have had something to do with considerable preparations for the conflict by recruiting large numbers of the decision to offer the emperor terms. $80 Michael the Syrian.OOO silver pieces. 24-245. effect not only upon the empcror but. artf Deulscfiland (Strassburg. taking booty and slaying the stragglers and frightful slaughter. Nicetas Choniates. H . as well as others. The empire suffered a sharp defeat and abandoning oEall his troops to the mercies of the enemy. which cephalum. By evening. 1853). to offer peace terms to the emperor. r a p a i v o k m s @hOEiv r p b r ahohg.rrorap5v K a l asL T h e fourteenth-century anonymous history of the Seljuks. they saw the hosts of the destroying anything that might be of use to the advancing Byzantine slain. Histoire des Sebuitkides TQV 8v0 wpcp\ihwu papp&pwv. B ~ ~ Y E T O61T O ~ llipoas ~ S T O ~ -rEXv&uauBai. The Annals of I Kaipbv xpfipa-ra. translates the letter of Manuel to Henry 3roOr]poo\ivais. Bisnnzio. R. as there was a large contingent of unarmed men busy with that under such circumstances Kilidj Arslan called a halt to the battle by the immense baggage train. Vismara. Dirimtekin. F. Konya ve 2 8 0 Nicetas Choniates. also 23s Nicetas Choniates. I‘ &6qpovGv fiv h a s .232 heads of the slain and that many of the slain had had the genitalia In spite of the fact that the sultan appeared to be in a favorable position severed. he sent an embassy to the emperor asking for i distinguish the Christian from the Muslim corpses and thus the heavy peace. The battle that ensued in the difficult mountain pass was a caused the sultan to offer peace. 104. The events of I I 76 must also have had a great demoralizing 2eQ Nicetas Choniates. so that even before the battle took place troops withdrew they noticed that the skin had been removed from the dysentery had spread throughout the whole of the imperial army. in spite of the cata- objections of his most experienced generals. K a l oh TOTS &ri U U V ~ ~ T T E lVm 6 v . 237-240. Gabras. K a l ol Duzbel 1rg6-rr~G(Istanbul. ~ ~ ~the conclusion of and scorched the earth. 1522. ‘‘ ~ u p ~ a x i K d kavbu v h 6 TE ~ f i sp b q s T&V . Michael the Syrian. which the Greeks were about to enter as they left Myrio.and on the eve orthe battle sultan’s behavior is incongruous with the nature of his victory. 284. I 881). and even though the Turks had won the victory it was obvious that army. I. K O I A ~ ~ E€S 1 ~K O ~ W V O ~ &vqyatpovso. S oi vhhat r p b s ‘Pwpatous 1 ~ p o o 8 ~ u y o v 6 &pTTEP[TOpOS 8laUTdhhOlTO KCd fi VIKr] O h W s E?q &pTlTdfiS Kai &pcpfipIUTOSt k Kal ~ f i vbp066ocov v i m i v EGlcav-ro. Nicetas Choniates. This battle was the single most significant event to transpire on tian Turks to abandon the emperor before it was too l~ite. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE but very slow. 111. 111. The slowness had been enforced by the sending one of his officials. 232.” B. 247. 284. 52-53. 230-231. As the emperor’s bodies of dead asses and dogs. It is quite strange severe losses in its fighting strength at the time when it was on the verge of collapse. The defeated were not able to became obvious that the Turks had had the upper hand. T. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. When disaster almost of the magnitude of Manzikert. ~ T TOV V E x k p m a TE~IT~~XOVTES h a s SB KEtpEvoS dnrOUUpE\s +I ~b 8ippa -rVs KEcpahijS. Caught and surrounded Manuel retreated.

After troops did arrive in time to attack the Turks as they were crossing the result of his measures against the aristocracy. and they were quite often supported by Turkmen Manzikert was a clear demonstration of the great growth of Turkish troops who came in to plunder. 111. 327. Michael the Syrian. the raiders of Byzantine Asia were caught up in a civil war that proved as destructive turned to the coastal regions. presence of large numbers of nomads in the border area served to absorb Upon Manuel’s death ( I I 80). 296. Though it is difficult to estimate the contribution of the Turk. On two other occasions the emperor himself appeared with the army in and Prusa. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. succession.24~ When in 1182 Andronicus Comnenus set out from ! i sification of the Turkish raids on Byzantine territory along the bordcrs Oenoe on the Black Sea to claim the throne i n Constantinople. control of the Anatolian districts slipped from the hands of the hope for the removal of the Turkish power had gone up in smoke. Michael the Syrian. turned to the east. t559. entered the regions of Celbi- I 177. the sultan sent the Atabeg with an withdrawn from the borders and employed in the civil war.244The disobedience of the provincial officials northcrn Bithynia the emperor saved the city of Claudiopolis. 205 O n the decline of Byzantine authority in Cilicia. and Charax (between Lampe and Graos Gala). That emperors. it seems safe to assume that the critical moments to raid and to conquer bits of the borders. 359-375. Dolger. The rebels put up a very determined struggle.240These isolated incidents indicate that the nomadic tribes. z88 Nicetas Choniates.. 373-376. p. Finding little resistance. frec from the Byzantine threat. I arduous ~iege. “Cilician a41 Michael the Syrian. 8 XElp O h h E ~ q h h J&Ahh6yOJmOS. the cities Pentacheir. 1gG8). calling in the unsuccessful efforts to drive the Turkmens out of the regions of Panasium. Mort. 111. With the change in to push their movements and depredations deeper into Byzantine territory. The sons of Vatatzes fled t o Iconium. pp. 308. Phrygian Antioch. Der Nersessian. The last affairs. 1r8o-1~04 (Cambrldge. Theodore Mangaphas of Philadelpheia The quarter century elapsing between the death of Manuel in I 180and the fall of Constantinople to the Latins in 1204 witnessed a rapid disinte. It was after these Armenia. as well as other towns. from almost certain capture at the hands of the Tarsus. took crossed to Europe. 25o-z5+ 2 4 4 Nicetas Choniates. 327-329. rebellion broke out once Maeandcr at Hyelion and Leimmocheir and destroyed most of them. 254-257. and as the soldiers of much of the Thracesian theme had The sultan himself. B’rantCaz Confronls the events that KXclj Arslan revisited Mclitene and had his interesting mccting with Michael West. 340. KU\ O h W s E l T E i V . As Manuel refused to military forces of Paphlagonia. Regesten. Nicetas Choniates. 642-644. 388. H e took other regions also.238 more in Asia Minor ( I 184) centering on the cities of Lopadium. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. 240 Nicetas Choniates. which they also plundered. Vie el 230 Ibid. command of John Comnenus Vatatzes. the from northern Bithynia to the Maeander districts. Turks to aid them.T O h O became inextricably drawn into the whirlpool of Balkan and Italian ?yXdplos 28ipl<E 8~51dt.” pp. The Turks. Because of Manuel’s preoccupation in the west insurgents received and because they could readily seek refuge in enemy with its attendant neglect of Turkish affairs. so that after their defeat Andronicus subjected the Lacerion. Rebellions mushroomed throughout the breadth and length this military action in I I 76 took place SO many hundreds of miles west of of the area in question. carrying off anum and carried off large numbers of the inhabitants and livestock. 480-481. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. Because of the Turkish support that the strength in Asia Minor. Bar Hebraeus. Brehier. 376-379. As the empire Kal i‘iv T& ~ T E G ~ 6pcjpva ~ Y E ~ OT TV~ ~ E I S . 395-396. 340.239 I n cities to savage reprisals. gration of central authority i n the remaining Anatolian provinces and a 143 Nicetas Choniates. T h e chaos in the Byzantine regions of Asia Minor increased markedly men on the borders had taken advantage of the battle of Myriocephalurn during the reign of Isaac I1 Angelus ( I 185-95). Kilidj Arslan sent the emir Same to invade the the last important vestige of the Danishmendid heritage (Melitene) in empire’s territory. frequent changes on thc throne also enabled the sultans to exploit these men tribes to this victory in 1176. Nicaea. 126 127 . 242 Nicctas Choniates. Krlrdj Arslan’s armies captured Sozopolis. Kilidj Arlsan had had the territory. 337 ff. besieged and took an alarming turn in the same year when Isaac. 390-391. and the Thracesian theme were destroy the fortifications of Dorylaeum. EV -rrohh+ Swsa@bmEpa TQV & b1~6pwv CW@fflV6VTWV &IQV.240 its inhabitants into captivity. nos. was sacked. The more kingdom. the weak government in Constantinople was not able to protect time and the opportunity to remove his rivals and to consolidate his its subjects in the area against these rebellious elements. b u t the names are not given. Nicetas Choniates. 257-259. unopposed. The Turks appeared suddenly center of resistance to Andronicus was the city of Philadelpheia under the in the Maeander valley and sacked Tralles. 111. rebelled and established himself independently at Turkmens. 51-55.000 to raid the Christian lands. Brand. 1 i: theshock oftheByzantine attackand to exhaust the Christian armies before ravaging and subduing the surrounding villages. 347. and as a as the ravages of the e n e m ~ . the governor of suffering from famine. I. to the north Cotyaeum their contact with the forces of the sultan.241 A few years later ( I 188-89). and sometime later he destroyed the walls of Kaisum. the Syrian.”Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. The imperial ~ 4 ~ the accession of Andronicus. and at the other extreme Attaleia was subject to a long The remaining three years of Manuel’s reign ( I I 77-80) saw an inten. “ 60av iugwhlwv crrdto~wv~ ~ -rrohdpwv r l a1 ’ A U I & T I ~ E ~ correspondingly greater activity of the Turkish tribes. Until the latter’s defeat. C. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE I POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE inhabitants of the Anatolian regions still held by the empire. Louma. 1558. The focal army of 24. Nicaea.

The very year in which Kilidj Arslan died surrender in I 196.249 Turkish progress must have been quite vigorous if wc are to believe a The defeat of the Turks at the hands of the Crusaders and the division letter that Kilidj Arslan sent to Michael the Syrian. gonia into turmoil. distinguishes this Choma-Angelocastron Nicetas Choniates. There were numerous other rebels borderregions and finally the forces ofthe sultan. 387-389. W. and a t Chonae valley surrendered to theinvaders but others resisted and so were destroyed. Imperatoris in expeditione sacra. 608-610. p. ed.M. p. Paphlagonia. 22-24. Turkmen raids. Ibn al-Athir. Ida Nicetas Choniates. pp. XXIV (1966). burned and destroyed those fortresses that persisted i n aiding Pseudo- barossa and the squabbles of Kilidj Arslans’s successors provided the alexiu~. and took away captive the entire population of Caria a 4 9 Nicetas Choniates. 280. in the regions north of that city.698. 399-400- Miklosich et Muller. the Greek inhabitants revolts broke out in the regions of the Maeander River. Dolger. Brthier. He would have taken Phrygian Antioch XXXII (Hannover-Leipzig. 278-283. 323-329. Vismara. It so happened.26s One year later relations betwcen Iconium and Constantinople became 247 H e coined silver with his own image. 353-354. R. M. 553. Regel.G. “Selgukides et Allemands noises of the cymbals. By the terms of the surrender. and singing made such a din that the sultan au temps de la trosikme croisade. 333.. smashing thc mosaics and altar.pp. Vismara. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. ~Egr). The revolt was termi- retreated to Iconium. M. 539-541. “Kilic Arslan. The greater portion of the who made their appearancc at this time but the chroniclers. hc they had been destroyed again by the Turks. “Choma Michael the Syrian. proceeded to raid Turkmens. from which city the emperor was in the end forced to nated by the death of the rebel at the hands of a priest in the town of purchase the A new element of confusion appeared with the Pis~a. Mangaphas Pseudoalexius who received a letter from the sultan of Iconium enabling was able to make his escape to the court of Ghiyath &Din Kaykhusraw.~~l march of the German Crusaders under Frederick Barbarossa. 624-626. from Choma-Soublaion. von Giesebricht. him.H. He was able to drive them out of parts of northwestern This pattern of rebellions. The most spectacular of these rebellions was that of the expeditions finally succeeded in putting down the rebellion. and that of Basil Chortatzes at Tarsia near Nicomedia once in Turkish territory. In the south the monastic documents record that the side of the emir of Ankara and then proceeded to subject the fortresses emperor restored some order and prospcrity to the monastic establish. to The latter refused to furnish the rebel with an army but instead gave him raise 8. p. 395-397. profiting from the confused state of affairs. Nicetas Choniates.26s the enemy. Fontes rerum byzanlinaruni (Petropolis.Holder-Egger. drums. M. 64. A number of the towns of the Maeander Laodiceia and the districts of Caria were similarly pillaged. Cahen.000 Turkmens from the tribes under Arsanes.E.. and invasions by the sultans Anatolia and then built the fortress of Angelocastrum to prevent further I prevailed for the next decade.000 i n all). Ahrweiler. 111.Z. 549-553. Disanrio. the Greek rebel returned to the environs of Chonae a n d having completed the destruction of its great church by Philadelpheia. Ansbert. Gesta as well. *5l Nicetas Choniates. 0.B. T h e rebellion of a second Pseudoalexius threw the regions of Paphla- delpheia became the scene of conflict between Germans and Greeks..” W. so bad that Kaykhusraw invaded the Maeander River valley.” R. rgr y). Die Rede. Salimbene.247and though two Bithynia. and as he was not able to apprehend the rebel. Bachmann. Vie et Mort. there was no pause in the besieged the city of Dadybra for four months and eventually forced it to rebellions of the ambitious. that a Federici I. 1581. 1 8 9 5 ) ~258-278. Nicetas Choniates. many of the towns. According to its of the sultan’s domains among his eleven heirs a few years before his death contents. pp. a ~ Nicetas * Choniates. 53. Turan. Thence he the Pseudoalexius was nicknamed Kauocihchvqs. Having almost the whole length ofthe Maeander after having sacked the regions of thus collected a sizable force. no.” IA. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. the Germans had to fight the Turkmens of the once more immersed Bithynia in chaos.26oIf the victories of Bar. I 1-12 (hereafter cited as Salimbene). as he came upon it at night.. 56-58. 73. 258-262. Greeks a temporary respite from Turkish raids. H. and were forced to leave the city and were replaced by Muslim colonists. Aggtlokastron. I. Regesten. 86-95 (hereafter cited as Gesta Pederici). The emperor Alexius 111 waged a two- ments on Mt. the threshing A oors with the season’s harvest were consigned to the flames and because of the destruction of the harvests and the threshing floors as was also the magnificent church of the Archangel Michael. 53.~64 The emir of Ankara. H. p. Bisanzio. ed. no. sacked Regesten. Dolger. 522. 0.O. These nomads. mistook it for the martial music of the defending army and so he withdrew Geschichle der deulschen Kaiserreit V I (Leipzig. Bar Hebraeus. 111. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE revolted and raised the towns of Lydia with him.2~~The Konya to Laranda and Cilicia was due largely to the Turkmen tribes. 11. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. weary from difficulties that Barbarossa encountered during his march from Laodiceia. and Tantalus (5.Bachmann. the sultan had taken seventy-two places from the Greeks since the in I I 92 permitted Isaac Angelus to undertake some modest actions against beginning of Isaac’s reign ( I I 85) . ravaging the rural populations and their livestock. Latrus in the theme of Mylasa and Melanoudium after month campaign. 21-31. LVI (rgGo). 1634. and. Scriptores Renctn Gerntanicanrm notable of the city was celebrating the marriage of his daughter and the in usurn scholarurn (Hannover.C. permission to recruit followers from among those adventurous Turks (the accustomed to raiding the lands of the Christians. in company with a Latin from the Maeandrian town of Armala. dispense with them in very few w0rds. IV. 521-524.K. no doubt) who were interested in booty and raiding. 394-395. rgog-13). Die Rede. Phila. I 28 129 .. A third Pseudoalexius appeared by the tribal instrusions. however.H. the recitation of such events. pp.Holder-Egger.

201 In the south the gave him a Turkish army.” 2 6 7 Nicetas Choniates. 1204-61. and in of the Maeander. r q I z ) . the Latins were forced to make good their claims on Anatolian killing many of them. rebelled. he followed the well-established pattern of seeking the aid of Turkish troops.2GD Here he awarded fiefs to his brother Henry at Adramyttium. border region. for in this year a number of this treaty.” A I-lislory of the began when the sultan detained two Arab stallions that the ruler of Egypt had sent to Crusades. The latter retaliated by jailing the Greek and Turkish merchants of Konyn and confiscating their goods. but Calamus was to bc left uninhabited as a Minor. The Lascarids of Nicnea. Orgels. with the sultan (Rukn al-Din) in 1201. under whom imminent. The great internal weakening of the state and the successive Trebizond by Alexius and David Comnenus i n 1204 and the establishment blows it received from the Latins and Balkan peoples made it virtually of the Trebizond state. and by so doing halted Political Stability and Polarization : Nicaea and Koilya the further disintegration of Byzantine political control i n Anatolia. inherited Amisus and Amasra. 11. The Turkish ruler small principality in the regions of Sampsun-Miletus. n. Simultaneously the emperor had gone to Nicaea soil by military force. Maurozomes.200 As emperor sent a n army under Andronicus Ducas to attack the Turks. to Louis of Blois. 653-657. whereas the father-in-law of the sultan.” pp. Sabbas Asidenus. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. Byzantine political the Latins i n Thrace. XI (‘9361. 421. . A. . Geschichte.264 The Trebizondine Comnenoi lost their lands west of to Peter of Bracieus lands. Urknnden I. e61 G. the Latins were to keep northwest Mysia including the regions new principalities wcre established in what remained of Byzantine of Ciminas and Achyraous. the latter were not able to concentrate all their domination in these regions or Anatolia seemed doomed to extinction.000 Greek captives. Dalger. __ ______ ~ _ _ ~ r 7 POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE to Philomelium where he resettled the 5. In the twenty-five years that had elapsed since the death of Cilician Armenia attained its independence. the Latin Caicus valley and east of Lopadium. the rebels most often appealing Theodore Lascaris was hard pressed to maintain himself against all these to the sultans and Turkmen chiefs for aid.- &Din. I n 1 2I I he defeatcd and slew the Comnenus had done in Cyprus. carved out a refuge with the sultan. Ostrogorsky. 700-701. and the third. by the terms of the Partitio Romaniae. three Greek aristocrats established them- area. which enabled the rebel to pillage the regions Turks wcre infiltrating the districts of Lycia and Pamphylia. and some half-dozen Greek aspirants.250 The I POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE of Nicaea. According to the terms of Byzantine authority in thc eastern provinces. 657-658.202 Particularly significant in Manuel.257 Commercial difliculties once more led to a breakdown of relations selves as independent lords in the river valleys of western Asia Minor. but because of the Bulgarian attacks and defeat of assisted in a process that could only benefit them. among Latins. effective central authority in Asia Minor had been seriously the fate of Byzantine civilization in Asia Minor was the capture of threatened. and Theodore received the lands south of the Anatolian territory. 84-85. (1202-1222)~ Spectrlzltn. = 30 I 131 . “toward Iconium”. 352.643-65 I . He chased ICaykhusraw Der Nersessian. “Sabas Asidenos. Three years later (I 2 14)Theodore concluded the treaty of Nymphaeum. Ostrogorsky. 1658. (1935). Rukn x ~JkZntiO12. dynaste de Sampson. The difficulties R. as Isaac the Greek lords i n the river valleys. the duchy Nicetas Choniates. Following the centrifugal pattern of the last few and Prusa in order to protect them from the Turkmens of the Bathys decades of the twelfth century. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. which The year 1204 would seern to mark the next step in the dissolution of established a trucc between Greeks and Latins. Greek fortunes i n western Asia Minor were to improve considerably. and Theodore Lascaris had succeeded in rallying Greek forces about him in he succeeded in falling upon the Turltmens of Arsanes and their herds. Lnscarids. Re@stetl. p. sultans. and these latter very gladly foes simultaneously. Following the conquest of Constantinople. now a t war with the Greeks. 2 5 8 Nicetas Choniates. pp. from Konya and the latter fled to Constantinople. This included Neocastron (Chliara. emperor received. Manuel affairs. 427-428. Geschicltte. military forces was consumed in civil strile. Profiting from the state of 1 center of Philadelplieia. Tafel and Thomas. “Cilician Armenia. a tax official in the district of Mylasa. forces in Asia Minor. son of Kilidj Arslan. 191-191. Embire in Exile (London. “The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond. a duchy of Philadelpheia. 1684. Adramyttium). Byzantine Asia Pergamuin. 355. L. 464-50r. 67 ff. 75.263But contrary to the inauspicious developnients of impossible to halt the gradual Turkish westward infiltration. or of the Comnenoi in the north and to put an end to the independence of some rebel would succeed in establishing a splinter state. Thus Lascaris was able to push back the advance Either the Turkmens and the sultan would overrun all of Anatolia. Dhlger. dates it after 1212. was able to establish himself in the Maeander valley with and though defcated. 420-4a I . Gardner. no. 3-37. and this L I 204.268 Cilicia Byzantine authority had disappeared with the emergence of the The final collapse of Byzantine authority in western Anatolia seemed Armenian princes Rupen I11 (I I 75-87) and Leo I1 (d. sultan Ghiyath al-Din in the Maeander valley. 264 Gardner. What remained of Byzantine warfare. progress of the nomads on the borders was greatly aided by the Byzantine During the course of the next decade Greek Anatolia was caught up in rebels who arose in western Anatolia. p. 203 Vasiliev. 12 IS). “The Latin Empire of Constantinople. Asia Minor. and to Stephen of Perche. the story ofat1 the emperor. p. I Theodore Mangaphas succeeded in taking control of the important urban ~ leashed new attacks on Byzantine territory. Wolff. Regerleti. a certain Michael.because of which the sultan un. P.

‘‘ Anatolia before the Mongol”).’’ Le$ziger 14erte&dmsc/ir~tfiir Siidosieuroja. Xanalatos. Jahrlruriderls 2 vols. J.p. Glycatzi-Ahrweiler. 309.8). The border ran from a point west the Taurus and eastern frontiers. X X I V (1961). ~ g q ) I. Gordlcvski. 1946). Schneider. . 1g35). The Les origities de l’enifiire oltoman (Paris. Muslim and Christian forced the Greeks to focus their energies and numbers in Nicaea. I 939. By the marshaling of their forces in Anatolia.I<.I P G I (Athens. Passini. Antalya. ization of power in Konya and who. Djalal al-Din Mankobirti. 20-27. “The Littoral of the Empire of Trebizond in Two Fourteenth Monastic Properties and the State in the Byzantine Empire.. With the cessation of active warfare between Byzantines Seljuk domains. “The 14-34.. monastic and other ecclesiastid institutions once more sultans. LascnridJ. I. XXIV. W. Der Nersessian. Trcbizoiid has not yet been written. Bryar. “Cilician See especially the studies of 0.M. The work of Z. Miiller-Wiener. “ L a politique agraire des cmpcrcurs dedib ci la tnimmoire de Louis Hnlfilien (Paris. I V (194. The unification of these areas under of Sinope in an arc that left Castamon. in the reconquest of of Anatolia gradually lapsed into disorder and then anarchy. M. Trebizondine. reorganizing its of Iife i n Anatolia were not sufficiently long-lived. 51-66. substantially increased in number with the arrival of new Turkish tribes (Istanbul. and comparative Seljuks. I . 197-210. I 82 ff. 1 0 1 . . 193-248. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE P O L I T I C A L AND MILITARY COLLAPSE Sinope to the new state a t Nicaea. “Alaeddin. Sinopc (I 2 14. attempted to flee to Asia Minor und Autarkiemassnahmen im 13. Togan. 304-307. but quiet one..gives an overall survey of Seljuk Anatolia at Greek journal ’ApXEiou I?~UTOW is a vcritablc mine of primary and sccondary material. The Seljuks were interested in events of the northern. and Laodiceia to the Konya. Koprulii. The centralization of defense forces. 287 Cahen.” EI. A striking testimony The Latin conquest of Constantinople was undoubtedly responsible to this development is the extensive number of caravansarays and khans for the prolonged life of Byzantine authority i n Asia Minor inasmuch aq it that were built during the thirteenth century.. W. Cotyaeum. Jahrhundcrt (Nikgnisches Reich I~O~.” s A X . once more much and eastern Anatolian regions. on building “Le commerce anatolien a u debut du XIIIc sitcle. Seljuk art likewise experienced its short but amazing esJor coastal regions might have taken place one century earlier than it actually a t this time. it was the Udj Turkmens.) in the north. Bces. TreDirond (London. pp. Lampsides in this periodical. Turkish penctration after it had attained Attaleia (1207)in the south and Establishineiit of the Emirates and Emergence of the Ottomans. and more particularly his Armenia. 661-692 (hereafter cited as Cahen. or seminomads. Mrittek. had not been overly amenable to the control of the most provinces. and continued to the Gulf of Macri (Fetiye) opposite Rhodes in internal peace and stability enabled economic life in most of Anatolia to southwest Asia Minor. ’ATTOYEIS61~1 TOG K P ~ O W STBVI. The boundary between Konya and and Mediterranean seas (Sinope. D. 11. the subjugation of the Nicaea remained fairly constant between I 2 I I and the removal of the Saltukids and Menguchekids in the northeast. Mcliarakes. of the Crusades. I 35-136. Dns anntolisclie Karaunnsnriy des r3. Jah.O.” A . Sltrdie ziw Gescliiclile M’eestkleitinsietis im 13-15 Jnhr. 1955)~14-20.” possiin.. and eleven years later John Vatatzes underwent a n even more lively development and expansion during this further reduced the Latin holdings in Bithynia and eventually the Latins half century. T h e conditions responsible for the prosperity and comparative stability The Nicaeaii state guarded its borders zealously.” EI. Thc W.98-109. the history of relations between Konya and Nicaca is a relatively at Nicaea were responsible for the seemingly calm state of affairs. shah himself. On the fortif. I. had on occasion become embroiled in the dynastic strife of the Seljulc ruling house.” Byzaiilion. ( I ~ G I ) .1 2 5 . ‘‘ r [ O V T l a K U cations erected by the Lascarids to del’end the towns and the roads. Millcr.. pp. the Byzantines halted the Withdrawal of the Byzantines to Constantiizojde and the Decline of Konya. Ig51). Karnapp. and the consolidation of capital from Nicaea to Constantinople. X I ( I ~ J G I ) . Das F2rsteiitm Ade1iiescAe. Gescliiclite dts Kaiserllisnis uoii Tra)erutzt (Munich. who destroyed the central- stable and Anatolia once more began to experience the blessings of peace. The pressure A. fleeing the Mongol conquest in Transoxiana and Khurasan. and treaties disintegration of the maritime provinces was well undcrway by the end of between the Italian commercial cities and both Konya and Nicaea were the twelfth century. Ahrwciler.” I. and western borders. 3. Within the Constantinople. de NicCe. Trebizondine manuscripts now in Ankara are cataloged by N. M. Uspensikii..~EY&)\CJV Ko~uquGv. and his other studies. 53G-GoG. Charanis. this time in chapter I I . Also A. and cities were rebuilt and fortified. from the new invaders out of tlic Altai was such that the Khwarazm- “Smyrne”. IX (igsg). girif (Istanbul. Most important was the conquest of ports on the Black were removed from Asia Minor. 1934. concentrated along the and Seijults for a half century. (Berlin. pp.).” M&nges d’liistoire du moyen a l e activity in Lascarid Nicaea. Century Fortolano Maps. As both Seljuks and Greeks were preoccupicd with other authority a t Konya and the continued residence of imperial authority foes. 97-127. Die riilnischen iind byzantinischen Dettkrnaler uon Iznik-Nicaea (Berlin.P.207 did had it not been for the events attendant upon thc Fourth Crusade. Heyd. A. southern. Alaiya). when not bloomed. Fallmereycr. must bc read with extreme caution and reservations. I 961). Erdmann. thirteenth centuries. I 943). T h c basic history of the Empire of Der Orientdische Knupfteppich (Tubingen. 56-61. Canard. the acquisition of seaports for the first time. l‘he merchants frequented Asia Minor in increasing numbers. pp. Hisfozk du coianierce du Leuanl (Leipzig. V.25GThe sultanate of Konya engaged in raids on Christians. throughout the twelfth and early The Lascarids did much to revive the economic prosperity of the western.-IZGI). These nomads. the Nicaeans. “Mittelalterliche Bcfestigungen im siidlichen Jonien. Heft I.” A I I . For conditions in Cilician Armenia. IgrG). “The Turks in Iran and Rnatolia before the Mongol Invasions. 91-101.” D. 1827). “Arnienia. XEipbypaqa 2u TQ ~. IG ff. and it is quite liltely that the Turltish conquest of the concluded.265 flourish for the first time since the eleventh century. 5-122. Gardner. Izbmntp Socli. “Wirtschaftliche Aufbau. They had lived a quasi-independent existence and.lowcrdqTOG KC~OTPOW~ i j ’Ayidpas. b y 1 2 6 1both these circumstances had begun to change. 1898). 733 . pp. I 29-139. Uinwni Tiirk Inriliitie article. Zstoriia. Die Stadtmnuer UON Iziiik (Berliii. II. the borders remained comparatively Cilician. ‘lmopfa 708 ~ ~ U I ) \ E [ O UT ~ Ni~a/cc$ S K a l 708 &EUTOT&TOW T ~ S ’Hmfpow I Z O ~ . XXVIII ( I 958). 1938).” A I-lisfory Schneider and W.

pp. Even though he was defeated a t the battle of course compromised in the eyes of the Mongols. the western regions were far more difficult to control. one is not overly surprised at the course of events in the seem to have been actively disobedient to Konya. Kojrulii Arniaguni (Istanbul. good. Lv (1959). The Karamanids. Baba Ilyas. CCXXXIX (1951).0. Togan. Spuler. 690-691.271 Seljuk-Mongol armies were forced to repress Turkmen tended to touch on the easternmost fringes of Anatolia. pp. The Mongol disorders in the regions of Laranda and in the west about the plain of intrusion aftcr I277 was marked by the further settlement ofMongol and Dalaman Chay in 1261-62. 1243. T h e territorial disintegration of the state was further accelerated Though there ensued a period of varying stability down to 1275 as a by the degeneration of Mongol rule in Rnatolia during the late thirteenth result ofthe appearance of capable Seljuk administrators. 346 ff. so that the emperors were caught 406. The Mongols took over direct control scdentary and nomadic society came to a head for the first time in the of the Seljuk administration in Asia Minor imposing their own fiscal explosive revolt of Baba Ishak c. 725 ff. invaded eastern Anatolia and defeated the Mongols at remained of the empire’s possessions in Asia Minor.M. Out of close contact with Konya. J.27a rebellion took place against the background of Mameluke intervention.. the Seljuks were crushed shortly destroyed the political unity of the Seljuk state and removed the possi- thereafter by the Mongols i n the battle of Kose Dag (I243). “Anatolia before the Mongol. Latin crusading fervor. T h e next great outbreak of Turkmen castern Turkish tribes with their military chiefs in eastern Anatolia. “Notes pour I’histoire dcs pp. Regesten. Gottschalk. diplomatically and militarily.” W. bility of a more peaceful development of the land i n social and economic forth the Anatolian sultanate became a vassal state of the Mongols. The nomads had not been sufficiently border region subject to considerable political fluctuation and military assimilated into the Seljuk system and would in the latter half of the vicissitude. Greek despots. the and henceforth the Greek rulers werc forced to defend themselves.” J. The utterance of the Kayseri (1277). and. Die h!!ongolen. Even in considerable proportions before its suppression by armies with considerable central Anatolia the struggle of the Ilkhanids and Mamelultes made this a numbers of Christian mercenaries. Die Mongolen in Iran. Spuler. century partition and destroy the Seljuk Greatly weakened by The combined impact of Turkmen rebellions and Mongol conquest had tbis spectacular Turkmen rebellion.” Fmd Turcomanes d ’ h i e Mineure a u X I I P sikcle. Cahen. 405. Spuler. and Latin e 7 0 Cahen. A. as also. Byzantine rule collapsed in the half century The Mameluke sultan Baybars. I. Spuler. “The Mongols. The shifting Mongols at Ayn Djalut i n 1260 and prodded on by certain Turkish of the capital from Nicaea to the Bosphorus entailed neglect of what had Anatolian begs. 33-34. Girig. 727-732.” pp. 683-684. “Djalal &Din Khwarazm-shah.”274The conquest of ig55). The great movements of commerce difficulty that the Turkmens of the Taurus and western Anatolia were across Anatolia were partially disrupted. “The Mongols. For the details. since the Greeks again dwell in the City. “Der Bericht des Ibu.2. “Sur les traces dcs premiers Akhis. of considerable importance in Anatolian history.. As the position of the pervane was not clear. “Eine neuentdeckte Quelle zur Geschichte der Seltschuken in Anatolien. Turkmen independence was holy men flocking into Anatolia at this time. p. For the Byzantino-Turkish treaty of I 254-55. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE with his followers. upon receipt of the news that Constantinople had been retaken. 278 Cahen. Nazif a1 Ilamawi iiber die Schlacht von Ja:yydimen. under. “Baybars I. I. The Turkmens of the western borders also society ofAnatolia.” EI. 337-338.M. 2d ed.” pp. his group and other withdrew from Anatolia.208 (1276) the Turkmens of the Taurus had revolted and under the leadership Given the great differences in social and economic habits as well as in of the Karamanids attacked and captured Konya where they placed a religious outlook of the Anatolian Turkmens and the Muslim sedentary certain Djimri on the throne. Die Mongolen. Boyle. Cahen. he was of protoasecretis Sennacherim the Evil.K. up i n the politics and strife of Slav rulers. I34 ‘35 . Constantinople rekindled. I. The friction between henceforth an accomplished fact.A. the Mongols executed the pervane. Regeslen. 1824-1825. “Anatolia before the Mongol.270 matters. 149. no. H e and his followers. Dolger. Pachymeres. it was only with and the early fourteenth century. Cahen. LVI (1960). and Hadji Bektash. and hence. W e t . as was to be expcctcd. nos. The most rccent opinion of scholarship on The corollary to the reconquest of Constantinople was the repossession the movement is embodied in the article of Cahen.. the caravans subdued. Dolger. of the empire’s former lands in Europe.” p. Though the Turkmen mid-thirteenth century. I n western Asia Minor.Z. the hostility rebellion failed and the Seljuk-Mongol forces eventually reasserted of the Turkmens was galvanized by the religious preaching of heterodox authority over the towns of the plateau. 325-326. were all connected with the leader of the movement." EI. 73 ff.K. 43. 1776 on the treaty between Vatatzcs and Ghiyath &Din Kaykhursraw in G.55-67. encouraged by his victory over the following the recapture of Constantinople from the Latins. Die Mongolen. “Notes.” pp. 83-88. henceforth.” EI. unleashed a revolt agaist Seljuk authority which attained and i n fact began to slip from the hands of the sultans at Konya. was prophetic: “Let no one hope for zosH. against the counterattack of the Latins. pp. On the economic decline see chapter iii 342-345 (hereafter cited as “Notes”).)’ kY. 1955). But if they continued to hold eastern their preaching to the Turkmens of the regions between Amasya and the Asia Minor firmly.. Bar Hebraeus. 81-91. 321-312.2’2 Previously Turkmens no doubt continued to flock into Anatolia. "Baha'i. 692. 302. Cahen. eastern Taurus..” pp. Though the grave significance of the Babai rising has long been recognized. 222-237. and when Baybars Yashichymen in 1230 by the Seljuks and Ayyubids. paucity of the sources has obscured many of the important details. 1239-4. through institutions on those of the Seljuks. (Bcrlin.

but see 1’. 44 if. Wittek. there resulted an outright alienation from Con. one-half century after the removal of the emperor from Nicaea to were either removed from the armies or else. 42. The removal from Nicaea coincided with the period of Seljuk decline The army. with the collapse treatment of John I V produced a strong reaction. Das Belisar-Lied der Palaiologenzeit. the Turkmens had carried practically everything before the Turks. M. says 1308. 1g47). pp. G. alienated. 14-18. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE princes.~7~ repossession of Constantinople had imposed. Mnxiini Monachi Plotzrtrh Ej. Because of the actions and measures of the and in ruins.” EI. The measures of Michael Caria and Antioch on the Maeander had fallen in 1278. Michael’s expedition was successful in driving the Turks across sufficient i n themselves to consummate the necessary debilitation of Byzan. Trachia imposed heavy taxes on the inhabitants and installed rapacious rnerce. which succeeded in an extensive reassertion of imperial and with the resurgence of Udj Turkmen aggressions. permitted the Turkmens to increase the extent of their raids. Aydin. z 199. ’Oeopavoi. a 7 0 Wittek. whereas others were reemployed in Europe. Soon after Philanthropenus was defeated. Stadia and Strobilus on the Carian coast were already Turkish in 1 2 6 9 . no. I n pursuing his dynastic beyliks or emirates which competed with one another in conquering the and economic policies Michael abolished the tax immunities of the lands oE the sultan and the emperor. 1957). I. the Sangarius. 9. Byzantine Anatolia was militarily defenseless and economically a and finances of the state were not equal to the demands and tasks that the shamble~. Melikoff. Ephesus. such as Philan. but a frightful earthquake terminated the expedition become endeared to the Christians of the Nicaean state and the ruthless before it made contact with the Consequently.istuZne (Amsterdam. culminating in a of the Nicaean and Seljuk states. J. Menlesche. Lemerle. Prusa ( I 326).276 a77 Wittek. valley in stemming the influx of the nomads were so successful that they stantinople of large segments of Greek society in Bithynia and elsewhere. Palaeologus. Nicaea ( I 33 I ) . ed. These elements century. discusses populace with the attendant rebellions and acts of disobedience brought the episode of Philanthropenus and shows that he was probably the model of Belisarius in anarchy and banditry to many parts of the Anatolian provinces. to Asia Minor. T h e emperors in Constantinople were always wary of the half century Byzantine authority disappeared. Arnakes.270 presence of a successful or popular general in Anatolia. pp. ’OOwpwof. Thy- rebellions. Arnakis. The Lascaris dynasty had.-G. I 964). Regestnr. pp. passim. 37-48. and were never content to leave him there for any long period. there arose a considerable number of rebellion that had to be repressed with cruelty. The manpower tinople. military expedition failed for one reason or another to achieve its goal. by its piety and charity. “Smyrne. p. I t also this late Byzantine epic. pp. 37-44. “Belisar-Philantliropelios. The government them along a line stretching from the Black Sea to the Aegean. Dolger. L‘Enhol d’Ajdin. During the first decade of the fourteenth century various u unpopularity was manifested in religious controversies as well as in Turkish emirs reached the sea as Pergamum fell in 1 3 0 2 . pp. Lemerle. pp. the progress of the latter was such that Antioch and Caria were irretriev- ment and of considerable military forces to Constantinople were no doubt ably lost. In 1261 and 1262 authority in parts of Caria in 1269. they deserted to Constantinople. 01 TPQTOI ’OOwpavol (Athens. 20. Treu. By the end of PP. Beck. pp. naries who treated the inhabitants as enemies. I C J ~ Z ) . Mentesche. they may have begun to generals attempted to clear the invaders from the Maeander valley.Ahrweiler. By default. of Alexius Philanthropenus i n 1296 also received a certain support from Nicomedia ( I 337). supported by Greeks and Turks. but it was temporary and the land was already desolate tine resistance in Asia Minor. On the influx of Turlmens along the river valley. though to contemporaries they raiders who were beginning to settle down in Byzantine lands. 26-34. 136 I37 . The result was Michael V I I I Palaeologus had usurped the imperial crown from the his rebellion. Mentesclie. but each were meaningless. 16-17. and the donning of the youth John IV Lascaris and had blinded him.” Serta Monacensia. and so the Turks reentered. and Pyrgi were taken i n I 304 despite the temporary relief brought strife over the ccclesiastical union of Lyon with the Latins. H. The efrorts of Alexius Philanthropenus i n the Maeander new Palaeologan dynasty. and in the raia. The rebellion Bithynia resisted for another two decades. the Asia Minor by the appearance of the Catalans in A n a t ~ I i a The . ~ ~ main ~ cities of populace by and large sided with the antigovernment party. but infiltrate the Byzantine regions to the west.. 24-60. By the first decade of the fourteenth acrites and attacked the privileges of the large landowners. the poem of Belisarius. and this and Nysta fell. aroused the envy and suspicion of the central authority. The occupation of Constantinople also brought the empire into Michael’s. Thus the words of The emperors made occasional efforts to halt or drive out the Turkish Sennacherim were ominously prophetic. I g60). Andronicus I1 crossed by its economic and political accomplishments. “Aidinoglu. 13. “Byzantium’s Anatolian Provinces in the Reign of Michael Byzatice et l’0ccidetrt (Paris. 46-52. Schrnaus (Leiden. Nine years later (1278) Byzantine and it is quite possible that rebuffed by Konya. the Turkmens had come in and within a the Anatolians. 174-175. Arnakis. purple. Arnakis. I n the struggle between Josephites and Arsenites. Kissling and A. The withdrawal of the govern.“ Acles du XUdcongr2s internntiotrol des itudes byznntities (Belgrade.” The dissolution of the local mililary defensc and the alienation of the pp. 11. was soon recalled for service in the Turkmens had been temporarily defeated by Seljuk-Mongol armies Europe. 502-505. reign (1282) only twenty years after his entry into Constan- the focal point of the Venetian-Genoese commercial fire. in 1282 Tralles r\ V I I I made his dynasty unpopular in Byzantine Anatolia. 9-1 I. I 5 I . a7° Pachymeres. thropenus.

Metilesche.231-240. but was himself dcfeated of an extended state in 1 3 0 7 . ’Aolas(hm t A h q v i ~ b Eyypaqo TOG 1355). BithyniaaZs3 In the fourteenth century a number of new emirates appeared. no. and Turgutlu. asu Uzunc..” ‘lUTOpiK& o-roixeia crivcc Djandnrogullari in the first hall of the fourteenth century.309-318.m.” EI.288 Anatalya and its environs. al-Din Eretna (of Uighur origin) who succeeded in receiving official joyed a longer life-span. having main towns and in 1365-66 the beys revolted. Beylikleri. seems to have been absorbed by its larger neighbors. the History of the Aydin Ogullari. formed an independent principality but were crushed after the rebcllion of Djimri by and religious centers that gradually restored varying degrces of stability the sultan. pp. (AliBey.” “Karakoyunlular.ar$li. Mongol administration had at Karahisar between I h t a h y a and Akshehir. 1261-1278)~ the Eshrefo&dlari In eastern Anatolia there was a thread of continuity i n Ilkhanid rule..” XI1. 34. center at Kutahya. V (1947-48). z8G Melikoff. Manusakas.0)T ~ S TGVB E V E T ~UT& 283 Uzunc. Aksaray. “Hamid. the Turk- the Germiyanids. The emirate of the Eshrefoogullari was suppressed by the Mongol governor and prosperity. Gordes. Akkoyunlu (fourteenth century to I 5 0 2 ) . pp. pp. and Sharki Karahisar. M.J. Flemmlng. This principality became so powerful that it intcrvened states. 34. Uzunpyili. 103-108. a process clearly discernible by the third and fourth Timurtash in 1325. “Ak-Koyunlu.” Er.). thc intervening eighteen years existence prior to the end of the century. pp. Beylikleri. “Results of Studies in Uzunpr$li. madc this the core proclaimed himself sultan of the lands of Eretna. founded an independent dynasty in the western riverine mens further intensified the politically disunified character of this region regions about Izmir and Ephesus (Ayasoluk) in the very early years of the and brought the spectcr of tribal raids and the unceasing warfare of petty fourteenth century. 26 (1330). 133 I39 . “Germiyan okullari. (1964.. 23-26. the Germiyanids.ar$. entre la Crete et les Rmirats turcs d’Asie Mineure au XIVe siecle (vers 1348-1360). the degree of recovery Seljuk fief on the Byzantine frontier.” IA. Kayseri. Some Nif. one containing the morc northerly region. Pisidien toid Lykien itn Sjiilniillelalter (M’iesbaden. de Planhol. “Karasi. if indeed thcy were in and executed by the Akkoyunlu in 1398.That of the Sahibo~ullnri. 1964). at Begshehir (second half of thirteenth century. who had their ruler of much of central and eastern Anatolia. Karakoyunlu. 3G-38. founder of Saruhan (late thirteenth or early fourteenth century). 19-22. Wittek. The rule of his dynasty be- Danishmendids founded the emirate of ICarasi at the end of tlic thirteenth came so weak by the 1360’s that his governors had usurped control of the and beginning of the fourteenth century.” A. Akin. Ankara.” EI.2*6 The supporting numerous governments and armies. Cahen. “Aidinoglu. The rise of the itself in the districts of Egridir. X. i l 7 1 ff. Nevertheless.pp. J.” 281 Melikoff. The articles.” pp. Zachariadou.. 24-56. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE Anatolia was once more parceled into numerous independent princi. and Ramazan was indicative of the density of the Turkmen liks. 1932).” EI1. how- 280 Cahen. the Sahibo&dlari but by the end of the fourteenth century.281 The Germiyanids.” EI. economic. were perhaps independent by 1277. “Notes. including Sivas. 48-52.).” A E ~ T ~ O ~ Vi i Xpio-riawiKijS s ’Apxai- Kramers. See also E.M. Ibid. were located on thc borders of having been filled with the anarchy and strife of rebels. O a f i M a TOG ‘Aylou @avowpiow. whose principality about Sinope dated from its reconquest (from the Greeks of Trebizond) c.280The remainder of the governor Timurtash fled to Egypt in 1327.. Dhu ‘l-Kadr Sometime later the family holdings were split into two independent bey. When the Mongol about Sinope were comparatively short-lived. ~ ~ ~ powerful Turkmen At the turn of the century the dynasty of the Hamidogullari established states appeared in the cast during the fourteenth century. (1337-1522) . and the Pervaneo&dlari given way to the rule of Turkmen tribal confederations. 3 I -32. Samsun. Lemerle. I 964. 12G4. 213-221. “Les relations 281 Cahen. the other containing penetration i n the eastern provinces during this period.282 Farther to the Nigde.Taeschncr. I. 336-340. 13-14. Rypka. In 1381-82 Burhan al-Din received Castamon as a fief from the Ilkhanids in 1292. 42-57. Develi Karahisar. he eventually established himself as the independent 1277 was in effect independent.9-354. 9-1 I. was like Aydinoglu originally an emir of the Germiyanids. Yalvach. S ~ Z . Cahen. an oficial of I n destroying the Byzantine and Seljuk structure of Anatolia.pp. H.I 325). ’ O O ~ ~ a v opp.was eventually absorbcd by the Dergisi. R.argili.. West in the regions of Adramyttiuin and Balikesri. “Eshrefogullari halckinda bir kac. Thc Turkinens about Denixli seein to have ever. Uzunc. approximately rule Magnesia on the Hermus along with Menemen. The DjandarogullarI. “Anntalya. Darende. Tokat. pp. Thiriet. such as the emirate of Denizli (c. Ottomans. the capitals of the many emirates served as administrative. ” Tarill i osninni eticiinieni mecmunsi.” EI. and Anatalya. J.which was originally a decades of the fourteenth century..” Ankara Utiiversitesi Dil ue Tnriii-CograSya Fnkultesi “Akkoyunlar. pnssini.11. ‘‘ ‘H I T P ~ ~T F~I T O ~ I-rrapoiKLa K ~ ~ V llcchha (Mih~’t. As the period of these conquests receded into the historical past. Mamelukes. Arnakis.” pp. pp. Acles dtc XU6 congrks iriternnlionnl des h d t byzantines ~ (Belgrade.0-349. Karamanids. The Pervaneogullari. the descendants of the Merzifon. 3 4 . he was replaced by Ghiyath beyliks that had appeared prior t o the end of the thirteenth century en. ohoyiKq~‘E-raipdaS. Saruhan palities. 111 (1962). EIe Seljuk-Nicaean equilibrium and the final Ottoman conquest of Asia proceeded to establish a n independent state and dynasty that came to Minor. Lnndsc/rnfls~esc/ric/rleuon Pnntphylien.284Aydinoglu Muhammad Beg.” EL. UzunGarqli. Bcylikleri. Bgdiklrri. I-I. “Eretna. Amasya. pp.Ktdahya FeSelrri (Istanbul. F. . Ayditr. Uluburlu. Ariadoln Beylikleri ue ilkkoyirnlu Deuletleri (Ankara. XXVI. “Notes. That of the Karamanids in the Taurus region appointment from the Ilkhan Abu Sa’id. and A k l t o y ~ n l u s Other . and in the course of the two centuries between the collapse of the Beg.ZBo ofthese. I-I. “Burhan al-Din.. Demirdji. “Notes. Profiting from the dynastic strife seems to have begun to take form by the mid-thirteenth century and after of the Ilkhanids. 1937). half of these taking form prior to the end of the thirteenth century. Beylikleri. The Ottomans. putting upon the Anatolian population the heavy burden of actively in the European affairs of the Byzantine Empire. over twenty principalities came into existence.” “Dhu’l Kadr. 251-25G.” pp.

2d ed. Burhan al-Din. M. primarily Burhan though i t was finally established in most of the regions by the end of tlie al-Din and the princes of Gerrniyan and Karaman. trans. pp. . and south and east with the annexation of Tekeili in 14.155-160. 258-293. and putting an end to the empire of Trebizond. lations. foundations of the empire were not set firmly.24and more importantly Germiyan.. Uzunqarsill. ~ t i i ~ I ) n ~ l l a z a d c .291 decades thereafter carried the house of Osman into Europe.” EI. Menteshe. Bayazid reduced the last independent threw the regions of Aydin into a state of political and religious ferment in Greek city in western Asia Minor. Lampsides. Tacschner. E.6.. such as Saruhan.-M.E. consolidated their position i n Bithynia but had. though the dynasty con- Divrigi. “Hamid. “Bayazid I.” EI. sought to exploit reign of Muhammad I1 (1481).. Kahta. taking Amastris from the Genoese. Mnhoniet II le Corzquiratil el son tcin. i g q ) .Z. i\shikpsliazade-ICreutel. they very naturally found it at Timur’s court.” EI. ‘I TTG5 jAw0q fi Tpm~<oCi~. “Bayazid I.28 tinued to be a factor in Anatolian affairs until the end of Muhammad’s It seemed that Anatolia. 170-1 79.”All. Ashikpashazade. Ashikpashazade. but by 1397after having dcfeated the western Crusaders at: Nicopolis. 11. world conqueror. and 1 4 1 6 . ” R. I n the east the last great Inalcik. and the towns of Albistan. 52-G0. 205-207.200The effect of Timur’s Anatolian campaign was to unsettle does not Seem to have been uniform or to have attained the prosperity of Anatolian political conditions for another half century as he restored the preceding era of stability in the thirteenth century. Sharaf al-Din Ali Yazdi.. Timur. passin2 support. jassinz.r (r432--1+81)(Paris. J. 1400.. Ernperor OJ the Mongols arid Talars. X V I I ( i g ~ r ) 19-54.4-262. The trans. 24.E. the sultans T h e reassertion of Ottoman authority in the peninsula following the took an active interest in Anatolian politics in the reigns of both Orhan Timurid holocaust was to stretch over the entire fifteenth century. and when the CLXI ( I 94o). Werner. 1959)~pp. 1961).” EIS. La cnmnpagne de Tz’tnrir en Atintolie (Bucharest. pp. now largely (though not completely) in the reign.” R. Uzunpr$li Fetiline Kadnr. “Badr al-Din ibn Kadi Samawna. Saruhan. His task in Anatolia was further complicated far the Ottomans has outstripped the other Anatolian states. ICreutel (Graz. 130-132. Tevarik/i-i Ali H. But this was not yet allowed himself to be isolated politically by Muhammad 11. His appearance in Bursa and united the European possessions with those in western Asia Anatolia shortly after the battle of KOSSOVO Polye marks the next im- Minor. Flemming. Die Gcbtcrt eiriet Grossinnclrt-die Osntnriett (rgoo-r&) (Berlin.@dlari.A l i . ogullari. whose followers Anatolian campaign ( I 389-go). Hamid. 91-93 (hcrcafier cited as Ashikpashazade-Ali). 1332). Mclikoff. By the middle of the century. R. VII (rgso).. 295-301. Lniidsclraflsgescliichle. “De la dtfaite that to contemporaries it appeared the Ottoman Empire had bccn forever d ’ h k a r a A la prise de Constantinople (un demi-si&cled’liistoirc ottomane).. “:lntalya. eventually to be the case because Bayazid’s expansion had been too rapid and the $ 0 0 M. I 942). One year later Bayazid’s Is€endiyaro. 2 ~ 2I-Iis successor Murad I1 extended Ottoman possessions in the annexed the principalities of Aydin. Bnbinger. 11. he beat Karamanoglu a t Akchay. pp. he annexed. mr)-z26. and G I .20s Djandarids temporarily halted Bayazid’s further expansion in central and Muhammad I1 conquered the Black Sea coastal region ofAnatolia in 1460- eastern Anatolia. “Gcrmiynn-oghullari. Voni Hirtenzelt zr1r Aohen T#brte. pp. The rclations of the (hereafter cited as Sharaf al-Din Yazdi). Though the primary impetus of expansion for several Western Asia Minor. however. dc I’lanhol. trans. pp.r ( I ~ G I ) . and the with the land of Germiyan which Yakub Chelebi ceded in 1428-29. Some of the emirates.” EI. After the an attainment. 246-249. l’etis d e la Croix (London. Philadelpheia (Alashehir). ACrLinoire sur w i Ashilcpashazadc-I(rctltel. An alignment of Karamanids. having possession of one ruler. 301-323.. Malatya. and two years later at the battle of Chubuk-ovasi near Ankara he PP. Alexandra-Dcrscn. h a k k k d a bir miiknddirne ile Osmanli deuleliain kurth1. I 6-23. for the very many of the Turkish emirates to their former rulers and promoted existence of so many principalities in a constant state of war precluded such division and strife within the domains of the sons of Bayazid. while others portant stage in the political development of Anatolia and indicatcs how he subjected to vassal status. The History of Titnnr-Bec. scattered the armies of Bayazid and so thoroughly crippled the Ottomans H. XI1 ( I 9311). the Ottomans had not only battle of Ankara. 260-268. pp. 1851).” EI. Behisna. pp. Ktzowri b the Name of Tnrnerluin the Great. and Muhammad occupied Konya and their lands. 141 . IZoloff. Being an Hislorical Jorirrial Turkish emirs so recently dispossessed by Bayazid looked about for possible OJ‘ h i s Conquests in Asia and Europe.294 T h e turn of the Karamanids came next when from 1465 to 1468 victorious armies occupied the regions of Djanik. Timur added his personal touch to the catastrophe. translates “La date de la prise dc Trcbizonde pnr lcs Turc. In his first by the socioreligicus movement ofBadr al-Din of Samavna. Sharaf al-Din Ali-Yazdi. writings of Manuel I1 which have to do with a part of Dayazid’s campaign. Kissling. When a number of the Anatolian emirs. ruler of the Akkoyunlu tribal confederation. had turned his eyes westward. Inalcik.” EI.B. and Murad I. are not always accurate. executed him. “Die Schlacht hei Angora. “Germiyan. 236 ff. Bayazid recovery from his base in Amasya as he removed his brother Isa from I rapidly marched to the east to confront his enemies. 1954). the domains of Burhan al-Din. 203 Melikoff. Muhammad I laid the foundation for Ottoman involvement in Europe ( I 389) by territorial aggression. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSR POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE destroyed. pp.” Hislorisclie Zeitschrifl. absorbed remaining in Anatolia for a considerable period of time and sending the neighboring emirate of Karasi on the southwest borders of the detachments of his army to reduce and plunder the regions of central and Ottoman lands. Berger de Xivrey. Bnndolri Selcnklnlnri ue Aiiadolri beylikleri Otliiimn. Uzun Hasan.. Sinope from the house of the annexed his lands with the city of IConya. G. would finally enjoy peace. 1966). Wittck.pizdaa Ishibul’rin fcthirie kndnr. le vie el les ouurngu de L’etiipereur Manuel Pulblogcie (l’acis. (Ankara. 109-115 (hereafter cited as Ashikpashazade- two rulers progressively worsened as Timur captured and sacked Sivas in Kreutel). significantly. Ali Bey (Istanbul. 275-278. cd.

“Cilicia.”‘ The reign of Muhammad I1 was the decisive stage in the political reunification of Anatolia under the rule of a single state. or raided on morc than one occasion. though present among Armenians and Syrians in easternmost Anatolia. Babinger. conquered. Kramers. “ICara- man.” EI. villages and agricultural activity had suffered from Perhaps the single most fateful characteristic of the Turkish conquest these rebellions. fell rapidly and definitively to the Arabs in less that a dccade. J . “Akkoyunlu. Mussignon (Damascus. L. it would seem. and political unification of Having established a general chronological structure and periodization Anatolia was a long process. By h e sevcnteenth century. 373-374. In this. and Egypt. 1956). demonstrated two propositions : 1. the Turkish subjugation of Asia Minor differed from the Arab conquest of the eastern Byzantine provinces in the seventh century wherein the regions of Syria. Celnli isyanluri (r550-1603). in Anatolia was the longevity of the process. At certain periods it proceeded at an accelerated pace. OsninnlZ b n ~ n r u ~ o r l i i ~ ~ iaSiretleri nda iskan tcgebbiisii (Istanbul 1963). Akdag. at other times it made little progress. the beginnings of thc four hundred years after the battle of Manzikert. Muhoniat. the factor of religious disaffection.” ELB.Dhu’l-Kadr (1522)). 2. I 9153). Consequently. and political factors. for this drawn-out period Because of this the government in Istanbul began to settle tribal groups in the deserted areas.I. and the Right ofsome of the rural population from the land had followed. The Beginnings of Transformation The detailed analysis of Byzantine internal history prior to the battle of Manzikert (1071) and the narration of the critical political and military events in Anatolia over four centuries have.” EI. (Ankara.” Milunges Louis effects of the Turkish conquests during the eleventh and twelfth centuries.and Ramazan (1517) survived into the early years of the sixteenth century. yet the Turkmen dynasties of the Akkoyunlu (1502). J. the issue having been dccided by a few key battles. but it is possessed of extensive mountainous areas that served as natural defenses against the invaders. Thus the conquest operated in piecemeal fashion. Menage. and on rarer occasions it was even reversed. “Notes sur quelques documents Aq Qoyunlu.The Muslim society by the mid-thirteenth century. the final completion of which occurred of the Turkish conquests in the preceding chapter.. This will entail discussion of three broad topics: the nature and 2 0 6 Minorsky. Orhonlu.. Mordtmann-V. The Turkish conquest. C. Anatolia is not only a large territory. In addition. played no comparable role in central and western ‘43 . H. POLITICAL AND MILITARY COLLAPSE suffered a decisive defeat at Otluq Beli in 1473. settlement. the degree to which the Anatolian Christians had been integrated into P M Canard. M. subjected Byzantine society to repeated shocks and dislocations. The Byzantine defeat at the hands of the Turks in 1071 and the subsequent penetration of the Turkmen tribes in the following decade Nature of the Turkish Conquest in the Eleuenth and Twelfth Centuries were in large part the result of a half century of violent internal disorders. ethnographic. The Turks were not able to subdue Asia Minor quickly but achieved its corn- plete conquest in a continuous process that lasted four centuries. pp. transformation by which Anatolia became Muslim must next be examined. Aubin.” EI.296 Conclusiotis rri. I 23-147. the character and results of unification of Anatolia did not bring a permanent end to upheaval and disruption o f settled life. a significant number of towns and extensive regions were besieged. “Dhu’l ICadr.. to the late fifteenth century. Palestine. The striking difference between the rapidity of the Arab conquest and the slower progress of the Turks was due to geographic. The rise of the Safavis as well as other internal disturbances had repercussions the breakdown in the Konya-Nicaea equilibrium from the late thirteenth for the stability and security of parts ofhnatolia. disaffected because of religious persecutions on the part of the central government and weakened by the disbanding of the Arab client armies.

But in the majority of cases the sacking of a city was capable of greater resistance. administrations. a number of these being pillaged on more than one tine Empire than had been the provinces occupied by the Arabs and SO 0ccasion. Perkri. 229. it could not and urban centers continued to exist. Caesareia. ” ~E~EN miupcjv. which gives a picture of the psychology of the strength. degree for the regions to the east as far as Antioch. Anatolia were in a dcstroyed statea4The western Anatolian districts kid. and one Melitene.2 Though the Greek historians have exaggerated in speaking of was the disappearance of political unity and stability from Anatolia for complete destruction. however. Saltukid. one administration. be qualified. When the veil arose on Anatolian soil Greek states on the Aegean and Black Sea coasts. there western Asia Minor was largely in the grip of the invaders. made serious &or@. The Turkish conquest was. mon- asteries. The dis. and a number ofTurkish principalities in the two decades later. Prior to the battle of Manzikert. That there is a substantial and significant which had ensured comparative stability (at least for the regions west ofa truth in this exaggeration becomes evident upon examination of the line running through Trebizond. Finally.CXXXV.l I n some instances the sacking of a city or town entailed its complete destruction. I c o n i u q army. and places of habitation. many there was stability for much of Anatolia as the result of developments at parts of western Asia Minor were the scene of Turkish invasions. ‘‘ Kai V&VTWVTQV okqpi-rwv K a i TGV ~ w p i w v courts. the important cities of Artze. only brought considerable upheaval but often placed the Anatolian P. nevertheless this exaggeration was the result of the significant periods of time. I describe the process systematically. The most striking feature of this first 1 period of Turkish conqucst was the sacking of towns and villagcs in many I44 ‘45 . But this was an isolated situation in the period between counterattacks. demonstrate the unrest that the Turkish invasions and settlement brought. fifteenth century. Melitene. Caesareia. Ani.3 newcomers changed this situation abruptly and radically as the invasions resulted in a bewildering proliferation of political entities on Anatolian soil. of the emirates throughout Anatolia brought a reversion to periods of A brief glance a t the various regions of western Anatolia will clearly anarchy and chaos until the emirates began to consolidate. 944. oi ~ 0 6 s O ‘PwpaiKGv TQV US I * Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas.” urban and rural areas. 169. the extensive destruction to urban and rural life resulting from this one and Anatolian peninsula had enjoyed a political unity under Constantinople 8 one-half century of warfare. The invasions and prolonged period of active subjugation by the and Chonae had been sacked by the Turks. As the state depended primarily on or town did not result in complete or immediate destruction. Prior to the appearance of the Turks. Though no documentary materials survive which i 3 For details see chapter ii. Tarsus. Society was obliged to support only one ruler. 1 K a i a h G v TQV ~ K K A ~ U I QTGV V hr Bhois Tois T?S ‘AvaTohijs PepEUIV irrr’ &Gv The cffects of the invasions down to the late twelfth century were most dramatically manifested in the pillaging and partial destruction of many I bpq pW86VTWV K d TihEOV KUTCITpOITWfhTWV K d EiS Tb pq@V dor0KaTUirraVTWV. 111. though often in a less prosperous state.. the sources reveal that the coastal towns of western central and eastern regions-Seljuk. The Turkish therefore. and armies. ’HrpVl@v-ro pkv n d h ~ i sIhflCov-ro . 1 BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION I BEGINNINGS O F TRANSFORMATION Asia Minor. Related to the long-term. but also to a certain circumstanccs of the conquest in the various regions of the peninsula. and the ocasional appearance of Crusading armies. The Byzantine sources characterize this 1261. In the period down to the mid-thirteenth century. accompanied by considerable destruction in terms of public buildings. appearance of political unity attendant upon the Turkish invasions not See thc comment of Eustathius oTThessalonikc in his address to Manuel I Comncnus. With the collapse in the relative and ephemeral stability continued to experience the rigors of an unusually savage border warfare of the Setjuks and Nicaea i n the late thirteenth century. houses. and h i ) . Anna Comnena. 61 Xtjpai K a i r8ua i‘Popa- iov yii Xpiu-riavQv alpauiv 6piaivvro. of historical silence covering the events ofthis first Turkish conquest is lifted an Armenian state in Cilicia. is replete with accounts of destruction of churches. “R I T O A E ~ ~ K~ Q populations under the onerous burden of supporting a large array of I I‘ K EV~ V C W n d h ~ w v$v BTE irrrovopE6uavTEs & v ~ ~ ~ ~ y v u o v . Byzantine Kenya and Nicaea. churches. of course. the existing chroniclcs give a clear t overall picture of the upheaval. the Danishmendname. for these AnatoIia for its resources and for much of its manpower. as Alexius I succeeded to the throne (IO~I). did not quietly acquiesce in the Turkish occupation. and churches. piecemeal nature of the Turkish conquest period as one in which towns. At the eleventh century and the Ottoman unification of Anatolia in the the beginning of this period. The Byzantines. T h e loss of Asia Minor was tantamount to the destruction of the empire. Amorium. Danishmendid. and buildings were destroyed by the Turks. the appearance throughout much of the twelfth century. Mcnguche. This generalization should. first to reconquer and then to hold on to parts of Anatolia down to the period when Michael Palaeologus reconquered Constantinople in conquerors. Neocaesareia. Anatolia was much closer to the center of the Byzan.G. regions of Anatolia. i n proportion to their sadly declining epic. Sebasteia. Artukid. These conditions WESTERN ANATOLIA were not as exacerbated in the first half of the thirteenth century when During the late eleventh and throughout the twelfth century.

2Q I&’. The Caicus as well as the regions Many of the districts and towns of Phrygia were in the center of the north of Adramyttiurn were sorely vexed by incursions throughout thc battleground between Muslim and Christian armies. Andronicus against the cities were savage. . 250-252. Hermus. T ~ Zpqflov U . The reprisals of s3 Nicetas Choniates. in I I 13 and again in I I 15-1 6. of the Maeander thinking himself to be safely out of Turkish territory there. A I ~ T E ~ O U U T Ehacpirpov S . lGNicetasChoniates 195. _- -I O Anna Comnena. 2B Ibid. raiding Greek lands. Ibid. with the aid of Turkish troops.12Mysia and the Propontis bore upon the middle and upper regions of the Maeander. 5Anna Comnena. and large rural areas became depopulatcd. 657-658. 7 I . 655. 337-340.22 More imposing from the as the Turkmens had been’settled near Dorylaeum for most of the period.rrhqo& ~~vo~ ~~KOVUI. it is not unlikely that they had continued their raiding expeditions into down the Maeander to the sea. 11. 159-169.. 143... 36.” p7 Ibid. the Turks seem to have raided the valley with quarter of the twelfth century when the emperor Alexius 111 entered the regularity. 796. . ‘I .” l1 Nicetas Choniates. 154. soon after his death John 11 Comnenus was forced such attacks continued from the direction of Iconium in I I 15-16. . 187 ff. on occasion against Andronicus I Comnenus in I 183-84. There to move against the Turks who were once more pillaging the valley. 111. Pseudoalexius the process. 165-166. the Turks were ravaging all Bithynia and Thynia to the Bosphorus thereafter the Seljuk prince Malik Shah threatened Philadelpheia and which was not as yet in their possession. He came to be called KauaaAGuqs. obtained troops from the sultan Rukn al-Din and the towns of ing both Gom this district. zGg. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF T R A N S F O R W T I O N The Bithynian regions were mostly in Turkish hands until the First valley was i n part conquered by Tzachas.. so Thcodore Scutariotes-Sathas.000 and 50. 39-40. 79. 144-145. 193. Though Alexius was able to restore some order to the regions (Prusa. IT. 111. Caystcr. “ . Gintiamus. media. Cinnarnus. with an army of 24.000 Turkmens from the emir Arsane (Arslan?) and pillaged appearance o’f the Latins in Bithynia immediately following the capture the valley desiroying the harvests. 136. Early in his reign Manuel I was forced to relieve the suffering regions of Nicaea and Prusa to protect the cities from the attacks of the towns.. Anna Cornnena.l0The breakdown of severely. 363-375.I! But inasmuch were. 111. remarks that Bithynia had been very Cinnarnus. 71. falling unexpectedly of Constantinople added to the confusion..000 from Persia devastated this and other neighboring the twelfth century. While the emperor was concerned with Robert Guiscard in the Cappadocia pillaged the eastern reaches o f the valley. who were l o This is specifically stated for the regions of Pithecas and Melangeia during the reign under a certain Rarna. 700-701. and by the pillaged Bithynia all the way to the Bosphorus. Nicetas Choniates.ODespite the reconquest of emir Same when Isaac I1 Angelus summoned the Byzantine troops of that Nicaea following the First Crusade. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. point of view of size was the raid of the Atabeg. 2R Kaykhusraw.20 By is Some record of further Turkmen incursions into Bithynia in the last the reign of Manuel.. These Turkmens were habitually l2 Nicetas Choniates. reports the advance of another Turkish army on aa On returning from the battlc against the sultaI1. ‘47 . 2 1 0 . the latter years of his reign witnessed severe the Maeandcr were once more raided. and. 63. Ibid. reports that I-Ienry &EIPE‘I ~ h sI T ~ ~ E IKSa1 ~ I E T ( ~ EKWGS.&pau. by the Turkish armies from Persia.” Is Anna Cornnena. a1 Nicetas Choniates. Maean. l4 h i f . Ibid.14 Manuel Maurozomes. raiding almost unhindered. 11. Manuel made his way to the source Nicaea. But here he Nicetas Choniates.6The second Byzantine-Norman the coastal regions.~7 der were frequently invaded and wasted. as the revels utilized Turkmens in their armies.^^ A rebellious tax collector. the end ofthe eleventh century. Cyzicus.13 and though Alexius succeeded in remov. 7 The followers of Peter the Hermit also contributed by ravaging the area up to Nico. 111. oi ATJUTEI~EIUTU ‘Pwpafwv Eh. . 11. 827. ravaged the valley The western river valleys of the Caicus. apparently. 550-55 I . Apollonias. 144-145.” I .l7 and shortly west.. Kai cbs K ~ T ’ E0o~~b a h G v T O ~ Sk ~ T ~ U W‘Pwl.000.16 The Hcrmus the Turks by the First Crusades at Dorylaeum. Michael. These Turkmens. . came upon a large encampment of Turkmens and their tents. especially as a result of the rebellion disappeared and the Turks raided even more frequently.20I n the early thirteenth century raids. which ravaged many of the towns Bithynia during the reigns of John I1 and Manuel I. I 10.* and Maeandrian regions.18 The Cayster-Celbianum region was threatened by the war gave the Turks another opportunity.11 T h e acquired 8. Lopadium.16 and in 1110-11 Hasan of Crusade. After thc defeat of twelfth century.lD The towns and countryside of the fertile Maeander raiding throughout the reign of Alexius. T$V 1 ~ p 0 q v&O~K~TOV. so that Abu’l-Kasim once more armies of Hasan i n I I I 0-1 I . Lake Ascania) . 111. towns but was driven out by Theodore Las~aris. the Turks retreated ‘0 Anna Comnena. T ~ T V O~PKW T+JV dnr6 Oah&uaqS &pi NiKalas V E ~ O V ~ V WI TVE ~ ~ X W P O V . ‘ I . of Manuel. Nicetas Choniates. no doubt greatly hastened being brought in by Greek rebels.Bithynia continued to suffer from heavy area to Europe. 60. were in the habit of plundering the neighboring land of the Greeks. 157. After his defeat in I 192. 481. 187-188. rgo.ralou V i S q Kal ucv accessible to the Turks. Attaliates.21 for the Turkmens had settled at the source of the Maeander and Turkmens encamped about the Bathys near Dorylaeum. 159-169.23Upon the death of Manuel the last semblance of vigorous defense Byzantine administrative cpntrol.-155. . 8 Ibid. I. again i n the reign of Manuel I.7 In I I 13 an army of between valley in particular suffered from Turkish raids in the late eleventh and 40. . . ” Ibid. Even bcfore the accession of Alexius. captured a number the brunt of the invasions and raids of the emirs Tzachas and Elchanes a t of towns and took away the inhabitant^.

4oThe extent of the destruction of remained unchronicled. 111. 17.rravaudmolTo. I 79. Pamphylia. Cinnamus.30 In the mid- twelfth century the fertile agricultural area of Attaleia was so unsafe and areas. 29. 111. 190-191. t%8a PauihEi ’lo&vvg qpoirpi6v TI k~ ~ a i u f&V(?KO8Opf$q. X V I .H. 11. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. .2. because of the Turks that the inhabitants had to import their grain by Cyzicus fell to the Turks in the reign of Nicephorus I11 Botaniates. and that shortly western Anatolian districts of Bithynia. . Apollonias. where it is implied that the Ibid.Nicetas Choniates..”SS After the second Norman crisis ( I 107-08). 86-89. aliam destruxerunt. 323-319. Nicetas Choniates.” and had earth about Iconium. illis expulsis.*i It raids. €1 pq K a i T&S . 54-55. 19. 7 1-72. 79-80. 689. the emperor Alexius I passed through the same areas and sought to destroy itself. 374-375. I 90. The accounts of the Third Crusade also bear testimony to aD Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. and in fact the language of the Byzantine Chronicles icus I Comiienus in I I 84. Phrygia. and then removed all parte Turci possident. silver. Ibid.. . 50. S T Odo of Deuil.165. and of chronicles (at least chronicles that have survived) . Lydia.. 165. 84. the Turkish raids to Byzantine urban and rural society in western Asia 86 Ibid. they gained entrance into the Greek towns. Alexius burned Turkish settlements wherever he found drrrav-raxfl m6au8hvTas IITO~KOU~ ahair h. as to whether such general statements Manuel. for the Seljuks at this time had nothing in the way Lopadium. Pamphylia and that Anna Comnena and Odo of Deuil have made are historically reliable. Mysia. and though recaptured by the Byzantines. and attention to the cities of western Asia Minor. 200-203. As the region had become the border between devastated much of it. The majority of the raids have Lopadium during the same campaign. I. 79-80. 111.81 There are indications that Lycia and Caria also saw repeated and then pillaged by a Turkish army from Persia in I I 1 3 . and other booty. Caria. xxvi.. VI. After the initial recovery ofthe area by Alexius and John. Tudebodus. and Pisidia. ”SG When the Second Crusaders came to Anatolia almost half a century the Turkish encampments and to waste the area so that the Turks would later the situation had changed very little.C. Anna Comnena.28 As Phrygia remained a critical frontier area in the reigns of John and rebuilt and girded with walls and towers. ‘I . xii. “ Iv 6~ivQhoiEiTo. is indirectly revealed by the historian Cinnamus who remarks that historians were too concerned with the capital to note the recurring the emperor John I1 had to rebuild the fort of Lopadium anew.”34 and of the toward Iconium.”Anna Comnena relates that the environs or that the invasions and warfare brought considerable upheaval to the Lopadiuni suffered ravaging in the reign of Alexius I.33 The disruption and destruction often brought by Anna Comnena. and the Byzantine Cius. Alexius devoted his and churches.” That this destruction in- in very general terms. 69.” Pp. The sultan also scorched the Turks had expelled the Greeks from a great part of “Romania. 87. hanc ex n~ngna Alexius had the villages of Bourtzes burned because of the Turks. destruction ofLatrus a t the end of the eleventh was repeated again in the twelfth century. AOyl(6VEVOs deI5 6lTWS T& KaTdc T q V TUpaAlffV Tfis &bpVqs KC~I pixpis f f h f j s ’Anahatas ol P&ppapol TE’hetwSipllrouav. gold. carried off the livestock. it was slowly being turned to wasteland they found many cities along the coastal regions in ruins and they as a result of the frequent military campaigns and by express desire of observed that the Greeks still inhabited only those towns that had been both sides so that invaders might not find sustenance in these regions. The account of Anna Comnena in regard to the destruction of the Pisidia had a fate similar to t hat of Phrygia. Miklosich et Mdler. 148 I49 . and a number of authors refer to this phenomenon Ibid. and in a n effort to scorch the earth in the path of the “plundering and complete ruin of the cities and lands situated on the sea Crusaders. pp. however.” ‘I i~ 3 a Cinnamus. Cinnamus. destroyed towns. 111. 111. 208. It is to be assumed that the border raids of the Turkmens were suffered severe chastisemcnt after its unsuccessful rebellion against Andron- constantly operative.” them in order to protect his lands from the Turkmen raids.C. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION who at the end of the eleventh century were “plundering all. “reasoning that the bar- then burned and destroyed everything that they could not carry away and barians had completely destroyed the coast from Smyrna to Attaleia that might have been of some use to the Latins.” destructas invcnimus . 113. I . AS the Crusaders advanced south of Adramyttium Greek and Turkish possessions. VI. A. as well as by certain archaeological evidence. pp. 11. 38. was taken a second time by the emir Elchanes i n the reign of Alexius I. Elchanes~ ~ waves of incursion^. and perhaps by implication that of Cyzicus. IV. 551. Odo of Deuil remarks that the not be able to use it to attack the empire.. Minor were extensive. sea. O. 31 William of Tyre. these are sufficient to indicate ravaged its environs in I I 13. Ionia. until by 1204little outside Attaleia remained Byzantine. afterward the Turks who had taken and pillaged Cyzicus in I I 13 sacked Lycia. 165-166. 106-107. pillaged the houses coast. “Ibi multas urbcs the Greeks. “Quam cum tota esset iuris Graecorum. aaAnna Comnena. villages. 59-60. Nicetas Choniates. it suffered considerably from Turkish raidingJRObut with the battle of Myriocephalum it was largely lost to the Turks. the Turks raided and expanded into the region. Anna Comnena speaks of the Turkish “satraps” cludes the cities is specifically stated. 23. coastal towns and to the destruction in western Asia Minor seems to be corroborated by an examination of the fate ofa number of towns. Later in his reign.87 The question arises. 111. the Turks events and situation in western Anatolia.^^ Though the contemporary narratives give only a partial account of the took Apollonias.4zPoimainenurn must have experienced the same states this explicitly. 43 Nicetas Choniates. William of Tyre. 14.rr6he15a6815 I s TT)V iTpOT6paV hTsraVUy&)’Ol KaTdtUTaUlV Kal TbV lr&?lV drrrO6Ofq K6UpOV K d ~ o b 5 Gasta Fratzcorum.

BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORWTION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION fate as Apollonias. thesc also received rough handling. I I I I . 268.Kzand somewhat later Hasan raided Nyrnphaeurn and the district of S m ~ r n aEphesus .4~The environs of Abydus were devastated by Tzachas reign of Manuel Comnenus. Nyrnphaeurn. Chliara).rc. 46 Nicetas Choniates.~G the twelfth century from Turkish raids until Manuel walled the city and It was the scene of two rebellions and of opposition to tI1e Third Crusade built fortresses in the depopulated countryside t o protect the peasants. and reached the Propontid regions wasting their environs. 145. The monasteries of Latrus WCK once more pillaged toward t]l(! end of tile Pergamum.G. 25. 11.000 inhabitants. Tzachas surrendered it peacefully. 144-145. Before the latter fortified the cities and the I 103. ed. as Saewulf reported when he visited the site in of John I1 and Manuel I. 68 Ibid. and Celb’~anum. the Turks from Persia. Thc town of Myra suiIi. the rural area had been abandoned by the inhabitants. destroying and desecrating them.49 regions.*8 and they continued to be subject to pillaging i n the reigns destroyed by the Turks. 166. A.GO The Turks sacked the nunmolls monastic establish~~len~s of tllcsc countryside. were “ruins” in E p h e s u ~ Phihdelpheia . again in the wasted in I 113. Ramsay. was no longer inhabited by the time of the third twelfth century. c . Malik Shah.. ~ ~ had fallen to the emir Tangripermes but was reconquered in the reign of Alexius I. 111. 47 Odo of Deuil. Located on the convenient river route of the Cayster.d rhc fate of StrobiIus a11c1the &usade. p. The sight was under constant pressure from the neighboring Turkmens. Antioch. Sardes. &id. and in Shortly afterward in I I 13 the Turks raided in the vicinity of Adramyttium. I 94-195. destroying. Calamus. south of Adramyttium encountered ruined towns. 155. Chliara. Chliara.64 Odo of and by the Turkish invasion of I I I 3.G. having fallen to Elchanes and its environs having been such as those that had sought to enter the valley in I I 10-1 I . but when a Syrian killed the Byzantine admiral.~~ was retaken frorll tlie Turks It was formerly a most populous city. ‘I al m p i a h i s xiSpat &OiKllTOi T E fi(TcN T6 ITPfV. sending them out to plunder in it. would likewise have been exposed. Phocaea. The expeditions of Hasan.He adds that the Greeks inhabited only the fortified towns. he also obliterated i t [Adramyttium].. ‘54. arlcl driving out the monks.000 men. 110.‘* Farther to the south thc coastal towns mum probably experienced much the same fate as Adramyttium. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. Chroust. p. Theodore Scutariotes. and during the rule of Isaac 11.R. it was no doubt accessible to raiding parties 43 Anna Comnena. The Historical Geograply of Asia Minor (London. 80-81. Mclanoudium and the mountain regiolzs of regions having been devastated by at least three Turkish raids i n the reign Latmus were sacked prior to the acccxiion of Alexiiis 1 . 268.” W. At that time when Tzachas was plundering after the recapture of Ephesus. one of the villages of the theme of Neocastron (Adramyttium. I I I I the armies of the prince Malik Shah raided the territory around Indeed Adramyttium and its nearby villages suffered severely throughout Philadelpheia as well as about Pergamum.G1 was i n a destroyed state by the latter part of the twelfth century. The nature of the destruction the emir Tzachas wrought Ephesus was surrounded by walls to keep the “pagans” out. 62Anna Comnena. and Pcntacheir. but because of its more easterly location it the regions of Smyrna.. I 109-1 I . 11.44but there is no indication that the Deuil notes that in the mid-twelfth century the toInb of St. I n I I 10-1 I of t h e obliteration of such a city [was such] that i t seemed that man never dwelled Hasan besieged the city with 24. 165. 111. allcl conscqt1cnlly took Smyma.45 the villages about Celbianum. ‘ago). 107.47 Chliara and Perga. 194-195. Clazomenae. Smyrna. 111. 1928). I I 13. S.48 in the latter part of the twelfth ccnturySG7 In I I 76 the Atabeg and Iiis Odo of Deuil remarks that the Crusaders immediately upon proceeding troops took and sacked many of the Maeandrian towns including Tralles. 111. the sailors are reported to have slain 10. which had previously been in Turkish hands. G O StrobiIus was of Alexius I. Louma.5O and Meleum (located between Calamus and Philadelpheia) other coastal cities. Anna Comnena.H. no doubt a reference to the towns that Manuel and his predecessors had fortified. M. P.. and that there is most clearly depicted in the case of Adramyttium. 27. 4 0 Nicetas Choniates. 130. nova series V (Berlin. 51 Historia Peregrinorum. John at town itself fell.lltll crntury.61Tzachas The Turks sacked Attalcia i n tlic eIc\rc.

’I1 Nicetas Choniates. 210. 11.” and remarks that it is built away from the old site. 72. The fate of eastern Bithynia. xxvi.” P. 363-371. is not at all clear. E6 Nicetas Choniates. OG Odo of Deuil. Cinnamus. the city was largely isolated in terms of land communication. 71 Prusa experienced practically the same history as Nicaea down to the end of the twelftll century. XVI. 111. John Comnenus made two expeditions in the regions to the north of Attaleia in order to settle conditions there. brought some hardship to Nicaea.G7and shortly thereafter by Buzan.Al-Idrisi. pp. for the unruly troops of Peter the Hermit pillaged the houses and churches en route to Nicomedia. as well as an abortive rebellion against Andronicus Comnenus. recaptured by the Byzantines in the late eleventh century. I 7-19. however. 203. 7.” . constituted areas of almost continuous strife. Epq~osKal &okq-ros Kai 6Pa-ros . . which separate the Anatolian plateau from the coastal districts. was still a “lofty ruins” set among thorns and bushes in the mid-twelfth century. and Crusaders repeatedly devastated. . Matthew of Edessa. X (1965)~ 879-910. refers to it as the “Burnt. 88-89. 164. 267-268. 74. Suf. 208. with the solitary exception of Claudiopolis which almost fell to the Turks but was 82 Anna Comnena. In the north the depredations begun by the Norman mercenary Roussel terminated in the destruction of both towns by the Turks who left them desolate ruins. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS O F TRANSFORMATION it was one of the cities Alexius rebuikG2Because of its geographical location and Turkish pressure from the north. Ibid.. Gesia Frascorunz.Attaliates. but evidently he achieved only partial ~uccess. . Attaleia was so hard pressed b y the Turks that the inhabitants could not cultivate their fields and as has already been mentioned they had to bring grain by sea. “Side. 340.- O8 Nicetas Choniates. 134. 7 0 Anna Comnena. -04 Wiliiam of Tyre. while yet in the hands of the Turks. 6-9. 658.6~ By the time of the Second Crusade ( I I ~ ? ) . . 11. 11.GgThe Turks once more laid siege to Nicaea in I I 13. iqo-iqi. Mansel.08 The reconquest of the city by the Crusaders entailed some difficulties. Anna Comnena. pp. p.60 Nicaea. Mansel. In the days of Michael VII this region had become ‘I. Die Ruinen uoii Side (Berlin. 1963). 142. O U Anna Comnena.70 I n the latter half of the twelfth century the pressure of the Turks about the Bithynian region. stretching from Dorylaeum in the northwest to Iconium in the southeast came to be a no-man’s land which Greeks.65 The mountainous regions to the east of the river valleys. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas.. This geographical district. 50. Turks. Nicomedia.G4 During the revolt of Andronicus Comnenus ( I 182)the sultan of Ronya subjected the city to a severe siege. M. 2 2 . 152 . was besieged by the emir Burzuk for three months.plementband.. 111. 11. but this probably refers to Side. On the northern edge of this region the Bithynian towns and countryside experienced numerous raids immediately following the battle of Manzikert. See A.W. when they ravaged Bithynia and the Propontis.

N. p. carried away the and the middle Maeander were especially exposed to raids by both the populations of Tantalus and Caria. 1gG3). they found both Hierapolis and Tripolis destroyed ( I I go). which kept eastern Anatolia in a state o f war. the famous Byzantine troglodyte mon- seem to have fared less well and when the Third Crusaders passed through astic communities of Cappadocia declined in the late eleventh and twelfth centuriesloDand were to revive only with the stability of the thirteenth 83 Anna Comnena.los Caesareia still lay in ruins when the T h e environs or both Laodiceia and Chonae were ravaged by the Greek First Crusaders came through the arealoBand until 1134 when the rebel Thcodore Mangaphas and his Turkish troops. 111. 686-687. “venerunt quoque ad Caesaream Cappadociae S. I n 1067 the Turks plun- 1070. 154. I 73.Bryennius. 11. O g Caria had previously been sacked neighboring Turkrnens and the forces of the sultan in Konya. 0 6 ~ h The city was finally incorporated into the Seljuk domains by KXdj I1 Arslan in I 169.lO* to remove them.*? T h e towns of the upper Maeander ogical and epigraphical evidence.H. 655. that it eventually had to be restored.. 296. and Though Laodiceia and Chonae fared better than most of the cities between Armenians. and Cappadocia were partially convulsed by invasions and end ofthe twelfth century. Ansbeut.101 isolated. 111. the eastern regions forth remained Turkish.85 but the Turks besicged it soon afterward. qheslres dc Cappodoce (Paris.. 661.” 1 0 7 Bar Hebraeus. H. Manuel had previously driven the Turkmens out of the area but they must have 108 Attaliates. 93-94. docia. 332. of St.. Notiuclles kglrses 56-57. . Scylitzcs. P. O1 Michael Acorninatus. R. 11.” OG Nicetas Choniates. I g o . HI. Historin Percgritiorunz.523.~~latter city was pillaged by the Turks in was raided repeatedly in the eleventh century. . 111. Nicctas Choniates.” Tois ll6puaig &V&?WTOS. as. The invasions were followed by struggles of and Lampe probably suffered extensively from the raiding of both sides. ruintc dcpuis longtemps. O .9% and both cities were certainly in Turkish hands by 1081. . 11.90 Seljuks. as a result of its famed chureh and commercial fairs. 523. dered and burned the city of Caesareia and sacked the celebrated shrine Laodiceia and possibly Chonae as well were reoccupied by the Byzan.C. was retaken by John Mangaphas. ” lo2 Attaliates. 220-222. 552-553. 140-141.lo7An eight-year period of later the rebel Pseudoalexius ravaged the outskirts of Chonae with 8.loOand Antioch a d Maeandrum was among the riverine Comnenus.. The chronicler remarks that he is not able to O 7 Ibid. Artukids. 27. 258: “Then this Malik Mahammad restored Caesarea of Cappa- O e Attaliatcs.Salimbene.10~Shortly tines a t the end of the eleventh century. pp.lo2and in 1069 they once more ravaged Cappad0cia. et il y batit des Cdifices avcc les 1382.CXXXIII. Cinnamus. returned soon after. (or I 186-87). Nicetas Choniales. 60 Nicetas Choniates. oGua~u u v o ~ ~ o v ~c j ~s vVGV ~ vBGpa-rai. *~ By the latter half of the twelfth the region. which had becn destropcd for a long time. I1 en retrancha une partie. IV.Cedrenus. 184.D0and somewhat Danishmendid Muhammad rebuilt the city. ‘‘ .. qui etait O n Cinnamus. sacked the Cappadocian viIlages. Sozopolis. 27. OE I . ed. T ~ V~ a Qpuyiau ~ h kvopfki Aao6iKElcnr. Menguchekids. a Turcis dirutarn .. 52-53 (hcreafter cited as Michael Acorninatus-lampros). 400-402.G. Cappadocia Limnai and the M ~ a n d e r the. Greater Armenia. Ibid. l o a Baldricus. quae a d solum diruta eral: ruinae tamen utcumque subsistentes quanta fuerit illa Caesarea speaks proudIy of hi5 patris. O0 Anna Comnena. 163.~. I . 5-6. Myriocephalum was ~ n i n h a b i t e dThe . 108 Michael the Syrian.Theodore Scutariotcs-Sathas. Lampros (Athens. Nicetas Choniates. I 10%De Jerphaniorl.. ~ ~ towns between Limnai Kaykhusraw.“ Michael the Ds Anna Comnena. 253. Nicetm Choniates. 229. Cedrenus. 39. Alcxius Comnenus h a d to keep to the mountains *I) Nicctas Choniates. ij TG TMIS u h o i s p6vq u@dv TI ~ E ~ B U ~ K E testaban tur. Cinnamus. Bar Hebraeus. I.D6 dids in the late eleventh century. 27. Cinnamus. and M. 190-191. 159. Theodore Prodromus. Cqbpadocc.O. 540. T h e towns of the Pentapolis were in ruins by the of the Halys. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEUINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION Barbarossa burned Phil omeli~ m.000 ravages by Turkmens in Cappadocia and adjacent regions began in I 185 Turkish troops who destroyed the church of the Archangel Michael. 111.‘ I .” Michael ihc Syrian. 395-400.25 I. 104 Attaliatcs. these raids were quite serious. 683-G84. 17-18. 154 I55 . 111. 135-1 37. Michael Acominatus-Lampros.pp. the lower Pyramus district. 105 Michael the Syrian. 237: “I1 se mit A restaut’cr la ville dc Ccsarbe. Chonac seems to have remained a vital economic and religious center record :ill the niassacres that took place in these eight years. 1879). Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. During the reign of Manuel the armies of Kilidj Arslan *Q Though Cappadocia passed in part under the control of the Danishmen- sacked the city so thoroughly. Sozopolis and the neighboring villages were taken and sacked by EASTERN ANATOLIA the sultan (during the revolution of Andronicus Comnenus when the cities of Byzantine Asia Minor were engulfed in civil strife) * 7 and hence. I. 321-322. 111. 6-7. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. 23 I. Chonae. I ~ ~ Z O 203. after the battle of Manzikert the Turks again appeared before the remains however. and part of the population enslaved by the Turkish troops under Theodore in the hands of the Turks for about half a century.losAccording to the archaeol- its famous mosaics and the altar. 08 century. 8o Nicetas Chonlates. I. ‘‘ . spreading out. 22. 41-42. *O Relatively towns that the Atabeg sacked in I I 76.93 The Turks retook Laodiceia. en Cappadoce. dp1$ K W ~ O T 6 h E I $hT)YO‘&pEUOs fiqa ! b T b V ~ T O lf iU a ? . pierrcs dc marbre qu’on arrachait des temples superbes. Theodore Scutariotcs-Sathas. I 0. in raiding the towns of the Maeander. 231. and there he dwealt. Danishmendids.s8 Manuel found Choma-Soublaion a sharnbles. 58-Go. K ~ TI ~ S la1N d 4 . 111. T ~ VTE & ) @ ~ o h ~~v~ o h k y ouhpcp u KM@E. . Nicetas Choniates.’> Cinnamus. 11 y habitait constammcnt.*g raids in this same period. century. 340. 74-75.~ g ~ ... and so once more the Byzantine emperor John Comnenus had of Caesareia and. Syrian. l o o Ibid. Saltukids. Nicetas Choniates. 71-72. 298. to avoid them. Thierry. MiXafih ’ A K o ~ w ~ ~ ~TOG o u XWVI&TOW~h uu{bpEva. Basil. I I.

Uuzan took the city aft. 111. Shortly thereafter it was taken by Tutuch who restored it to Thoros. 111. 112 Michael the Syrian. at which time the church treasures were taken. 198. 185. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION The regions of the upper Pyramus. 320.l17 Shortly after I I 34 Afshin pillaged the regions of Kaisum only to be followed by Mas'ud who in his first raid pillaged and took captives in the neighborhood. He returned a second time and reduced to ashes the nearby villages. '57 . and burned and roasted infants in great number with unparalleled barbarity.ll* In I 136-37 Muhammad the Danishmendid burned the villages and monasteries of the land about the town. The emir Khusraw raided tlie area between 1081 and 1083. p.lZ2But the Turkish pressure on the regions of 110 AI-Harawi. massacred without pity. 320-321. Matthew of Edessa.111 Marash was able to resist the Turks in the early period but changed hands between Christians112 and was damaged severely by an earthquake either in I I 14 or I I 15. In I 120-2 I the Artukid Ilghazi burned the villages. pp. P* '35." Michael the Syrian. 111. 245-246. 116 Michael thc Syrian. 208. I.er a long siege attended by famine in 1087-88. Matthew of Edcssa. Guide des lieirx dep8leriznp (Damascus. 344. though it had been besieged and its environs ravaged on numerous occasions by the end of the eleventh century. 114 Matthew ofEdessa. 111. 388. I 957). trans. Al-Harawi. or Gaihan. lal Michael the Syrian. 11. and assassinations in 1077following the occupation of the land by the Turks. found the town of Arabissus in ruinsllO whereas Albistan and the regions of the upper Pyramus were very seriously depopulated by the expedition of Yakub Arslan in 1155-56. l The ~ ~ regions of the Euphrates in southeastern Anatolia were similarly exposed to the vicissitudes entailed in the competition o f various Turkish dynasties and in the raid of Turkish tribes. p. 302. ll0 Matthew of Edessa.113 Muhammad the Danishmendid burned the environs of Marash and its villages in I I 36-3f114 and Kilidj Arslan took it in I 1 4 8 . Matthew of Edessa. XI. Gregory the Priest. I. Anna Comnena. 111Matthew of Edessa. p. 113 WiIliam of Tyre. River likewise suffered. priests and monks perished by iron and fire. 40-41. 217. he exter- minated the population of a great number of villages. Matthew of Edessa. from Tell Bashir northward to Kaisum. speaks of disorders. iii. 173. including the monastery of Garmir Vank. xxiii. "From Tell Bashir to Kaisum he enslaved men and women. 324-325. p. 1 2 0 Finally in I I 79 Kilidj Arslan destroyed its walls and carried the inhabitants off into captivity. 320-321. After crossing the Euphrates with considerable forces.ll9 In I 140-41 the inhabitants temporarily abandoned the town and so the Turks sacked and burned i t . Sourdel-Thomine. captivity. pp. Bar Hebraeus. J. 111. l l ESnwirm ibri nl-Muknffa'. Bar Hebraeus.lzl Edessa resisted the Turks for a comparatively long time. the Arab traveler of the late twelfth century. It was attacked by Gumushtekin in 1066. 247. pp. en- slaving and massacring the populations. the upheaval extending as far south as Antioch.llo Here the situation i s somewhat clearer as the tcxts of Matthew of Edessa and Michael the Syrian take as their focal points Edessa and Melitene respectively. 290. p.

212-215. 212-213. Michael the 144 Michael the Syrian.H. I. 111. 140 Ihid. I 92. I I 77. Sawirus ibn al-Mukaffa’. 181 Ibid. I. 266. 111. I. I 73. p. 230. Michael the Syrian. 111. I n Matthew of Edessa speaks of this period as “the beginning of the ruin and 1062-63 the regions of Nisibis and Seveverek had bccn raided by the Khurasan Salar.”lS4 The Turks captured and sacked Matthew of Edessa. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION Arslan destroyed the environs of the city in I 1 5 2 . I 1 .000 prisoners were ransomed and returned to the city. 523. the treasures of the church o€ St. 239. 111. 5. Ani in 1 0 6 4 and~ ~ repeatedly ~ raided the vicinity of Lake Van (Zorinak. 207-108. ”? . pp. contested the city of Melitene and its neighboring laid siege to the city unsuccessfully in I I 71. he did this to chastise the Armenians who were raiding his lands.. destroying the crops.O.346. like Mclitrne. added to the upheaval.131 Sometime later Christian Armenians retook it and engaged on the inside of the city the inhabitants were being oppressed financially. I. H. for 13O The inhabitants suffered from three things: ( I ) the sword outside the wall which Abu’l-Fcda. lfio hfatthcw of Edesua. with the result that the Turks put many the sultan of Konya. 217. 146. I.. 247. hopes seem to have run high among the Christians of Danishmendids in the latter part of the century ( 1 0 8 5 7 ) ~Mas‘ud. 248. 111. 249. Scbasteia. the 165 Attaliatcs.. II. Bar Hebraeus.1~8 First Muslims and Christians. Ilghazi finally retook Melitene after a difficult six-month siege as a result of which the inhabitants perished in great numbers. but that on the death of the latter Kilidj Arslan retook to get their gold. I. even unwittingly. says that in I 172-73 Nur al-Din forced Kilidj Arslan massacred those who Red. pp. pp. I.136 on his death the citizens were subjected to the lot of the Christians improved considerably. I. and then Seljuks and Danishmendids. I 15-1 18. 653-654. Bar Hebraeus. 135 Bar Hebraeus.140 Shortly afterward. Ibn al-Athir. Attaliates. Matthew of Edessa. p. destructive raids with their enemies the Muslim Armenians a circumstance that was repeated in I I 7 0 . 121-124. 267.O. pp. It too..187T h e environs ofthe city continued conquered Antioch i n 1085 he too was comparatively lenient with the to be raided by Turks as well as by Franks.14*T h e struggle between Danishmen.13DIn I 140-41 the Cassianus were stolen. 166-167. ‘59 . The Danishmendnamc. Bar I-Iebraeus. Michael the Syrian.while~ ~ ~simultaneously popuIation. ‘244. 208. 279. 11. I. (2) famine. 254. p. I. I.. lao Bar Hebraeus. 111. ‘59. R.l47 When Sulayman financial oppression by his successors.C.148 The city of Sebasteia was first sacked and reduced to ashes in 1059 Turks of Melittne pillaged the neighboring monastic establishment of Zabar. the strikc bctwcen Greeks and Armenians at this time. 7 3 . Bar Hebraeus.” countryside. 148. 229. With the success of Itrlidj Arslan kind to the inhabitants. Bar Hebraeus.” rctnkeii horn the Muslims by thr Georgians in I 124-25 and in I 161. l ~Kflidj ~ k s l a n returned and of Se~everek. Cedrenus. H. 320. H.The ~ ~ ~Seljuk did and Seljuk over Melitene was continuous and between I 14. 151 Bar Hebraeus. destroyed it a second time in I I43. Michael the Syrian.lG1and it was inhabitants of Melitene to the sword. I. 111. 111. 93. 165. 577-578. 111. 304-305. 265. who mentioned the name of the King of the Greeks or of the Franks. Matthew of Edessa. I 98-200. and the fact that the niony of Michael the Syrian. but those who remained suffered dids conquered ita196Kilrdj I Arslan took it in I 106. Danishmend wasted the mend150 Michael had to rebuild the Syrian.. I. I. Bar Hebraeus. Matthew of Edessa. Michael the Syrian. 33G-337. 111. p. It was Turks slew.. 303. and Melitene once more became a Seljuk possession. Michael the Syrian.14s Kflidj I1 the site for E r ~ e r u r nThe . Large numbers of its inhabitants were killed or enslaved.lS3 By 1071 the Turkish raids in the environs were years later. relates that Danish- the 111. 296. The attempt of Constantine X Ducas to 1*7 Michael the Syrian. 194. once more sacked when ICilidj I1 Arslan took i t in c. 266. Bar Hebraeus. I. Syrian. 1 8 7 Michael the Syrian. 111. Matthew of Edessa. 357. countryside. Matthew of Edessa. I I 1-1 13.. 173. 315. but perhaps this refers to a possible second capture by Kilidj I1 Arslan. 308. R. Bar 14. “At that time every Christian IC4 Matthew of Edcssa. which would have constituted a further serious de- villages so that for over a century this land knew no peacc. 43.H. lLH. 111. pp. Nicetas Choniates. 161-164. l4I Michael the Syrian. 31g-31.1. 236. During the siege many of the Christians had fled the endemic134but the city held out until I 102 at which time the Danishmen- city because of the severity of the famine. 111. 183 Cedrenus. 83-84. 267. 134 Cedrenus. pp. that afterward some I 5.1S8I n I 124 the Danishmendid city.146 Six the first large Byzantine towns that the Seljuks sacked when they appeared in eastern Anatolia. I t was one of population for the area had he not been forced to return them. citv. iii. 79-82.Bar Hebraeus. III. The Armenian rulers of Seveverek had converted to Islam to keep their domains. 111.C. zgo-zgr. Matthew of Edcssa. I. ~ ~ regions ~ of Byzantine Armenia were partic- ularly savagely devastated in the latter half of the eleventh ccntury.L’I. 131 Michael the Syrian. pp. he was success€ul. ld3Michael the Syrian. pp. He carried off 12. 107. i 4 0 Michael the Syrian. Manzikert) J60 Because of these disturbances Matthew of Edessa 1 3 3 Matthew of Edessa. was caught up in besieging it when arrival of the Crusaders in Anatolia caused him to lift the siege. Bar Hebraeus. destruction of the Eastern Nation. Abu’l-Feda. and the inhabitants abandoned the monastic complex of Bar Mar Sauma a few years later. 11. and though he was many ainictions from the ruler himself. 166-168. (3) The princc. 219. pp. in reciprocal. I. 660. 111. Bar Hebraeus. and the church converted into a mosque. who remarks that when Kilidj I1 Arslan came to Melitene Armenians raided the Syrian monasteries and attacked the Syrian populations of the Ire wns kind to Michael. when John Comnenus appcared before when the Turks pillaged it for eight days. 152-154. One source indicates 144 Michael the Syrian. And because of this many of the people of Melitene perished.000 of the rural population. 204. I. 111. This is illustrated by the testi- cnforce ecclesiastical union on the Monphysites of Melitene in 1063.C. says la8 Ibid. 205-206. 95-96. 313. a fact that caused great astonishment “to the whole wdrld. Attaliatcs. nevertheless there was a massacre. I n 1096-97 Kilidj I Arslan was 118 Matthew of Edessa.1 and I 143 chieftain Ibrahim Inal destroyed the important international cominercial Mas‘ud of Konya besieged the Raiding Turks pillaged and burned emporium of Artze to the east in 1049-50. 182-183. 205. who tortured the inhabitants in order to return Scbastcia to Dhu’l-Nun. 187.lgQand it capitulated to the Neocaesareia. Michael the Syrian. I 175. Chliat.8 Michacl the Syrian. Matthew of Edcssa. Hebraeus. 373. Matthew of Edessa. ~~ Melitene that he might succeed. 14% Michael the Syrian. in 1099. 111..

151.le3 the river valleys of the I-Ialys. and the Danishmendname gives aii interesting must have suffered.S OF TRANSFORMATION described the early twelfth century as a period of tribulations and This is strong testimony as to how the Turkish invasions affected the rnas~acres.lO6The city of Sinope underwent a similar experience for there the army as “they were about to march through uninhabited land which too the great panegyris of the local saint. I.170 and were in many cases partially abandoned by the Christian population.” jl.lo1 Though the Byzantines were able to seacoast. 248. che insight into the mentality of the ghazi tribesmen who actively carried 011 metropolitan of Trebizond. The hinterland of the northern coast consisted of thatby thereign ofNicephorus 111Botaniates (1078-81)most of the coastal rugged mountain country separating the Anatolian plateau from the regions were in Turkish hands. 289. 72. Oenoe. in varying degrees. 59. include gyris of St.B. I 76. 111. I 12. ‘‘ fisq y h p UOI K&VTffijea were 1 a ~ k i n g . )\I-Idrisi. Cassianus on the Pontus and took off the population selling it into slavery. two months’ rations were distributed to emporium. 111. 11. 175. 64. XXX (191I ) . from the upheaval. ” Alexius Megas Comnenus restorccl thc 16* Attaliates. looBryennius. Phocas.15D In many respects the hinterland of the Black Sea coastal regions re- During this reign the Turks had come into northern Asia Minor in sembled the regions of western Asia Minor between Dorylaeum-Cotyaeum comparatively large numbers and the roads were no longer safe. and seems to have enjoyed some prosperity in the twelftll century. I I 60 161 . 6s. Syrian. 29-30. p y c r h ~ v. Imp. 689. came to a halt and had been trampled underfoot by the foreigners. 111.l04 and many of the towns as the fifteenth century. remarks : destruction of churches and monasteries. “Saint Phocas. taking of booty. I. 111the twelfth century the Turks frequenlly raided the coast (at one lo’ Anna Conmena. Heracleia. Theodore Scutariotrs-Sathas. 111. imj. 86-95. and so forth. St. churcli and the panegyris. 392. The Greek forts and cities were in a 1 0 8 Al-Idrisi. 11. 18. 232. 239. It was in these raiding and warfare throughout the twelfth century among Byzantines. Comnenus massacred most of the Turks in the coastal region (it is not cxactly clear as l a *Anna Comnena. and again this annual celebration forgot the city. 427. Eugenius. Danishmendname-Melikoff. p. and Sinope-was raided by the setting effects of the Turkish invasion during the latter half of the eleventh Danishmendids. a27]). J 1st. peace. Features of this the great religious and commercial celebration of Trebizond. From that time the memory of the celebration became the victim of old prosperity until the late thirteenth century. and Lycus. and economic prosperity of this flourishing commercial prior to the battle of Manzikert. poem.q yev6Ueal K O I V ~ V . trap. 111. though the latter two were occupied by the [Michnd the Syrian. Al-Idrisi. and possibly point R certain Cassianus delivercd many of the forts of I’ontus to thc Danishmendids Sinope and Trebizond. I.lo8and though the hinterland of other coastal The regions of northern Asia Minor lay similarly exposed to the up. and Michael the Syrian. 11. l o 5 I ~Papadopoulos-Kerameus. and Menguchekids. Ilona was an cmbarkatian point for war sea. 111. .. 66. cities-Heracleia. state ofterror. Papadopoulos-Kera- meus. presaging the fall of (Kizil Irmak) were turned into areas of frequent raiding and plundering. and the struggle must have been a constant one as the areas.167 The formerly active maritime center of Amastris becalne an unimportant NORTHERN ANATOLIA town in the twelfth century. and Michael VII gathered people from Pontus and moved them across the 109 Cinnamus. cities during the twelfth century. 64. Iris. with the Muslims. deep oblivion. Paurae. remarlcs that John Turks for a short period.1~7When Romanus IV Diogenes arrived at Erzerum in 1071. Michael the Syrian. as the necessities 101 Van dcn Vorst. Michael the Syrian. 148. This difficult terrain is primarily accessible or traversable through recover the coastal regions by 1 0 8 5 and ~ ~ even ~ some of the hinterland. 11. which reflect the general conditions of the conquest. 151. northern Asia Minor remained a scene of continuous mountains from north to south and from west to east. There contested the possession of northern Asia Minor in the eleventh and is very little specific ipformation as to the fate of individual coastal twelfth centuries. 199. 11. Saltukids. tvlio ruled in At that time [eleventh century] there [were] massacres and captures of cities and collections of prisoners and there attended all those things which are grievous 1 0 8 There was a partial recovery in thc twelfth century.. 64. Bar IIcbracus. This region remained a border area as late by the Byzantines i n the late eleventh century. . were exceptions... there is no systematic account of the experiences of these century. 393. The critical period was the reign of Michael V I I Ducas (1071. but the city did not regein its I . writing at a later date on the reinstatement of the struggle against the Christians of northern Anatolia. K a i 6 V E ~ 6Q S o k o s fipai-rrw-rat ~ p l v Tais ~ V ~ E I T ~ V W V 16? Matthew of Edessa. 393. riverine corridors that the military forces of Islam and Christianity Danishmendids. to life.15o so and Loadiceia-Chonae. Attaliates. Id. proselytization. I. Seljuks. 170 Nicctas Choniates. Adding to the The Forgetting of the Celebration of the Birth of the Saint unsettled conditions was the fact that the Danishmendids. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BPC4INNINCI. Anna Comnena. the pane.I. papP&pov & O h v h T l e b E U l V 6. which penctrate the at least temporarily. who also remarks that its inhabitants led a nomadic life. in$. 266. the repeated siege and capture of towns. to which coastal region is meant). Michael the 1°“Ibid.lsgBy the end of the twelfth century the 78). Both Sinope and Trebizond were taken by the Turks and retaken few tantalizing sources imply. In I 139 Mnlik Muhammad pillagcd regions of l a g Ibid. l ~ ~ i~avljyvpisT~JV . Sinope in the early thirteenth century. security. 11.”168 his church was destroyed as a result of the Turkish invasions. The whole of the coastal region from Heracleia to Trebizond as Turkish pressure and raids had brought the Turks into possession of the well as the hinterland about the Iris (Yeshil Irmak) and the lower Kalys coastal town of Amisus just to thc east of Paurae. Joseph. Georgians..

2g-30. and Anazarba were Gangra. 315..C. 174 Danishmendname-Melikoff. the Turks pillaging.” Danishmendnamc-Mclikoff. environs were sacked early in I 069. gradually. 08. 684-685. Halys had been penetrated on numerous Because of the conflict of interest among Byzantines.1‘7 Previously. and numerous other fortresses for restricted conditions werc regularized much sooner here than in other areas. A1 Idrisi.ls3 The regions of Laranda. so that retaking Gangra. IConya. deserted. I t contiilucd to change hands in the twelfth century eve11 after the In 1.Attaliates. writing one-halr century later. 77-91. Argyropolis. especially. 178 See Chalandon. 1“ Nicetas Choniates. 13. Armenians.178 SOUTHERN ANA1‘OLIA Cilicia and the Taurus regions. Turkmen groups began to follow Alexius Comnenus left Amaseia with Roussel. 111. especially in the reign of John Comnenus. 178 Ibid.176In the warfare of the twelfth century. Malik Ghazi massacred the Greeks of Castamon.. (1907L75-83. CXXXIII. rgr-r58. The periods.196 the emir of Ankara besieged Dadybra for four months. 111. This brought a to see the family estates but found them abandoned. 96. had to be rebuilt. Seljuks took it from the Uanishmendids. occasions and in considerable force by the Turks prior even to the and Muslims. I. and Mopsuestia-Mamistra was half destroyed. the Danishmendids had conquered Paipert. plundered Cilicia in support of Turkmens who had been defeated by the Coloneia. Anna Comncna. Cedrenus. He paused near Castamon the Pyramus valley i n search or plunder and pastures. 46-47. Iris. Les CornnJties.” XVI B. must likewise have been enveloped in disorder. Latins. 277-280.182 Amaseia and Castamon were surrounded by raiding Turkish bands when Toward the end of the twelfth century. 11. Castamon. were by then mere ruins and possession not only with the Greeks but with the Seljuks of the plateau. Armenians. 626. rebellions of Byzantines had brought considerable Greeks arid Crusaders in the e h r n t h and twelfth cent~ries. 553 162 L E . BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS O F TRANSFORMATION I Turks relinquished most of Cilicia. 105.l‘l and Neocaesareia was sacked in 1068. P. the city and its suburbs and villages were attacked by both Muslims.1~7 The sultall destruction to Byzantine Paphlagonia in a nianner strikingly reminiscent of the rebellions in western Asia Minor a t this time. for the Turkmelis Were often and he himself only narrowly escaped capture. Heracleia.. 71-72. 108-112.181 and 1057 respectively.C. 606.l86 and some- warfare and change of political domination as did western Anatolia. 564. H.Z. . the 171 Honigmann. 17e Cedrenus. III.H. Amaseia. the Greeks succeeded in though the Turkish conquest of this region was definitive earlier. Doceia. says of the regions of Gangra. 2 1 .37. Pimolissa. I. Kurtz.”18G absorb the holdings of the Danishmendids as well as those of the Greeks. R. 76. Ostgretize. 11. though Gabras of Trebizond had reconquered Paipert and infested by Turkmens and so must have been in dificult straits. 15. and so the area found itself in much the same state of continuous Turks pillaged the regions of Ankara soon after Manzikert. and Byzantine garrisons reoccupied this area until the latter half of the twelfth century. IV. Euchaita. 234. Theodore Prodromus. 29. Cinnamus. IConya (Iconium) and its ing the houses. pp.170 The valleys of the Lycus. Michael the Syrian. had to contest the arca.170 time later the city fell to them. Ankara.. 45-48. as Paipert and Coloneia were raided in 1054 Turkish raiders carried off the population of Adana to Melitene in I I 37.172 and they sacked Pracana early in the reign of Manuel Comnelius. to remarks that it had been destroyed during the “time of trOUb1CS. double danger to the Christians in the area. 11. 93. Neocaesareia. Nicetas Choniates. witnessed frequent political change and military occupation.173 By the time of the supported by Muslim rulers such as Salah al-Din who in I 182invaded and Crusade of I I o I . “segetes et omnia sata rcgionis depopulantcs. Comana. The Crusaders of 1101 CENTRAL ANATOLIA found the regions about Gangra-Castamon east to Amaseia partly .180 appearance of Danishmend. 1373-1383. I 84. In the latter half of the century the Seljuks of Konya began. “Unedierte Tcxte aus der Zeit des Kaisers Johanncs Komnenos. Albert of Achcn. bombard.Anna Comnena. however.O. 249. 25-26. Though it was farthcr removed kon1 The Greek inhabitants were expelled and the city recolonized by the borders. I 81.18“ Coloneia at one pointJ114and the Byzantine general Taronites continued to contest Danishmcndid control in the area. the towns of the region changed hands frequently. Seleuceia and Corycus.. and Archelais. 173 Bryennius. polluting the water and eventually reducing it by famine. The three principal urban centers of the central plateau. E. and the earth scorched. As a result of the First Crusade.

” Matthew of Edessa. 108. Hidoire des Sebotlkides.18D Byzantine urban toponymy. the land was abandoned and no was without tears and without sadness. pp. ‘‘ . No place was safe outside the circuit of tlie walled cities. 86-88. E i S O~KfiUlUOvT T j V ITp&qV ciO(KqT0v. piteously [the victims] of arrows and spears. 45. XI. another his cousin who had died previously.at ykp rep1 ah&s XEeE15 h a s ficpavkflq. pp.. burned villages. The Ta’rikh-i-guzida or “Select Histop” of Hamdu‘llah Mustawfi-i-Qazwini. Until Manuel built forts throughout the rural area in which the women shed hot tears. trans. F. 305. pp. p. The towns and 164 ‘65 . and massacres. The Geographical Part of the Nuzhnt-al-Qnlub 193See the remarks above for tlic state ofperpctual siege which was the fate of Edessa compased by Ifatnd-allah MuslawJi of Qazzuin in 740 (1340). and captured farmers and others engaged in the city during the Third Crusade. This on the fate of Byzantine Anatolia constitutes something more than an caused the population of some of the towns to experience a temporary empty rhetorical exercise : rise. Xhlapa.VGKIOEV’C J h W 8. the other for his daughter. Le Strange (London. Here too. This was due to the fact that the rural population had previously boundaries). p. It cannot be maintained that the Turkish conquest operated with 101 Already in the twelfth century the Greek sources seem to refer to a very few rural ease and without serious disturbance of Anatolian society. Manuel transformed the uninhabited H. 18~-183. . of Anatolia. during this seventy-fiveyear pcriod. 22-23. and marily in terms of the population of the environs which had settled down also battles. that it too had suffered devastation. 111.336. and often destruction. p EIS ~ p o v o p j vTOTS lrvarpafJiv-rwv. Terror reigned over all and they hastened to hide in the caves. tion works not only in lhc urlxin ccntcrs but in the rural arcas as well. others being driven away from their The rural areas of Pergamum.rrhowroGoi xpqcrrois. a rural Obviously in some areas the destruction was greater. the toponymical evidence would seem to lend destruction. William of Tpc. thc tilling of the fields ceased. and others who yet survived (if some did remain within the Rhomaic raids. “They [Turks] took ananyme. wars. Dabock and ICrey.. 1g13). hand. G .I Theodore Scutariotcs-Sathas. A detailed study of late Byzantine and early Turkish toponylny remains one of the most important tasks for the siudcnts of Anatolian history.104 Many of the severe. bcsiegcd the city in 1087-88. lea Sawirus Ibnal-MukaTTa’. as is indicated by tlie survival ofthe Caesareia and Sebasteia. ~ a ‘iA r p a p h i o v KUKG~S h a q o v h b TGV l“kp~Qv. a member of the dynasty. KU\ Bpqpos O ~ K T ~ T ~K~W W~VO T ~. the lament of Anna Comnena refuge from the invaders by going to the walled and fortified towns. Kilidj I Arslan in I 106-07. and captivity. The destructive nature of the conquest is repeated in raidcd the area until the city was finally sacked and destroyed. they survived in a sadly declined state. Uzluk (Ankara. but 75 years later just prior to its destruction by Nur al-Din the city had And since the succession of Diogenes the barbarians tread upon the boundaries of the empire of the Rhomaioi . for a discussion or these names.H.000 Muslims. . Frederick Barbarossa also burned certain fortresses by storm. within the safety of the walls in fleeing the unsafe country~ide. Nicetas Choniates.a l a h b s TO~VUV. K a l hc TOO K O X ~ ~ c j p ~OIKEiuOal. to an inliabilcd :lrc:i. yet incomplete. quae terra est optima et valde fertilis bonorum omnium.1~3 At the and the whole land of the Rhomaioi was stained by blood of Christians.lQ2This formidable increase is to be explained pri- reign of my father.’’Fulcher of Chartres. his army slew 7. Cities were obliterated. IThj~OUcTlVOlKqT‘dpWV KUi Tois KWh TbV pfov vweiv-rwv K a i E ~ S ~b p q 6 b &-KOKWUOT&VTWV. Buzan Le Strange). BEC+INNlNUS OF TRANSFORNATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION Rukn al-Din burned the town of Laodiceia Combusta forty kilometers The cities in many areas suffered from the continuous state of warfare.p. I. X (1935). 111. records the following for the ycar I 108.” lB0 Uzluk. And there was at that time not one relationship which agrarian inhabitants might seek refuge. and upheaval accompanied the Turkish invasions and weight to this supposition. capture. being led off to of the late eleventh and the twelfth century. its rural areas alld ig~g).O. I n 1071 the city of Edessa had a population of approximately 35. 273.lfl0 longer cultivated. The city was repeatedly besieged. Though a great Archelais (Aksaray) would seem to imply. most of the sources. ho~ever. 24-25. Swords a n d spears were whetted against t h e Christians. Kicctns C:honiatcs. K U ~T&S VAquiov Sf: T b F% 6ko1sTO’($ Tq$ ’Ava-roAQ pkpEUIv U h G v kpqpo8h’WV K a i TkkEOV KCrrUTpO. cultivating the ficlds. Flistoire des Seljoukides d’Asic Minsure par un vii. and Adramyttium suffered homes were carried off captives to the cities of Persia. ‘ E d T O ~ O UTOO pauikbws b 1v.“Nam Romaniam. 53. ~ ~ 6 1 a 6 TpOVplOlS cq Uy. 1g5z). On the other areas by their Turkish names. tire. 25. I‘ al €15 T T ~ V ’Aolcrv I T ~ ~ E I ST& . pp. 96. trans. trans.000 inhabitants. Wittck. 11. lands were plundered. 542. Among them destruction and almost complete depopulation throughout a large portion some cried aloud in horror at those things which they suffered. IT&VTWV Xpio-riavBv &IT’ ahBv XGjpai & o k q T o I TE quav ~b npiv.. and food began to fail entirely. Chliara. much in the same manner as many of the cities continued to exist.000. Briwne (Leiden-Landon. R. Sukman the Ariukid in 1095-96. lived scattered in small unprotected villages and so was an easy prey of the One bewailed his brother. . Turkish armies l o oAnna Comnena. . KC~TWX~PWUE TEIXEcn. By complete. When the emperor did build the fortifications.” The period of the invenimus nimis a Turcis vastatam el depopulatam. I 95. zzg. cried.lB8The fact that IGlidj I1 Arslan rebuilt Coloneia lessening of commercial activity.the greatest part of the datable Turkisll toponyrnical evidence occurs later. isolation from the countryside. TZ) u(IpTas UXEGAV K ~ O ~ OKW& S Y Ey i v Kai Ba?iauuavm hbTGV lr0Bov papP&pwv Kmau. lamenting. far. 689.lgl Very often the village populations sought occupation of the peninsula. 268. In I IOU the Turks burned the villages. llGpyaD6v TE. relates that Kilidj I1 Arslan rebuilt it in I 1 7 1 (hereafter cited as Qazwini. in other areas. mountains. Kai T&VTWV -i&v OiK?lp&TWV Kai rBv xwpiwv K a l &Qv TBVkKAqalGv nohEploIS ~ T ~ O ~ K E I V T OK . ppulation subjected almost unintcrruptedly to the sword. it would be just as erroneous to assert that the destruction was b’’zantioti. l083. the emir Kl~usrawin E.G . survey of Anatolia during the latter was rural society that often was more disrupted and displaced in many parts part of the eleventh and the twelfth century indicates that violence. I t This detailed. Nicetas Choniates. tlie one for his son. north of Ronya at the end of the twelfth century for having mistreated a for they underwent siege. conscqueIltly IS8 Ibn Bibi-Duda. iii. Consequently. less society was re-formed and the land returned to cultivation. and like invaders. T o n der byzantinischen zur turkischen Topanymie. forests. as a result of the Turkish Persia. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. (:ornncnoi arid the Lascarids sccnis to haw witnesscd an extcnsion of thc fortifca- Odo of Deuil. and hills. the barbarian hand was not restricted until the 47. Cinnamus. Bar Hebraeus. Some fell western extreme of Anatolia ihe same phenomenon could be observed.C. 169.

E Abydus-P. P Cbonae-X. P. P. X. B Melitene-P. C . Chliat-p Poimamenum-X J’ Adramyttium-X Adramyttium-P. X. P. €3 Melitene-X. E. X Mopsuestia-X Amorium-X Corycus-x Cedrea-C Adana-X. X Apollonias-P Dorylaeum-Iconium-P. X AND VILLAGES West Anatolia-X Nisibis-X Hisn Mansur-M. p Cyzicus-C. E. Pyramus R. P Tell Bashir-S. M. E Gargar-P Lopadiuin-X Lopadium-P E. X.c Smyma-P and Maeander. X Euchai ta-C Nicaea-C. Villages. c= Caria-X. c. C Selcuceia-X Pyrainus Valley-p Cotyaeum-X. Calamus-X p. P Bar Mar Sauma-B. B = besieged. X. E. X Sardes-C Ephesus-P. M Ankara-P. Antioch ad Maeandrum -X C homa-Soublaion-X r 66 . F Pithecas-X Malagina-X SOUTHERN ASIA MINOli Dorylaeum-X. xJ Armenia-M. P. x AIbistan-E. E Polybotus-C Pracana-X Philomelium-C.X CEIVIXAL ASIA MINOR Myriocephalum-X Iconium-X. P Sozopolis-C. X Phocaea--P Paphlagonia-P Zorinak-X. B Pi m olissa-C Prusa-C. M Phocaea-C. Gargar-X. P. P. P Towm. P Sebasteia-X. X. Cayster. X. E = enslaved. P Caicus. X Attaleia-l? Trebizond-X. P Artze-X. X Strobilus-X Doceia-C Attaleia-X. P. Seveverek-p Cius-C Poimamenum-P Thynia-Bithy nia-P . X. C. = sacked or destroyed. C. Massacred. Enslaved. x. x. F Propontis and Mysia-P. Hermus. -E. X E. F. C Colorieia Archelais-X Laodiceia-C. P. X Clazomenae-P Phrygia-P Ani-X. P. C. X TOWNS AND VILLAGES ENVIRONS OP TOWNS PROVINCES >’ MJ Edessa-P. P. E Apollonias-C. p Meleum-X Pergamum-F. C Melanoudium-X Laodiceia-P Amaseia-B. X. F Smyrna-C. P. F = flight. F Ephesus-C. C Cappadocia-P. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION EASTERN ASIA MINOR Caesareia-X Arabissus-X Marash-P. C Latrus-X Chonae-P Castamon-X. B. B. E. C Pen tacheir-X Lampe-P Neocaesareia-X. C Iconiuni-P. X Laodiceia Cornbusta-X Hierapolis-X Ti*ipolis-X Tantalus-X. B Gangra-C. C Castamon-X. E. BJ Perkri-P Chliara-F. F Tralles-X Co tyaeum-X Paipert-B. F KaisUm-s. E. B Comana-C Nicomedia-C. M. B. F Philadelpheia-C Dory laeum-P Amisus-C Amaseia-X. C. X. X. C Clazomenae-C. C Louma-X Sozopolis-P Coloneia-B. X Claudiopolis-B Dadybra-C. B. X Ankara-X. Lake Va1+-PJ p WESTERN ASIA MINOR Edessa-B. or Besieged Kakum-F. Provinces Destroyed Pillaged. x. P. M. X. p. C Gangra-X. E x Key: = p i l l a s d . P Pisidia-P NORTHERN ASIA MINOR Nymphaeum-C Philadelpheia-P Lycia--P Sinope-X. x. E. E M = massacred. N.

l06 In the east the commercial center of Artze was. and Baris must have quite clear that a portion of the population in some areas of Anatolia seen the flocking of rural elements to the safety of the city walls through- simply fled in order to escape the raids. and the population fled to the islands and to Constantinople itself. 331.. 141. 066’ east of ISrzerum. M. “La conquete de I’Azerbaidjan par les Selcljoucides.. IV.84. R. 86-88. . Bryennius.rq68Eu i & P M O S yivmai. The most abrupt and serious dis- from their original homes. Bryennius. xxvi. Danishmendname-Melikoff. “Mittelalterliche Befestigungen im siidlichen Jon{en.pp. 111. B?’ inyqhoG 66 TWOS K a l & I T O K P + ~ V O Vi6pvpkvq 806 Anna Comnena. . It is of the new walls.laS kKEXUuhJQV TTEPiT&s hTCdpEiUs TCh &KEioE PovvGv. the settlement had been.” B. 564. 87. or a death occurrcd. ?’enilmet Kiifirler William ofTyre.PP. Also M. along the boundary between Danish- the villages around Philornelium.206 In the north there is evidence of a countryside were thus defended by a coordinated group of forts and city walls. Tseretheli. namely.Huseynov. without walls and the town was scattered about Obviously the majority of those who fled could not possibly have fled from over a considerable area. . so* Miklosich et Muller. Andnn kirn koylerdc l o D Anna Comnena. Kmh 66 Kd!. they could not and did not destroy the indigenous population.5-73. p. 99. t. Michacl VII Ducas reportedly transferred people that Isparta (naris) was one of the strongest fortified towns of the area.” Ibid. from the Turks. lg7 Attaliates. 1 0 8 B ~ o s ~ eGbrgie.” I 68 . 99-108. I . Consequently. “Andan Rum iqine Lv5z dusmigdikim Melik pp. serious illness. inhabitants Red to the protection of the walled city of E r z e r ~ m .O.K. all to their strong defenses and strategic locations. were a minority of the population. Mclitene.” Albert of Achen.. As harsh as the Turkish invasions not defended by walls. ~I ~n ’ as in the regions of the Taurus. the Turks destroyed it and the the peninsula itself.K. The advance was halted each time that a birth.aoa EfiEPKh q)pc[yUUp6VllV TEIXEUI. mountains and walled towns. The Danishmcndnamc. Zonaras. 1.203The Greek inhabitants._ kal’elerc kaqdilardi. 348. and from the area to the l06 Nicetas Choniates. nopEVopkvoi5 p6Aig id~ f i v-rr6hw E ~ U ~ Y ~yiVETal.4. 88. 11. B. soon evacuated the regions of Christians contested for the longest periods.. area and so had no walls to protect the inhabitants. KBfirler anda kac. H. Dinismend Ncs!Gilc Satt3ri g k I u sikrnig dkyu bu i1abcr baydian. lS8 The ability of all three towns to survive the Turkish conquest so long was due above 1011 Anna Comnena. ’ (1g57). z I I. But in western Anatolia. I 78.. “Das Leben des 11. he had to seek out the former inhabitants as they had fled rural society in many parts of Anatolia. indicative of a partial withdrawal by the inhabitants from the the Dioneerina study of W. 111. 37. On the disarray and destructionattendant uponthe Seljuk occupationof Adhar.203. see R. or into consequent flight of local populations. and Tarsus. Castamon. but rather moved to thc protection of the mountains. V. was concentrated into a centralized synoecism and fortified with walls. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION DISPLACEMENT OF POPULATION population centers were not compactly settled and centered in one urban With this violent displacement of Anatolian urban and rural society. 92-93. ptv bo-n T ~ dv V ’A+ rrdthar krriu1I\uwv. Cedrea. 96.. 011the other hand. 577..loOIn documents of the monastery of St. 62. 6. 34G. 564.dilar.9’flu ozjn pqxavfiv &v TIS ih6. On this see similar type. 111. 16s: 0 3 K h okav U V V O I K O U M ~ J&$ VGV k b p m a i . pfav 66 TIVU K O ~ I ~ ? giva a detailed description of this mass transplanting of unprotected Greeks.” 1. the violence and length of the conquest and occupation The rural populations of the area then must have retreated to the safety did bring a partial desolation and displacement of the inhabitants. XVI.C.Melikoff. who had only to placement must have taken place in those areas that Muslims and cross the Bosphorus to reach safety. R.M: XI (igGi). ZII. kim Rum i$nc dugdi kanda kin1 !arb ykrler varise. William ofTyre. and Konya. Laodiceia in Phrygia what happened to the inhabitants of the towns and the countryside? was made up of scattered settlements at the foot of the mountains and was Their experiences in this period varied. we see the progressive the south the farmers deserted the Pamphylian plain and sought refuge in WithdrawaI of the monks and inhabitants of Latrus to Strobilus and then Attaleia (and elsewhere as well). some ofthem no doubt seeking refuge in the larger towns. 111. Zonaras. Anna xwplou T@ $v M A c p t a i q s p i p ~ . VI. and in the border regions about the numbers must have been involved. H. Christodoulus. 36. the region between Chalcedon and C h r y s o p ~ l i s When . John Comnenus erected a wall about the city after retaking it ‘01Attaliates.H. P. The refugees o-revw-rdrrqv mp6Xma\ E ~ O O ~ O V6. 757. 638-639. 72. I. . from P o ~ ~ t u“across s the sea. ~ ~ ~ Alexius evacuated the Greeks from Dorylaeum and Attaleia in the west. considerable rnendids and Greeks in the north. TarchnichviIi.201 In the Amaseia. describes such flights of population? from villages and undefended are= to the Koenigs der Koenige Dawith (Dawith 11. like many other cities. xii. nnlardalii yalriina Y C kimisi dahi Albert of Achen. 5-122.Luv Eirrpadoacr8ai.H. The chroniclers observed that this out the twelfth century. Just to the east Chonae.rrav. tururdi. 330. large numbers of lations largely abandoned the regions about Gangra. and the countryside became the camping to the islands in the face of the Turkish advance.” T & Ibn Bibi-Duds. perikcnde olrnislardi. Muller-Wiener.l06 But as a result of the invasions.O. but again one must assume that they Taurus and the river valleys in the south and east. (1957). ‘‘ Xco{hohrs a h q ~ t r h l S 8 0 4 Attaliatcs. Val beph-rrols y&p BTI pfi KUT’ d h l y o ~ s attacks. Cinnamus.aal Svv+xrai O ~ T E were put in the center of the bodies of troops where they would be protected from Turkish 71 TQV E ~ S-raxowy. or else to the protection of strongly the Georgian regions of Transcaucasia there was a similar devastation and fortified towns such as Edessa. 1089-11 2 5 ) ~ ’ B.201. All these refer to partial and not to total withdrawals. parts of Pontus.267.C. 148.. Sozopolis. Trebizond.K. “La decouverte d’une inscription gtorgienne de l’an I O ~ G .z02 When after the ground of the Turkmens who came to raid and to bcsiege Attaleiaqzo0 reconquest Alexius sought t o rebuild the coastal cities of the Smyrna- Thus the invasions and repeated raiding very markedly disrupted the Attaleia region. 93.. phenomenon occurred across the breadth and width of the peninsula. 267-268. IV. Cedrenus. 111. districts of Castamon. 111. Gangra. VI.lQs I n the north the rural popu- other lands held by Christians. (19651. 17. remarks Michael the Syrian.

more numerous than the pebbles in the desert of Sinai. Edessa. were all inhabited primarily by Christians. Our eyes witnessed this sad new heights during this period. The migrations Matthew Persia made strenuous efforts to shunt the Turlcmen tribes into Anatolia described. they found Christians inhabiting the whole area. I (rg24). and the B a t t a l ~ ~ a m e illustrations of this psychology. 1952).r t t d i n westcrn i1n:itoIia. The central plateau regions toward the coastal regions on the north. In western Asia Minor. I. Neocaesareia. so that there was a recolon- 211 GesfoFrocicorrcni. R.211 Tarsus had A similarly great displacement of the indigenous population took place a largely Greek and Armenian population.Ikossct.. and others. garrison. aiid jnssini. cal phenomena there exists the tendency to exaggerate and discolor. There is no doubt that in allsuch similar histori- of the Taurus a nd Cilicia at this time. a work that his successors John 21% William of Tyre. But again. and many or the Turks were imbued with the gI1azi It would seem quite likely that after this first half century of invasions. Konya. such as Adrarnyttium. west. The Greek populace of the northern coast was relatively unaffected by Ani. ~and Ankara appears to have had a very m a l l Turkish garrison in I 10I and Ducas when h e Turks were free to go about Anatolia almost at will. for the most part. i. century. and elsewhere to the safety recent Christian historians. "Des Grecs aux Croisds. For populations were precipitated into melium and Iconium. 111. who describes thc capture of Damascus by htsiz in 107G. 1'' SCC above. remained in Anatolia. 814 h i i n Comnena. and Muslim sources themselves testify to this characteristic or Turkish llomadic south. Matthcw of Edcssa. and tomb of al-lhttal on the UyzanLino-Turkipil bordc~rsii1 northwest Anatolia.j I1 Arslan) make them the of the coastal towns. mentions the important shrinc m 7 Matthew of Edessa. . than the people whom Moses led across walls was able to resist the Turks. Also Bar Hcbracus. Lycandus. Laurent. p. it i s to be doubted that these Christians who fled were society within the domains of In addition. 198. 2 I r-a I 2. 225--126. AI-I Itirawi.p. 111. Matthew of Edessa describes the situation as it existed in the first year of the reign of Alexius Comnenus. an element devoted to raiding and plundering. IV. * I * l'hcodorc Scutariotcs-Sathas. iianicd il rivcr aftci their hero nl-B. Others were probably on a smaller scale. I. wandered in begging their bread. 200 Anna Comnena. Melitene. Philadelpheia. 54-57. 1O3. mentality which called for the dcstruction of the enelnies of the faith. Coxon. 330-331. p. up to Taurus. and Clionae prior to virtue of the failure of the Turks to conquer this region permanently. ~ ' this became widespread in the reign of Michael VII M a n ~ i k e r t .210 and at the time that the Crusaders advanced from Nicaea *I* ~a~iishmeiidiinine-MelikoR.iittaliatcb. Illustrious personages. 21° Ibid. The sum Turkinen element. I. as well as On this see the judicious remarks of J.20' aspect of the Turkish invasions in the period under discussion as being The Turkish movements precipitated a veritable migration of Christians nothing more than an exaggeration on the part of contemporary and more from the regions of Cappadocia. Alexius resettled and rebuilt many Malik Danishmend. having no Turkish garrison within the the Red Sea. and Deluh and the considerable numbers of the inhabitants of the region between Philo- environs. 111. Lampe. scene of the djihad. 29. Giorgie. Caesareia. 442-445. I 69. coming by the thousands and crowding into them. pp. pp. 111. The mortality rate among the indigenous populations must have reached women of position. xix. Sourdel-Thominc. for The t-2rab traveler al-I-Iarawi. chiefs. covering the surface of the land. as is witnessed by the example of these regions en masse. Gestn flrntlcorltftz. Also. The land walls.200T h e inhabitants of a15 Sce for instance the account o f Ibn al-Qalanisi. 27. as well as the Kitab-i Dede Korkut. reigned agitation and trouble. total. xi. however. Antioch. Ki1rd. Marash. Farther inland the establishment of officials in 213 William of Tyre." the sliriiiu of the hIualirn raiders who fcll at Amoritti11 in the ninth century. ization of the partially destroyed areas. P I I . such cities as Sardes. i t was the considerable extent. V. But at The Turkish invasions thus induced migrations among the indigenous the same time it must be kept in mind that the great Seljuk sultans of Christian inhabitants in varying degrees. tratls. Turks out. p.212 Marash. who visited Anatolia in thc latter Ilalf of the twelfth towns between Dorylaeum and Konya. 182. Malik Shah. has Icft US an account that c h t r l y illu5tratrs the importance of tllis ghazi mrntality.208 Extensive massacre accompanied tlie sacking or the cities of Sebasteia. were all inhabited by Christians. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION and Heracleia. Dntttns de 10G5. with only a small Turkish in southeast Anatolia. The latter was inhabited by Greeks and because of its might add seven times more numerous. . the cities of Philomelium. others remained. as well as those of the Greeks from the coastal regions. 4. The tlic Dcsturnarne of Umur Pasha. Le Laodiceia and Philadelpheia were still there when Alexius drove the Tourneau (Damascus.n 1154. and Manuel continued. trans. IconiuIn.210 the native population had. 1 3I . 27. The gllazis @%'UnlbZ. 214 was inundated by these multitudes of people. They were like locusts. was to produce a movement of Christians away from the which effected a great portion of the conquests and occupation. Anatolia was now the anything more than a minority of the indigenous Christian population. were of in order to spare their own domains from their ravages. indicates Go-Gg.21s Though Alexius I had removed Everywhere throughout Cilicia. 284. The Turks formed only the garrisons. Choma. I Tyriaeum. Amorium. They were more numerous. 209. and to the east the It is significant that tlie very chroniclers who praise individual Turkish Crusaders encountered Christians along their road (some of whom they and Arab rulers for their clemency to the Cliristiaris (such princes Were massacred). It has been customary to pass over this spectacle. nobles.218 was remitted to the Byzantines by the Crusaders. to HeracIeia. that Greek populations still inhabited these towns. Plastentza (Albistan).

p. p. IIghazi the Artukid raided Edessa and destroyed what there was of the worshippers of the Cross. 111. I. too late. conditions favorable to both famine years later Edessa experienced a severe famine as the Turks in the rural and plague appeared.. In I 108-09 Turkish invaders enslaved and mas. Cedrea. Michael the Syrian.226 frequently exposed to sieges and raids.228This general pattern particularly manifest after the arrival of the Crusaders. and tilling of the fields stopped and food supplies began to dwindle. and in the Georgians. 111. 2aL Ibid.204. . The sultan ‘Ala’ In western Anatolia. 188-189. 169. xxii. its grain was to be into western Asia Minor. 181. some of which were Ibn Bibi-Duda. became third year the town would be forced to surrender. pp. Brosset. 302.In western Anatolia the armies of Alexius massacred the Turkish raiders 2 3 0 William of Tyre.. 172 I73 . continued to burned. zqq. 214 Ibid. 111. which Ixoduced a famine to differentiate between the leaders and the Turkish tribes. XI. from getting any supplies and provisions from the outside. it. Alexius sped to the relief of the area.221 century. 265.. and the land of the Greeks was in ruins. after the Byzantine reconquest.227 Armenia. 2ar Ibid.22* The most of a partial disruption of agricultural production in the rural areas clearly spectacular event to be recorded i n this respect is the capture of Edessa appears here and there i n the few unsatisfactory sources. qui l’entouraient en giande nombrc. 2 6 4 4 5 . aa7Matthew of Edessa. 348. which down to its destruction in I 146. Bar Hebraeus. Alexius Comnenus removed Greeks from the &Din desired to take the strongly fortified town of Amid. et ne Iaissaicnt pas facilement ses habitants entrer “TOIOGTOVyhp ~b pdppapov hrav h o ~ p o vr p b r aTayhS K a i ~ohiyov5. 2 I 9-220. 181-182. p.” Comnena.232 Incomplete as the information is about rural Turkish hordes. 202. The invasions caused a displacement of rural society in thc villages about Edessa and enslaved the farming population. I. They fail captured Melitene in I 124-25 i n a severe siege. When he arrived he found the region strewn with bodies.401-402. vii.223This character of the be taken captive. describes the process in considerable detail. often time no place outside the walls of the city was safe. Armenians. rural society and agricultural production.Michael the Syrian. . the . Cinnamus. 208. In the regions immediately interrupting thus the cultivation of the fields. U“ I On the arrival of news of the raid of the Turks in the regions of Mt. 239. and famine to the north the Turks raided the rural areas of Hisn Mansur in I 108-09 killing and enslaving the farmers. p. 246. devastating plague that there were not enough priests to bury the dead. By this many areas and consequently food production was seriously.. conditions around Edessa.220 In I 108 Turks burned mortality rate.. p.nag. Gbrgie. I n 1092-93 there was such a eas I6id. 2 1 I-212. Ibid. was 47.p. already ravaged by the ferocious and sanguinary in the way of harvests.. 29. and Syrians against the Turks. 3 I 5. the lands I 120-2 I .”2s1 Muhammad 2ao Matthew of Edessa. still breathing. 359-36?. 189. I 137) as follows.~oa-18a. Many provinces were depopulated. 191-1gz. A cause des Turcs large parts of Anatolia resulted in widespread death. Lentiana and of the plain of Cotoraicia. 302. Michael the Syrian. reads: also the severe sieges of the towns and their reduction by famine is repeated We begin here the narration of the massacres and the tribulations which have throughout the twelfth century. Not one province remained protected from their devastations. 32 I . I. but because regions of Philomelium. its livestock driven off.230 Five as these towns were often besieged. Toward the beginning of the year 528 [1079-80]famine desolated . As much of the population fled to thc towns. 2 3 0 Matthew of Edessa. so that bread was lacking.220 The prologue to part three of his history. that brought death to the inhabitants “by the thousands. 204. writing in the thirteenth marked this unfortunate time. and. when the Turks put to the sword 30.. as did Matthew. The farmers and workers had been massacred or lead off into slavery. eleventh century was a period of great massacres and blood-shedding in Nowhere was one able to procure bread. and Konya precisely because he feared of its defensive strength it would have to be reduced over a period of that they might perish at the hands of the Turks. GJorgie. ‘I. See also Matthew of Edessa. sacred the farmers around I-Iisn Mansur. 265. r P- BEGINNINUS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION extended its rigours to all places. Anna Comnena.000 out of a population of mented area is that of Edessa.231 About . By the beginning of the reign of Alexius I all these areas continued to disrupt agricultural activity. speaks of Edessa in 1449 * * 5 The sources give sufficient indicatlon that the continuous process of conquest in ( c . Matthew of Edessa. 274. 111. the Oriental exceptions t o the more general rule. and the farmers and landowners were to be marked by mortality anlong the Christians. a34 Ibid.222The Turkish raids three years.quand adesse Ctait comme dam une prison. The Turkish emir Buzan attacked The growing incidence of famine and plague no doubt increased the the city in 1087-88 and subjected i t to famine. During the second year the city was to be prevented Turkish conquest aroused equal ferocity on the part of Greeks. 165-166.. pp. as we shall see. pp. which deals with This testimony to the partial uprooting of farming populations.u. pp. 111. 265. the inhabitants of Edessa factors had begun to take a now being forced to make bread from acorns and barley. Ibn Bibi. according to his plans. and the events of the early twelfth century. I 98. 2 3 2 Matthew of Edessa. but came Brosset. Theodore Scutariotes-Sathas. 838 Matthew of Edessa. Ibid.000. p.233 Emir Ghazi the Danishmendid 210 Some scholars who have based this claim of a peaceful Turkish conquest on Matthew of Edessa have noted only the passages where he praises these humane leaders. The best docu- in I 146. consequently. Melitene was in the grip ofsuch a faminc that most of the Christian population abandoned 2~ Attaliates. disastrously.” Also Anna ou sortir. which. Annabo&ena. 111. Before IGlklj I1 Arslan took the city. and their families whenever the opportunity presented itself. In the first year. 249. it gives some idea as to the partial disruption of Everywhere the Christians had been delivered to the sword or into bondage. 198. affected.210 Matthew remarks that the nation [Armenians] no longer existed.

26. p.321. p.OOO Christians a n d sold them a t Aleppo. pp.. I t was for ductivity was so affected that on occasion there was not enough food for this purpose that the Turks. 320. H.236 society: as domestic servants. former numbers. Bar Hebraeus.O. The O$pring of lhe House of Olfonzotmo and OJces Pertaining lo the Greate Tidies. and Tripolis. 266. the captives were sent to Persia and elsewhere. Armenia. Miklosich e l Muller. A goodly so that invading armies might find no sustenance.. They the period of the vintage. 87. as inmates of the harems.H. human booty had enslaved a t IOO. Anna A further contributing factor to the decline in the numbers of the Comnena. 111. 204. 331. vii. See Vryonis. pp. 111. and Mesopotamia were taken off to the slave markets. never complete in the whole become Muslim.~45 these were frequent during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. He also comments on the activities of the 17. Michael the Syrian. Nornadisirie et uiepaysanne (Paris. source of slaves Ibr the Islamic world through the fourteenth century. XLI (1965)~224-252. 260 if. KO. trans. of course.C. iv. Anna Comnena. took with the inhabitants. 99-108. and they constantly reproached the Greeks with of the Seljuk princes. agriculture declined there i s no doubt it affected the density of population 2’“Matthew of Bdcssa. I. yg. a very general statement. 87... Bar Hebraeus. since there is no one to work were employed in the duties traditionally assigned to slaves in Islamic i t . VI. 165-166. (hereafter Brocquibre-Schefer). ~ emir ~ ~ Balak acted similarly in the regions of Samosata. 195r).244 in the face of incessant raids likewise ceased to be productive. 274. trans. Michael the Syrian. live under the most grevous youke of tribute. women. and cut off the water enslaved men. But one must assume that during the troubled periods. Schefer (Paris. There is ample Persia. testimony in the contemporary accounts that this situation did not change Michael the Syrian. which are. trans. H. however. These few sources seem to indicate that the slave trade was a flourishing one. Middle Ages. Comnena. 336. 369).de Planhol. XI. Hierapolis. 229. When *doSee above.C. and he adds that they were sold in thc slave markets as far away as come to constitute a very important portion of the spoils. brought into Cilicia by Mleh the Armenian. R. 268-273. I. In fact Asia Minor continued to be a major aa6 Matthew of Edessa. and at the same time the sultans entrusted them treachery in this respect. nevertheless.H.111. The Turks of Nur &Din. Georgieuiz. exaggeratedly places the number of the beginning of the Arab razzias into the land of Rum. Matthew of Edcssa.237Other rural areas abandoned by the population K ~ n y aThe .” Der Islam. 181-182. Both sultans and would decrease the Christian population in Anatolia. 564. In the Turkmen raids of I 185 and the following years. in Albert of Achen. 16. a portion of these Anatolian Christian the regions ofPergamum. “The Lamentable Affliction. Its extent and a37Fulcherof Chartres.241 In the supply. 204.401-402. o n the character of slaves of different ethnic origins. and this number deported from Anatolia them). 265. Bar Hebraeus. 135. by the simple fact that there was not as much foodstuff to support the 166.p. Choma. p. 200. Anna Comnena. This is. 111. I. of no advantage to the enslaved were retained i n Anatolia for the service of the conquerors. D e Planhol. IV. 37.242 but after the William of Tyre remarks in regard to Attaleia: establishment of the Anatolian Turkish principalities. Michael the Syrian (111. 54-55. William of‘Tyre.111. slaves constituted one of the most important items of wealth took off IG. admittedly.OOO. In I I 76 a large Turkmen raid in the Greek provinces of western Asia Minor enslaved Greeks in the East. Throughout antiquity and the Syrian. Therefore. Ch. and number of Anatolian Chri~tians. continuity in the Ottoman period emerge from the eyewitness account of Bartholomaeus aa8Anna Comnena.C. 24% Gesta 2Js 55. 111. destroyed the gardens. describes the Ottoman slave mart in Bursa. randon d e la BrocquiCre. Ds Inplninepampt~lienneaux lacspistdiens. Such were As has already been mentioned. Babock and Krey. 371.230 Since the b y the thousands. and Anatolia.” The slave merchant followed the armies. the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 111. as of them which *ao See the Qabus Nama. H. Dorylaeum. IV.. but there is perhaps some truth in it for parts of Asia Minor in the eleventh and ~4 William of Tyre. X. the grain supply is brought from overseas. The Second Crusaders found “Seljuk Gulams and Ottoman Devshirmes. and of course many of the youths were set aside for special training for the ghulam bodies. Gesta Francorurn.238The disruption of portion of these. Bert- a scarcity of food here. . the fertile soil lies fallow. pp. A Mirrorfor Princes (Kew York. But as time passed emperors often resorted to the scorched earth policy in the border regions mosl of these slaves were no doubt retained in Asia Minor. AnnaFrancorurn.000were enslaved. X V I . They townpeople. I. M‘illiam of Tyre. R. 111. R.2~6 earlier years before the Turkish settlements were permanently effected in This condition prevailed in other parts of Anatolia as well. i t is hardly likely that these regions could easily support them the male Greek children from the towns between Dorylaeum and large foreign armies. retiring from Dorylaeum in 1097.000 inhabitants of the rcgions of Cappadocia.265. When Edessa fell. Nomadisme. 302. Attaliates.. Ansbert. 198. Levy. $46 T h e taking of Christians for the slave markets seems to have been quite extensive in twelfth centuries. xxvi. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION the Danishmendid burned the villages about Kaisum in I I 36-37 during when the Turks took over the direction of the djihad in Anatolia.4 I75 .. pp. 1892). as well of the captive Christians. Le uoyage d’oulretner. Tudebodus. 111. Gouglie (London. . and children from all major urban centers240 and from the countryside where the populations were defenseless. etc. R. 181. 198. must have agricultural productivity was. Bar Hebraeus. I 570 ?) (hereafter Bartholomaeus Georgeuiz-Goughe). 111. ed. 111. often leading off as many as 500 slaves in chains. This was particularly true of Islamic society. a portion of the It possesses very rich fields. the dis- ruption was so extensive that famine became a familiar condition. for they a r e surrounded by enemies on all sides who hinder their cultivation. so that again the total effect was to decrease slightly the province. 73. G I . 1958).H.229. ng. Attaliates.O. Michael the Christian inhabitants was enslavement. 306. the essay. Adramyttium. pp. T h e Crusaders were continuously perplexed by the dificulties of raising These latter came to form one of the most important of the military groups provisions in Anatolia. Chliara (until Manuel recolonized slaves were sent ofl to Persia. and certainly most of their oflspring. But the truth is that when agricultural pro- with many of the highest government and military positions. p.

11. 2 ~ ~ in a process that favored the growth of the Muslim population a t the Evidently they were as lax in their political as they were in their religious expense of the Christian population. Ibid. and their presence down into two categories: voluntary and forced.. of Yankoniya-Euchaita (Chorum) was similar.pp. E.000 accept Islam. T h e city of Gangra-Mankuriya underwent a slightly different fate Anna Comnena. as alternatives conversion or death by the sword. 414-4. 11. There is little in the way of after they plotted against Malik Danishmend. 380. *46Anna Cornnena. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS O F TRANSFORMATION The same outcome resulted from intermarriage between the Turks and the Muslims. 111. 223. It attributes a strong proselytizing zeal to *6z Danishmendnarne-Melikoff. though not as extensive as they later were to become. that though of the city of Sisiya-Comana. I n one incident. 11. 284. he forced the populace. I. 428. Some became Muslims. and other violations of Islamic law similarly t r e ~ t t e d . 250 The mixovarvaroi from Anatolia are mentioned capturing Sisiya-Cornana. Rossi.4zG-427. Kopstein. Ibid. 498. 2 ~The 0 celebrated and detailed acts of conversion in the Danishmendname is that twelfth-century canonist Balsamon remarks. a T ~ r k .. (in Greek) Lo save them from their Greek besiegers in Chios in 1090. 271-272. and all those who refused to go to the mosque were brought varvaroi suffered occasionally from a dichotomy of political sympathy there by threat of physical violence. 361. 475. ibid..250The fate different political circumstances. There are conversions of individuals.2S6Among the most His mother was a Georgian Christian and his father. 370-371. I. according to the poet. 316. Those who continued to drink wine and allegiance. whereas i n other cases they receive grants of land. they were giving their daughters in Danishmend vowed to convert the inhabitants of this ~ i t y . In his marriage to a Christian w0man. ~. and accordingly they chose to conversion also had the effect of decreasing the number of Christians become Muslims. ZZU Sklaverei irn ausgehenln 5. 270. 91-94. and so the governor Though this phenomenon of intermarriage and the appearance of a of Comana enforced Islamic practices on many who were recalcitrant in new generation of mixovarvaroi is only briefly mentioned by the sources. H. already produced a new generation of Anatolians by the early twelfth and whole and the conversions that occur in the poem break century. a55 Ibid. It is interesting. n.~5~ In some instances the of the emir Monolycus were mixovarvaroi who spoke Greek. 278. they betrayed the politically and militarily. Such. These mixo. 396. while z61 Ibid. T h e conquered werc given a choice..” 247 Ibid. 428-429. r966). 65-66. They were to live out- side the wa’lls and to pay the haradj. ibid.. to become But the new Muslims were not firm in their eighty-four of the Council in T r ~ l l o .15.‘See also. but there seems to be some It would be extremely difficult and hazardous to insist upon the exact indication that in this period conversions to Islam were numerically historicity of such details in the Danishmendname. When Alexius was campaigning voluntarily do so as a result ofa religious vision. Rhalles and Potles. its citizens the choice of death or conversion. 381.248 They are poem implies that the newly converted have apostitized to avoid paying also mentioned i n the army of the sultan of K o n ~ aCertainly .. 421. 5. because Muslim society dominated duties. I. Ile compelled the inhabitants to perform the five one must assume that it was no rare or isolated occurrence. The poetic compilation of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 384. I 28-13 1. 275. 11. with disapproval. 204-205. 367-368. 280. Ibid. 181ff. I.. ‘77 . for upon the appearance of Christian armies. local Christians who assist the slaves in escaping. 129. 1g5z). Ibid. I.254Conversion celebrated instance of this intermarriage has to do with Danishmend and by the sword also occupies a prominent place in the Danishmendname. 32-33. 396. and soon while increasing the Muslim population. vlgOn€s. 2a1 Ibid.~ Danishmendname-Melikoff. inasmuch as it is a significant. miracles. But it is Danishmendname reflects one aspect of the spirit in which the conquest of much of Anatolia was made.. were also the troops of Tzachas who beseeched the Lord Ibid. 205. IL Kitub-i-Dede Qorqut (Vatican. This union between Turks and Christians had repeated motif. Ibid.2°0But these new Muslims too were disloyal.201 source material on the subject of conversions. ~ ~ * adopted faith. and conversion constitutes an ever-present and constantly the local population.. as they had been forcibly converted. 367. In the course of his campaigns Malik the Georgians were Orthodox. 214 Ibid. for other examples. 257. Byzme (Berlin. to speculate Turkish Muslims of the city and killed them along with the governor. I. ~and ~ a upon marriage to Agarenes. pp. They had to be brought back to the faith by show of arms as well as by 248 Danishmnendname-Melikoff. referred to in the Greek sources as mixouaruaroi... 318.000 are put to the sword. but unprofitable. 165. 273-274. those who Dreferred to remain Christian were permitted to do so. 380.~48A further example is the case of numerous instances individuals and bodies of captured troops are given Tsiaous (chavush ?) the Turkish oficial who betrayed Sinope to Alexius. or against the Turks in the district of Polybotus. daily prayers. at the point of the in a very interesting document in which Balsamon comments on canon sword. probably.. 380. about what would have happened to the Anatolian mixovarvaroi under destroying the mosques and replacing them with monasteries. bodies of soldiers. or for romantic reasons. 207. quau y&p ~ a TIVET l 6v akoi5 vicof3&pf3apoiWq. but in the long run their appearance in Anatolia resulted were flogged. For their adoption of Christian baptism see chapter vii.. a number of the army because of material advantage to be 0btained. Those who convert is attested to in various Turkish armies. ~ ~ ~ the most the haradj. Malik Danishmend offered To the extent that it took place in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. performing the ritual. 1x1.

per all the Muslims in Anatolin. 55. remarks that the Turks intended to uproot Anatolian 161-185.2~~ All these isolated references to con. He proceeds to paint a picture of an earlier stratum of Turkish population in Anntolia which had existed as a linguistic and cultural unit for ccnturics prior to 1071. Rvars settled in castern Anatolia by Justin I1 in 577..000 riders drew pay under Malik Shah. The Byzantines also took up the rcligious contest. in tanta oppressione servitutis isti Suriani fuerunt Minor went to Constantinople whcrc they rcceivcd baptism and bccamc Christians. 18z-iUG. Then hc adds another 500. On the whole qucstion. 11. According to Yinnnc these earlier “Turkish” inhabitants were: I . a n d t h e tyrants ~k~ i j hio-r-rlas s p&pov* ol Sfi T&VTESK W ~T ~ V-rrapdvra Kavciva 0Epamw8fiaov-mi have.OOO. many are captured by the hands of the Agarenes. Then. plagucs. and Trebizotid in 530 by Justin I. It is true that the area was contested by both sides and towns frequently changed hands. Converts seem to havc played an important rolc in the conquests of‘Malik Danish. Rccrieil dc textcs rt!ld@ d l’hisloire des Sclrljorrcidcs.O.” T h e sultans in I’ersia took an intercst in the establishmcnt of Islam in these rcgions more. &A& Kal U ~ ~ ~ J E~~oOh Vh o lrais TGV h e h v ’AyapqvGv x ~ p o l v&hb&poi YIV6PEVO1. 11.OOO as the number of Turkish and Muslim settlers who canie during this first stage. H. As to religious con. 111. I.Z. Tfi p ~ v . many years ago. which mentions that a n army of Christianity.M. from being an isolated phenomenon. massacres. 250-251. Cnhcn. that the poet is here dealing with Some admit that conversion to Islam was an important and not infrequent actual historical events in the struggle between the Turks and Byzantines event in twelfth-century Anatolia. but enslavement. Unfortunately. however. Anna Cornnenn. Conversion was no doubt motivated in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. I.K. I 78. Basil. I-Ioutsma.2a*but the sources forced by foreigners t o renounce Christianity. allowing an avcragc family of four for each of these riders. What. temporary sources. there is no way of ascertaining whether ance of the Crusaders in 1098.2a7I t is only i n the thirteenth and fourteenth Gabras families apostatized and joined the court at K ~ n y a The . once PET& B ~ o p o h 6 y q a i vKal TpoafiKouuav Crmdrvoiav. Elchancs. cd. lie arrives at the figure of 550-GooJooo. Yinanc estimates that I ~ O . 2. 128. by a wide variety of factors which included material benefit and con- version by thc sword. especially their chieftains. 367. cvillinglYthrow themselves into the pit of unbelief. Tfiv m o v U ~68.2GS conquest and settlement of Anatolia. T. displacement. I_- BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION Admittedly. pp. was the numcrical relation between Christians and Turks century Anatolia. 288. ut multi corum compcllerentur patriam et Turko-Georgian Tsiaous was convcrted. 81. (Lcdien. Raymond of Aguliers testifies to the enforced Islamization of Greeks and Armenians is thus confirmed by the few scattered references to apostasy in con- living in Antioch between the Turkish conquest in I 085 and the appear. William of Tyrc. Thk is certainly an exaggeration. and other emirs of northwest Asin Dci judicium. I n spite of migrations. ptriode seljukide. R. of this army on a kernel of truth. 380. and members of the Comnenus and in Asia Minor at this time. arriving at the sum total of I. Balsamon again mentions extensive Islamization.C. Felhi. one must look at the contemporary sources. turned Muslim to save their lands. Kal p a u w l p p E v o I .ooo for thosc who came to practice agriculture and animal husbandry. and had basic questions of demography and elhnography. and version might very well have constituted the exception to the rule. We do not even know done other things or suffered impieties. I79 .Tfiv +e66o+v ~ [ m l v~ S ~ M V U ~ Trfi . ~ ~ ~ centuries that the conversionary activities of these orders become manifest Armenian rulers of Seveverek as well as some of the Georgian chieftains in the sources.” See also the taking of children from the districts between soscule. Others al-Bondari. and farther to the east by the emir Balak. it is highly probable that the majority of the Aiiatolian once more the comments on the c h o n law indicate that conversion. the sources continue to be unsatisfactory on these And many others who were forcibly circumcised by t h e Agarenes. in fact probable. but it is one of those exaggerations foundcd 400. ulation ? Unfortunately. which reFers to those exaggerate the number of the original Turkish settlers.208 There has bcen a tendency to In commenting upon canon eighty-one of St.H. 286-287.. But today. 173. Euphrates. seeking to coiivert the these shall be healed after confession and fitting repentance. far Christian population remained in Asia Minor fifty years after Manzikert. Dorylacum and Konya. ix. famine. Michael the Syrian. This is particularly true of the otherwise useful monograph of Yinenc. T he per quadrigentos et eo amplius annos. According to the present canon 188g). “Les Cribus turques d’Asic occidcntale pcndanL la ’‘’ Danishmendname-Mciikoff. was in Anatolia. as was also nt nn carlicr period the emir Chry- Chrktianam desererc lcgem. Balsamon refers to extensive forced conversion during at the end of this period ? What was the density of the ncw Turkish pop- the century in his commeqtary on canon three of the synod of Ankara. “Sed insurgentibus. O O O . nevertheless one must quite possible.280 Turks. 111. A group of Bulgars brought in to tlic districts of Tsorokh. Sarracenis atque Turcis.z62 Philaretus is reported to have become the dervish orders had begun to operate effectively and on a large scale Muslim in order to save his domains. mmd. been stoned by the engines of martyrdom.” W. a n d b e i n g t o r t u r e d some as is evidenced by the fact that the sultan sent filly mimbnrs to Arintolin artcr its conqucst. the evidence is far from complete. Scnliarius. however. remarks that Alexius wished to convert 21z Raymund of Aguilers. LI (1948-52). were received b y t h e church after sincere with certainty which of the Turkish tribes participated in this early confession and suitable penitcnce.. Some say that the contents of the present canon a r e a t rest [not in use] because OpqmElav TOG M w & ~~ EI ~~M V U V T ~&Ah01 I: SB KCti EKOVT~ Bavro3S EITI~P~TTOVUIV EtS by the grace of God the faith has been firmly set in Orthodoxy. Utilizing the Siyasatname of Nizam al-Mulk. The picture that emerges from the Danishmendname versions. to Chrivtianity and thus bring them under Dyaan tine control and influencc. abjure the Orthodox faith and accept the godless faith of M u h a m m a d . was quite prominent i n twelfth.

and 1. the inhabitants most often were largely Christians. and consisted of 24. Konya.000. but these were usually armies sent so i t is obvious that we are dealing with vague. Iraq. 68. xi. Nicaea. Smyrna.275).269. the numbers in the armies of the Turkish princes settled control. de Leide el de Paris. Ioannicius. numerous local inhabitants either destroyed or defeated. and they were towns in Anatolia which. had few in number. they were certainly not settled in Cappadocia as Yinanc asserts. 11. pp. The Bulgars scttled by Justin in the Euphrates region were not of position to block progress into and conquest of Asia Minor. ‘ impression on Anatolian ethnography as they were only 15.500 (or 15.000 very definitely constituted a minority. The but his army soon abandoned Asia Minor. Antioch. Such Tzachas’ forces do not seem to have surpassed 8. which came to raid or to bring recalcitrant emirs under is clear. and mention of large armies in Anatolia. and who were supposedly settled in Hasan of Cappadocia in the battle a t Heracleia against the Crusaders are Cappadocia. are not at evidence for it in historical sources. it is much more probable that this figure 6.. and Antioch. or Syria. I. and Kllidj I Arslan. 111. IV. Fethi. exaggeratedly. these armies in Anatolia were far smaller than those of the armies coming from Persia. 11. As for the Khazars and Ferghanids who ap. Histoire des Seldjottcides d’dsie Mineicre d’ufir2s Ibn Bibi. Khazars and Ferghanid Turks in the retinue ofthe Greek commander who presided entered Antioch in 1085 he did so with 3. Thus the figures of the Turkish armies of even if thc cases of supposedly “Turkish” settIement were accurate. usually left the peninsula and returned to Persia. Bulgarian troops under Bardas in 947. this supposed Turkish penetration of Anatolia is t h e figment of the imagination of a school of histori.587). Another such invasion of figures given for Turkish armies tend to confirm the fact that the Turks Turks from Khurasan which occurred in the later years of Alexius’ reign were still a small minority.Matthew of Edessa. they stayed only for a few days and then returned to the Balkans 110 For thcse figures on the armies: Attaliates. Texte proposition that the existence of a substantial Turkish cthnic bloc in Anatolia prior to tcirc publie’ d’aprh les nus. 146-247).000 Turks there. 190. As for the Bulgars settled in Anatolia by Christians. Constantine V in the eighth ccntury. When Sulayman 5. Bulgars settled in Tohum and Gaihan to fight the Arabs in 755. Gesta Francorunl. Thus in contrast to / racial theories concerning the existence of Iletite and Thracian tribes in eleventh-century Yinanc. said to have numbered 80.159. “St. Muralt (I. Undoubtedly these armies constituted a sub. Though the forces of over the excliange of prisoners at Tarsus in 946. As a matter offact. there being no mention of their settlement in Anatolia (Theo- phanes.Michael the Syrian. There is no l’liislobe des Seldjoucides (Leiden. these were either Slavonized or fast on their way to becoming Slavs.000. One thing from Persia. Patzinak troops brought to Anatolia in 1048 to fight the Seljuks. Thus the ated figures of Yazidjioglu. During this any considerable size and were no doubt soon assimilated. But again the numbers are probably exaggerated. three armies of I 2. Anna I 80 181 . states in another passage that the army numbered 40. they would have made Anatolia do not indicate that the Turks were particularly no noticeable alteration in the ethnography ofhnatolia. These were part of the imperial troops stationed in Constantinople and no Turkish garrisons because there simply were not enough Turks to go recruited abroad (Constantine Porphyrogennitus. 111. IOO.000 men. mentions no administrators and military garrisons of areas otherwise inhabited by settlement of Avars on the eastern borders. De Caerimottiis. 111. Marash. Plastentza.6. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS O F T R A N S F O R U T I O N seem to suggest that quite to the contrary the Turks who came a t this time reported to have numbered. Go-61. pp. who reports stantial portion of the Turks in Anatolia at this very early date. a7l William of Tyre. 576). Coxon.” pp.271 a n d not Turkophone. I. Konya. Heracleia. 235).000). The exagger. I 74-1 75. xix. though technically under Turkish control. The Turks were.4.OOO.(Even if they had stayed in Anatolia they would not have madc any 18. Marash. his army Unfortunately Yinanc has lumped together a few events spanning six centuries. 173.Anna Comnena. and then once in Anatolia all evidence points to their rapid Hellenization Laodiceia (in western Anatolia). (Cedrenus. M . But this section in Muralt merely refers to an expedition of the emperor with and military caste and appear from time to time in the sources as the troops from the Balkans. is reported to have numbered 50. mere appearance of a small army under Alexius caused Burzuk to dis- meliurn. Patzinaks in the army of Romanus IV at Manzikert. 64-65.000.000 troops. I n the Turk- ish raids in the regions of Taurus between I I 07 and I I I 0. under Burzuk which Barkyaruk sent against the sultan of Nicaea also the historians of the Crusades note that though Turkish military forces left Anatolia. in Recueil de textes relutifs Ci 1071 helped to pave the way for a smooth Turlcish occupation is false. Ankara. When Smyrna fell to Constantine Ducas there were only 2. ASfor the Patzinaks who were sent to Anatolia by Constantine IX Monomachus. Tarsus. Yinanc refers to a settlement of Avars in eastern Anatolia by Justin 11 in 577. 14. V. 74. Buzan was sent to Nicaea for similar reasons. represents the total ofthe armies of Hasan and his allies Malik Danishmend 7. Yinanc’s book is also marred by certain other fallacious all reliable as the author was writing four centuries after the events. i. Edessa. and elsewhere. between Dorylaeum-Konya-Heracleia. 245-248). 54-55. continue the siege of Nicaea. They were in ography which sprang u p in Kcmalist Turkey and had to struggle with a powerful control of most of the crucial routes and roads so that they were in a iiationalist sentiment. The Bulgarian troops of Bardas in 947 were recruited from the Balkans. There is this figure.000. Noutsma. As was previously mentioned. and as such were Slavic-speaking around.000. a small but powerful minority. Contrary again to Yinanc’s assertion. That this is probably the case becomes evident from 8. there appeared 3. 264. inexact figures. There were many peared in Tarsus with the Byzantine commander in 946 to preside over the exchange of prisoners. Avars sent by Heraclius to the borders in 620. The army of 50. 2 (hereafter cited as Yazidjioglu). however. and he does this on the authority of Muralt first half century of occupation of Anatolia they formed a small governing (I. for the were to be found along the routes from Nicaea to Dorylaeum. and when Smyrna was the army of Artuk called in by Michael VII against Roussel which is fell to the Byzantines there were only 2. Such was the case in Tarsus. 58-59. 1902)111.000 Turks in the city.000. the regions (Vryonis. then. Philo.But Anna Comnena.all ofwhich the more 4. pp. Once they finished their business in Anatolia. the fact that when Hasan invaded the regions of Philadelpheia.000in number). the figures on the armies do not presuppose a large settlement Anatolia.

p. 55. suflicient numerically to take up the demographic slack thirteenth ~entury. 2 8 0 Marino Snnuto. around Samosata.280The Christians were suficiently numerous so that the single In other regions the Turks were often forced to make use of Christian largest source of revenue in Muslim Anatolia during the latter half of the troops and militia. and also very valuable mules. V. the Christians o f Laodiceia- 29.and fourteenth. Christians and Arnicnians pay. and this was considered to be a large Muslims. Ibn Bnttuta-Gibb.C. their own. The mixovarvaroi came to play a of colonization.26.” 1 7 2 William of Tyre. Muslims. Tyriaeum.2~0 towns and villages in order 10 repopulate their own domains. Dawson. though in a region of warfare and within Turkish domains. c ch’e maggior pacsr.. Matthew of Edessa. but in it there arc still large numbers o f Christians under thc protection o f the number of Turks.cnqosrnan. safeguard their political supremacy in a land where their subjects far as for Turkey. This There are other indications that the Christian population of Asia phenomenon makes it evident that as of the twelfth century the invading Minor was still quite extensive in the twelfth century and even in the Turks were not. C.276 The Turks resorted to taking demographic decline. who live mixt with the former i n t h e towns a n d villages. 11. Pelliot. IV. 235 (hereaftcr cited as Ellaki-Hunrt). p. la qua1 per la rnnggioc pnrtc e sottoposta a Turchi. 11. occupying themselves with trade and handicrafts.I. 256. “Les souverains seldjoukides et lcurs sujets non-musulmans. are after cited as Marco Polo. outnumbered them. “Sujets non-musulmans. (New York.a78 difficult. Excellent horses.ooo dirhcms and 5.H. che non e In Spagnn delh qua1 abbiamo detto esser quatro Rcgni. IV. R. Laodiceia. 1955)~ p. Maulc-I’clliot). the emir Tadj al-Din Motazz sent ( r 953). and also great quantities o f fine a n d rich silks of Because the conquerors were a minority.209-210. Eflaki. T h e other two classes are the Wyngaert.. state. and the Armenian troops of Tutuch of Damascus The assumption of comparatively smaller numbers of Turks in twelfth- played a particularly important r0le. In addition the mass of the Turkinens was not yet that the majority of the subjects of the sultan Mas‘ud I ( I I 16-56) were sedentarized and therefore not productive of sufficient revenucs for the Greeks. Anna Cornnena. In Tarsus. A.000 dinars from the haradJ that the a7sRaymundof Aguilers. 7. pp.H. where the population was for the most part Christian. 43 (hereafter cited as Marc0 Polo- I n Turcomania there are three classes of people. Ilir IIrsoi/Jfioit o f / h e IlJorld (London. 111. and in western Asia Min0r. the various Turkish princes began to raid the land Christian children and converting them. the latler being Turkmens. a n d plenty of other stuffs.aB1 Turkish emir Buzan. trans. trans. C. per il piu li Popoli seguono il Iiitto Greco c sono per il piu Grcci. g~ (here- for their occupation is cattlekeeping. The A f o t ~ g o li l l i a h i (Ncw York. 230 (hereafter cited as Abarny-(:enqosmnn). In I 121 the emir Balak carried off the inhabitants of Gargar and century travelers. A. I can inform you that not one m a n in ten there is a Saracen. from the capitation of Aksaray. known as Turquans.H.Issociates not only thr tcxtilc industry with the these a r e worshippers of Mahommet. R. Armenians and Greeks. I 1918-1922).”). Passing refercnce to thc tax of thc dhirnmis is made in Ibn Uibi-Duda.272 century. a rude people with an uncouth language of towns but the rug industry as wcll with thc C:reek iincl Rrinrnian Chrjstians. I 82 . Karim al-nin Armenian. rgg. a81 ICarim &Din Mahmud of Aksaray. I t is inteucsting that Marco 1’010 .Anatolia was a vast territorial expanse..2?4 and so did the converts. In some regions they simply disarmed the Christians sather are they all Armenians and Greeks. Cinnamus. 143.Gesfa Francoruni. p. 330. xix. 66. Yule). “Why i t is callcd after the Rum is bccausc it used to be their land in oldcn times. when it was reconquered b y John I1 from i t came the ancient Rum and the Yunanis. 205. and also a traveler in Anatolia. III. A contemporary of Marco Polo.O.. 6. M. and there is the testimony of the thirteenth. T h e y weave the finest and r873). 3rd cd. I@). reason they were forced to resort to a number Of measures in an effort to William of liubruque. xi.lrco Polo. a70 In C. their position Was Often cramoisy a n d other colours. 0. I-Iuart (Paris. 76 (hereafter cited as Turan. There were Armenian contingents in the army of the thirteenth century was the tax that they paid. the ‘lhrks were hard put Marc0 Polo implies that the urban classes contained a large Christian It to defend the conquest that as yet they had been ~ ~ ~to bdigest. in Selpki deulelleri Matthew oflldessa. Comnena.~’’ The Histoiy of the Patriarchs of Alexandria asserts that they had caused. 9 7 8 The Book of Ser Morco Polo thr Venclioti cottcerrtitig t/tc IGtigdonts and Afaruels of the Eahsl. and Antioch. the sultan makes a gift of 100. 205-206. I. “In 1’Asia Minor. iv. 104.O.279 The Turkish garrison of Edessa at century Anatolia scems to underlie and to explain the Turkish policies one point was largely Armenian. acts specifically mentioned in of one another and of the Christians and to carry away entire Christian Antioch. and had no Turkish garrison or commander. l e For this element. 4 15. i. where 276 As reflected in the Danishmendname.” Ibn Battutn-Gibb. remarks rather exaggeratedly. As a result of the minority. 111.l. cd. William of Rubriq- reared in their country. Tudebodus. Denizli pay the head tax. Later on it wns conquered by the in the beginning of his reign had only 800 Turks. 250-251. Marash.” S.2’0 and kept them from positions of power in the government. 111. William of Tyre. The invasions had C E E L I S Ca~ certain disruption and decline significant role as a further source of military manpower for the ruling in the Christian population of the Anatolian plateau. Danishmcnd himself was possibly a n larilii (Ankara. tr. Yule. I 943). I-Iod in Cltrottinites Gmeco-Rortioties i&idils oti beit cotitirtb (Berlin. 111. 11.C. N. was an oflicial in the Scljuk financial adniinistrntion and so his statcment merits attention. H. 11.000 dirhems sultnni. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION handsomest carpets in the world. and ed. C:. 2 1 9 . rgog) I. 425. They dwell among mountains and downs where they find good pasture Moule and P.. Les soitits des dcruiclies foitrtieim. by H. 11. Marco Polo noted that Anatolia possessed a considerable Christian population. Turan. C. Both Sanuto and I b n Battuta noted the presence of considerable numbers the latter were strictly forbidden to carry arms or to participate in of Christians in western Asia Minor as late as the early fourteenth government and were restricted to the exercise of agriculture and trade. First there are t h e Turcomans. to the Muslim leaders. and with the appearance of the Crusaders and the Byzantine reconquest. p.

344. 523. pa6 Michael the Syrian.285 twelfth century. ~ ~is~reduced to hypothesis and conjecture. were able to capture Iconium and Ankara. 346. Caesareia..287 The Seljuks also found a court historiography of both Muslims and Greeks (hostile to the nomads) ready source of colonists in western Anatolia. and a large numbcr of Greeks had abandoned the 197-199. 655-657. 237. 111. . '85 . 95-97. I. 111. la*Michael the Syrian. the Byzan- Michael the Syrian. But the explain the rapid disappearance of Christianity from twelfth-century sultan was attacked at Caesareia and his enemies demanded that he Ankara and perhaps from other cities as well. I n I I 71 Kllldj Arslan took off 12. which city had successfully resisted him. As a result had on the live of the sedentary populations in the rural areas. This meant that whereas the Turks had been in Anatolian towns during the period to the end of the twelfth and the sparsely scattered throughout western Asia Minor. There is no and S e b a ~ t e i aone took captive the inhabitants of the villages about Kaisum and Marash. 163. The Turkmens are very much in took 5. 41-41. the chronicles note them carefully guarded so none would escape en route.284 doubt that alongside the ruling classes in the towns and villages there Yakub Arslan. and on arrival at their presence. Comnenus and Frederick Barbarossa. 206. All those who returned to Gargar he enslaved. 70-95. For a detailed description and analysis of Turkmen nomadism in Asia Minor see below. Anna Comnena. took people from the Lycandus must have settled Islamic merchants. Michael the Syrian.20i The not one of them considered escaping. p. I. The great care the sultan lavished upon these east. 198. and Philomelium. 24. Though the Crusaders Large numbers of prisoners were taken from Laodiceia. Cedrea.288 The sultan Kaykhusraw has largely neglected this phenomenon. He had and the Armenians came into contact with them. Philomelium and the environs had been severely ago Nicetas Choniates. Polybotus. they were now pushed early thirteenth century. 213-214. Gordlevsky. north. of the greater number of Turks now concentrated in Phrygia. 2 0 2 . and Caria. Danishmendname-Melikoff. Santabaris. I. Izbrnnnye Sod. men tribes. their activities.000 Christians from Caria and Tantalus in I 197 and resettled them evidence along the entire edge of the Anatolian plateau in the west. Cinnamus. Aside from scattered references to the coloni- back into a more restricted area. 258. Aksaray-Coloneia. p. Nicetas /- Choniates. craftsmen. 70. Sinope. but all those Simultaneous with the partial Muslim settlement in the towns. and the vineyards. Such policies of forces expulsion and colonization doubtlessly the environs of Melitene. . 111. attached to repopulating their domains with Christian farmers. about Philomelium. Amorium. the ruler of Cappadocia.000 in number. BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATION BEGINNINGS OF TUNSFORWTXON settled them at Hanazit.282The entire population of Adana was trans- ferred to Melitene in 1 1 3 7 . religious elements and. and south during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. following the defeat NOMADIZATION of the Turks by the First Crusaders. 246.000 but retained all the others. had the effect of pushing back the Turks from the Aegean coast and the river valleys into Phrygia and onto It is virtually impossible to estimate the extent of Muslim colonization the Anatolian plateau. the Crusades. 200-203. 29. 624. Ibn Bibi-Duda. 111.000 from the environs of Melitene. the Turks shortly retook them.28Q The great Byzantine counterattack of I 097-98. Bar Hebraeus. district in I 155-56. Phrygia was greatly intensified and they became a more formidable barrier Michael the Syrian. such as Dadybra.5. Celbianum. occurred in the reign of Alexius I reached the towns of Dorylaeum. There were also towns. 111. Shortly ~ ~ ~ thereafter the ruler of Melitene .28e Six years phenomena in the transformation of Anatolia. the Turkmen tribes. Cinnamus. Inasmuch as the armies of Byzantium. to exist as centers of both Muslim and Christian society at the end of the Albistan and Gaihan. disorder that had now enveloped the Byzantine Maeandrian regions. ZOO. but unfortunately the later he took away the inhabitants of Kaisum. and indeed many who heard of the region in which the activities of the Turkmens appear most clearly is the tax exemption migrated to the sultan's domains because of the great Byzantine-Seljuk frontier along the western rim of the plateau. Nicetas Choniates. " tines were able to go no farther i n the reconquest. I. Most all these chronicles a five-year tax immunity with the provision that afterward they should comment on their nomadic way of life and on the disruptive effect they pay the customary taxes they had paid in Byzantine territory. 757. the olive trees. by and large. H e bestowed upon them numbers and the names of their chieftains. gives a sketch of the life and organization of Zonaras. But because 486 Matthew of Edessa. and settled them on his lands. Qazwini-Le Strange. I. 111. pp. Therefore their concentration in zation of such towns as Dadybra. depopulated as a result of a century of warfare. though there is no specific reference to their resettlement on Turkish lands. 296.. 264. nomads.Bar Hebraeus. where the I W d j I 1 Arslan and his SUCC~SSOPSwere also quite active in recolonizing the Christian element was entirely expelled and the city colonized exclusively Seljuk kingdom. there he had transported fi-om the lands of his brother Shahinshah and those hc was an even more significant colonization of the rural areas by the Turk- had taken from the lands of Dhu'l-Nun (emir of Caesareia and Sebasteia). area for safety on Byzantine territory. 111. Michael the Syrian. return not only the 12. and on occasion give figures as to their Philomelium he gave them land and seed to plant. 108. 111.000inhabitants from by Muslims. and then uprooted the whole Christian population of gradually. The city was burned by both Manuel Bar Hebraeus. 63. and he to Byzantine armies. Thus the urban centers continued. The greatest Byzantine advancc to the east which returned to burn the villages. The influx of tribal groups is one of the most important Kilidj Arslan returned the 12. and also in the Christian colonists is illustrative of the importance the Muslim rulers following centuries.481. 62.

the drew . The inhabitants armies.The emperor sent Bardas buried. and the marching in the new formation w e have described. No doubt this was in part due to Manuel’s pre- walked and turned as if directed by one mind. he provocative of motion. And when it was the Emperor’s Bourtzes to sack the ‘Tillages of Bourtzes” because of the great number time for lunch he invited the men and women who were labouring under illness of Turks in the area. The first expedition of Alexius into Phrygia (1098)brought him as far as And when he knew the child was born. 9. the army marched in regular order and Castamon-Gangra-Neocaesareia in the north. 111. but also it would seem a n d rescued men on all sides from the hand of the barbarians. seen it. the same procedure took place. ~~Cro-rq TpOUfEEh8hCd 7 . was the army allowed to move even a step. But this battle Farther to the north h e had to drive the nomads out of the regions of the formation was new and seemed very strange to everybody and was such as had Sangarius River. decided to take back with him many of the inhabitants of the regions of And if anyone died.50. not even flutes or drums or any emperor. Anothcr indication that the Turkish settlement was quite women were with child and many of the men aaicted with disease. preferring to move are not the only indications of the comparative density of the Turkmens to Byzantine territory with the army of Alexius. rg. and enclosed all the captives and the women too and the Konya. a different call. . and children Turks were still able to raid Lentiana farther to the west. when the army was the cities of Phrygia. 188-189. l KVP E ~ VPUITOGVTO. 408. The force of the Turkmen and the men standing in serried lincs it looked like the immoveable mountains. When John Comneiius succeeded his father in I I 18. and what. 2 13-214. you would have said a living walled city was walking. 6‘Aa K a i a h a ) yuvafKfS . however. K O T ~ TOGS ZK‘K30a5. 111. 111. though not completely. and Cilicia-Antioch in the moved forward in time to the music of a flute. For while to restore 0rder. 111.2BZH e carried dying and administer the sacraments to the dying. 111. and returned by the same road as he had come.rwv A a 6 v 01 ~~TTOIKOI TGV fiepijv Oihoyqhiou n a p a v M w p a Pap. held prisoners by the Turks. the upper Maeander. 203-204. the Turkmen elements in western Asia Minor seem to have been when halting that It was moving. Cr~l LTITOD&~ESTE Qu T\mSiov B v q u ~ q ! ~ S rroa~ h g T O ~ SPowhopivo~sah015 ~YXEIPE~V E. 44. p. On taking the city of Philomelium.” will think he is hearilig about the Sozopolis. became almost irresistible during the reign when it changed its route it moved like a very great beast. and to bring the Greek inhabitants with him. A. But after it had reached Philomelium occupation with affairs in Europe and Antioch. trans. and Hieracoryphites from the Turks in Pisidia and Phrygia. describes their nomadic way of life thus. and the Emperor would be at the side of the dying man. “ohmw y h p Y E ~ V O V I K O ~ S of Kataphygia returned with Alexius. The Alexiad o f the Princess Anna Comnena. as it were. Ka\ v a p a v r k a ~ I E K ~ ~ W K E ~ K Tl O 6 ~ kia m o g fl Ea Anna Comnena. 757.. PapiKfjs Y~VWTCXIu q a i p a s . After or old age and placed the greater part of the victuals before them and invited those who lunched with him to do the same.. whenever a strong in Phrygia was that the emperor began to remove some of the woman’s time for bringing forth came. Bvqmqphroi Ipyois y a h m r b s TE & T E ~ ~ ~ ~ IKOa V 2 o a Anna Comnena. 199-220. He recruited many of the Turkmens for his own O h &V6pES fi6Vov. he passed through with perfect safety. 2oa Anna Comnena. Alexius sent out many disturbing music at all.up his lines in the new formation with all the captives. BGGINNINGS OP TRANSPORlKATION BEGINNINGS OF TRANSFORMTION and in spite of the fact that Alexius successfully raided the villages of before somewhere.2~7In spite of John’s preoccupation with the regions of advancing along the road to Iconium. He then Alexius had obtained in pushing the Turks back onto the plateau. Bourtzes evacuated the Greeks and then rejoined the banquct of the gods for there were no instruments. as we have related that there were other factors independent of western involvement. Pamphylia. women. was sounded and stirred them all up to continue the journey. But fearing the approach of a large Turkish army. And the meal was like a complete defeating the Turks. . 401. not the usual one. . ‘‘ Th-oqeds 62 pfi imKmahaypav6vTmwv a h 6 v fiSq TOU~KIKQV &fiwei.208 enclosed in the center. a trumpet was soundcd at a nod from the Greek population and to resettle it on safer territory in western Asia Minor. and the priests were summoned to sing the hymns for the Philomelium lest they perish at the hands of the Turks. contained. and pressure westward. And had you twelfth century. 17-18. so7 Nicetas Choniatcs.” Zonaras.f ~T O ~ T W V E ~ E I ~ O E W ST& od~ccrcta h & K a t TU ~ p f i p r n ah 6 u a ma Ibid. Dawes (London. John had to retake Laodiceia. p. 169. 1928) (hereafter cited as Anna Comnena-Dawes). emperor and made all the men stop and the whole army halted on the instant. and children. Moreover since many of the important cities. a11 rushing to the Emperor as if to a place of refuge. Yisidia. things which every historian and poet mentions in his writings. ~+EIV SirvavTai Slag6(ovTEs. E ~ ~ O V T pdv O o h debs & ~ V T E S owviyaoeal T$ PaoihEi. for the whole phalanx of Manuel (I 143-80). he made n o further attempt to capture either of these two children and the booty in the centre it marched slowly on its return and moved forward leisurcly. I 86 . The sources refer specifically to the fact that the Turk- And the inhabitants of these regions who were Rhomaioi followed them of their mens were present in large n u m b e r ~ . but Philomelium. Anyone hearing the word “line of battle” and “phalanx” or “captives” and < < booty” or again c‘general” and “captains. in these regions. there were women with babies.2B4 detachments to the villages of Konya to free the Greeks who were being T h e inability of the Byzantines to retake Iconya and to retain Ankara. Cinnarnus. ~and~ 5 in spite of the successes own accord fleeing from servitude to the barbarians. and was obliged to march into Pisidia and Paphlagonia never been seen before or handed down to posterity by any historian. and a t a n ant’s pace. These were recovered and all the inhabitants and the partial removal of thc Greek population from southern Phrygia o f the villages voluntarily left their habitats en masse. S . And if you had seen the whole phalanx you would have said it was remaining motionless when in motion and south.203 Sangarius were being sorely pressed. For thanks to the close formation of the shields largely.Anna Comnena-Dawes. m4 Anna Comnena. And after the rites for the dead out even more extensive transferrals of Greek population from these and had been duly pcrforrned and not until the dead had been put in the earth and more easterly regions in the campaigns o f I I 16. T h e Turkmen pressure in this area was constant throughout the ever places he approached.

Rather i t was in times of peace or in periods of borders of the Rh0maioi. . removed from the he refortified the area of Adramyttium-Pergamum-Chliara.z and he rebuilt both towns as defense outposts. the Turkmens and their flocks reentered.’’ 3 0 0 Cinnamus. when Persian [Turkish] land.80Gthe Turkmens being under a in the region of the Bathys and Tembris rivers around the sites of Dory- certain chieftain Rama who was continually raiding Greek lands. and because of grassy meadows the whole race invades the retreated before them. described by a contemporary Greek author as being “in the midst of the the Turkmens of Cotyaeum killed the stragglers..310 and there evidently had to wage against the Turkmens i n western Asia Minor.” Ibid. Manuel rebuilt Choma-Soublaion at the march to the north and west to raid the Sangarius valley. in order to rest the a r m ~ . I 09-1 I 1. zg5-2gG. He had to under this impression and so retired to the region where the Maeander drive them out of Malagina and Pithecas at the westernmost bend of the rises. the 2. valley. I 88 .000 Turkmens who lived in the plain with their tents and flocks attempted to prevent the work 3~ Cinnamus. 81-84. During apparently took place in the southwestern regions of Phrygia. William of Tyre. 254. Chliara. Cinnamus. ~ 0Since 4 Sangarius.. the numbers of Turkmens in Phrygia had increased. head of the Maeander in order to have here. a strong outpost against and Adramyttium. 268. B o o Nicetas Choniates.s07 laeum and Cotyaeum. 162. When the Second Crusaders went up the Maeander building Dorylaeum. Adramyttium. 308 Euthymius Malaces-Bones. “ ’EVE\ 68 vEpl Tiva x i j p o v GYBVETO 08 84