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V

g=the gravitational constant

A ballistic pendulum is a device for measuring a y=the height of the launcher to the

bullet's momentum, from which it is possible to ground

calculate the velocity and kinetic energy. It is

useful in demonstrating properties of momentum We had to compare the results of part 1 and 2 so

and energy. The basic calculations for a ballistic we computed for the percentage difference using

pendulum do not require any measurement of the equation

time, but rely only on measures of mass and

distance. The ballistic pendulum can be used to

measure any transfer of momentum.

V

The ballistic pendulum is a device where a ball is

V

shot into and captured by a pendulum. The In part 1 of the

pendulum is initially at rest but acquires energy experiment, we first

from the collision with the ball. Using identified the mass

conservation of energy it is possible to find the of the ball and the

initial velocity of the ball. In this ball-pendulum pendulum. We also

system we cannot use the conservation of measured the initial

mechanical energy to relate the quantities height of the

because energy is transferred from mechanical to pendulum. After

non-conservative forces. setting the

pendulum bob to 0°

Part of this experiment is determining the change and putting the ball

in potential energy. It is done by first getting the in place, we then

change in height, the difference of the final and fired the steel ball

initial height. To get the change in potential to the pendulum

energy, the equation below is used: holder. We noted

ë the angle. We did this procedure several times.

After seeing that the values were close to each

where g= acceleration due to gravity (9.8 )

y= the increase in height (

)

other, we then got the mean angle of the 5

values.

We then computed the velocity of the steel ball Next, we manually set the pendulum to the

before collision with the equation computed

mean angle

then we

where m1 =mass of the ball determined

m2 =mass of the pendulum the final

y= increase in height of the pendulum height of the

ballistic

In part 2 of the experiment, we used kinematics pendulum. We

to get the initial velocity of the ball with the determined

equation the increase in

height by

getting the difference of the measured initial and

final heights. This value was used to get the

with x =the average horizontal distance travelled change in potential energy. We also got the

by the ball

velocity of the ball and pendulum after and projectile. We can then validate the initial

before collision. velocity with the trajectory method.

experiment especially the measuring of the height and

required us to horizontal distance of the projectile motion and

get the initial the initial and final height of the pendulum. We

velocity of the also may have misaligned the launcher which

ball through caused discrepancy. Another source of errors

projectile includes misreading of the angles.

motion. This

was done by

first attaching This experiment focuses on using the principles

bond papers of conservation of energy and momentum in

and carbon papers on the floor. We measured the determining the velocity of the steel ball with the

vertical use of a ballistic pendulum. The result is then

distance of the validated using projectile motion.

launching The laws of conservation of momentum and

point to the energy are used with the ballistic pendulum to

ground. We measure the velocity of a projectile. In this

now launched experiment, the steel ball, which has an initial

the ball and momentum, is fired into a ballistic pendulum,

did this five which is initially at rest therefore having zero

times. We momentum. The ball collides with the pendulum

measured the and remains fixed with the pendulum. They both

horizontal start to move with a final velocity and therefore a

distance travelled by the ball then computed the final momentum. After the pendulum catches the

average. ball, the laws of conservation of energy are taken

into account. Once they start to move together,

We determined the initial velocity then compared they have a kinetic energy. The pendulum will

it with the first result. start to gain height as it moves about its axis,

thus losing kinetic energy but gaining potential

]VV V energy until it reaches its maximum height where

V all the kinetic energy has been transferred into

Velocity of ball potential energy. Since energy is conserved, the

Methods

before collision velocity of the pendulum with the ball can be

Ballistic Method 363.24 cm/s computed. Using conservation of momentum, on

Trajectory Method 349.61 cm/s the other hand, the velocity of the ball before

impact with the pendulum can be determined.

Percentage difference= 3.82%

In the case of the trajectory method, the velocity

This table presents the results for initial velocity can also be computed through kinematics

of the steel ball for both methods. This shows equation, taking into account both the horizontal

that our velocities for both experiments closely and vertical components of the ball.

matched.

As conclusion, we can say that the laws of

When the ball collides with the pendulum bob, conservation of momentum and energy were

the projectile remains embedded in the pendulum verified in the experiment and we can use

bob- a completely inelastic collision. Using projectile motion to validate the initial velocity.

conservation of momentum to the collision yields

the initial velocity of the ball. After the collision, c

the pendulum bob will swing upward until all of I again want to extend my heartfelt thanks to

its kinetic energy is converted into gravitational Professor de Leon for the simulating discussion

potential energy. With the vertical distance about this topic. I also express my gratitude to

traveled by the pendulum bob, conservation of my mom Rachel for the support and my brother

energy will give us the velocity of the pendulum- for impatiently waiting for his turn on the laptop

and making me type faster. Just the same, I

thank my groupmates for their help during the

accomplishment of the experiment. And again,

thanks to Cean for tagging us the pictures to be

used in this report.

]

[1]Voung, H., Freedman, R., $

%
$, 12th Edition, 2008

[2]Vhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballistic_pendulu

m

[3]Vwww.cabrillo.edu/~cfigueroa/4B/4Blabs

±VV

;V Physics is becoming so unbelievably complex

that it is taking longer and longer to train a

physicist. It is taking so long, in fact, to train

a physicist to the place where he understands

the nature of physical problems that he is

already too old to solve them.

± Eugene Wigner

;V i:What is horsepower?

A:The power it takes to drag a horse a given

distance in a given amount of time.

mathematician and a physicist?

A: A mathematician thinks that two points are

enough to define a straight line while a

physicist wants more data.

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