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The Proto-Indo-European Concept

J.W. Richter

Fig. 1: U and I Fig. 2: U and I (by H.


Bosch)

Fig. 1 from: Phallism in Ancient Worship


by Hodder M. Westropp and C.S. Wake (1874)
Fig. 2 Detail from The Garden of Earthly Delights (c. 1480-1505) by
Hieronymus Bosch. Oil on wood triptych, 220 cm x 389 cm, now in the
Museo del Prado. High-resolution version from The Prado in Google Earth.
(published in Wikipedia Commons)
Introduction
The Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit, lists
several of entries with reference to Indo-European topics:
Proto-Indo-Europeans , Proto-Indo-European religion , Proto-
Indo-European language, etc.
Although most PIE-concepts share an IE-name the vast
extension of the PIE-concepts fails to be considered as an
overall fundamental concept, in which the PIE-peoples, PIE-
religion and PIE-language share a common PIE-concept from
the very beginning.
PIE-peoples, PIE-languages (including the PIE-pronouns and
other PIE-words) and PIE-religions (including the PIE-deities)
may be expanded by some other PIE-customs, which will be
summarized in this manuscript.
PIE-customs may cover a wide area of elements such as
personal names, personal pronouns, colours, coats-of-arms and
flags. In order to identify the vast area of PIE-symbolism these
must be included into the overall PIE-concept.
This essay joins the PIE-languages and their pronouns,
religions and their gods as well as all correlated symbols (such
as colours, paintings and heraldic flags) to an overall concept.
The impact and magnitude of an integrated PIE-concept must
be considered as much higher compared to the mere sum of the
singular concepts.
Web-entries for PIE-concepts
In the web we may identify PIE-relevant entries like:
• Proto-Indo-Europeans : The Proto-Indo-Europeans
were the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE), a reconstructed prehistoric language.
• Proto-Indo-European religion : the hypothesized
religion of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) peoples
• Proto-Indo-European language : The Proto-Indo-
European language (PIE) is the unattested,
reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European
languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
• Indo-European languages (formerly also called Indo-
Germanic) are a family of several hundred related
languages and dialects, including most major languages
of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia, and
historically also predominant in Anatolia and Central
Asia.
• Indo-European Etymological Dictionary (IEED - the
name of an etymological research project of the
Department of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics
at Leiden University.
• Indo-European Evolution – which traces the source for
the Indo-European Evolution in the Danube rive valley
(by Dr. C. George Boeree)
The PIE-Concept1
Suggestions of similarities between Indian and European
languages began to be made by European visitors to India in
the 16th century. In 1583 Thomas Stephens, an English Jesuit
missionary in Goa, noted similarities between Indian
languages, specifically Konkani, and Greek and Latin. These
observations were included in a letter to his brother which was
not published until the twentieth century.
It was Thomas Young who first used the term Indo-European in
1813, which became the standard scientific term (except in
Germany) through the work of Franz Bopp, whose systematic
comparison of these and other old languages supported the
theory. Bopp's Comparative Grammar, appearing between 1833
and 1852, counts as the starting point of Indo-European studies
as an academic discipline.
The classical phase of Indo-European comparative linguistics
leads from Franz Bopp's Comparative Grammar (1833) to
August Schleicher's 1861 Compendium and up to Karl
Brugmann's Grundriss published from the 1880s. Brugmann's
junggrammatische reevaluation of the field and Ferdinand de
Saussure's development of the laryngeal theory may be
considered the beginning of "contemporary" Indo-European
studies. The generation of Indo-Europeanists active in the last
third of the 20th century (such as Calvert Watkins, Jochem
Schindler and Helmut Rix) developed a better understanding of
morphology and, in the wake of Kuryłowicz's 1956 Apophonie,
understanding of the ablaut.

1
source: Indo-European languages
Scholars estimate that PIE may have been spoken as a single
language (before divergence began) around 4000 BC, though
estimates by different authorities can vary by more than a
millennium. The most popular hypothesis for the origin and
spread of the language is the Kurgan hypothesis, which
postulates an origin in the Pontic-Caspian steppe of Eastern
Europe and Western Asia. In modern times the existence of the
language was first postulated in the 18th century by Sir
William Jones, who observed the similarities between Sanskrit,
Ancient Greek, and Latin. By the early 1900s well-defined
descriptions of PIE had been developed that are still accepted
today (with some refinements).
As there is no direct evidence of Proto-Indo-European
language, all knowledge of the language is derived by
reconstruction from later languages using linguistic techniques
such as the comparative method and the method of internal
reconstruction.

Fig. 3: mid 4th millennium BC distribution

All maps: Wikimedia Commons.


GNU Free Documentation License
Greek, Rumanian, Romansch

Fig. 4: mid 3rd millennium BC distribution

Around 3000 b.C. PIE-language reaches Greece and Austria by


entering the Danube estuary, creating Greek and Rumanian
languages. In Rumanian the pronoun eu , may be identified
inside the sky-god Zeu (identical to the Greek deity Zeus) In
the Alps the pronouns jau, eau, jeu, jou included in the divine
name Diou (transforming into Diou-piter) may have been
created and have been preserved in the isolated valleys of these
mountainous areas.
Rumanian eu Zeu, Dumnezeu
Romansch Ti jau, eau Dieu
Sursilvaans jeu Dieu
Sutsilvaans jou Dieu (Diou-piter ?)
Table 1: Rumanian and a few Alpine languages
Italian, Danish and Swedish
Around 1500 b.C. PIE languages have been introduced to
Denmark and Sweden. In the southern areas the concept enters
Mid-Italy, Greece and Anatolia.

Fig. 5: mid 2nd millennium BC distribution

In Provençal language 1500 b.C. the pronoun iéu as a core for


the divine name Diéu arise. In Old-German language the
pronoun Ih arises as a core for the sky-god Diu.
Provençal Tu iéu Diéu Swadesh

Old-German Thu Ih Diu


Table 2: The PIE-concept of Provençal and Old-German
Sicily, Portugal, Southern France
At 500 before Christus PIE enters Sicily, Portugal and southern
France.

Fig. 6: mid 1st millennium BC distribution

In Sicily the pronoun iu as a part of the divine name Diu and


the Portuguese pronoun eu for the divine name Deus may have
been introduced. The Provençal concept may have been
extended in south west directions. The Langue d'Oc defines the
pronoun ieu , jo for the divine name Dieu.
Langue d'Oc Tu ieu , jo Dieu Swadesh
Sicilian Tu iu Diu Swadesh
(Iu-piter ?)
Portuguese Tu eu Deus Swadesh
Table 3: The PIE-concept for Langue d'Oc, Sicilian and
Portuguese
England, Italy and Portugal
The Roman Empire mixes up languages, expelling the Celtic
languages from France, Spain, Portugal and the southern part
of England. PIE now enters the Middle East and North-Afrika.

Fig. 7: post- Roman Empire and Migrations period


distribution

This phase may have resulted in modern Spanish, Italian and


maybe also modern French (Langue d'oïl).
Spanish tú, usted yo Dios Swadesh
Italian Tu ió Dió Swadesh
Langue d'oïl Tu je Dieu Swadesh

English Thou, I Diu (?)


Dutch U Ic Tui(s)c (?)
Table 4: The PIE-concept for Spanish, Italian, French, English
and Dutch
Sources for the PIE-Concept
Most of the early PIE-concepts have been studied, documented
and illustrated in various books, which have been published
decades ago, e.g. in Phallism in Ancient Worship by Hodder M.
Westropp and C.S. Wake (1874)2. Most of these books describe
the origin of religion from a historical viewpoint as a fertility
cult.
Language and religion are crystallized history3, but linguistic
theory and religious concepts have been treated like isolated
systems, although they may have been designed as a united
concept.

Origin
The origin of early PIE-concepts has been located at the
estuary of the Danube river. From the system expanded started
in all directions, but mainly to the east and the west.

Bipolarity
A fertility cult introduces the bipolar concept of two antipodes:
female and male, which resulted in a number of antipodal
symbolisms. The antipodals may be identified in various
religions, in linguistic and in many other PIE-concepts. In fact
bipolarity is one of the fundamental ideas of the PIE-concept.
2
"Phallic Worship" by Hodder M. Westropp and "Influence of the Phallic
Idea on the Religions of Antiquity" by C.S. Wake, with an introduction and
afterword by Alexander Wilder. Another short Phallicist work on History of
Religions.
3
quoted form Phallism in Ancient Worship (preface) by Hodder M.
Westropp and C.S. Wake (1874)
It cannot be considered as an isolated chapter of the PIE-ideas.
Most of the PIE-customs have been based on the male and
female antipodals. The antipodal symbolism has also been
identified in the PIE-legends, including Plato's description of
androgynous creatures in Symposium.

Antipodal colour symbols


Antipodal symbolism in male and female elements resulted in
fundamental colour symbols (red, blue, purple and white),
which have been identified in illuminated bibles, in medieval
clothings, coats-of-arms and flags. The colour red has been
considered a male, the colour blue a female attribute.
Consequently the mixed colour purple must be promoted to an
divine, androgynous attribute, symbolizing the unity of the
male and female elements in matrimony. White probably has
been used for innocent and immature children, who were
unable to secure procreation towards eternity. In modern times
however red and blue have been considered as female,
respectively male symbols.
Detailed documentation
Overviews of these theses have been documented in The Sky-
God Dyaeus , The Hermetic Codex.
Special essays have been composed to describe detailed
analysis for special topics, e.g. (in alphabetic form):
• A compact Overview of Bipolar Symbolism ,
• Another Etymology for Purple ,
• Body Mirroring at Burials ,
• Capita Selecta for the religious symbols Red and Blue ,
• Cross-references for Deities and Man ,
• Dies Fasti - Understanding the Fastened Sculptures ,
• Dyaus' Legacy - A Quest for the Origin of Religion ,
• Dyeing Purple in the Middle Age ,
• Etymology for Flags ,
• Gender References for Purple, Red and Blue
• Hochdorf Revisited - A reconstructed Celtic Site ,
• Jupiter's Legacy ,
• Liturgical (and Royal) Colours ,
• Paint It Purple - A short History of painting Red and
Blue ,
• Patrism, Matrism and Androgyny
• Red and Blue in British Royalty ,
• Red and Blue in the Middle Age ,
• Secret Colour Codes in the Bible ,
• Summary - Archaic Rock Inscriptions (1891) ,
• Symbolism in the Paintings by Hieronymos Bosch ,
• The Book Genesis Inside of a Single Word ,
• The Fundamental Color Symbols Blue and Red ,
• The Hermetic Codex
• The Hermetic Library ,
• The Keystone to Religion - Interpreting the Kylver
rune-stone ,
• The Keywords in God's Name ,
• The Kingfisher ,
• The Majestic Singular in William of Orange's Letter ,
• The Sky-God Dyaeus
• The Symbolic Colour Green in Islam ,
• Threads of Bipolar Symbolism in Religion ,
• Yellow for Judas ,
• Yellow for Saint Peter ,

Most of the documents illustrate the investigation and analysis


of special topics. A few document have been composed to
present overviews of a common PIE-concept, which seems to
have been existing from the earliest eras of civilisation up till
today.
Paintings
Colour codes and paintings may have prevailed over textual
symbols in an illiterate environment. Additional symbolism
even may have been inserted into the illuminated Bibles by
symbolizing weaving the words in alternating blue and red
characters4. These weaving technologies applying red and blue
have also be found in Celtic graves5. Before the introduction of
hieroglyphs and writing the early fertility symbols pillars and
cups have been used. In later eras these have been replaced by
lingams and yonis.

Fig. 8: I and U

From: Phallism in Ancient Worship


by Hodder M. Westropp and C.S. Wake (1874)

4
Secret Colour Codes in the Bible
5
Hochdorf Revisited - A reconstructed Celtic Site
The most relevant symbolic paintings using the graphical
fertility symbols have been created by the Dutch painter
Hieronymus Bosch6.

Fig. 9: U and I Fig. 10: U and I (by H.


Bosch)

In the Garden of earthly Delights (approximately 1510 AD)


Bosch painted the central creation symbol as a pink or rose-red
pillar (the fountain of life as a male element) and blue
foundation (as a female element), as an equivalent to the
ancient symbols of a lingam over a yoni.

6
Details in: Symbolism in the Paintings by Hieronymos Bosch
The Triptych Garden of Delights by Hieronymos Bosch
(Madrid, Prado) has been dated 1510, or even earlier 1503-
1504. Philip II had the Garden of Delights in his collection.
Even birds (e.g. the kingfisher7 depicted in the same triptych)
may have been considered as symbols to depict the religious
bipolarity.
Obviously we may suggest a following series of bipolar
elements depicting the flow of fertility symbols in the overall
course of time:
• The vocals I and U (in prehistoric eras)
• The sculptures pillars and cups (in prehistoric eras)
• The sculptures lingams and yonis (Inda)
• The colours red and blue (the Middle Age,tombs, flags)
• The characters I and U (IU-piter, IHVH)
• The pronouns iéu, iau and iou (Romansch, Provencal)
• The pronouns I and U (English and Dutch)
A shift of graphical symbolism varied from sculptures to
colours and coloured depictions. Subsequently the symbolism
has been encoded into characters and writing. In the Middle
Age mixed modes have been applied in the illuminated Bibles.
Of course symbolism may often have been lost or suppressed
by religious authorities or ignorance.

7
The Kingfisher
PIE-Religions

PIE-Dieties
The PIE-language contains several divine PIE-names, but in
standard literature the language will still be described as an
isolated concept without any relation to its religious roots.
Linguists are able to reconstruct the names of some deities in
the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) from many types of
sources. Some of the proposed deity names are more readily
accepted among scholars than others.
The published list contains e.g. 8: *Dyēus Ph2tēr , *Deiwos-,
Deva or Deos , *Plth2wih2 , *Perkwunos , *H2eusos and many
others, including Divine Twins, a water or sea god, the Sun and
Moon, etc.

PIE religious terms


The Wikipedia entry Proto-Indo-European religion publishes
some terms denoting ritual practice reconstructed in Indo-
Iranian religion which have root cognates in other branches,
hinting at common PIE concepts. However these listed PIE
religious terms do not include the personal pronouns – the
most important words in all languages9.

8
published in: Proto-Indo-European religion
9
The thesis of religious symbolism in the personal pronouns of the 1 st and
nd
2 person singular has been published in The PIE Concept (Proto Indo
European Language) , The Keywords in God's Name and The Book Genesis
Inside of a Single Word
Analysis of personal pronouns reveals an abundant use of
vowels in personal pronouns. The characters I and U have been
identified as the prominent, special and hieroglyphic symbols
for the male respectively female elements. The other vowels A,
O and E may have been used for other purposes at central
positions of the divine names and pronouns.

Vowels
In contrast to consonants vowels have not been applied in early
languages. Vowels, which may be extended to great length,
probably have been used for religious purposes from the very
beginning. The earliest divine call may have been
iiiiiaaaauuuu, in which a long series of vowels has been
uttered. Although the characters for vowels have been
introduced in modern times, the symbols are still carrying the
correct religious attributes.

The alphabet10
The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt. By 2700
BCE Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs which
are called uni-literals, to represent syllables that begin with a
single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel)
to be supplied by the native speaker.
In the Middle Bronze Age an apparently "alphabetic" system,
known as the Proto-Sinaitic script, is thought by some to have
been developed in the Sinai peninsula during the 19th century
BCE, by Canaanite workers in the Egyptian turquoise mines.

10
Source: Wikipedia's entry alphabet
The Proto-Sinaitic script eventually developed into the
Phoenician alphabet, which is conventionally called "Proto-
Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BCE. The oldest text in
Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King
Ahiram. This script is the parent script of all western alphabets.
By the tenth century two other forms can be distinguished
namely Canaanite and Aramaic. The Aramaic gave rise to
Hebrew. The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the
Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez
alphabet (an abugida) is descended. Note that the scripts
mentioned above are not considered proper alphabets, as they
all lack characters representing vowels. These vowelless
alphabets are called abjads, currently exemplified in scripts
including Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac. The omission of vowels
was not a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants
were used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable. (→
matres lectionis11). These had dual function since they were
also used as pure consonants.
The Phoenecian script was probably the first phonemic script
and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it
a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another
advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write
down many different languages, since it recorded words
phonemically.
The script was spread by the Phoenicians, across the
Mediterranean. In Greece, the script was modified to add the
vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West.
The indication of the vowels is the same way as the indication
of the consonants, therefore it was the first true alphabet.

11
Source “Mothers of Reading”
The Greeks took letters which did not represent sounds that
existed in Greek, and changed them to represent the vowels.
The vowels are significant in the Greek language, and the
syllabical Linear B script which was used by the Mycenaean
Greeks from the 16th century BCE had 87 symbols including 5
vowels. In its early years, there were many variants of the
Greek alphabet, a situation which caused many different
alphabets to evolve from it. It is the first and oldest alphabet in
the narrow sense that it notes each vowel and consonant with a
separate symbol.
The Cumae form of the Greek alphabet was carried over by
Greek colonists from Euboea to the Italian peninsula, where it
gave rise to a variety of alphabets used to inscribe the Italic
languages. One of these became the Latin alphabet, which was
spread across Europe as the Romans expanded their empire.
Even after the fall of the Roman state, the alphabet survived in
intellectual and religious works. It eventually became used for
the descendant languages of Latin (the Romance languages)
and then for most of the other languages of Europe.

Elder Futhark or IU-þark


Another notable script is Elder Futhark, which is believed to
have evolved out of one of the Old Italic alphabets. Elder
Futhark gave rise to a variety of alphabets known collectively
as the Runic alphabets. The Runic alphabets were used for
Germanic languages from CE 100 to the late Middle Ages.
Fig. 11: The Kylver runestone depicting the IU-þark

Please note the IU-þark-inscription at the start of inscriptions12.

Interchangeability of characters13
A great number of characters may be interchanged. According
to Dr. Thomas Inman the following standards characters are
interchangeable:
A, E, I, O, U14, W, Y.
B, V, T, P, M.
C, K, G, S.
D, T.
S, C, Z.
F, P, PH.
J, G, Y.
Q, B, C.
N, Z.

12
The Keystone to Religion - Interpreting the Kylver rune-stone ,
13
Source: Page 15 in Inman - Ancient Faiths embodied in Ancient Names
(1) first published by Dr. Thomas Inman in 1868.
14
Note the Interchangeability of vowels. In fact V and U may have been
interchangeable as well.
A full table of interchangeable characters has been listed in the
appendix 1. The interchangeability of the vowels may be
explained by their sacredness in early eras, in which the writing
of the vowels and the speaking of divine names has been
prohibited.

Some Examples
The interchangeability of the characters B and V may be
illustrated by the identity of the names Bern, Berona and
Verona.
The interchangeability of the characters C and S may be
illustrated by the identity of the names ISIS and ICIC in
writing the Lunate sigma on inscriptions. It is today known as
lunate sigma (upper case Ϲ, lower case ϲ), because of its
crescent-like shape15. In handwritten Greek during the
Hellenistic period (4th and 3rd centuries BC), the epigraphic
form of Σ was simplified into a C-like shape. It is also found on
coins from the fourth century BC onwards. This became the
universal standard form of Sigma during late antiquity and the
Middle Ages.
In analogy the interchangeability of the characters D and T
may be illustrated by the identity of the names Deos and Theos.
Further interchangeability of the characters E and I as well as
O and U leads to the identity of the names Dius, Deos and
Theos. These rules will help to identify correlations between
identical divine names and equivalent words.

15
Source: Sigma
The Mothers of Reading16
Although Hebrew language does not provide us with vowels
special tools will help us to identify the special characters as
vowels.
In The Keywords in God's Name a special rule called “Mothers
of Reading” suggests to read the letters I and V (or U) in the
name IHVH (Yahweh-Jehovah) as special antipodes I-U in the
old religion. The rule allows us to identify the correlation
between the Hebrew God IHVH and Roman IU-piter (Jupiter).
All IU-related (Jupiter, IHVH, Tuisco, etc.) and IO-related
words (Dios, John, etc.) may be considered as relevant words
belonging to the ancient religious PIE-concept. The oldest
inscription of the name IHVH has been dated at 840 BC17.

Plural for PIE-Deities


As for Elohim all bipolar deities must be considered to reveal a
(sometimes hidden) plural character, which describes the
duality in the IU-combination.
The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible defines
"elohim" as a plural of eloah, an expanded form of the
common Semitic noun "'il" (ʾēl). It contains an added heh as
third radical to the biconsonantal root. Discussions of the
etymology of elohim essentially concern this expansion. An
exact cognate outside of Hebrew is found in Ugaritic ʾlhm, the
family of El, the creator god and chief deity of the Canaanite
pantheon, and in Arabic ʾilāh "god, deity" (or Allah as " The
[single] God").

16
Details: The Sky-God Dyaeus
17
See details to the Mesha Stele in The Keywords in God's Name
"El" (the basis for the extended root ʾlh) is usually derived
from a root meaning "to be strong" and/or "to be in front".
Similarly most of the PIE-sky-gods have also been identified as
either androgynous or bipolar deities18.

18
See details in The Sky-God Dyaeus
Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns iéu, iau and iou


The purest of all religious words may have been built of a set
of genuine vowels. Notably the personal pronouns iéu, iau and
iou for the 1st person singular seem to symbolize an
androgynous character for the most prominent word “I”, by
including a vowel between the characters I and U.
The personal pronouns19 in Lengadocian: ieu, Aromanian20: iou
and Romansch21: jau, including the variants Surselvisch: jeu
and Sutselvisch: jou. A similar variant may be Sicilian: iu,
which doe not include another vowel between the characters I
and U. Each of these pronouns may also be attributed to a
divine name:
• iau → Dyaus, in which the Romansch pronoun “I” has
been identified as a sub-string of the PIE-deity's name
Dyaus
• iéu → Diéu In Provencal language (Langue d'Oc) the
pronoun iéu is included in French word Diéu 22
• iou → Jupiter (Iuppiter originated as a vocative
compound of the Old Latin vocative *Iou and pater
("father") and came to replace the Old Latin nominative
case *Ious).

19
The PIE Concept (Proto Indo European Language)
20
mainly spoken in Greece
21
one of the four national languages of Switzerland
22
explained in The Book Genesis Inside of a Single Word
Personal pronouns iu, ió and yo
Other pronouns have been created as iu or io-combinations:
• iu → Dio (Silician)
• ió → Dió (Italian)
• yo → Dios (Spanish)
IU-, IO-, IAU- and IOU-combinations have been identified in
the pronouns for Aromanian, Lengadocian, Romansch,
Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Sicilian, Aragonese, Aromanian, Catalan,
Interlingua, Italian, Gascon (Occitan) and Spanish languages.
Italian and Spanish pronouns may also have been derived from
the Old Latin vocative *Iou (corresponding to the divine name
*Dious) by subtracting Du (“you”) from the divine name
Dious:
• ió → Dió (Italian)
• yo → Dios (Spanish)
In this case the ó-character cannot be considered as a female
symbol, which already had been eliminated by subtracting the
“u”-symbol. Instead the character belongs to the central key-
vowels of the divine name é, ó and a, representing the joint-
symbol in the divine name. The central keyword (é) in the
pronoun iéu may be interpreted in the following lines23:
I will not return to destroy Ephraim:
Hosea 11-9

For I am God, and not man; the Holy One in the midst of you;
And I will not come in wrath.

For I am Diéu, and not iéu;


the Holy One (é) in the midst of iéu;

23
The Keywords in God's Name
Pronouns in Duitsch – Ih and Du
In analogy to the French idea (joining the words Du and je
resulting in the divine name Djéu) the Duitsch-speaking people
chose to directly derive their personal pronouns for the 1 st and
2nd person (Ih and Du) from the basic Indo-European sky-god
Diéu based on the Indogerman root iéu ("join", "unite").
Duitsch is the Dutch word for German. The very name
Duitsch already indicates the origin of the original sky-god's
name Dui, which has been identified as Tuisco by Tacitus in
Germania.
A number of countries (Duitsland24), cities (Duisburg25) and
towns (Doesburg26, Duisdorf27) has been devoted to Tuisco.
The corresponding divine names may have been varying in
various areas of Germanic, Slavic and Norse peoples. In Slavic
mythology the sky father has been named Vit (or Uit) or Div
(or Diu), and in Germanic and Norse mythology Tyr or Ziu.

The Personal pronouns I and U (or You)


The simplest forms of pronouns are singular vowels. In English
the very character “I”28 and in Dutch the character “U”29 meet
these requirements. Another strange pronoun is the Spanish
word U-sted.

24
Dutch word for “Germany”
25
Tuiscoburgum
26
Tuiscoburgum Batavorum – a small town in the Netherlands
27
A village near the German city Bonn
28
personal pronoun for the 1st person singular
29
personal pronoun for the 2nd person singular
Overview of the pronouns
These words seem to complete the cascade of pronouns from
complexity to simplicity:
• iau → Dyaus (Romansch)
• iéu → Diéu (Provencal)
• iou → Jupiter (Old Latin)

• eo → Deus (Vulgar Latin)


• eu → Deus (Galician, Portugese)
• eu → Zeu, Dumnezeu (Rumanian)
• iu → Dio (Silician)
• ió → Dió (Italian)
• yo → Dios (Spanish)

• Je → Dieu (French pronoun, 1st person singular)


• Tu → Dieu (French pronoun, 2nd person singular)
• Ih → Dui (German pronoun, 1st person singular)
• Du → Dui (German pronoun, 2nd person singular)

• I → Dui (English - personal pronoun, 1st person sing.)


• U → Dui (Dutch - personal pronoun, 2nd person s&pl.)

The singular characters and some short dual letter


combinations Tu and je, Du and Ih, U and I indicate an
attribute shift from bipolar pronouns (iau iéu iou iu ió yo) to
singular female respectively male symbols I and U.
Tuisco30
To be consistent the Germanic system requires an imaginary
deity named Dui or Diu, probably an ancestor or equivalent for
Tuisco.
It was Wackernagel31 who suggested that Tuisto may have been
a hermaphroditic being, which remains the most prevalent
opinion among scholars. In analogy to Elohim this
hermaphroditic being may be considered to reveal the standard
plural character for a sky-god.
Further, this interpretation has led to the assumption of a
possible connection between the Germanic Tuisto and Ymir of
later Norse mythology.
The second variant of the name, occurring originally in
manuscript E, reads Tuisco. One proposed etymology for this
variant reconstructs a Proto-Germanic *tiwisko and connects
this with Proto-Germanic *Tiwaz, giving the meaning "son of
Tiu". This interpretation would thus make Tuisco the son of the
sky-god (Proto-Indo-European *Dyeus).
Note: The sky-god does not need an Earth-mother as a partner.
Androgynous deities represent marital couples and may create
other (androgynous) creatures by themselves.

30
Info from Wikipedia's: Tuisco
31
quoted in the appendix (p. 71) to German Mythology by Jacob Grimm
Pronouns in Germanic languages
Especially English and other Germanic languages seems to
have developed a unique combination of I and U-pronouns for
the most important words in the Swadesh list, resulting in very
short personal pronouns (I for the 1 st person in English and U
for the 2nd person in Dutch). PIE had personal pronouns in the
first and second person, but not the third person, where
demonstratives were used instead32.
The personal pronouns for the 1st person singular in Germanic
languages do not reveal female symbols (o and/or u) and
therefore they do not support the Adam Kadmon-concept. The
Swadesh list for Germanic languages contains the following
entries for these personal pronouns for the 1 st person singular,
sorted according to the word's length:
jag, ech, jeg, ich, ish, ek, eg, ég, ik, I.
Instead most of the pronouns for the 2 nd person singular in
Germanic and Romance languages reveal female symbols (o
and/or u), often combined with the letters D, T or Th, sorted
according to the word's length:
Usted, Ühr, thou, vous, you, Sie, Lei, doe, Do, De, do,
tú, þú, dû, du, jy, jo, jij, je, u.

32
Proto-Indo-European pronoun
The We-concept
Amongst the third or fourth position of the Swadesh list we
may locate the personal pronoun “we” of the 1st person plural.
In analysing the PIE-concept some problems have been
encountered in deriving the etymology for the personal
pronoun “we”.

The Proto-Indo-European pronoun “we”


According to the Wikipedia entry Proto-Indo-European
pronoun33 the PIE-pronoun for the first person plural is *uei,
whereas the PIE-pronoun for the second person plural is *iuH.
The word *uei is a reversed form of ieu or iou and (in a certain
sense also *iuH.

The Adam-Kadmon-concept
In a mythology applying the Adam-Kadmon-concept in which
“I” already represents a matrimonial couple of a male and a
female person there cannot be a we-group combining U and I.
“We” must be considered as a larger group of other persons
beyond U & I (to be symbolized by iéu, iau and iou).
Usually the married couple had been represented by a male
“spokesman” as a representative for the couple. Using the
pronoun iéu he virtually spoke in plural majestic. To avoid the
misuse of religious symbolism the system now required:
• a confidential “you” for the married couple to address
their partners (this “you” has been restricted for
dialogues between married couples).
33
Specified sources: Beekes and Sihler
This “you” may eventually have been identical to the
pronoun of the 1st person (iéu, iau and iou). The Dutch
words je , jij (accusative jou) represent the confidential
“you” between marital partners and are quite similar to
the pronouns of the 1st person.
• a non-confidential, respectful “you” to address others.
In Dutch this respectful “you” has been defined as
“U”, and in Spanish as “Usted”.
A sample of this concept of a confidential you and a respectful
you may be given in Afghan language.

PIE-Pronouns in Afghanistan34
In his work “Kite Runner” (2003) Khaled Hosseini uses a lot of
Afghan expressions. Most of these are Arabian words. Looking
for Indo-european equivalents I found Padar (father), Madar
(mother) and Tu (identical to the French word "you").
The personal pronoun "Tu" (confidential you) is being used
for confidential relations (e.g. husband and spouse), whereas
"shoma" (respectful you) is signifying a more distant and
respectful relation (even between parents and children).
Originally the confidential word Tu may very well exclusively
have been reserved for conversations between husband and
spouse to symbolize the divine matrimonial relation between
husband and spouse in a married couple.
Of course this confidential you (reserved for marital couples)
has to be considered as the highest ranking title, which should
not be used for profane discussions.

34
See details in The Sky-God Dyaeus
As an image of the Creator God husband and wife represented
a divine image and should be considered to discuss in a sacred
communication.
The respectful you may have been equally ranked, but certainly
not higher than the confidential you (reserved for marital
couples).
In modern English these nuances have been lost and the
standard pronoun “you” may be used for any pronoun for the
2nd person, in singular and in plural.

The We-concept in Romance languages


In a mythology applying the Adam-Kadmon-concept in which
“I” already represents a matrimonial couple of a male and a
female person there cannot be a we-group combining U and I.
“We” must be considered as a larger group of other persons
beyond U & I (to be symbolized by iéu, iau and iou).
The Swadesh list illustrates the we-pronouns in the Romance
branch as follows:
• French: nous, probably related to us, from Proto-
Germanic *uns (“us”), German uns (“us”),
• Latin: nos
• Italian: noi
• Spanish: nosotros
The N-character in these words eventually indicates a negation:
the “non-us”-persons, implying anyone else than U and I (to be
symbolized by iéu, iau and iou).
The Spanish word nosotros obviously indicates the idea of
“other” persons than U & I as well.
The Italian noi may even represent a negation of “io” (the non-
I), symbolizing the idea of cancelling the egoistic borders of
the Ego by opening the world to all others.

The We-concept in Germanic languages


In Germanic languages the pronouns for U and I have been
individualized and do not correspond to the Adam-Kadmon-
concept.
In Germanic branches the pronoun “we” may symbolize a joint
between U and I, which would normally be considered as a
holy, matrimonial image of the divine fertility concept.
The Swadesh list illustrates the pronouns for Germanic
languages, which seem to have been derived from the PIE-root
*wéy (*uuéy) and/or Proto-Germanic *wiz (*uuiz)
• English: we from Proto-Germanic *wiz < Proto-Indo-
European *wéy.
• German: wir
• Dutch: wij, we
• Norse, Swedish: vi (as a combination of U and I ?)
Especially the Norse and Swedish pronouns vi may be
interpreted as sacred UI-combinations.
In this case the PIE-root (*uuéy or *uéy) however also
resembles an inverted Romance pronoun yéu (“I”) which may
indicate an equivalence between the Romance concept of an
androgynous “I” and the symbolized matrimonial couple
(“UI”) in Germanic languages.
Other words relating to the PIE-concept
In Latin a number of important words has been derived from
the Indo-European root ieu ("join", "unite"). In Latin the word
ius and iungo have been derived by combining:
• ieu + s → ius (law and order)
• ieu + g → iungo (to join)
Both combinations resulted in a number of most important
ideas, such as justice, just, yoke (as a matrimonial symbol),
which all had been chosen to symbolize unity by joining forces
within the people as well as in matrimonial relations.
These ideas clearly belong to the basic principles of religion.
What had to be united in religion from the earliest day of man's
creation? It must have been something defined in the creation
legend: a male Adam and a female Eve,
The joint between Adam and Eve has been coded inside the
core ieu by joining the keywords i (the male Adam) and u (the
female Eve) by a joining element e.
Generally the Indo-European core *iou has been used to
encode a divine name (e.g. IU-piter), pronouns (e.g. iu) and
supreme justice (ius35) and as a joint, especially a matrimonial
joint36 (and yoke37). Romance languages may also symbolize
the Adam Kadmon-concept inside the personal pronoun of the
first person singular (*iou, e.g. iéu, iau or iou).
Any syllable included in words or names starting with vowel-
combinations like IU-, IO, etc. may be considered as a
religious symbol.

35
derived words are: justice, just, judge, juice, etcetera
36
to join = Latin: iungo
37
yoke = Latin: iugum
PIE-legends
Most of the global ancient legends must be considered as PIE-
legends, some of which have been described in Wikipedia's
entry Proto-Indo-European religion.

Genesis
The personal pronoun “iéu” as an element inside a divine name
Diéu suggests the coding of a creation legend inside these
words. According to the World English Bible the keywords
inside the pronoun and the divine name may be interpreted as
follows:
Genesis 1-27God created man in his own image
His own image is Diéu .
In God’s image he created him;
In God’s image (Diéu) he created iéu;
male and female he created them.
male (i) and female (u) he created iéu.

Mannus and Tuisco


The first ancestor of men was called *Manu-, see Germanic
Mannus, Hindu Manu (Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 435). Other
legends (namely quoted in Plato's Symposium and in the
Zohar) refer to an androgynous Adam, which has been split
into a male and a female being. The Mannus-legend may also
refer to an androgynous creation legend and an androgynous
deity Tuisco or Tuisto38.

38
A Roman text (dated CE 98) tells that Mannus, the son of Tuisto, was the
ancestor of the Germanic people, according to Tacitus, writing in Latin, in
Germania 2.
PIE-personal names
An early additional PIE-topic has been found in a theory of the
PIE-names39, described as an attempt to trace the origin of
English personal names. Of course these names cannot be
restricted to English names and must be extended to the foreign
names as well. A few quotations of the contents may illustrate
the concept of the book:
In days gone by, in Chaldæa, Assyrian, Egypt, Judæa,
and in Phoenicia, names as a rule were given apparently
by the Oracle of God, but really be the Priest officiating
thereat. In fixing the cognomen he was judicious
enough always to introduce the name of the God of
whom he said he was the mouthpiece.
The Romanist, taught by his Church to put implicit faith
in all her teachings, credits, as he is bound to do, all the
stories of miracles worked by Saints and Virgins which
are put forth by authority; to disbelieve them is an act of
impiety.
Yet there are others, of different faith, who do not
follow these rules. Germanic conquerors traditionally
applied other naming conventions than Romanists.
A number of names will therefore be found, in almost
every large continent, which are not derivable from the
language of the original conquerors; and perhaps, as
will soon be the case in Eastern America, these names
will be the sole remembrances we have of a defunct
39
Inman - Ancient Faiths embodied in Ancient Names (1) and
Inman - Ancient Faiths Embodied in Ancient Names (2) -first published by
Dr. Thomas Inman in 1868.
race.
Not only do nations change an unknown into some
familiar word, but they often change one outlandish
form into another equally barbarous and unknown. As
we hope to show by and by, the origin of John was
Jonah; this has become, as we learn from Miss Yonge,
Ian, Jan, Shawn, Eoin, Hans, Jens, Jantje, Jehan,
Hannes, Johan, Han, Jean, Juan, Joao, Givoanni,
Jannes, Joannes, Vanni, Nanni, Giankos, Ivan, Vanja,
Yan, Jovan, Jonas, Janos and Jopan, and Evan, in
various countries of Europe.
Yet, though there be a variety in the spelling of all these
words according to the phonetic value we give to the
various letters in use amongst us, the difference
between them all will be found insignificant if we give
to J its proper sound of Y, and consider that G and J are
often used interchangeably; we must also consider that
U and V are essentially the same. The Ancient Romans,
like the Hebrews, and I suppose the Phoenicians also,
had only one sign for the two, which represented U or V
according to its position in a word. If we read for Ivan,
Juan, we should call the word as if it were spelled Jew-
an; but if we retain the pure value of the I, we should
pronounce the word Yuan or Yawn. These observations
introduce us to the difficulties attached to the study of
interpreting names.
Appendix 1, Interchangeable characters
A great number of characters may be interchanged. According
to Dr. Thomas Inman40 the following tables may be applied in
the derivation of words and symbols:

Fig. 12: Interchangeable characters

40
Source: Page 15 at Inman - Ancient Faiths embodied in Ancient Names
(1) -first published by Dr. Thomas Inman in 1868.
Fig. 13: Interchangeable characters
Fig. 14: Interchangeable characters
Contents

Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................2
Web-entries for PIE-concepts....................................................3
The PIE-Concept........................................................................4
Greek, Rumanian, Romansch................................................6
Italian, Danish and Swedish..................................................7
Sicily, Portugal, Southern France..........................................8
England, Italy and Portugal...................................................9
Sources for the PIE-Concept...................................................10
Origin..................................................................................10
Bipolarity.............................................................................10
Antipodal colour symbols...............................................11
Detailed documentation..................................................12
Paintings...................................................................................14
PIE-Religions...........................................................................17
PIE-Dieties..........................................................................17
PIE religious terms..............................................................17
Vowels.................................................................................18
The alphabet .......................................................................18
Elder Futhark or IU-þark................................................20
Interchangeability of characters..........................................21
Some Examples..............................................................22
The Mothers of Reading......................................................23
Plural for PIE-Deities..........................................................23
Personal pronouns....................................................................25
Personal pronouns iéu, iau and iou......................................25
Personal pronouns iu, ió and yo..........................................26
Pronouns in Duitsch – Ih and Du.......................................27
The Personal pronouns I and U (or You).............................27
Overview of the pronouns...................................................28
Tuisco.............................................................................29
Pronouns in Germanic languages........................................30
The We-concept.......................................................................31
The Proto-Indo-European pronoun “we”............................31
The Adam-Kadmon-concept ..............................................31
PIE-Pronouns in Afghanistan ........................................32
The We-concept in Romance languages.............................33
The We-concept in Germanic languages.............................34
Other words relating to the PIE-concept..................................35
PIE-legends..............................................................................36
Genesis................................................................................36
Mannus and Tuisco.............................................................36
PIE-personal names.................................................................37
Appendix 1, Interchangeable characters..................................39
Contents...................................................................................42