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Organisational

Behaviour

Using motivation theories


at work

Dr Maria Vakola
What do we mean by motivation?
■ ‘…. the set of processes that arouse, direct,
and maintain human behaviour toward attaining
a goal’
■ ‘…..is the internal mental state of a person
which relates to the initiation, direction,
persistence, intensity,and termination of
behaviour’
■ ‘…..is the activity of managers to induce others
to produce results desired by the organisation..’
Motivation
■ Individual differences
■ The evolution of needs
■ The role of organizational culture
■ Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction
■ Combination of rewards
■ Perceived fairness
Motivators and Motivation

Drives: innate determinants of human behavior


that are activated by deprivation and are aimed
at satiation

Motives: learned influences on human behavior


that leads us to pursue particular goals because
they are socially valued
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Transcendence
Self-
actualization
Aesthetics
Knowing and understanding

Esteem needs

Love needs

Safety needs
Biological needs
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

Hygiene Factors whose absence or


uncertainty cause dissatisfaction
salary, status (this may be a hygiene
factor as well as a motivator factor),
company policy, supervision, security
and working conditions
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

Motivators create job satisfaction and are


effective in motivating an individual to
superior performance and effort
achievement, recognition,
responsibility,advancement, growth,
the work itself
HYGIENE MOTIVATOR
FACTORS FACTORS

DISSATISFIED

CANNOT BE
MOTIVATED
Job enlargement-Job enrichment
High
Job
Responsibility over job

enrichment

Job enlargement
Low
Few Many
Number of tasks at the same level
Expectancy Theory
Effort
Effort Expectancy
Expectancy

Performance
Performance Instrumentality
Instrumentality

Rewards Valence
Valence
Rewards of
of
rewards
rewards
Equity Theory
■ People make social comparisons between
themselves and others with respect to two
variables
– outcomes (pay, benefits, status etc)
– inputs (time, effort,qualifications, skills)