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1088 SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS Screw Conveyor Dimensions, Standard No. 300, Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association ‘Screw Conveyors, Publication No. 350, 2nd Ed., Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association, 1980, 26.2 VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association Vibrating Equipment Section 26.2.1 Introduction Traditionally engincers have been interested in eliminating vibration, Fortunately a few individuals saw that vibration was usefl as a. means of accomplishing the movement of bulk granular materials Nearly all production and design engineers are aware of the existence of vibratory conveyors and feeders, although many are not familiar with their fundamental characteristics, Demands for greater productivity, improved performance, cost savings, and better space uilization require a thorough under- Sanding of what vibratory equipment is, what makes it work, and, consequently, how to select the Fight pice of equipment for a particular job. ‘ibratory conveying has been used in the United States for more than a century; however, it has been only within the past few decades that the concepts of vibratory conveying and feeding have attained general acceptance in industry, resulting ina rapid growth inthe number and types of vibratory equipment being manufactured. There is also an ever increasing demand for this type of equipment nd, consequently, an increase in the number of applications in all types of industry Much of the work done in the United States on the analysis of vibratory conveying has been kept confidential and used by the manufacturers to design various types of proprietary vibratory materials hancling equipment. Through the combination of theoretical knowledge, development efforts, and practi- cal knowledge obtained from numerous applications, designers have been able to provide vibratory conveyors and feeders that have proven to be some of the most reliable pieces of equipment in modern plants 26.2.2 Glossary The movement of material by vibration is a relative neweomer to the bulk handling field and as a result much confusion exists as 10 design, correct application, and even terminology. To remove the confusion involving the terminology used to describe this relative new type of ‘materials handling equipment, the Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association (CEMA) has devel- oped a Glossary of Terms and Definitions to serve as the industry standard. Adjustable rote vibrating feeder. vibrating feeder in which the material flow rate within a specific range can be changed while the feeder is operating (see Fixed-Rate Vibrating Feeder). Amplitude. A value equal to one-half the stroke. Angle of attack, See Stroke Angle. Back end. See Feed End. Balanced and isolated vibrating conveyor. A balanced vibrating conveyor that is mounted on springs to further reduce the transmitted dynamic forces. Balanced vibrating conveyor, Any vibrating conveyor designed to reduce the transmitted dynamic forces to the supporting structure Brute force drive. One in which the only forces applied to the vibrating members are generated by a directly (rigidly) connected vibrating mechanism, Deck. See Trough. Depth of bed. Thickness of the layer of material traveling a conveyor or feeder surface, Discharge end. ‘The end of a conveyor or feeder most downstream, usually where the material is fed off the unit Dynamic balancer. device that reacts to the reversing fore the design of a balanced vibrating conveyor. of a vibrating conveyor to achieve Dynamic load. ‘The reversing forces transmitted to the supporting structure by the vibrating equipment ‘when operating, Peak dynamic loads may occur at other than the running frequency. Eccentric weight. A weight that is attached to a shaft or fly wheel mechanism to produce an unbalanced Electromagnetic vibrating equipment. & type of vibrating device that uses an electromagnet to develop the driving force VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS 1059 Electromechanical vibrating equipment. A type of vibrating device that uses a motor along with ‘eccentric crank ofeccentric weights to develop the driving force Explosionproof. Equipment designed in accordance with existing codes and standards sueh that it will operate in a specified hazardous environment without causing an explosion. Feed end. The end of a conveyor or feeder most upstream, usually where the material is fed onto the unit Fixed-rate vibrating feeder. A feeder where the rate of material flow is constant during operation, ‘The material low rate may be changed with a mechanical adjustment while the feeder is turned off (see Adjustable Rate Vibrating Feeder) Grizely. A heavy-duty sereening surface consisting of a series of space bar, rail, or pipe members running in the direction of material flow used for the rough sizing of bulk materials, Hand. A designation of right or left used to indicate a specific side of a conveyor or feeder. It is determined when facing in the direction of material flow, as it moves away from the viewer. Head load. The weight of the material in a hopper or bin imposed on a vibrating feeder. eg angle| The angle between the centerine of the supporting legs and Tne normal to the deck surface of base Line of action. ‘The line that defines the machine's movement or stroke. Liner. A member or material added to the trough or chute designed for a specific purpose such as to resist wear, heat or cool the deck, reduce noise, reduce friction, or prevent material buildup. Material depth (mat. depth). See Depth of Bed, Natural frequency conveyor or feeder. A machine that has its operating frequency close to or at the natural frequency of the internal spring mass system. Oscillating conveyor. See Vibrating Conveyor. Pan. See Trough, Scalping. The process of removing oversize lumps on a continuous basis from a stream of bulk material Screen. A perforated or meshed surface used to separate coarse from fine particles. Spring rate. Force per unit length of deflection of a spring usually expressed in Ib/in. or kg/cm Springs, coupling. See Springs, Reactor. Springs, isolation. The springs or isolation devices used to support a vibrating feeder or conveyor and to isolate vibrations from supporting structure Springs, reactor. ‘The primary springs in a vibrating system which alternately store and release energy. Springs, suspension. See Springs, Isolation Springs, tuning. Weights and/or springs added to or subtracted from an electromagnetic feeder in ‘order 10 tune the feeder to the desired natural frequency. Static load. Force on the supporting structure resulting from the weight of equipment plus material when not operating Stroke. The total peak-to-peak displacement occurring each operating cycle of a vibrating conveyor or feeder. Stroke angle. The angle of the machine line of action with respect to the conveying surface. Timing the drive. Twin shaft: Adjusting the phase relationship between shafts that carry evcentrie weight to produce the desired vibratory motion. Conveyor: Adjusting the eccentric drive so that its neutral position is at the mid-point of the stroke, Tray. See Trough. Trim bar. See Spring, Tuning. Trough. A channel generally longer than its width, open at the top or fited with a cover, which contains the material being conveyed. The shape of the eross section depends on the type of conveyor or feeder involved, Tuning weight. Weight added to or subtracted from an electromochanical feeder in order to tune the feeder 10 the desired natural frequency. Variable rate vibrating feeder. See Adjustable Rate Vibrating Feeder. Vibrating absorber. See Dynamic Balancer. Vibrating conveyor. A machine that transports material using an oscillating or vibrating motion ‘The machine may be designed with a wide range of frequencies and strokes. Vibrating feeder. A machine incorporating a trough and a vibrating drive designed to control the rate of delivery of material at a controlled weight from storage bins, silos, hoppers, and so on, 1060 ‘SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS, 26.2.3 General Principles of Operation Vibrating feeders and conveyors consist ofa material-transporting trough driven by a controlled vibratory force system which imparts a tossing, hopping, or sliding-type action to the material Basically, a vibrating feeder is applied where it is necessary to meter or control the flow of material from a hopper or bin, whereas a vibrating conveyor is normally applied to move @ material from point A to point B. The versatility of these units allows material to be processed or manipulated while in motion Material Conveyance ‘The first theoretical investigations of the movement of particles by vibration was done by C. Schenck in Germany in the first part of this century. Numerous other investigations have been made until correlations are now available combining theoretical analysis and practical results. Material property Variations are such that there is no exact solution explaining why, even today, many manufacturers rely on experimental results for accurately determining material travel rates. The motion of particles resting on a trough is influenced by stroke angle, frequency of operation, length of stroke, and material properties such as the coefficient of fiction and eohesion. The motion can be broken down into horizontal and vertical components. Although, in reality, resultant motion may be somewhat elliptical for many classes of vibratory equipment, sufficient accuracy of analysis may be obtained by considering this motion to be essentially straight line. Straight-line motion means that the horizontal and vertical compo- nents are in phase; itis a basic assumption in virtually all work relating to feed rate theory. ‘The theory of particle movement on both vibratory conveyors and feeders is the same. It is the design and construction of the equipment itself that makes these two types of equipment suitable for entirely different applications. The vibration generator or exciter for a conveyor or feeder may be electromagnetic, electromechanical (eccentric weight), pneumatic, or hydraulic producing a trough Vibration of nearly sinusoidal motion at some angle fo the trough. When the unit is operating, the trough is vibrating along a path with a controlled amplitude and direction. The angle between the directed vibration and the trough bottom is called the stroke angle. The result of this directed linear vibration is a repetitive series of throws and catches that moves the material on the trough (Fig. 262.1), The particle is in contact with the trough for a portion of the drive cycle as shown in point ‘A to point B. When the particle leaves the trough it travels with a uniform horizontal speed but the Vertical speed gradually decreases due to gravity. At some later point the trough again contacts the particle and the process is repeated. This process conveys material along the trough from 0 to 120 F/min or more, depending on the combination of drive frequency, amplitude, stroke angle, and material properties, ‘A vibratory motion that results in a vertical acceleration component less than that of gravity (32 fi/seet) will transport materials with a gentle “shufling” manner without impact or noise generation between the material and the conveyor trough. Actually, the material never leaves the trough surface, ‘but moves ahead with a gentle sliding-type action when the pressure between it and the trough is at ‘a minimum, This mode of operation, especially with a long stroke applied at a low frequency, conforms with most noise level restrictions. In many applications, it is desirable to actually have the material leave the trough and then impact topon it again, for example, shaking sand from castings or removing sawdust from a sawmill waste This mode of operation increases the sound pressure level but special trough designs are available to maintain an acceptable noise level. DISTANCE ‘TROUGH STROKE PARTICLE FREE FLIGHT TRAJECTORY /T___Maxinta oF STROKE — — — —_ wuinaima oF VIBRATING STROKE ‘TROUGH Fig. 26.2.1. Simplified illustration of particle motion on a vibrating trough. Particle contacts trough at its position labeled A and rides with it until position B, where the vertical acceleration reaches 1g and the particle leaves the trough in free flight, landing again at trough pasition A but displaced by horizontal distance d. VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS 1061 With proper flow depths and trough widths, material can be delivered at rates of several hundred tons per hour on vibratory conveyors, and several thousands tons per hour on vibratory feeders. 26.2.4 Vibrating Conveyors For more than a century American industry has been aware of the practical use of vibration to move materials; however, it has been only in the last few decades that design engineers have been able to intelligently apply the principles of vibration to production equipment. Although conventional materials handling equipment such as belts, aprons, serews, and drags are widely used throughout industry, vibrating equipment has been more extensively accepted because of its unique capabilities, versatility, relatively low maintenance characteristics, and ease of installation, General Applications ‘One major factor that differentiates a vibrating conveyor from conventional materials handling equip- ment i the fact that the material is “live” and moves independently of the conveying medium; whereas, ‘on a conventional belt conveyor, for example, the material is static and the conveying medium is moving. This important characteristic, plus a number of other unique advantages, offers the design engineer solutions to many difficult materials handling problems. In the majority of conveyor applications, the only purpose of the unit is to convey material from. ‘one point to another; however, a vibrating conveyor offers advantages since the material can be processed while in transit. Some of the features offered by vibrating conveyors are: Scalping and screening can be performed while conveying Material may be cooled of dried while being conveyed. Extremely hot materials can be handled. Equipment can withstand heavy impact loading Highly abrasive materials can be handled Different products can be handled on a single unit by use of divided troughs. Material can be distributed through a number of discharge peints Material can be de-watered Hot material can be water quenched. Various sized materials can be easily oriented Vibrating conveyors are inherently self-cleaning and leakproof. No return run eliminates spillage ‘Conveyors can be designed to meet stringent sanitation requirements Leaching can be performed with aliquid owing counter to the material movement Conveyor troughs can be easily made dust-tight or designed for gas-tight operation. There are no moving parts, except the trough, in contact with the material being conveyed Friable or easily degradable materials can be handled safely. Individual unit lengths of 300 ft are possible Foundation or support vibration can be eliminated by balanced designs. Vibrating Conveyor Motion The general design of a vibrating conveyor consists of a vibrating work member, driven by a controlled vibratory force system. Vibrating conveyor operating frequencies normally range from 200 to 3600 ‘vibrations per minute with an amplitude of stroke range from 0.03 to 1.5 in, total movement The controlled stroke is applied to the trough in an angular relationship, line-of-action, which results in both horizontal and vertical foree components. The line of action of the applied force is varied for specific applications. An important consideration is that the noise level generated by vibrating conveyor, as well as the degree of vibration transmitted to the supporting foundation, is a function of the design of the wnt Basie Designs ‘There area variety of vibrating conveyor desiens available which die in detail since most manufacturers have patented and proprietary designs unique to their equipment; however, vibrating conveyors generally hhave similar basic elements (Fig. 26.2.2): ‘A trough in which the material is conveyed. A base which mounts the conveyor in place and ties all of the other elements together 1062 ‘SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS Zone or acrion TROUGH CENTRIC DRIVE _t REACTOR § a SPRING FGAse + Fig. 26.2.2 Basie elements of vibrating conveyors TRAVEL ‘A trough supporting system to direct the motion of the trough. ‘An eccentric drive assembly which is the source of the controlled vibrating motion applied 10 the conveyor. Many designs also include: {A reactor spring system which alternately stores and releases energy at each end of the trough stroke. Reviewing these elements: 1. The trough is the only portion of the vibrating conveyor that comes in contact with the material being conveyed. It can be fabricated in a variety of materials in almost any shape and size and can ‘be adapted to perform various processes while the material is in motion. 2. The base is primarily a means of mounting the conveyor and is usually of a simple design incorporating structural steel members, It can be designed as an elaborate trusslike structure or can be simplified so all corners are eliminated to meet sanitation specifications for the fosd, chemical, and other related industries. 3. The trough supporting system's primary function is to control and direct the motion of the trough. This system can assume a variety of shapes and may be castor fabricated assemblies incorporating ‘maintenance-free flexible connections at each end or a simple exible sat 4. The drive is the prime element in vibrating conveyor because itis the source of the controlled vibration. The drive may be in the form of 2 positive direct-connected linkage, a positive flexible connected linkage, or a nonpositive motorized counterweight assembly. These latter two are fou primarily on conveyors that take advantage of the natural frequency phenomena whereas the first is generally used on brute-force units. 5. The reactor spring system can assume many forms including steel coil springs, flexible steel or glass slats, rubber blocks, circular rubber toroids, and torsion bars. The particular application involved often makes one type more advantageous than another. Drive Designs ‘There are several approaches tothe design of vibrating conveyors, but the factors given primary consider- ation are brute-force or natural Frequency. This latter design is also occasionally described as a resonant frequency design. Both designs have their place in the materials handling field and among the factors that dictate the correct selection are: the application involved, the width and length of the trough, the total vibrating mass or weight, the environment into which the unit is to be installed, and economic considerations. See Fig. 262.3 Electromagnetic Drive. In some applications multiple electromagnetic feedertype drive units (Fig, 262.3D) are located along the length of a single trough, especially in those applications requiring the ability to obtain finite adjustment of the speed of material movement. Brute-Force Drive. A brute-force conveyor design (Fig. 262.34) is one in which all the force necessary 10 vibrate the trough is derived from the drive mechanism, Natural Frequency Drive. A conveyor utilizing natural frequency design (Fig. 26.2.38-£) supple ments the drive mechanism with a reactor spring system designed 10 reduce the vibrating drive force VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS, 1063, gil Se ay a ARMATURE CORE CLs _ (cl ) Me) R g\ ‘) Fig. 26.2.3 Typical conveyor drives. (a), positive direct-connected brute-force eccentric crank; (6), ‘Single-rotating eccentric weight; (c), double-rotating eccentric weight; (d), electromagnetic; (e) positive Nexible-connected. ‘The basic design consideration is that the natural frequency of the vibrating weight and its reactor spring system complement the operating speed of the conveyor drive to take full advantage of the sub-resonant natural frequency phenomena in which the stroke of the conveyor and deflection of the reactor springs are able to respond freely to varying conditions of material loading, for example, the stroke inereasing slightly under a surge load condition when additional input force is required. The drive is sized to provide the power required to overcome drive mechanism friction and damping friction of the material movement. The vibratory drive mechanism on a natural frequency conveyor allows the trough and individual reactor springs to vibrate at their natural frequency, alternately storing and releasing energy at each end of the trough stroke. The reactor springs distribute the drive forces ‘uniformly along the length of the conveyor, minimizing operating stresses, and distribute the reactive forces to the base and supporting structure. In some designs a lexible drive-to-trough connection is designed to transmit and cushion the starting id stopping sequences, generally the period of highest force requirement since the mass must be accelerated from a static position or decelerated to a stop, but remain essentially rigid while the unit is operating. However, it must retain a degree of flexibility to allow the trough mass and reactor spring system to alter their stroke in response to material loading. ‘The advantages of this design are low internal stresses, low horsepower requirements, the ability to vibrate large masses, and the capability to design conveyors extending 300 ft or more in length with a single drive. Foundation Reactions All vibrating conveyors, regardless of their individual design details, are subject to the same basic physical laws and impart both a static and dynamic loading or reaction to the foundation or supporting siructure to which they are mounted. Both values must be considered to adequately install a vibrating conveyor. Unbalanced Conveyors. The static loading is the entire weight of the unit, including the base and all machinery components, plus the weight ofthe maximum anticipated material load. This loading 1064 ‘SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS STATIC 08 w we) LINE OF ACTION VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL FORCE VECTORS Fig. 26.24 Static and dynamic loading, is a downward acting force comparable with that of any other piece of production machinery (Fig, 26.244) ‘The dynamic loading of a vibrating conveyor must be given careful consideration, as it is the result of a mass that is accelerated and decelerated ata specific frequency, thus subjecting the foundation (oF supports ta a reversing load condition ‘The dynamic reaction is actually the resultant force produced by the deflection of cach of the springs in the reactor system. Generally, this force is developed along the line of action of the conveyor and therefore can be resolved into component forces acting in both vertical and horizontal planes. Since this is a vibrating conveyor which is moving back and forth along a specific line of action, the resolved forces result in both an upward and downward vertical vector and a back and forth horizontal vector (Fig. 26.2.4B). A review of the vertical vectors shows that the downward-acting force attempts to push the unit into the foundation, whereas the upward force attempts lift the unit off the foundation or separate it from the supporting structure. This requires that the conveyor be suitably welded to embedded steel oF supports or otherwise held in position by an adequate anchor bolting system. ‘The horizontal vectors are applied in a manner that applies a shearing action to the anchor bolts or welds holding the unit in place. These horizontal forces are generally of greater magnitude than the vertical and must be given full consideration when rigidly mounting a vibrating conveyor. ‘An interesting aspect of the dynamic reaction force is the fact that, because the reactor system springs are uniformly distributed along the length of the unit, the total resultant dynamic reaction force on a natural frequency conveyor can be considered as uniformly distributed. Conversely, a brute: force conveyor may have an additional concentrated force in the drive area, especially when starting land stopping. Vibrating conveyor foundations and supports must be designed to withstand the dynamic and static load reactions of the conveyor without causing objectionable vibrations or deflections. The allow. able deflection in supports subjected to vibrating forces is considerably less than that for structures involving only static loading conditions. In addition to this deflection limitation, the supporting structure must be of sufficient rigidity that its natural frequency exceeds the operating frequency of the vibrating. conveyor. This will prevent even a small vibrating force from being magnified and causing sympathetic excitation elsewhere in the structure. Engineering guidance should be requested from the vibrating conveyor manufacturer or other qualified sources. Balanced Conveyors. When it is necessary to install a vibrating conveyor from overhead or in ‘an area involving a questionable supporting structure or soil conditions, a variety of balanced conveyor designs are available for these applications. Also, modern vibrating conveyors sometimes approach a size and mass where it is impractical to consider installing them without some type of balancing in ‘order 0 keep foundation and supports economically feasible. A balanced vibrating conveyor is designed to reduce the unbalanced reaction force transmitted 10 the foundation or supporting structure. The degree of balaneing will determine the resultant force transmitted to the supporting structure or foundation. The designer must give primary consideration to the degree of balancing as well as the static weight of the unit when designing the supporting structure. Generally, following manufacturers’ suggested recommendations will eliminate potential prob- lems involving objectionable secondary transmitted vibration, In general, a balanced vibrating conveyor is one in which a secondary mass vibrates 180° out of phase with the vibrating trough, to reduce the inertia forces at each end of the trough stroke ‘An inexpensive balancing system is one where a counterbalance mass is added to the conveyor VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS 1065 base and the entire unit is then mounted on isolation mountings which absorb the residual movement. This balancing method can be designed to reduce transmitted forces by approximately 90-95%. Other balancing systems are available that will absorb 98% or more of the reaction forces. These designs normally involve mounting the secondary balancing mass on a reactor spring system similar to that used for the conveying trough. A single eccentric drive assembly may be arranged to positively drive the two masses out of phase with each other. ‘A variety of balanced designs are available from various manufacturers that make it possible to climinate virtually 100% of the reaction force. One design uses a free-floating balancer which sympatheti- cally responds to any change in trough stroke or base movement to compensate for changing load conditions. This design must be mounted on flexible isolation mountings to assure proper response. Selection of Capacities A vibrating conveyor is essentially a volumetric conveying device, the capacity of which is readily ‘determined by consideration of the cross-sectional arca of the material bed and the material travel rate. The capacity can range from a few tons per hour to as much as 1000 ton/t. ‘Conveyor widths can be as narrow as 6 in, of as wide as 12 ft, depending on the application and material size Very often the width of the conveyor trough is dictated not by capacity requirements, but by such factors as material size or space limitations. Most granular, free-flowing bulk materials typically convey with a velocity of 50-60 ft/min; however, some material characteristics will sometimes alter this rate. Extremely fine materials that tend to crate, materials with high moisture content or with high interparticle slippage generally convey at a slower speed, whereas coarse materials that have a tendency to mat together, can be moved at speeds exceeding 100 ft/min. Generally, fine mesh or slow-moving materials convey best in a shallow bed (2-3 in) whereas average materials can be moved in depths ranging from 6 to 12 in. It may be desirable t0 design for a slow travel rate to prevent degradation of friable material, o aid in cooling of other processing functions, or to keep noise to a minimum. Conveyor manufacturers should be contacted for their recommendation on handling materials for each specific application Special Designs Recent advances in the design of vibrating conveyors now allow units to be inclined in excess of the conventional 5° limitation always considered as maximum. A variety of bulk materials can now be ‘conveyed at inclines approaching 30°. Special troughs designed to accommodate thermal expansion can be provided for handling hot ‘material such as 1800°F castings ‘Troughs can be lined with a variety of materials, including rubber, nonstick plastics, ceramic bricks, or alloy steel, depending on the application requirements. Units may be provided with perforated opening or bar-type grizzly sections for sizing or separating functions. ‘Automatic remotely controlled or manual discharge gates or plows may be located as required for intermediate discharge ‘Troughs may be any shape, rectangular, tubular, made completely dust- and gas-tight, and include inspection or cleanout ports. ‘Conveyors can be designed in many configurations: horizontal, horizontal with an inclined portion built ito the same unit, or arranged as a true vertical spiral unit With today’s technology, the only limitation placed on the application of vibrating conveyors is the extent of the design engineer's imagination 26.2.5 Vibratory Feeders Vibratory feeders are designed to feed granular solids at a controlled rate. They normally are located beneath a storage silo, reclaim tunnel, or surge bin. The units are designed to withstand head load of the material in the hopper and can be equipped with rate controls to vary the output from minimum to 100% with reasonable linearity. The units are normally selfcontained with respect to drive compo- nents and reaction forces, and the vibration is isolated from the supporting structure through suitable isolation springs. Design Principles It is important to realize there are various designs of vibratory feeders, those commonly known as clectromagnetic and those known as electromechanical, depending on the type of excitation, Important also is the classification based on the presence of two or more spring-connected moving 1066 ‘SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS: ‘masses, as opposed to a single-mass design. The drive systems for vibratory feeders can be categorized as either brute-force or natural-frequency (tuned) systems depending on how the force is applied to the trough. Considerations in choosing the right design for a particular application include trough weight and dimensions, environment, the type of material being handled, and of course the feed require- iments for the specific process Brute-Force Feeders. Brutesforce feeders are called single-mass systems because the vibratory excitation or drive means is connected directly to the pan or (rough of the feeder. Although some brute-force feeders utilize electromagnetic drives, the electromechanical drive is most commonly used. a c © cc A oy Fig. 26.2.5 Brute force designs. (a), single rotary; (b), geared counter-rotating eccentrics; (¢), dual rotary; (d), single rotary with pivot mount, VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS 1067 ‘These electromechanical feeders derive 100% of their vibratory drive force from heavy centrifugal ccounterweights (Fig. 262.54). The forces developed are transmitted directly to the trough through heavy-duty bearings. Linear motion is generated by the use of counter-rotating shafts with timing ‘cars operating in an oil bath housing and driven through a V-belt drive to the motor (Fig. 262.52). ‘Other designs utilize two synchronizing vibratory motors with counterweights mounted on the motor shafts (Fig. 262.5C) or they will have a single motor, pivoted to allow transmittal of the generated force essentially in a predetermined direction and allowing adjustment of the resulting stroke angle (Fig. 262.5D). Brute-force feeders are usually applied as constant rate devices. Their feed rate can be adjusted by changing the slope of the trough, the size of hopper opening, or the amount of counter- weight and stroke. In some eases, mechanical or electrical variable-speed drives are applied to vary the Frequency and feed rate. The regulation and control range, however, is somewhat limited. ‘The trough stroke obtained by the brute-force machine is dependent on a simple relationship between the rotating eccentric weight of the exciter and the total weight of the machine, such that it is entirely independent of the operating speed. Therefore, an advantage of the brute-force system is that tuning need not be considered. Any drive frequency is acceptable that is suficently higher than the natural frequency of the isolation system to maintain stable operation of the equipment. More exacting design information is available in brief feeder application manuals published by the feeder manufacturers. Natural-Frequency Feeder. Natural-frequency feeders, often referred to as tuned or resonant feed crs, employ two or more spring-connected moving masses. The most common tuned feeder is a two- ‘mass, spring-connected vibratory system. One of the masses is the trough; the other mass, the reaction or excitation mass. Because of the selection of spring constants, a relatively small exciting force is amplified to generate a vibratory motion, In essence a tuned feeder takes advantage of the natural ‘magnification of vibrational amplitude that occurs when a vibrating system is operated near its natural Frequency or resonance condition. The excitation or drive force may be supplied by ether electromagnets ‘or rotating eccentric weights. Figure 26.2.6 shows a two-mass feeder and its spring arrangement, schematically represented by the two spring-coupled masses M; and Mz, the trough and exciter mass, respectively. The spring. rate of the spring system and the weight of the feeder trough and exciter determines the natural Frequency of vibration. In order for the twormass system to take advantage of the natural magnification factor, the system must have its natural vibration frequency close to the operation frequency. For the most advantageous results, the operating or driving frequency should be below the natural frequency of the loaded feeder. This is referred to as subresonant tuning. Nearly all feeder manufacturers design their vibratory feeders to have subresonant tuning. A subresonant system ean operate favorably under hhigh head loads which may be caused by large hopper openings, wide heavy troughs, or the necessity to convey the material a considerable distance from the hopper to the end of the trough. It is not the weight of the head load on feeder operation, but rather the damping capacity of the bulk material being handled that must be considered in feeder design and selection. The damping effect of the material is a direct measure of the energy that is absorbed by the material in moving from the hopper and along the vibrating pan. ISOLATION SPRING 1 = = ™, \ Fig, 26.2.6 Example of two-mass feeder. C = inherent damper; My ~ trough mass; Ms = exciter mass; Ky = reactor springs; Ks = isolation springs 1068 SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS ‘The operation of a two-mass system is explained graphically by the magnification factor curves of Fig 2627. These curves plot the dimensionless amplitude as a function of the tuning ratio for various degrees of damping. A tuning ratio of 1.0 is resonance where operating frequency and natural frequeney are the same, Points to the let of the curve peak determine subresonant operation, operating frequency is less than natural frequency. In an unloaded condition a subresonant tuned feeder might be represented by point A on the curve. If weight were added to the trough side of the feeder, such as a pure head load imposed by granular material, the natural frequency of the machine would tend to be reduced, causing the point of operation to be closer to resonance, point B on the curve, The result would be an increase in the trough stroke, consequently an increase in the feeder output Ail granular materials, however, have internal damping; that i, they dissipate energy within them- selves when vibrated. This damping is comprised of interparticle friction and the energy is absorbed when the particles are deformed because they are not purely elastic. Damping absorbs the energy of vibration and attenuates the amplitude of the vibratory feeder. The amplitude of the feeder under a real material is influenced by a combination of head load and damping and will actually lie somewhere on a vertical line between points B and C depending on the amount of damping that the material exhibits Electromechanical Feeders Tuned feeders that use rotating eccentric weights are referred to as electromechanical feeders. The usual operating Frequencies for these feeders are 720-1800 rpm. Spring systems may consist of steel coll springs, rubber in compression, rubber in shear, steel leaf springs, pneumatic springs, or any combination of these, Drive Designs. Drive excitation may be accomplished by a single motor with a double extended shaft mounted with eccentric weights as shown in Fig. 26.2.84. Dual counter-rotating motors may UNDAMPED. RESONANCE ~ CURVE 5 4 A RESONANCE CURVES w WITH VARIOUS DEGREES 3 (OF DAMPING 5a = z aban hl 2 4 6 & 10 12 4 16 18 20 FREQUENCY RATE (N/N,) Fig. 26.2.7 Typical magnification factor curves for a tuned two-mass system. VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS 1069 Ss ws w) Ww B) \S Fig. 26.2.8 Examples of tuned two-mass electromechanical feeder designs. (a), clectromechani motor; (6), electromechanical dual motor; (c), electromechanical with belt-driven exciter. be used (Fig. 262.88) without mechanically connecting their shafts, provided they are on a common rigid frame, in which case they will synchronize. The same effect may be obtained by using a single ‘motor driving two sets of gear-connected shafts by means of a V-belt. Each of the shafts have equal eccentric weight. Other systems use eccentric weights on a shaft driven by a single squirrel cage AC motor through a V-belt (Fig. 262.80). Tuning or adjustment of the natural frequency of an electromechanical feeder is accomplished by several means. These include adjusting the maximum operating speed, changing spring rate by adding fF deleting the number of springs used or providing in the design to add or delete mass (weight) on the trough or exciter structures. Feed Rate Controls, Variable feed rate of subresonant vibrating feeders is accomplished by varying either the operating speed of the AC motor or the magnitude of the force generated by the rotating eccentric weights. Controls that vary the voltage of adjust frequency of current to the motor are ‘used to obtain variation in speed of AC motors. ‘Two methods of varying voltage are the auto transformer and SCR controller. The auto transformer requires manual adjustment while the SCR control is capable of accepting remote or process electrical signals to vary motor speed. ‘Varying the frequency of the supply current will also change motor speed and is accomplished by frequency controllers. Varying the force of eccentric weights involves using a variable pressure signal which changes the position of eccentric weights on the rotating shaft of the drive. The use of transducers allows this control to also accept a remote or process electrical signal Electromagnetic Feeders Electromagnetic vibratory feeders are dynamically balanced two-mass vibrating systems consistin the trough and trough connecting bracket coupled to the electromagnetic drive by means of leaf springs. This mechanical system is caused to vibrate by magnetic force impulses supplied by an electromagnet. ‘The frequency of vibration is equal to, or a derivative of, the frequency of the AC voltage input to the electromagnet. Figure 26.2.9 illustrates diagramatically the component parts ofa typical electromag neti feeder. Drive Design Considerations. This vibrating system is designed and manufactured to have a natural frequency with no load of material approximately 8-15% higher than the frequency of the alternating current supplied to the electromagnetic drive. Natural frequency in this ease can be defined as that frequency at which the system will vibrate freely when power is disconnected from the electromagnet. 1070 SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS TROUGH CONNECTING —— BRACKET LEAF SPRINGS ELECTROMAGNETICW DRIVE HOUSING MAGNET ARMATURE MAGNET CORE AND COIL ASSEMBLY OJUSTABLE AIR GAP POWER INPUT TO ONSTAR © ELECTROMAGNET Fig. 26.2.9 Schematic representation of a typical electromagnetic feeder. The feeder is tuned to the desired natural frequency by adjusting the number and size of the leat springs that couple the trough and the trough connecting bracket to the electromagnetic drive. The natural frequency is a function of the total spring rate of the leaf springs and the masses of the vibrating system, rive units can be positioned either above or below a trough (Fig. 26.2.10). A below-deck drive is most commonly used, but above-deck drives can be supplied for installations where there is insufficient space below the trough. However, an above-deck drive may slightly reduce feeder capacity. Figure 26.2.11 illustrates typical arrangements of electromagnetic drives connected to troughs. Com- Dining a number of electromagnetic drive units creates feeders ideally suited for special application Multiple-magnet drive units, positioned one behind the other, may be used in a long, vibrating conveyor. When an especially wide material layer i desired, multiple-magnet drives ean be placed side by side on extra-wide feeder troughs. The number of driving magnets required for the trough is determined by its width. Dual twin-magnet drives—two sets of twin magnets, one set placed behind the other—will provide both increased capacity and the ability to handle exceptionally heavy loads. Feed Rate Controls. The electromagnetic feeder’s output is varied by adjusting the power of the lectromagnet, the level of applied voltage, and thus the current flow to the coil of the magnet. Several ‘control schemes, depending on the manufacturer of the specific feeder, may be used. These include the use of solid state control components such as SCRs or Triaes, variable auto transformers, or rheostats in series with the electromagnet coil. Some controls take advantage of the tuning of the feeder to vary feed rate, these controls are used with feeders tuned at half the frequency of the supply voltage. By allowing more or less of the full supply frequency to be applied to the feeder, its output will vary as the higher applied frequency component affects the natural frequency of the feeder and thus its vibrating stroke. Solid state diodes and SCRs are rectifiers, allowing current to flow in only ‘one direction. When they are used in series with the electromagnetic coil, the feeder operates at half the frequency of the supply voltage. Some manufacturers use permanent magnet in the design of the electromagnetic drive. The principal effect of the permanent magnet is analogous to the rectifier, in that its magnetic field opposes the electromagnetic field sct up by the applied current in one direction. ‘The feeder, therefore, operates at half the supply frequency Electromagnetic vibratory feeders generally operate from single-phase 60 Hz (or $0 Hz) power VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS 1071 ENNKE— | Ei\\e——_ = UN\wneo- ry Fig. 26.2.10 Illustrations of feeder installations. (a), suspension mounting; (6), suspension moun overhead magnet. source and, consequently, their operating frequency is 3600 vibrations per minute (or 3600 vib/min). Some electromagnetic feeders operate at submultiples of the power source frequency ulilizing special “split-wave" control circuitry. In such cases, the feeders may operate at 1800 oF 1200 vib/min from 60 Hz (1500 and 1000 vib/min from $0 Hz) power sources. Application Vibratory feeders have been servicing industry for more than SO years. They have traditionally ranked with equipment requiring minimum maintenance and operating expense. By proper initial selection TROUGH TROUGH ‘TROUGH TROUGH SINGLE TWIN MAGNETS DUAL TWIN MAGNETS MAGNET Fig. 26.2.11 Illustration of electromagnetic drive arrangements, wr SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS, of the equipment and its associated control system, both the first cost and maintenance costs can be minimized. As the cost ofthe installation and maintenance labor and power continues to spiral upward, it becomes essential to consider equipment capabilites in the early stages of plant design or expansion. Table 26.2.1 summarizes the advantages that may be gained through the use of vibratory feeders. Industries, Vibratory equipment is used in virtually all industries requiring the transport and controlled metering of bulk solid materials of all kinds from mineral ores to breakfast cereals. Included in the industry users list would be hard rock mining, coal mining and processing, iron and steel ‘mills, foundries, industrial chemical processing and packaging, food processing and packaging, and drug and cosmetic processing and packaging. An applications summary for this equipment includes: Feeding mineral ores, oF quarried stone, to a primary, secondary, or tertiary crusher Metering of ores and coal from outside stockpiles to conveyor belts. Feeding serap iron and steel Glass batch feeding to weighing and conveying systems. Feeder/grizaly for conveyor belt padding and crusher load control Feeder/conveyor for furnace charging, ash and clinker removal Feeders for packaging, blending, batching. mixing, flaking, freezing, and drying operations. Metering of all types of bulk solids from storage bins and hoppers to vibrating conveyors, belt conveyors, or other apparatus. Spreading and table feeders for inspection of produce or other goods. Material Classifications. Generally speaking, the industrial materials encountered in applying vie bratory equipment may be broken down into several classifcations. The five categories listed give some insight into the various material characteristics and the problems that might be associated with handling them, CLass 1. Powder; sluggish. These materials are generally dry powders, such as Aour, starch, and ‘ther materials in the size range of 100-300 mesh, with a repose angle of 40-55° and slide angles of 35-50", Class 2. Poweler; sluggish, adhesive. These include materials that adhere readily to metal surfaces, such a titanium oxides and color pigments. It also includes materials of Class I, when moisture is present CLass 3. Powder; sluggish, fuidizes. These materials are in the size range of 325 mesh to a few microns, such as cement, hydrated fime, fly ash, and talcum powder, These materials can be readily overcompacted by excessive vibrations and yet when arching or bridging is broken, they will just as easily fluidize CLass 4. Granular; free flowing. These materials have granular particles larger than 100 mesh. Densities are usually above 25 Ib/f®. They flow readily under gravity and have relatively low repose and slide angles (10-35"). Minimal vibrations are necessary to moxe this material CLASS 5. Fibrous; flaky, flocculent. These are materials such as asbestos, fibers, shredded tobacco, fiberglass, wood chips, and many materials in the mill feed industries. They cover a wide range of Table 26.2.1 Advantages of Vibratory Equip- ment Virtually no degradation of conveyed material Scalping and screening or picking can be done Hot material can be handled Abrasive materials can be handled ‘One unit can have a divided flow stream One unit can have multiple discharge points Cooling or drying can be done while conveying Dewatering can be performed Units are selfcleaning Units are able to meet sanitation standards, Units ean be covered, made dust-tight VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS: 1073 bulk densities, particle sizes, have different angles of repose and slide characteristics. These materials absorb the vibration energy readily. They usually require long strokes at lower frequencies 10 feed at competitive conveying capacities. Feeder Size Selection. Feeder capacities are dependent on the width of the trough, depth of material flow, and the conveyability of the material. Maximum flow rates of 20-80 ft/min can be ‘obtained from vibratory Feeders. The flow rate is a function of the material characteristics and downslope of the feeder trough, Capacity im tons per hour is expressed by the simple relationship: c- WayR 4800 where: W = trough width, in in, d= depth of material, in in, nalk density, in Ib/fe? linear feed rate, in ft/min; a function of material properties R ‘These factors are influenced by many other factors including the hopper design. The feed rate is influenced by stroke, frequency, feed angle, material of trough, density, particle size, internal damping, interparticle friction, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, hopper design, and moisture content. ‘The feed depth is influenced by particle size, density, and moisture content ‘The hopper design is influenced by wall slopes, throat opening, gate height, width, amount of divergence, and skirt divergence in vertical and horizontal planes, Several of the parameters are fixed by the manufacturer as a good compromise for most materials including feeder stroke, feeder operating frequency, and drive angle. One other parameter, the trough ‘material, may be selected on the basis of the material being handled. From the capacity equation it is noted that for a specific installation and material the width of the trough will determine the maximum capacity of the feeder. The capacity chart shown in Fig. 26.2.12 offers a guide for selecting the size feeder required for ‘8 particular application, Feeder Trough Design. Manufacturers offer several different trough options for special applications. ‘Troughs for vibratory feeders can be furnished in the following designs: Flat bottom Radius bottom V shape Half round Tubular Covered with complete dust sealing Belt-centering discharge Diagonal discharge Screen decks Grizaly section Water-jacketed troughs Feeder troughs are available in mild steel, abrasion-resistant steel, stainless steel, or special alloys to meet various applications. Replaceable liners are furnished in the foregoing materials as well as rubber, plastic, or ceramics. Liner materials should be selected with consideration of materials being handled as well as economics. A very common material used as a liner is Type 304 stainless steel. This is particularly adaptable fo materials that have a corrosive effect as well as abrasiveness. The stainless steel material is often used for this application. For abrasive applications, alloy materials such as T-1 and Jalloy are often used. Hopper Design Considerations, The basic material properties cannot be altered, therefore the hopper must be well designed to assure good flow by taking into account some basic characteristics. The prime requisite of feeding bulk materials is that the material first must be delivered to the feeder trough. This requires proper design ofthe hopper and siring ofthe opening. Improperly designed transition seetions often reduce feeder capacities by 20-30% and, in extreme cases, reduce the flow to zero. It is important that proper consideration be given to the transition section between hopper 1078 ‘SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 200 1600 1400 CAPACITY, TON/HR 1200 1000 200 600 400 200 ° 0 10 2 30 4 8 60 70 80 90 100 TROUGH WIDTH, IN, - Fig. 26.2.12 Relationship of trough width and capacity for bin and the feeder. The feeder manufacturer should be contacted if a unique problem is present to assure proper operation of the system. ‘A properly designed hopper permits near-uniform material flow. Too large hopper opening may result in stagnant material in the rear portion of the feeder, while too small a hopper opening may result in flow blockage or arching. It is suggested that gencrally accepted hopper design parameters be employed (1, 2, 3}, based on ‘measured flow properties. In addition, special consideration should be given to the outlet onto the feeder. Typically, a hopper outlet asin Fig. 26.2.13 will result in the smallest and lowest-priced vibratory feeder for a given capacity, As the hopper throat is increased, feeder size, and hence cost, increase ‘This increase may be unavoidable if arching, due to lump size or material cohesiveness, predicates a large opening. In the extreme case, however, the increase in hopper opening is self-defeating as a stagnant wedge of material will form on the rear of the feeder, absorbing energy. ‘With proper hopper design, the effective throat opening in Fig. 26.2.13 can be just large enough to overcome arching, Then the width of the hopper outlet forms a rectangular opening which is virtually always large enough for gravity flow of the required capacity. Ratholes should be eliminated by proper design of the transition hopper, suficient to provide flow along walls. ‘Where possible, the suggested hopper design of Fig. 26.2.13 should be used. Care must be taken to assure the hopper is large enough to pass the maximum flow required ‘There is a natural tendency for vibratory feeders to withdraw from the front portion of the hopper ‘opening. Proper design will permit material to be placed on the feeder at the rear of the trough In such a design, consideration should be given to the following points as outlined in Fig. 26.2.13: 1. The slope of the angle of the rear wall (A) should be steep enough to permit material flow along the rear wall (60° or more). 2. The slope of the front wall (B) should be just enough to permit material flow. Too shallow a slope will result in the buildup of material above the gate opening, and too steep a slope may disturb, VIBRATORY FEEDERS AND CONVEYORS 1075 x -t rensoor FE reeGen SKIRT RISE FROM BOTTOM ew TROUGH TROUGH LINERS UF REQUIRED) SKIRTS MUST SE CLEAR OF TROUGH te y ‘Y= 1/2" PER FOOT PER SIDE SKIRT DIVERGENCE Fig. 26.2.13 Vital points of proper hopper design. flow patterns within the hopper. Generally, an aeceptable slope for front wall (B) would be 5° less than rear wall (A). 3. A short vertical section (C) should be provided just above thé rear of the trough. The height of this section (C) must be at least the height of the tcough. A preferred height of | fs recommended in high-tonnage applications. 4. ‘The throat dimension (T), for randomly sized particles, should be atleast 2§ times the diameter of the largest particle of material. On applications where particles are nearly the same size, (T) dimension should be 5 times the size of these particles. This will prevent material from interlocking and lodging in the throat opening. 5. The gate opening (H) should be at least twice the size of the largest particle of material. The gate height should increase proportionally to the capacity required and the partiele size. For best flow pattems within the hopper, throat dimension (T) should be equal to o slightly larger than one half the gate opening (H). If (T) dimension is greater than 1 times the (H) dimension, a disturbance ‘may be caused in the flow pattern due to greater velocities at the front of the hopper. The dimension (H) should be measured from the bottom of the trough with the trough at some downslope, preferably ¥ 6. ‘The width of opening (D), for randomly sized particles, should be atleast 2 times the diameter of the largest particle of material. On applications where particles are nearly the same size, (D) dimension should be 5 times the size of those particles. This opening must be consistent with the capacity require- ments, 7. Skirt boards should diverge at a rate of approximately } in./fe of length so that the opening at the front of the feeder trough is greater than at the hopper opening. The skirt boards should also rise slightly away from the trough bottom at a rate of approximately } in./ft of length from hopper to front of trough. This is to prevent material from becoming blocked between the skirts and the trough bottom, Where any installation may be questionable the feeder manufacturer or representative should be contacted, stallation, Basic to the proper installation of any vibratory feeder is properly designed supporting structure to eliminate possible resonant vibration. Although most feeders are supplied with isolation systems that are more than 90% effective, any supporting member in resonance with the operating frequency of the feeder will tend to vibrate, taking energy from the feeder's ability to transport material 1076 SCREW, VIBRATORY, AND EN MASSE CONVEYORS Normally bins, silos, and hoppers are sufficiently rigid due to their own inherent loadings. A good rule of thumb is to have the structural supporting members at four times the operating frequency. Vibratory feeders are usually installed by suspension mounting by four flexible wire cables. They can also be supplied for floor mounting on a solid base or with a combination of floor mounting and suspension mounting. Clearance must be maintained between-the bin oF skirt boards and the feeder trough. Trough vibration must not be impeded by rigid attachments to adjacent objects. Any conneetions (uch as dust seals) between the trough and adjacent objects must be flexible, preferably cloth or rubber: Effective isolation from the supporting structure is accomplished by the use of steel coil springs, clastomer springs, oF pneumatic springs. For tuned two-mass feeders it is important to note that no modifications to the trough or exciter should be made without consulting the manufacturer. Welding to or cutting from the trough or base structure could affect the tuning of the unit causing serious machine damage or improper operation. Such field modifications could also weaken the structure causing failure by fatigue stres, 26.2.6 Limitations of Equipment ‘As seen from the foregoing, vibratory feeders and conveyors are used to meter and transport a wide variety of materials over a large application base. There are few limitations, with today’s technologies, to the successful application of this class of equipment. Some materials that tend to fuidize, or adhere to the feeder trough may be more efficiently handled by other means. Also a dusting problem may occur at the outlet of a feeder handling some dry, powdery materials, and require special handling. I is shown that feed extraction from hoppers is not fully positive, therefore, in applications requiring extreme accuracies, a weighing system of some type may be recommended. The structural integrity Of vibratory equipment is extremely important. This equipment is subject to high accelerations and hhigh reversing stress cycles; consequently, to achieve acceptable industrial equipment fatigue life, the Structures must be designed with stress limits much below that considered good design practice for structures not subjected to vibration. Special attention must also be paid to the design of weldments ‘and welding techniques. REFERENCES 1. Jenike, A. W., “Storage and Flow of Solids,” Bulletin 123, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, November 1964. 2. Johanson, J. R., “Method of Calculating Rate of Discharge from Hoppers and Bins,” Transactions AIME 69, March 1965, p. 232. Johanson, J. R. and H. Colijn, Iron & Steel Engineering, October 1964, p. 36. 26.3 EN MASSE CONVEYORS A. D. Sinden 263.1 Characteristics of En Masse Conveyors En masse conveyors are so called because they convey materials by causing them to flow in a compact, and unbroken stream through a conduit, The conveyor consists of a stationary conduit or casing and ‘4 moving, articulated element which is pulled through it. The moving element, comprising a series fof flights, occupies only a fraction of the space inside the conduit; the remainder of the space is filled with the material that is being conveyed. Assuming correct design, a flowable material like ain or dey cement will move with the moving element rather than remaining stationary and allowing the flights to pass through it Advantages of En Masse Conveyors ‘The chief advantages of en masse conveyors are: 1. They ate inherently enclosed 2. They are versatile as to layout 3. They are relatively small in cross section 4. ‘They are selfsfeeding, Wherever a conveying problem calls for tightness against leakage of dust, liquid, or gas, en masse ‘conveyors should he considered. Wherever arrangement is difficult or space is limited, en masse conveyors ‘often provide the best, and sometimes the only feasible, solution. En masse conveyors do not compete