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INTRODUCTION:

TRANSISTOR MODELING

• To begin analyze of small-signal AC response of BJT

amplifier the knowledge of modeling the transistor is

important.

• The input signal will determine whether it’s a small

signal (AC) or large signal (DC) analysis.

• The goal when modeling small-signal behavior is to

make of a transistor that work for small-signal enough to “keep things linear” (i.e.: not distort too much) [3]

• There are two models commonly used in the small signal analysis:

a) r e model

b) hybrid equivalent model

How does the amplification be done?

• Conservation; output power of a system cannot be large than its input and the efficiency cannot be greater than

1.

• The input dc plays the important role for the amplification to contribute its level to the ac domain where the conversion will become as η=P o(ac) /P i(dc)

• R e model

– Fails to account the output impedance level of device and feedback effect from output to input

• Hybrid equivalent model

– Limited to specified operating condition in order to obtain accurate result

V CC
DC supply
“0” potential
• O/p coupling
capacitor s/c
R 1
R C
• Large values
• Block DC and
•I/p coupling
C 1
+
C 2
pass AC signal
capacitor s/c
R S
+
V
• Large values
o
V i
R 2
R E
C 3
• Block DC and
-
V S
-
pass AC signal
• Bypass
Voltage-divider configuration
under AC analysis
capacitor s/c
•Large values
R 1
R C
+
R S
+
V o
V i
R 2
-
V S
-

Redraw the voltage-divider

configuration after removing dc supply and insert s/c for the capacitors

R
R C
1
+
R S
+
V o
R
V i
2
-
V S
-
Modeling of
BJT begin
HERE!
I
i
Transistor small-
I
o
B
C
signal ac
+
equivalent cct
+
Z
i
E
R S
R c
R1
R2
V i
Z
V o
o
V S
-
-
Redrawn for small-signal AC analysis

AC bias analysis :

1) Kill all DC sources

2) Coupling and Bypass capacitors are short cct. The effect of these capacitors is to set a lower cut-off frequency for the cct.

3) Inspect the cct (replace BJTs with its small signal model:r e or hybrid).

4) Solve for voltage and current transfer function, i/o and o/p impedances.

IMPORTANT PARAMETERS

• Input impedance, Z i

• Output impedance, Z o

• Voltage gain, A v

• Current gain, A i

Input Impedance, Z i (few ohms M )

The input impedance of an amplifier is the value as a load when connecting a single source to the I/p of terminal of the amplifier.

Two port system -determining input impedance Z i

V S

R sense

Two-port

system

+

-

Z

i

+

V i

-

I i

Determining Z i

 Z i = V i I i I = V s V i i R sense

• The input impedance of transistor can be approximately determined using dc biasing because it doesn’t simply change when the magnitude of applied ac signal is change.

Output Impedance, Z o (few ohms 2M )

The output impedance of an amplifier is determined at the output terminals looking back into the system with the applied signal set to zero.

R
sense
V
V
R source
o
I
o
=
+
I
+
o
R
sense
V
V s =0V
Two-port
V o
Z
o
system
-
-
V
o
Z
o
=
I
o
Determining Z o
I am plifier
I L
For R
o
I R o
R L
Z o =R o
I
L
I
Ro

R

L

Zo RL Zo become open cct

Voltage Gain, A V

• DC biasing operate the transistor as an amplifier.

Amplifier is a system that having the gain behavior.

• The amplifier can amplify current, voltage and power.

• It’s the ratio of circuit’s output to circuit’s input.

• The small-signal AC voltage gain can be determined by:

A

v =

V

o

V

i

By referring the network below the analysis are:

V S

R source
+
+
+
Z i
V o
A vNL
V i
-
-
-

Determining the no load voltage gain

A

 V o vNL = R L =• Ω (open cct) V i
with source resistance
:
V
o
Z
i
A
vs
=
=
A vNL
V
s
Z
i
+
R
s

Current Gain, A i

• This characteristic can be determined by:

A

i =

I

o

I

i

I
I
o
i
+
BJT
Z
i
amplifier
R
V
L
i
-

+

V

o

-

I

o =

V

o

R

L

V /R
o
L
V Z
o
i
=
=
V / Z
i
i
VR
i
L

Z

i

A = A

i

v R

L

r e TRANSISTOR MODEL

• employs a diode and controlled current source to

duplicate the behavior of a transistor.

• BJT amplifiers are referred to as current-controlled devices.

Common-Base Configuration

Common-base BJT transistor r e model r e equivalent cct.

Hybrid Equivalent Model

• r e model is sensitive to the dc level of operation that result input resistance vary with the dc operating point

• Hybrid model parameter are defined at an operating point that may or may not reflect the actual operating point of the amplifier

Hybrid Equivalent Model

The hybrid parameters: hie, hre, hfe, hoe are developed and used to model the transistor. These parameters can be found in a specification sheet for a transistor.

Determination of parameter

V i ====
h
I
++++
h
11 i
12
V
i
h
11 ====
I 0V
i ====
V
o
V
i
h
12 ====
V
o
V
====
0V
o

V

o

h

Solving V

I

++++

I

21 i

O ====

o

h

22

====

h

21 ====

I
i
I
o

V

o

====

0V

h

22 ====

I
o
V
o
I

o ====

0A

V

o

0V ,

H 22 is a conductance!

General h-Parameters for any Transistor Configuration

hi = input resistance hr = reverse transfer voltage ratio (Vi/Vo) hf = forward transfer current ratio (Io/Ii) ho = output conductance

Common emitter hybrid equivalent circuit

Common base hybrid equivalent circuit

Simplified General h-Parameter Model

The model can be simplified based on these approximations:

hr

0 therefore hrVo = 0 and ho

(high resistance on the output)

Simplified

Common-Emitter re vs. h-Parameter Model

hie = re hfe = hoe = 1/ro