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Q3. Define federalism.

Ans. Federalism is a system of govt. in which the power is divided

between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.

Q4. What are the two levels of govt. which a federation usually has?

Ans. 1. The govt. for the entire country is usually responsible for a few
subjects of common national interest.
2. The others are govts at the level of provinces or states that look
after much of the day-to-day administering of their state.
Both these levels of govts enjoy their power independent of each

Q5. What are the distinguishing features of federal and unitary govts?
Compare and contrast unitary govts with federal govts.

Unitary Govt. Federal Govt.

1. Under the 1. State govt. has

unitary system, either powers of its own for
there is only one level which it is not
of govt. or the sub- answerable to the
units are subordinate to central govt.
the central govt.
2. The central govt. 2. Central govt. cannot
can pass on orders to order
the provincial or the the state govt. to do
local govt. something.

Q6. What are the key features of federalism?

Ans. 1. There are two or more levels (or tiers) of govt.

2. Different tiers of govt. govern the same citizens, but each tier has
its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and

3. The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of govt. are
specified in the constitution.
4. The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be
unilaterally changed by one level of govt.
5. Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the
powers of different levels of govt.
6. Sources of revenue for each level of govt. are clearly specified to
ensure its financial autonomy.

Q7. In which situation does the highest court act as an umpire?

Ans. When disputes arise between different levels of govt in the exercise
of their respective powers.

Q8. What are the dual objectives of Federal system?

Ans. 1. To safeguard and promote unity of the country

2. Accommodate regional diversity.
Q9. Which two aspects are crucial for federalism?

Ans. 1. Govts at different levels should agree to some rules of power

2. They should also trust that each would abide by its part of agreement.

Q10. The exact balance of power between the central and state govts
varies from one federation to another. Elucidate.

Ans. This balance depends mainly on the historical context – the routes
through which federations have been formed.
(Combine answer 11 with this)