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c .

  g=the gravitational constant
A ballistic pendulum is a device for measuring a y=the height of the launcher to the
bullet's momentum, from which it is possible to ground
calculate the velocity and kinetic energy. It is
useful in demonstrating properties of momentum We had to compare the results of part 1 and 2 so
and energy. The basic calculations for a ballistic we computed for the percentage difference using

pendulum do not require any measurement of the equation
time, but rely only on measures of mass and

distance. The ballistic pendulum can be used to
measure any transfer of momentum.
The ballistic pendulum is a device where a ball is 
shot into and captured by a pendulum. The In part 1 of the
pendulum is initially at rest but acquires energy experiment, we first
from the collision with the ball. Using identified the mass
conservation of energy it is possible to find the of the ball and the
initial velocity of the ball. In this ball-pendulum pendulum. We also
system we cannot use the conservation of measured the initial
mechanical energy to relate the quantities height of the
because energy is transferred from mechanical to pendulum. After
non-conservative forces. setting the
pendulum bob to 0°
Part of this experiment is determining the change and putting the ball
in potential energy. It is done by first getting the in place, we then
change in height, the difference of the final and fired the steel ball
initial height. To get the change in potential to the pendulum
energy, the equation below is used: holder. We noted
ë  the angle. We did this procedure several times.
 After seeing that the values were close to each
where g= acceleration due to gravity (9.8   )
y= the increase in height ( 
other, we then got the mean angle of the 5

We then computed the velocity of the steel ball Next, we manually set the pendulum to the

before collision with the equation computed

mean angle
then we
where m1 =mass of the ball determined
m2 =mass of the pendulum the final
y= increase in height of the pendulum height of the
In part 2 of the experiment, we used kinematics pendulum. We
to get the initial velocity of the ball with the determined
equation the increase in

height by
 getting the difference of the measured initial and
final heights. This value was used to get the
with x =the average horizontal distance travelled change in potential energy. We also got the
by the ball
velocity of the ball and pendulum after and projectile. We can then validate the initial
before collision. velocity with the trajectory method.

Part 2 of the Possible errors occurred due to measurements

experiment especially the measuring of the height and
required us to horizontal distance of the projectile motion and
get the initial the initial and final height of the pendulum. We
velocity of the also may have misaligned the launcher which
ball through caused discrepancy. Another source of errors
projectile includes misreading of the angles.
motion. This
was done by   
first attaching This experiment focuses on using the principles
bond papers of conservation of energy and momentum in
and carbon papers on the floor. We measured the determining the velocity of the steel ball with the
vertical use of a ballistic pendulum. The result is then
distance of the validated using projectile motion.
launching The laws of conservation of momentum and
point to the energy are used with the ballistic pendulum to
ground. We measure the velocity of a projectile. In this
now launched experiment, the steel ball, which has an initial
the ball and momentum, is fired into a ballistic pendulum,
did this five which is initially at rest therefore having zero
times. We momentum. The ball collides with the pendulum
measured the and remains fixed with the pendulum. They both
horizontal start to move with a final velocity and therefore a
distance travelled by the ball then computed the final momentum. After the pendulum catches the
average. ball, the laws of conservation of energy are taken
into account. Once they start to move together,
We determined the initial velocity then compared they have a kinetic energy. The pendulum will
it with the first result. start to gain height as it moves about its axis,
thus losing kinetic energy but gaining potential
] VV  V energy until it reaches its maximum height where
V all the kinetic energy has been transferred into
Velocity of ball potential energy. Since energy is conserved, the
before collision velocity of the pendulum with the ball can be
Ballistic Method 363.24 cm/s computed. Using conservation of momentum, on
Trajectory Method 349.61 cm/s the other hand, the velocity of the ball before
impact with the pendulum can be determined.
Percentage difference= 3.82%
In the case of the trajectory method, the velocity
This table presents the results for initial velocity can also be computed through kinematics
of the steel ball for both methods. This shows equation, taking into account both the horizontal
that our velocities for both experiments closely and vertical components of the ball.
As conclusion, we can say that the laws of
When the ball collides with the pendulum bob, conservation of momentum and energy were
the projectile remains embedded in the pendulum verified in the experiment and we can use
bob- a completely inelastic collision. Using projectile motion to validate the initial velocity.
conservation of momentum to the collision yields
the initial velocity of the ball. After the collision, c  
the pendulum bob will swing upward until all of I again want to extend my heartfelt thanks to
its kinetic energy is converted into gravitational Professor de Leon for the simulating discussion
potential energy. With the vertical distance about this topic. I also express my gratitude to
traveled by the pendulum bob, conservation of my mom Rachel for the support and my brother
energy will give us the velocity of the pendulum- for impatiently waiting for his turn on the laptop
and making me type faster. Just the same, I
thank my groupmates for their help during the
accomplishment of the experiment. And again,
thanks to Cean for tagging us the pictures to be
used in this report.

[1]Vƒoung, H., Freedman, R.,    $
%  $, 12th Edition, 2008

;V Physics is becoming so unbelievably complex
that it is taking longer and longer to train a
physicist. It is taking so long, in fact, to train
a physicist to the place where he understands
the nature of physical problems that he is
already too old to solve them.
± Eugene Wigner

;V i:What is horsepower?
A:The power it takes to drag a horse a given
distance in a given amount of time.

;V i: What's the difference between a

mathematician and a physicist?
A: A mathematician thinks that two points are
enough to define a straight line while a
physicist wants more data.