13K views

Original Title: Determining Acceleration Due to Gravity on an Inclined Plane

Uploaded by Tyler Harvey

- Cart on Inclined Plane
- Physics Force Table Lab Report
- IB Physics, Inclined Plane
- Lab 1 - Graph Matching
- Velocity and acceleration on an incline
- Physics Report PROJECTILE MOTION
- Physics 1301w Laboratory Report
- Inclined Plane Lab Report
- Lab Report on Measuring Gravitational Acceleration
- 04 Determining g on Incline
- Cart on a Ramp Lab Report
- Cart Lab Report PREAP Physics
- Acceleration Lab Report
- Motion Inclined Plane
- Lab Newtons 2nd
- FREE FALL 1
- Capacitor Lab report
- PHY180 Formal Lab Report - Newton's Third Law
- Acceleration Due to Gravity
- Physics 222 Ohm's Law Lab Report

You are on page 1of 6

On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this report. ___________________________

Introduction

Gravity is the term used to describe a phenomena first observed and theorized Aristotle

and Galileo. Through several experiments including dropping balls off the Tower of Pisa and

later rolling balls down and inclined plane, Galileo theorized that gravity accelerates all objects

at a constant rate, regardless of their mass. The first mathematical explanation of gravity was

given by Sir Issac in The Principia, published in 1687. Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation,

F=Gm1m2r2, tells us that all objects in the universe exert an attractive force on one another. The

magnitude of that force is dependent on the mass of the two objects and the distance between

them. For most every object in the universe, this force is negligible because of the vastness of

space. However, due to the large mass and close proximity of earth, the force of gravity that the

earth exerts on all objects which are on the planet is large enough to be measured or calculated.

The goal of this experiment is to use this fact in order to experimentally determine the

force of gravity that acts on objects of varying mass as they slide down an inclined plane and

calculate the acceleration due to gravity by plotting F _{g} against the masses of the objects.

Methods

The air track apparatus was set up as in Diagram 7.1. The first variable that had to be

determined experimentally was the angle of the incline, θ. This was found by measuring the

height of the block which rested under one of the air track supports and the distance between the

block and the other air track support using a vernier caliper. Knowing these, the angle of the

incline was calculated. The mass of the car was also taken and recorded for later use.

The next variable that needed to be solved for was the final velocity of the car after

travelling 50 cm. Using one photogate placed 50 cm from the starting point and a timer in

Page 2

stopwatch mode, the time it took the flag to completely pass through the beam of the gate was

determined.

Using a vernier caliper, the width of the flag was also measured. Knowing the distance

the flag traveled (width of flag) and the time it took, the final velocity was calculated.

With this information, the acceleration of the car was found using two different methods:

one utilizing the change in velocity and the change in time, and the other utilizing the change in

velocity and the change in position. The second was decided to be more accurate and was used to

calculate the Net Force acting on the car and the force of gravity acting on the object. This data

was graphed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and the acceleration due to gravity was

determined from the slope of the graph and used to calculate the percent error.

Diagram 7.1 – Diagram of the testing apparatus. D is the distance between the photogates, h is the height of the block, and d is the distance between the block and the air track’s support.

Results

Page 3

The angle of the incline, θ, can be determined since the height of the block, h, and the

distance from the block to the support, d, are both known. Since the block forms a 90° angle,

sinθ= hd . h is known to be 66.64 mm and d is known to be 1000 mm, so θ can be calculated to

be 3.935877056°.

Using this incline, the time it took the flag, which rested on top of the car and had a width

of 11.90 mm, to pass through the photogate located 50 cm from the starting point was measured.

Table 7.1 – Time for Flag to Pass at 50 cm |
|||

Trial |
Time (s) |
||

1 |
0.0139 |
||

2 |
0.0138 |
||

3 |
0.0139 |
||

Average Time = 0.0139 s |
|||

Since vf=distancetime , the final velocity at 50.0 cm was found to be 0.8561151079 m/s. |
|||

Additionally, the car was weighed and the mass was determined to be 0.1896 kg. Using the |
|||

same incline as before, the time it took the car to travel 50 cm was also measured. |
|||

Table 7.2 – Time for Car to Travel 50 cm |
|||

Trial |
Time (s) |
||

1 |
1.0673 |
||

2 |
1.0448 |
||

3 |
1.0464 |
||

Average Time = 1.0528 s |

Since a= v2-v1t2-t1 when acceleration is constant, the acceleration was calculated to be

0.81313792164 m/s ^{2} .

Page 4

Also acceleration can be calculated another way, since vf2 = v02+2a∆x. Using this

method, the acceleration was determined to be 0.732933078 m/s ^{2} .

Diagram 4.2 – Free Body Diagram of the car on the incline.

From Diagram 4.2, it can be determined that Fg= Fnetsinθ. By Newton’s second law, it is

known that the Net Force is expressed by F=ma. By varying the mass of the car and calculating

the force of gravity in each case, a Force vs Mass plot can be constructed. The slope of the line

of best fit of this graph should be equal to the acceleration due to gravity.

Table 7.3 – Mass of Car vs Net Force and Force of Gravity |
||

Mass (g) |
F |
F |

189.6 |
0.1389641116 |
2.024535425 |

289.6 |
0.2122574171 |
3.092328338 |

389.6 |
0.2855507241 |
4.160121271 |

Figure 7.1 – Plot of Table 7.3: Force of Gravity vs Mass

Discussion

Acceleration was found two different ways and both values differed by a small, yet

significant amount. When determining the force of gravity, the value of 0.732933078 m/s ^{2} ,

calculated using the fundamental kinematic equationvf2 = v02+2a∆x, was used because the

Page 5

method for calculating it provided less room for human error since only one variable, compared

to two, was found experimentally.

When the force of gravity was graphed vs mass, a perfect linear relationship with an r ^{2} of

1 was found, which was expected since force is directly proportional to mass and was calculated

in this way. Also, the slope of the line of best fit was found to be 10.678 m/s ^{2} , which was the

acceleration due to gravity as determined experimentally.

Error Analysis

The accepted acceleration due to gravity is g, or 9.80 m/s ^{2} . From this experiment, the

acceleration, which is the slope of the graph of F _{g} vs Mass, was determined to be 10.678 m/s ^{2} .

% Error = |(experimental – accepted)/accepted| * 100 % Error = |(10.678 m/s ^{2} - 9.80 m/s ^{2} )/ 9.80 m/s ^{2} | * 100 % Error = 8.95%

While this is high, it is not unreasonable, since we are measuring the force of gravity

using very small distances and very small values of theta. The small degree of error was most

likely due to an unleveled plane, inaccurate measurements of distance and other human error in

determining the accelerations of the cars. These can be reduced by more accurate measuring

devices and more careful carrying out of the lab.

Conclusion

This experiment was successful in determining the force of gravity to within 9% of the accepted

value.

Page 6

- Cart on Inclined PlaneUploaded by劉成
- Physics Force Table Lab ReportUploaded byalightning123
- IB Physics, Inclined PlaneUploaded bysagarchester
- Lab 1 - Graph MatchingUploaded bykitsune-nilde
- Velocity and acceleration on an inclineUploaded byUgur ASİT
- Physics Report PROJECTILE MOTIONUploaded byHulwan Mukhlis
- Physics 1301w Laboratory ReportUploaded bymt9260
- Inclined Plane Lab ReportUploaded byskysky96
- Lab Report on Measuring Gravitational AccelerationUploaded bykpasindu
- 04 Determining g on InclineUploaded byNkenge OneTime
- Cart on a Ramp Lab ReportUploaded byShakilMirza
- Cart Lab Report PREAP PhysicsUploaded bygongsterr
- Acceleration Lab ReportUploaded byRa Raul
- Motion Inclined PlaneUploaded byAmit Singh
- Lab Newtons 2ndUploaded byUgur ASİT
- FREE FALL 1Uploaded bysseelanray
- Capacitor Lab reportUploaded bycarminavelasco21
- PHY180 Formal Lab Report - Newton's Third LawUploaded byAfiq Asri
- Acceleration Due to GravityUploaded byKhoironSyamdatu
- Physics 222 Ohm's Law Lab ReportUploaded byEmily Gatlin
- Lab Report Force and AccelerationUploaded bySumeet Ranu
- Force Table LabUploaded byquestionmark786
- Simple Pendulum LabUploaded bysagarchester
- Lab Report Constant AcclerationUploaded byacxyvb
- Mastering Physics Ch 06 HW College Physics I Brian Uzpen LCCCUploaded bySamuel
- SAMPLE PHYSICS LAB REPORT KINEMATICS.docUploaded bySara Sosoo
- Friction Lab ReportUploaded byMohammed Islam
- Force Table Lab ReportUploaded byGerald Tristan Reed
- Report 1 Measurement Physics 6Uploaded byrodneyperu

- Biomechanics of ACL TearsUploaded byTyler Harvey
- Protein ModelsUploaded byTyler Harvey
- 34528627 the Killers When You Were YoungUploaded bytashamooooo72
- Ch3Tu9Uploaded byTyler Harvey
- The Minimum Drinking AgeUploaded byTyler Harvey
- Economic NaturalistUploaded byTyler Harvey
- Final - Jan 24, 2013, 2-36 PMUploaded byTyler Harvey
- Mendelian Genetics LabUploaded byTyler Harvey
- ENGR 141 Sample Exam OneUploaded byTyler Harvey
- American History (1876-present)Uploaded byTyler Harvey
- ECE201 Sample Test 2 AnswerUploaded byTyler Harvey
- Determining the Empirical Formula for the Period of a Simple PendulumUploaded byTyler Harvey
- American History Notes 1876-presentUploaded byTyler Harvey
- Molecular and Cell Biology QuizzesUploaded byTyler Harvey

- Analysis of Horoscope Through the Ashtakavarga TableUploaded byHoracio Tackanoo
- Selected Topics in the History of the Two-dimensional Biharmonic Problem_MeleshkoUploaded bysavelyk1351
- B F Barrett HEAVEN REVEALED Philadelphia 1885Uploaded byfrancis batt
- 11 Physics Gravition Test 02 Answer l7vsUploaded byRyan Mills
- Orison Swett Marden - An Iron WillUploaded byalextestscribd
- The Comparison of the Classical Keplerian Orbit ElUploaded byalvaroroman92
- ts02a_01_rizos_ppt_2992Uploaded byTJ Cabatingan
- El Problema Del Viaje Espacial_Herman PotoskyUploaded bySam Vimes
- English B Assessment Men and GodsUploaded byMich Theobalds
- Islamic Connection to MathematicsUploaded byUniversal Brotherhood
- Some Characteristics of the Nakshatras and How to Use the Nakshatras in Vedic Astrology or JyotishUploaded byHarssh S Shrivastava
- Designing a Space Marine ChapterUploaded byjdagee
- 01 a Tenth of a Second a HistoryUploaded byCyberbook1
- 20911599 - Contents of Adler, Bazin and SchifferUploaded byDishant Pandya
- Biodynamic Chemistry the Gyroscopic Periodic TableUploaded bySolomanTrismosin
- 3864013 Lyrics Pink FloydUploaded bytp007
- ASTWIN23Uploaded byIman Soleimany Zadeh
- Classical Mechanics 200 COURSEUploaded bysilv_er
- U2-Transcript-What Emerged From the Big BangUploaded byJames Jiang
- Science Philanthropist, Jeffrey Epstein, Convenes a Conference of Nobel Laureates to Define GravityUploaded byPR.com 2
- Uncooled Carbon Microbolometer Imager.pdfUploaded byamtcorporation
- Flight of the White Swan Retreat PacketUploaded bykamaraj9998876
- Quiz7Uploaded byBoonyada Thamsirisup
- Curvilinear Position and Geodetic RateUploaded byFidelis Adhika Pradipta Lie
- Death Mystery Of Subhash ChandraBoseUploaded byMohammad Magdi
- Chapter 5 ComputerUploaded byAman Singh
- Introduction to AstrologyUploaded byJuan Esteban S. Méndez
- VaasthuUploaded byKrztofer Prnz
- pietrovito fat assUploaded byjesi5445
- The Highest Zeus ZEUS Jupiter is Higher than the Highest YHWH Yahweh.docxUploaded byAce Orense Cupid Uranus Ace Sphinx Galzu Acetr444 son of Multiverses Chaos Gaeia Eros ACETR444