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INTRODUCTION:

TRANSISTOR MODELING

• To begin analyze of small-signal AC response of BJT

amplifier the knowledge of modeling the transistor is

important.

• The input signal will determine whether it’s a small

signal (AC) or large signal (DC) analysis.

• The goal when modeling small-signal behavior is to

make of a transistor that work for small-signal enough to “keep things linear” (i.e.: not distort too much) [3]

• There are two models commonly used in the small signal analysis:

a) r e model

b) hybrid equivalent model

How does the amplification be done?

• Conservation; output power of a system cannot be large than its input and the efficiency cannot be greater than

1.

• The input dc plays the important role for the amplification to contribute its level to the ac domain where the conversion will become as η=P o(ac) /P i(dc)

Disadvantages

• R e model

– Fails to account the output impedance level of device and feedback effect from output to input

• Hybrid equivalent model

– Limited to specified operating condition in order to obtain accurate result

V CC DC supply “0” potential • O/p coupling capacitor s/c R 1 R C
V CC
DC supply
“0” potential
• O/p coupling
capacitor s/c
R 1
R C
• Large values
• Block DC and
•I/p coupling
C 1
+
C 2
pass AC signal
capacitor s/c
R S
+
V
• Large values
o
V i
R 2
R E
C 3
• Block DC and
-
V S
-
pass AC signal
• Bypass
Voltage-divider configuration
under AC analysis
capacitor s/c
•Large values
under AC analysis capacitor s/c •Large values R 1 R C + R S + V
R 1 R C + R S + V o V i R 2 -
R 1
R C
+
R S
+
V o
V i
R 2
-
V S
-

Redraw the voltage-divider

configuration after removing dc supply and insert s/c for the capacitors

R R C 1 + R S + V o R V i 2 -
R
R C
1
+
R S
+
V o
R
V i
2
-
V S
-
R R C 1 + R S + V o R V i 2 - V
Modeling of BJT begin HERE! I i Transistor small- I o B C signal ac
Modeling of
BJT begin
HERE!
I
i
Transistor small-
I
o
B
C
signal ac
+
equivalent cct
+
Z
i
E
R S
R c
R1
R2
V i
Z
V o
o
V S
-
-
Redrawn for small-signal AC analysis

AC bias analysis :

1) Kill all DC sources

2) Coupling and Bypass capacitors are short cct. The effect of these capacitors is to set a lower cut-off frequency for the cct.

3) Inspect the cct (replace BJTs with its small signal model:r e or hybrid).

4) Solve for voltage and current transfer function, i/o and o/p impedances.

IMPORTANT PARAMETERS

• Input impedance, Z i

• Output impedance, Z o

• Voltage gain, A v

• Current gain, A i

Z o • Voltage gain, A v • Current gain, A i Input Impedance, Z i

Input Impedance, Z i (few ohms M )

The input impedance of an amplifier is the value as a load when connecting a single source to the I/p of terminal of the amplifier.

Two port system -determining input impedance Z i

V S

R sense

Two-port

system

+

+

-

Z

i

+

V i

-

I i
I i

Determining Z i

Z

i

=

V

i

 
 

I

i

I

=

V

s

V

i

i

R

sense

 

• The input impedance of transistor can be approximately determined using dc biasing because it doesn’t simply change when the magnitude of applied ac signal is change.

Output Impedance, Z o (few ohms 2M )

The output impedance of an amplifier is determined at the output terminals looking back into the system with the applied signal set to zero.

R sense V V R source o I o = + I + o R
R
sense
V
V
R source
o
I
o
=
+
I
+
o
R
sense
V
V s =0V
Two-port
V o
Z
o
system
-
-
V
o
Z
o
=
I
o
Determining Z o
o Z o system - - V o Z o = I o Determining Z o
I am plifier I L For R o I R o R L Z o
I am plifier
I L
For R
o
I R o
R L
Z o =R o
I
L
I
Ro

R

L

o I am plifier I L For R o I R o R L Z o

Zo RL Zo become open cct

Voltage Gain, A V

• DC biasing operate the transistor as an amplifier.

Amplifier is a system that having the gain behavior.

• The amplifier can amplify current, voltage and power.

• It’s the ratio of circuit’s output to circuit’s input.

• The small-signal AC voltage gain can be determined by:

A

v =

V

o

V

i

By referring the network below the analysis are:

V S

R source + + + Z i V o A vNL V i - -
R source
+
+
+
Z i
V o
A vNL
V i
-
-
-

Determining the no load voltage gain

no load

A

 

V

o

vNL

=

 

R

L

=•

(open cct)

 

V

i

with source resistance : V o Z i A vs = = A vNL V
with source resistance
:
V
o
Z
i
A
vs
=
=
A vNL
V
s
Z
i
+
R
s

Current Gain, A i

• This characteristic can be determined by:

A

i =

I

o

I

i

I I o i + BJT Z i amplifier R V L i -
I
I
o
i
+
BJT
Z
i
amplifier
R
V
L
i
-

+

V

o

-

I

o =

V

o

R

L

Determining the loaded current gain

V /R o L V Z o i = = V / Z i i
V /R
o
L
V Z
o
i
=
=
V / Z
i
i
VR
i
L

Z

i

A = A

i

v R

L

r e TRANSISTOR MODEL

• employs a diode and controlled current source to

duplicate the behavior of a transistor.

• BJT amplifiers are referred to as current-controlled devices.

Common-Base Configuration

Common-base BJT transistor r e model r e equivalent cct.

Hybrid Equivalent Model

• r e model is sensitive to the dc level of operation that result input resistance vary with the dc operating point

• Hybrid model parameter are defined at an operating point that may or may not reflect the actual operating point of the amplifier

model parameter are defined at an operating point that may or may not reflect the actual
model parameter are defined at an operating point that may or may not reflect the actual

Hybrid Equivalent Model

The hybrid parameters: hie, hre, hfe, hoe are developed and used to model the transistor. These parameters can be found in a specification sheet for a transistor.

are developed and used to model the transistor. These parameters can be found in a specification

Determination of parameter

V i ==== h I ++++ h 11 i 12 V i h 11 ====
V i ====
h
I
++++
h
11 i
12
V
i
h
11 ====
I 0V
i ====
V
o
V
i
h
12 ====
V
o
V
====
0V
o

V

o

0V i ==== V o V i h 12 ==== V o V ==== 0V o

h

Solving V

I

++++

I

21 i

O ====

o

h

22

====

h

21 ====

I i I o
I
i
I
o

V

o

====

0V

h

22 ====

I o V o I
I
o
V
o
I

o ====

0A

V

o

0V ,

H 22 is a conductance!

General h-Parameters for any Transistor Configuration

General h-Parameters for any Transistor Configuration hi = input resistance hr = reverse transfer voltage ratio

hi = input resistance hr = reverse transfer voltage ratio (Vi/Vo) hf = forward transfer current ratio (Io/Ii) ho = output conductance

Common emitter hybrid equivalent circuit

Common emitter hybrid equivalent circuit

Common base hybrid equivalent circuit

Common base hybrid equivalent circuit

Simplified General h-Parameter Model

The model can be simplified based on these approximations:

hr

0 therefore hrVo = 0 and ho

(high resistance on the output)

simplified based on these approximations: hr 0 therefore hrVo = 0 and ho • (high resistance
simplified based on these approximations: hr 0 therefore hrVo = 0 and ho • (high resistance
simplified based on these approximations: hr 0 therefore hrVo = 0 and ho • (high resistance

Simplified

Common-Emitter re vs. h-Parameter Model

Common-Emitter re vs. h-Parameter Model hie = re hfe = hoe = 1/ro

hie = re hfe = hoe = 1/ro