Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 271

GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
(ROADS AND BRIDGES)

VOLUME II

REVISED 1997

DIRECTOR OF FEDERAL HIGHWAYS


FEDERAL MINISTRY OF WORKS & HOUSING
HEADQUARTERS
ABUJA, NIGERIA
INDEX TO SPECIFICATION

Pages

Clauses: INDEX……………………………………….. (i) – (xv)

SPECIFICATIONS:-

SECTION I – GENERAL ……………………………………………. 1 – 23

SECTION II –CONCRETE: MASS AND REINFORCED.…………. 24 -55

SECTION III – PRESTRESSED CONCRETE………………………..56 –72

SECTION IV – PILING…. ……………………………………………73–84

SECTION V – BRIDGEWORKS………………………………………85–109

SECTION VI – ROADWORKS..………………………………….….110 –226


SECTION I - GENERAL
PART (A)
ADMINISTRATION

CLAUSES PAGES
1001 PRELIMINARY……………………………………………………………………….. 1
1002 DEFINITIONS………………………………………………………………………… 1
1003 DESCRIPTION OF WORKS…………………………………………………………. 2
1004 LIAISON WITH ADJACENT WORKS……………………………………………….. 2
1005 AVOIDANCE OF DAMAGE TO WORKS……………………………………………. 2
1006 DATUM…………………………………………………………………………………… 2
1007 SURVEYS AND LEVELS TO BE AGREED AS BASIS FOR MEASUREMENT….. 2
1008 DIMENSIONS AND LEVELS………………………………………………………….. 2
1009 PARTICULARS OF EXISTING WORK………………………………………………. 2
1010 WORKING DRAWINGS………………………………………………………………. 3
1011 ALTERATIONS OF DRAWINGS………………………………………………………. 3
1012 DRAWINGS OF TEMPORARY WORKS TO BE SUBMITTED…………… 3
1013 SETTING OUT……………………………………………………………………………. 3
1014 NOTICE OF OPERATION………………………………………………………………. 4
1015 EXISTING SERVICES……………………………………………………………………. 4
1016 DAMAGE TO SERVICES………………………………………………………………… 4
1017 FILLING HOLES AND TRENCHES……………………………………………… 4
1018 JOINT MEASUREMENT OF MEASUREMENT OF EXTRAS………………………. 4
1019 PROTECTION FROM WEATHER…………………………………………… 5
1020 WORKS TO BE KEPT FREEE FROM WATER……………………………………… 5
1021 STAFF ETC. ACCOMODATION………………………………………………………. 5
1022 SUPPLY OF WATER AND ELECTRICITY…………………………………………… 5
1023 RETURNS OF LABOUR……………………………………………………………….. 5
1024 PHOTOGRAPHS………………………………………………………………………… 5
1025 REPORTS OF ACCIDENTS OR UNUSUAL OCCURANCE…………………………. 6
1026 MAINTENANCE OF WORKS…………………………………………………………. 6
1027 AS-MADE DRAWINGS………………………………………………………………… 6
1028 TRAFFIC ROUTES TO BE MAINTAINED AND WORKS TRAFFIC
CONTROLLED……………………………………………………………………. 6
1029 BARRICADES, WARNING AND DEVIATION SIGNS………………………………. 7
1030 WEATHER CONDITIONS……………………………………………………………… 7
1031 OTHER WORKS AND SERVICES…………………………………………………….. 7
(CLAUSE 1032-1039 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………… 8

PART (B) MATERIALS AND TESTING


1040 MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORIES AND STAFF………………………….. 8
1041 TESTING OF MATERIALS…………………………………………………………….. 10
1042 INDEPENDENT TESTS………………………………………………………………… 11
1043 INSPECTION ENGINEER……………………………………………………………… 11
1044 MATERIALS SPECIFIED FOR B.S.S………………………………………………….. 13
1045 APPARATUS REQUIRED FOR TESTING……………………………………………. 13
1046 NOTICE OF TESTS…………………………………………………………………….. 13
1047 SAMPLING……………………………………………………………………………… 13
1048 SAMPLING OF MATERIALS FROM BORROW PITS……………………………….. 13
1049 SAMPLING OF MATERIALS FROM STOCKPILES…………………………………. 14
1050 TEST TO BE CARRIED OUT………………………………………………………….. 14

i
1051 UNSATISFACTORY TEST RESULT………………………………………………….. 18
1052 TRIAL SECTIONS OF ROAD…………………………………………………………. 18
1053 HANDLING AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS……………………………………… 20
(CLAUSES 1054 - 1059 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)…………………………………… 20

PART (C) MISCELLANOUS


1060 ASSISTANCE FOR ENGINEER’S REPRESENTATIVE……………………………... 20
1061 OFFICE ACCOMODATION…………………………………………………………… 21
1062 FENCING………………………………………………………………………………. 22
1063 COMPLIANCE WITH REGULATIONS OF THE NIGERIAN RAILWAY
CORPORATION, AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTOR OF RAILWAYS……………… 22
1064 COMPLIANCE WITH REGULATIONS OF THE NIGERIAN PORTS AUTHORITY 23
1065 TAKING OVER OF SITE BY CONTRACTORS………………………………………. 23

(CLAUSES 1069 - 1099 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 23

SECTION II
CONCRETE: MASS AND REINFORCED

CLAUSES
2000 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………………. 24

PART (A): MATERIALS


2001 CEMENT……………………………………………………………………………. 24
2002 WATER …………………………………………………………………………………….
26
2003 AGGREGATES…………………………………………………………………………….. 26
2004 FINE AGGREGATES……………………………………………………………………… 29
2005 COARSE AGGREGATES…………………………………………………………….. 30
2006 STEEL REINFORCEMENT………………………………………………………………. 31
2007 WATERPROOF BUILDING PAPER……………………………………………………. 32
2008 JOINT SEALING COMPOUND AND PRIMER……………………………………….. 32

PART (B): WORKMANSHIP


2009 PROPORTIONS OF CONCRETE: MIXES………………………………………. 32
2010 CONCRETE: MIX DESIGN………………………………………………………… 32
2011 TRIAL MIXES……………………………………………………………………….. 33
2012 MIXING OF CONCRETE ………………………………………………………….. 35
2013 QUALITY CONTROL OF CONCRETE…………………………………………… 36
2014 TRANSPORTATION OF CONCRETE……………………………………………. 41
2015 PLACING AND COMPACTION OF CONCRETE……………………………….. 41
2016 CONRETE: PLACED UNDER WATER………………………………………….. 42
2017 PROTECTION AGAINST CHEMICAL ACTION…………………………………. 43
2018 ATTENDANCE OF JOINER AND STEEL FIXER………………………………. 43
2019 CONSTRUCTION JOINT…………………………………………………………… 43
2020 JOINTS TO PREVENT BONDING OF ADJACENT SURFACES…………….. 44
2021 SURFACE FINISHES……………………………………………………………….. 44
2022 CURING OF CONCRETE…………………………………………………………… 44
2023 FORMWORK………………………………………………………………………. 45
2024 REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES………………………………………………….. 48

ii
2025 BENDING AND FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT………………………………… 48

PART (C): PRECAST CONRETE UNITS


2026 PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS……………………………………………………… 50

PART (D); CEMENT MORTARS AND GROUTS


2027 CEMENT MORTARS AND GROUTS………………………………………………. 52
2028 BUILDING IN FOUNDATION BOLTS, FITTINGS, KERBS ETC……………… 53
2029 EMPLOYMENT OF CONCRETE, MORTARS AND GROUTS……………………… 53

PART (E); GRANOLITHIC CONCRETE FLOOR FINISHES


2030 CEMENT………………………………………………………………………………. 53
2031 AGGREGATES………………………………………………………………………. 54
2032 GRANOLITHIC TOPPING…………………………………………………………… 54
2033 THE SUB-FLOOR…………………………………………………………………… 54
2034 LAYING………………………………………………………………………………. 54
2035 CURING………………………………………………………………………………. 54
2036 RETARDATION OF DUSTING……………………………………………………… 54
2037 CARBORUNDUM FINISH………………………………………………………….. 54
2038 GRANOLITHIC MONOLITHIC TOPPING………………………………………….. 54
2039 DAMP PROOFING……………………………………………………………………… 55
(CLAUSES 2040 - 2999 INCLUSIVE NOT USED) 55

SECTION III
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SPECIFICATION

CLAUSES
3000 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………….. 56

PART (A) MATERIALS


3001 CEMENT……………………………………………………………………………… 57
3002 AGGREGATES………………………………………………………………………. 57
3003 WATER……………………………………………………………………………….. 58
3004 UNTENSIONED REINFORCEMENT………………………………………………. 58
3005 PRE-STRESSING STEEL………………………………………………………….. 58
3006 SHEATHING………………………………………………………………………….. 60

PART (B); WORKMANSHIP


3007 CONCRETE PROPORTIONS………………………………………………………. 61
3008 FIELD TESTS………………………………………………………………………… 62
3009 BATCHING AND MIXING……………………………………………………………. 63
3010 PLACING OF CONCRETE…………………………………………………………. 63
3011 CURING………………………………………………………………………………. 64
3012 FORMWORK………………………………………………………………………… 64
3013 SURFACE FINISH………………………………………………………………….. 64
3014 TOLERANCE………………………………………………………………………… 65
3015 PRE-STRESSING…………………………………………………………………… 65
3016 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENT…………………………………………………….. 70
3017 LIFTING AND HANDLING………………………………………………………….. 71
3018 QUANTITY AND PAYMENT……………………………………………………….. 71

iii
(CLAUSES 3019 - 3999 INCLUSIVE NOT USED) 72

SECTION IV
PILING

CLAUSES
4000 GENERAL---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72

PART (A); GENERAL


4001 TYPES OF PILES………………………………………………………………….. 72
4002 APPROVAL OF TYPES OF PILES…………………………………………….... 72
4003 CONTRACTOR TO DRIVE OR BORE PILES……………………………………. 72
4004 SUB-CONTRACTOR TO DRIVE OR BORE PILES…………………………….. 72
4005 MANUFACTURE OF REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED………………….. 72
4006 CEMENT…………………………………………………………………………….. 72
4007 SETTING OUT OF PILES………………………………………………………….. 72
4008 ALIGNMENT…………………………………………………………………………. 72
4009 DRIVING WITH DROP HAMMERS OR SINGLE ACTING STEAM HAMMERS.. 73
4010 DRIVING WITH DOUBLE ACTION STEAM HAMMERS………………………… 73
4011 PROTECTION OF PILE BUTTS……………………………………………………. 73
4012 LEADS AND FRAMES……………………………………………………………… 73
4013 DRIVING TO BE CONTINOUS TO FINAL SET OR LEVEL…………………….. 73
4014 JETTING………………………………………………………………………………. 73
4015 DRIVING TO FINAL SET AND RECORD OF DRIVING…………………………. 73
4016 RE-DRIVING HEAVED PILES……………………………………………………… 73
4017 DAMAGED AND MIS-DRIVEN PILES…………………………………………….. 74
4018 OBTRUCTIONS………………………………………………………………………. 74
4019 CUTTING OF PILES HEADS ETC…………………………………………………. 74
4020 BORED PILES OR CASINGS……………………………………………………… 74
4021 PAYMENT…………………………………………………………………………….. 74
(CLAUSES 4022 - 4029 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)………………………………….. 74

PART (B);
TEST DRIVING AND TEST LOADING OF PILES

4030 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………….. 74
4031 RECORDING OF TESTS RESULTS…………………………………………………… 74
4032 PROCEDURE FOR TESTING PILES OF TYPES A, B, C AND D……………… 75
4033 PROCEDURE FOR TESTING PILES OF TYPES ''E'' AND ''F'' ….……………… 75
4034 LATERAL DISPLACEMENT TESTS………………………………………………… 75
4035 ASSESMENT OF RESULTS OF PILE LOADING AND DRIVING TESTS……… 75
4036 PAYMENT FOR TEST PILES AND LOAD TESTS……………………………….. 76
(CLAUSES 4037 - 4049 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)…………………………………. 76

PART (C)
PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE BEARING AND SHEET PILES
TYPE ''A''

4050 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………….. 76
4051 MOULDS AND CONCRETING……………………………………………………… 76

iv
4052 STRIPPING AND HANDLING……………………………………………………….. 76
4053 LENTHENING OF PILES…………………………………………………...……….. 77
4054 STRIPPING HEADS OF PILES…………………………………………………….. 77
4055 PAYMENT FOR PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE BEARING AND SHEET
PILES…………………………………………………………………………………. 77
(CLAUSES 4056 - 4059 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)…………………………….. 77

PART (D)
CAST-IN-PLACE REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES
TYPES "B" and "C"

4060 CAST-IN-PLACE REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES TYPE "B"…………. 78


4061 CAST-IN-PLACE REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES TYPE "C"………….. 78
4062 EQUIPMENT………………………………………………………………. 78
4063 CONTROL OF INTERNAL PRESSURES……………………………… 78
4064 CONCRETE……………………………………………………………….. 78
4065 STEEL REINFORCEMENT………………………………………………. 79
4066 PAYMENT FOR CAST-IN-PLACE REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES TYPES "B" and
"C"…………………………………………………………………………………………... 79
(CLAUSES 4067 - 4069 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)………………………… 79

PART (E)
CAST-IN-PLACE REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES TYPE "D"

4070 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………….. 79
4071 DETAILED METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION………………………………………. 79
4072 PAYMENT FOR CAST-IN-PLACE REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES OF TYPE
"D"……………………………………………………………………………………… 79
(CLAUSES 4073-4079 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 79

PART (F)
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CYLINDER PILES TYPE "E"

4080 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………………… 80
4081 MANUFACTURE…………………………………………………………………………. 80
4082 HANDLING……………………………………………………………………………….. 80
4083 EQUIPMENT……………………………………………………………………………… 80
4084 REINFORCING STEEL………………………………………………………………….. 80
4085 CONCRETE……………………………………………………………………………….. 80
4086 CASTING…………………………………………………………………………………. 80
4087 CURING…………………………………………………………………………………… 81
4088 METHOD OF HANDLING…………………………………………………………….. 81
4089 ASSEMBLY OF SECTIONS…………………………………………………………… 81
4090 STRESSING OF PILES………………………………………………………………….. 81
4091 GROUTING OF CABLES……………………………………………………………….. 81
4092 DRIVING RESISTANCE…………………………………………………………………. 81
4093 TENSION FORCES DURING DRIVING………………………………………………… 81
4094 CONTROL OF INTERNAL PRESSURES………………………………………………. 81
4095 PRE-EXCAVATION………………………………………………………………………. 82

v
4096 TOLERANCE…………………………………………………………………………….. 82
4097 CUT-OFF………………………………………………………………………………… 82
4098 PILE SPLICES OF BUILD UPS………………………………………………………… 82
4099 DEFLECTIVE PILES………………………………………….…………………………. 82
4100 PAYMENT………………………………………………………………………………. 82

(CLAUSES 4101-4109 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………… 82

PART (G)
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILES TYPE "F"

4110 GENERAL…………………………………………………….. 82
4111 METHOD OF MANUFACTURE ETC………………………… 82
4112 PAYMENT……………………………………………………….. 83
(CLAUSES 4113-4119 INCLUSIVE NOT USED) 83

PART (H)
STEEL SHEET PILES

4120 STEEL SHEET PILES………………………………………….. 83


4121 WELDING ELECTRODES……….…………………………….. 83
4122 PROTECTIVE PAINTING…………..………………………….. 83
4123 DRIVING ETC……………………………………………………….. 83
4124 THE RODS AND ROPES...…………………………………….. 84
4125 PAYMENT………………………………………………………….. 84
(CLAUSES 4126-4999 INCLUSIVE NOT USED) 84

SECTION V: BRIDGEWORKS

PART (A)
PRELIMINARIES, EXCAVATIONS, FOUNDATIONS, DEMOLITIONS, TEST
LOAD ETC.

5000 GENERAL………………………………………………………… 85
5001 GENERAL………………………………………………………… 85
5002 TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS………………………………………………………… 85
5003 CLEARING OF SITE……………………………………………………… 85
5004 WATER TRAINING AND PROTECTION WORKS……………………… 85
5005 EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING…………………………..…………… 85
5006 PAYMENT FOR EXCAVATIONS FOR FOUNDATIONS…………… 87
5007 EXCAVATIONS FOR FOUNDATIONS BELOW WATER LEVEL……… 87
5008 PREPARATION FOR FOUNDATIONS: NORMAL……………………… 88
5009 REMOVAL OF EXISTING STRUCTURES: GENERAL………………… 88
5010 EXPLOSIVES……………………...……………………………………… 89
5011 REMOVAL OF EXISTING SUPERSTRUCTURES AND SUBSTRUCTURES: STEEL
AND CONCRETE………………………………………………………………….. 89

vi
5012 REMOVAL OF EXISTING SUPERSTRUCTURES AND SUBSTRUCTURES:
TIMBER…………………………………………………………………………. 92
5013 TOTAL DEMOLITION OF EXISTING ABUTMENTS, PIERS AND
LANDINGS………………………………..……………………………………… 92
5014 PARTIAL DEMOLITION OF EXISTING ABUTMENTS, PIERS AND
LANDINGS………………………………..…………………………………………. 92
5015 DISPOSAL AND RE-USE OF RUBBLE RESULTING FROM
DEMOLITION………………………………..……………………………………….. 92
5016 PREPARATION OF SURFACES OF EXISTING ABUTMENTS, PIERS, ETC. PRIOR
TO PLACING CONCRETE IN CONTRACT…………………………………………… 92
5017 PREPARATION OF SURFACES OF EXISTING ABUTMENTS, PIERS, ETC. PRIOR
TO CONSTRUCTION OF NON-BONDING JOINT…………………………………….. 93
5018 TEST ON COMPLETED STRUCTURES……………………….... 93
5019 LOADING OF STRUCTURES: CONSTRUCTIONS, BACKFILLING, TRAFFIC
ETC…………………………………………………..…………………………………… 94
5020 AS-MADE DRAWINGS…………………………………………………….. 95
5021 SETTLEMENT OF BRIDGE AND APPROACHES…………………… 95
5022 BEARINGS…………….………………………………………………….. 95
5023 ELASTOMERIC BEARING PADS…………………………………….. 95
96
(CLAUSES 5024-5029 INCLUSIVE NOT USED) 97

PART (B)
STRUCTURAL STEELWORK

5030 GENERAL: MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP……………………… 97


5031 WORKING DRAWINGS...………………………………………………… 97
5032 SCHEDULE OF PARTS………………………………………………… 98
5033 MILD STEEL FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS ETC…………………… 98
5034 ROLLED STEEL PINS, KNUCKLE PINS, ROLLERS………………… 98
5035 STEEL CASTINGS FOR BEARINGS……………………..…………… 98
5036 PATTERNS OF CASTINGS…………………………………….………… 98
5037 GUNMETAL FOR BEARINGS…………………………………….……… 98
5038 FORGINGS…………………………………………...……………………… 98
5039 RIVETS……………………………………………………..………………… 98
5040 BOLTS…………...…………………...……………………………………… 98
5041 HAND-RAILING AND GUARD-RAILING…...…………………...……….. 99
5042 HIGH TENSILE STEEL FOR WELDING…...…………………...……….. 99
5043 HIGH TENSILE STEEL NOT TO BE FOR WELDED………...……….. 99
5044 HIGH TENSILE STEEL MARKING…………………...………...……….. 100
5045 CAST STEEL ……………………...…………………...………...……….. 100
5046 CAST IRON ……………………...…………………...………...……….. 100
5047 ELECTRODES…………………...…………………...………...……….. 100
5048 GREASE FOR BEARINGS….....…………………...………...……….. 100
5049 PAINT AND PAINTING…...….....…………………...………...……….. 100
5050 INTERCHANGEABILITY OF PARTS……...………………………………….. 101
5051 PREPARATION EDGES AND ENDS………………..…………………… 101
5052 HOLES FOR BOLTS AND RIVETS…………………..…………………… 101
5053 RIVETS AND RIVETING…………….…………………………………….. 102
5054 WASHERS……………….…………….…………………………………….. 102

vii
5055 WELDING………………..…………….…………………………………….. 102
5056 JOINTS……………………..………….…………………………………….. 103
5057 NOTCHING OF FLANGES AND WEBS...……………………………….. 103
5058 BENDING AND PRESSING…...…….…………………………………….. 103
5059 SHOP ASSEMBLY………….……….…………………………………….. 103
5060 MACHINING…………..…………….…………………………………….. 103
5061 ERECTION AT MANUFACTURERS WORKS AND MARKING UP FOR RE-
ERECTION…………….…………………………………………………………………….. 103
5062 SHOP PAINTING AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS…………………….. 104
5063 GALVANIZING…………….………….…………………………………….. 104
5064 DRIFTS, SPANNERS ETC…...…….…………………………………….. 104
5065 NUMBERS OF SITE RIVETS, BOLTS, NUTS SERVICE BOLTS ETC… 105
5066 MEASUREMENT FOR PAYMENT OF STEEL WORK…………………… 105
5067 PACKING AND MARKING FOR SHIPMENT…..………………………….. 106
5068 ERECTION AT SITE…………...……….…………………………………….. 106
5069 SITE PLANNING…………….………….…………………………………….. 106
5070 ADDITIONAL STEEL WORK INVOLVED IN THE STRENGTHENING OF EXISTING
BRIDGES…………….……………………………………………………………………. 107
5071 RE-USE OF GIRDERS, JOINTS ETC: OBTAINED FROM DISMANTLED
STRUCTURES…………….…………………………………………………………….. 108
5072 GROUTING BASE PLATES, ETC: OF BEARING………..…………….. 108
5073 EXPANSION JOINTS………….…………………………………….. 109

(CLAUSES 5074-5099 INCLUSIVE NOT USED) 109

SECTION VI - ROADWORKS
CLAUSES

6000 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………… 110

PART A
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS

6001 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT………………………………………………………….. 110


6002 VERTICAL ALIGNMENT……………………………………………………………… 111
6003 ROLL-OVER…………………………………………………………………………… 112
6004 CONTRACTOR TO CALCULATE LEVELS………………………………………… 112
6005 CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS…………………………………………………….. 112
(CLAUSES 6006-6099 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)…………………………………. 114

PART B
EARTHWORKS, DRAINAGE, ETC.

(I) MATERIAL

6100 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………… 114


6101 UNSUITABLE MATERIAL……………………………………………………………. 115
6102 FILLING MATERIAL…………………………………………………………………… 115
6103 SELECTED LATERITIC MATERIAL FOR SOFT SHOULDERS…………………. 115
6104 GRASS OR GRASS SEED………………………………………………………….. 115

viii
6105 RUBBLE AND PITCHING STONES…………………………………………………. 115
(CLAUSES 6106-6119 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)…………………………………… 115

(II) WORKMANSHIP
6120 SITE CLEARANCE……………………………………………………………………. 116
6121 SCARIFYING EXISTING SURFACE………………………………………………… 118
6122 EARTHWORKS……………………………………………………………………….. 118
6123 PAYMENT FOR EARTHWORKS…………………………………………………… 120
6124 SELECTION OF SOIL FOR FILL……………………………………………………. 121
6125 COMPACTION…………………………………………………………………………. 122
6126 BORROW PITS……………………………………………………………………….. 125
6127 SAND FILL…………………………………………………………………………….. 125
6128 EXCAVATION TO BE KEPT FREE FROM WATER………………………………. 127
6129 SLIPS…………………………………………………………………………………… 127
6130 SUITABLE MATERIAL BELOW FORMATION LEVEL……………………………. 128
6131 SWAMP AREAS……………………………………………………………………… 128
6132 FORMATION OF LEVEL …………………………………………………………….. 130
6133 PREPARATION OF FORMATION…………………………………………………. 130
6134 TRIMMING OF SLOPES…………………………………………………………….. 130
6135 EXCAVATION IN ROCK……………………………………………………………… 130
6136 BACKFILLING OF EXISTING BORROW PITS…………………………………….. 131
6137 EMBANKMENT IN BAD GROUNG…………………………………………………. 131
6138 BACKFILLING ………………………………….…………………………………….. 131
6139 GRASSING OF EMBANKMENTS, CUTTINGS, VERGES ETC…………………. 132
6140 ROADSIDE DRAINAGE DITCHING…………………………………………………. 132
6141 CONCRETE DRAINS…………………………………………………………………. 132
6142 SUB-SOIL DRAINS……………………………………………………………………. 133
6143 CUT-OFF DITCHING………………………………………………………………….. 134
6144 EXCAVATION FOR CULVERTS…………………………………………………….. 134
6145 DEMOLITION OF EXISTING CULVERTS…………………………………………… 135
6146 NEW PIPE CULVERTS………………………………………………………………. 135
6147 EXTENSION OF EXISTING PIPE CULVERTS…………………………………….. 137
6148 ACCESS CULVERTS………………………………………………………………… 138
6149 BOX CULVERTS………………………………………………………………………. 138
6150 EXTENSION TO EXISTING BOX CULVERTS…………………………………….. 138
6151 CORRUGATED METAL OR "ARMCO" CULVERTS………………………………. 138
6152 INLETS AND OUTLETS OF CULVERTS…………………………………………… 139
6153 CLEARING DRAINS AND CULVERTS……………………………………………… 140
6154 PITCHING………………………………………………………………………………. 140
6155 APPROVAL OF METHOD…………………………………………………………… 140
6156 PREVENTION OF DAMAGE TO COMPLETED PAVEMENT…………………… 141
6157 WATER FOR CONSTRUCTION…………………………………………………… 141
6158 ROLLERS……………………………………………………………………………… 141
6159 VIBRATORY COMPACTORS……………………………………………………….. 141
6160 TRENCH EXCAVATION FOR WIDENING OF EXISTING PAVEMENT…………. 141
6161 PREPARTION OF SUB-GRADE……………………………………………………. 142
6162 COMPLETION AND SHAPING OF SUB-GRADE…………………………………. 142
6163 COMPLETION OF VERGES AND MEDIANS……………………………………… 143
6164 STRIPPING TOPSOIL………………………………………………………………… 143
6165 CATCHPITS AND CASCADES……………………………………………………… 143
(CLAUSES 6166-6179 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)………………………………… 143

ix
(III) TESTS

6180 TESTS FOR THE SELECTION OF FILLING MATERIAL…………………………. 143


6181 TESTS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION AND CONTROL OF COMPACTED SUB-
GRADE AND FILLING…………………………………………………… 144
6182 TRIAL SECTIONS TO DETERMINE TECHNIQUE………………………………… 144
(CLAUSES 6183-6199 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)………………………………… 144

PART C
SUB-BASE COURSE, BASE COURSE ETC
(1) LATERITE
6200 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………… 145
6201 MATERIALS FOR COMPACTED SUB-BASE COURSE AND
BASE COURSE………………………………………………………………. 145
6202 ROCK LATERITE FOR SUB-BASE COURSE AND BASE
COURSE…………………………………………………………………… 147
(CLAUSES 6203-6204 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)………………………………. 147

WORKMANSHIP
6205 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS…………………………………………………….. 147
6206 BORROW PITS FOR SUB-BASE, BASE COURSE AND HARD-SHOULDER
MATERIALS………………………………………………………… 147
6207 COMPLETION OF SUB-BASE COURSE 148
6208 COMPLETION OF BASE COURSE………………………………………………… 149
6209 ROCK LATERITE FOR BASE COURSE 149
6210 SURFACING OF BASE COURSE………………………………………………….. 150
6211 PREPARATION OF BASE COURSE TO RECEIVE BITUMEN
PRIME COAT…………………………………………………………………. 150
(CLAUSES 6212-6214 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………. 150

TESTS

6215 TESTS FOR THE SELECTION OF LATERITE SUB-BASE COURSE AND BASE
COURSE MATERIALS…………………………………………… 150
6216 TESTS FOR CLASSIFICATION AND CONTROL OF COMPACTED
LATERITIC SUB-BASE COURSE AND BASE COURSE……………………………. 150
TRIAL SECTIONS OF LATERITE SUB-BASE COURSE AND
6217 BASE COURSE………………………………………………………………………. 152
(CLAUSE 6218-6219 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 152

(II) SOIL CEMENT SPECIFICATION

6220 DESCRIPTION………………………………………………………………………. 152


6221 MATERILAS FOR SOIL CEMENT STABILIZATION………………………………. 155
6222 APPROVAL……………………………………………………………………………. 155
6223 SAMPLING OF MATERIALS GENERAL…………………………………………… 155
6224 SAMPLING OF MATERIALS TO BE STABILISED BORROW
PITS……………………………………………………………………….. 155
6225 SAMPLING OF MATERIALS - STOCKPILES……………………………………… 155

x
6226 SAMPLING OF MATERIALS - EXISTING MATERIAL ALREADY IN
PLACE………………………………………………………………… 155
6227 TESTS FOR THE SELECTION OF SOIL TO BE STABILISED………………….. 155
6228 DESIGN CRITERIA……………………………………………………………………. 156
6229 PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATION OF CEMENT CONTENT…………………….. 156
6230 CONSTRUCTION…………………………………………………………………….. 157
6231 MULTIPASS - MIX- IN - PLACE METHOD…………………………………………. 157
6232 TRAVELLING MIXING MACHINE METHOD……………………………………….. 158
6233 COMPACTION…………………………………………………………………………. 158
6234 GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR PLANT MIX PROCESS………………………. 158
6235 BATCH MIXING………………………………………………………………………… 159
6236 WEIGHT PROPOTIONING…………………………………………………………… 159
6237 VOLUMETRIC PROPORTIONING…………………………………………………… 159
6238 CONTINUOUS MIXING……………………………………………………………….. 159
6239 SPREADING…………………………………………………………………………… 160
6240 COMPACTION…………………………………………………………………………. 161
6241 FINISHINGS……………………………………………………………………………. 162
6242 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS……………………………………………………………. 162
6243 CURING………………………………………………………………………………… 162
6244 FIELD CONTROL TESTS…………………………………………………………… 163
6245 TEST RECORDS……………………………………………………………………… 164
6246 ADDITIONAL CONSTRUCTION RECORDS……………………………………… 164
6247 SUPERVISION………………………………………………………………………… 164
(CLAUSES 6248-6249 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 164

(III) CRUSHED STONE


6250 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………… 165
6251 MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………… 165
6252 GRADING OF CRUSHED STONE………………………………………………….. 166
6253 PREPARATION OF SUBGRADE…………………………………………………… 167
6254 FORMS………………………………………………………………………………… 167
6255 CRUSHED STONE TO BE LAID AND COMPACTED IN LAYERS……………… 168
6256 LAYING AND COMPACTION CRUSHED STONE-DRY PROCESS…………… 168
6257 CRUSHED STONE BASE COURSE LAID BY THE WET PROCESS……….. 168
6258 PREPARATION OF CRUSHED STONE BASE COURSE TO RECEIVE
BITUMENINUOS SURFACING………………………………………………………….. 169
6259 COMPACTION…………………………………………………………………………. 169

(IV) CONCRETE CARRIAGEWAY CONSTRUCTION


6260 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………… 169

MATERIALS
6261 CEMENT……………………………………………………………………………….. 169
6262 AGGREGATE…………………………………………………………………………. 169
6263 REINFORCING STEEL……………………………………………………………….. 169
6264 DOWEL BARS AND TIE BARS…………………………………………………….. 169
6265 SIDE FORMS………………………………………………………………………….. 170
6266 RAILS FOR MACHINE FINISHED CONCRETE CARRIAGEWAY………………. 170
6267 PREFORMED JOINT FILLER……………………………………………………….. 170
6268 JOINT PRIMER………………………………………………………………………… 170
6269 JOINT SEALING COMPOUND………………………………………………………. 170

xi
WORKMANSHIP
6270 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………… 171
6271 THICKNESS OF SLABS……………………………………………………………… 171
6272 CONCRETE DISTRIBUTOR………………………………………………………….. 171
6273 COMPACTING AND FINISHING MACHINE……………………………………… 171
6274 WATERPROOF UNDERLAY……………………………………………………….. 171
6275 SETTING, CHEKING, AND STRIKING OF SIDE FORMS……………………….. 171
6276 SETTING, CHEKING, AND STRIKING OF RAILS FOR
MACHING-LAID CONCRETE………………………………………………….. 172
6277 QUANTITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF STEEL REINFORCEMENTS…………….. 173
6278 PLACING OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT FOR CARRIAGEWAY………………. 173
6279 TREATMENT AT MANHOLES……………………………………………………… 173
6280 JOINTS IN CONCRETE CARRIAGEWAYS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS…….. 173
6281 TRANVERSE JOINTS………………………………………………………………… 173
6282 LONGITUDINAL JOINTS……………………………………………………………… 174
6283 SAWING JOINTS……...……………………………………………………………… 174
6284 SEALING OF JOINTS………………………………………………………………… 174
6285 COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT OF CONCERETE………………………………….. 175
6286 TRAIL MIXES AND TRIAL SLABS………………………………………………….. 175
6287 PLACING CONCRETE……………………………………………………………….. 176
6288 SPREADING AND COMPACTION WITH A FINISHING MACHINED OF
REINFORCED CONCRETE ROADS SLABS………………………… 176
6289 SPREADING AND COMPACTION WITH VIBRATING SCREED OF
REINFORCED CONCRETE ROADS SLABS……………………………… 177
6290 SPREADING AND COMPACTION WITH A FINISHING MACHINED OR
VIBRATING SCREED ON CONCRETE ROADS SLABS OR HAUNCHES AS
ROAD BASES……………………………………………………………. 177

6291 CURING CONCRETE…………………………………………………………………. 177


6292 ACCURACY OF CONCRETE SURFACE USING FINISHING OR VIBRATING
SCREED…………………………………………………………………….. 177
6293 TRAFFIC OVER FINISHED WORK…………………………………………………. 178

TESTS
6294 SELECTION AND CONTROL TESTS……………………………………………… 178
6295 TRIAL SECTIONS…………………………………………………………………….. 178
(CLAUSES 6296-6299 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 178

PART D
SURFACING
(I)TWO COAT BITUMINOUS SURFACING DRESSING

6300 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………… 179

MATERIALS

6301 MATERIALS FOR SURFACE DRESSING…………………………………………. 179


6302 BITUMINOUS EMULSION……………………………………………………………. 180
(CLAUSES 6303-6309 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)…………………………………. 180

WORKMANSHIP

xii
6310 HEATING OF CUT BACK BITUMEN………………………………………………. 180
6311 CUT-BACK BITUMEN PRIME COAT……………………………………………… 180
6312 SPRAYING OF CUT-BACK BITUMEN PRIME COAT…………………………… 181
6313 FIRST COAT SURFACE DRESSING……………………………………………….. 182
6314 FINAL SURFACE OF CARRIAGEWAY……………………………………………. 183
6315 WET WEATHER………………………………………………………………………. 183
6316 REGULATION OF TRAFFIC OVER PRIME COAT AND SURFACE
DRESSING…………………………………………………………….. 183
(CLAUSE 6317-6319 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 183

TESTS

6320 TESTS FOR BITUMEN……………………………………………………………….. 183


6321 TESTS FOR AGGREGATES, ROADSTONE AND CHIPPINGS………………… 184
6322 TESTS FOR BINDER DISTRIBUTORS……………………………………….…….. 184
6323 TESTS FOR RATE APPLICATION………………………………………………….. 184
(CLAUSES 6324-6329 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 184

6330 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………… 184


MATERIALS

6331 BITUMEN MACADAM GENERAL…………………………………………………… 184


6332 BITUMEN MACADAM MATERIALS………………………………………………… 185
6333 BITUMEN MACADAM APPROVAL OF MATERIALS……………………………. 185
6334 BITUMEN MACADAM COMPOSITION OF MIXES……………………………… 185
(CLAUSE 6335-6339 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 186

WORKMANSHIP

6340 MACADAM MIXING PLANT………………………………………………………….. 186


6341 BITUMEN MACADAM MIXING………………………………………………………. 186
6342 BITUMEN MACADAM TRANSPORTATING MIXED MATERIAL…………………. 186
6343 BITUMEN MACADAM PREPARATION OF SURFACE PRIOR
TO LAYING……………………………………………………. 186
6344 BITUMEN MACADAM LAYING……………………………………………………… 187
6345 BITUMEN MACADAM SPREADER OR FINISHER………………………………. 187
6346 HAND SPREADING NOT ALLOWED………………………………………………. 187
6347 BITUMEN MACADAM ROLLING……………………………………………………. 187
6348 FIELD DENSITY OF COMPACTED BITUMEN MACADAM……………………… 188
6349 TRIAL AREAS…………………………………………………………………………. 189
6350 BITUMEN MACADAM FINISHED LEVELS………………………………………… 189
6351 BITUMEN MACADAM JOINTS………………………………………………………. 189
6352 BITUMEN MACADAM DAMAGED WORK………………………………………… 189
(CLAUSES 6353-6359 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 190

TESTS

6360 BITUMEN MACADAM TESTS………………………………………………………. 190


6361 PREQUENCY OF TESTS: BITUMEN MACADAM………………………………… 190
6362 INDEPENDENT TESTS: BITUMEN MACADAM…………………………………… 190

xiii
6363 MANUFACTURER'S CERTIFICATE FOR BITUMEN …………………………….. 191
6364 CONTRACTOR TO TEST MATERIALS:BITUMEN MACADAM…………………. 191
6365 NOTICE OF TEST:BITUMEN MACADAM………………………………………….. 191
6366 SAMPLES TO BE IN DUPLICATE………………………………………………….. 191
6367 COST OF TESTS BITUMEN MACADAM………………………………………….. 191
(CLAUSES 6368-6369 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 191

(III) ASPHALTIC CONCRETE

6370 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………… 191


6371 MATERIAL……………………………………………………………………………… 192
6372 APPROVAL OF MATERIAL…………………………………………………………. 193
6373 SAMPLES ………………………...………………………………………………….. 194
6374 COMPOSITION OF MIXES…………………………………………………………… 195
6375 PREPARATION …………………..………………………………………………….. 197
6376 TRANSPORTING MIXED MATERIALS……………………………………………. 198
6377 PREPARATION OF AREA TO BE PAVED……………………………………….. 199
6378 TRIAL AREAS…………………………………………………………………………. 199
6379 COMPACTION………………………………………………………………………… 201
6380 JOINTS…………………………………………………………………………………. 202
6381 FIELD DENSITY OF ROLLED ASPHALT………………………………………….. 202
6382 FINISHED LEVELS…………………………………………………………………… 203
6383 ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MIXING PLANT…………………………………………. 203
6384 ASPHALTIC CONCRETE PAVERS………………………………………………… 210
6385 INSPECTION AND CONTROL OF ASPHALT MIXING PLANT…………………… 211
(CLAUSES 6386-6399 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 213

PART E
MISCELLANEOUS

6400 MILE POSTS………………………………………………………………………….. 214


6401 CULVERT BEACONS………………………………………………………………… 214
6402 ROAD WARNING SIGNS…………………………………………………………….. 215
6403 ADVANCE DIRECTION SIGNS……………………………………………………… 215
6404 CARRIAGEWAY MARKINGS……………………………………………………….. 215
6405 PRECAST CONCRETE KERBS…………………………………………………….. 216
6406 PRECAST CONCRETE EDGING BLOCKS……………………………………….. 216
6407 PRECAST CONCRETE PAVING SLABS………………………………………….. 216
6408 GULLEY KERBS…………………………………………………………………….. 217
6409 GULLEY PIPES…………………………………………………………………….. 217
6410 PRECAST CONCRETE CHANNELS…...………………………………………….. 217
6411 CAT'S EYES…………………………………………………………………………… 218
6412 STREET LIGHTING……………………………………………………………………. 218
6413 TRAFFIC LIGHTS……………………………………………………………………… 218
6414 ILLUMINATED GUARD POSTS……………………………………………………… 218
6415 GUARDS RAILS………………………………………………………………………. 219
6416 DELINEATORS………………………………………………………………………… 220
6417 TELEPHONE POLES………………………………………………………………… 222
(CLAUSES 6418-6499 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)……………………………………. 223

ANNEXURE TO THE GENERAL SPECIFICATION

xiv
(ROAD AND BRIDGES)
PENETRATION (GROUTED) MACADAM

6500 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………… 223


6501 MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………… 223
6502 WORKMANSHIP……………………………………………………………………… 224
6503 TRIAL SECTIONS ……………………………………………………………………. 225
6504 TESTS………………………………………………………………………………….. 225

xv
SPECIFICATION

SECTION 1 - GENERAL
SECTION I - GENERAL

PART (A): ADMINISTRATION ETC.

PRELIMINARY 1001. The conditions of contract and the drawings shall be read in conjunction with this
specification and matters referred to, shown or described in any one of them are not
necessarily repeated in the other two.

The drawings and specifications are intended to complement and supplement each
other. Any work required by either of them and not by the other shall be performed as if
denoted by each. Should any work be required which is not denoted in the specifications or
on the drawings because of an inadvertent obvious omission, but which is nevertheless
necessary for the proper performance of the Project, such work shall be performed as if it
were described and delineated subject to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor shall
call to the attention of the Engineer's Representative, any perceived errors or omissions that
occur on the drawings and/or specifications.

On the drawings, figured dimensions shall govern in case of discrepancy between


scaled and figured dimensions. If any discrepancy be found between the drawings and
specifications, in so far as dimensions are concerned, the requirements of the drawings shall
govern. If there be a discrepancy between the General Specifications and the Supplementary
Specifications, the requirements of the latter shall govern. The Engineer shall have the right
to correct apparent errors and omissions in the drawings and specifications and to make such
interpretation as he deem necessary for the proper implementation of the intent and purpose
of the drawings and specifications.

DEFINITIONS 1002. The terms "Approved", "Directed" and "Required" shall mean to the approval,
direction or requirement of the Engineer or, his duly authorized representative.

The letters B.S. refer to the latest British Standards published by the British
Standards Institution. The British Standards mentioned in the specification are particularly
described in Schedule VII of Volume III of these Specifications bound together with the Bill
of Quantities. Where no particular direction is given, the letters B.S. refer to the latest
British Standards including any amendments in force at the time of the tendering. Materials
specified to be in accordance with the British Standards are to be branded or a certificate
provided where and as described in the particular Standard.

Where applicable the abbreviations used in the Specification and Bill of


Quantities are in accordance with the recommendations contained in B.S. l991, Parts 1 and
4, are as follows:

"A.A.S.H.T.O." or "A.A.S.H.O." refer to the Specifications used by the American


Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials, current edition.

"A.S.T.M." refer to the American Society of Testing Materials.

"C.P." or "B.S.C.P." refer to the latest (unless otherwise stated) British Standard
Code of Practice, including any amendments.

"DOE" refer to Department of Environment, United Kingdom

"F.M.W." refer to "The Federal Ministry of Works of the Government of the


Federal Republic of Nigeria.

"NIS" refer to the Nigerian Industrial Standards

"SON" refer to the Standard Organization of Nigeria

"W.A.S.C." refer to the West African Standard Compaction.

DESCRIPTION OF 1003. The works comprised in this Contract are described in Schedule V of Volume III
WORKS of these specifications bound together with the Bills of Quantities.

1
The drawings showing the dimensions and layouts of the works are listed in
Schedule IV appended to Volume III of these specifications bound together with the Bills of
Quantities.

The scope of the contract covers the supply of materials, plant, equipment, labour
and supervision necessary for the complete works all as specified together with all temporary
works and traffic diversions required during the construction of the works.

Where called for, the contract also includes the maintenance of a diversion for
traffic during construction, and the maintenance of the works in terms of Clause 49 of the
conditions of contract for a period after completion as stated in the appendix to Tender.

LIAISON WITH 1004. In the event of other works being in progress concurrently with and adjacent to
ADJACENT the works specified in this contract, liaison shall be maintained with such other works to
WORKS ensure that the several works being undertaken shall not cause any mutual interference with
progress and shall culminate in the integrated improvement as a whole. If so required by the
Engineer, the Contractor shall vary his programme of work in accordance with Clauses 14
and 90 of the Conditions of Contract, to coordinate the works with any other works on or
adjacent to the site of the works, whether being carried out by contract or by direct labour of
the Ministry.

AVOIDANCE OF 1005. The Contractor shall arrange his programme of works and control of traffic in
DAMAGE TO WORKS such a way as to avoid damage to the works at any stage of their construction.

DATUM 1006. The datum to which the various levels have been reduced for the purposes of the
contract are as stated on the respective drawings. Where these datums are likely to be
covered by the new works, the Contractor shall transfer the levels to such fixed points or
beacons, to be provided by the Contractor at his own cost, as shall be required and specified
by the Engineer's Representative. The positions of such transferred datums shall be
accurately surveyed and shown on the working and as-made drawings.

SURVEYS AND 1007. Before the works or any part thereof are begun the Contractor and the Engineer's
LEVELS TO BE Representative shall together survey and take levels of the site of the works and agree all
AGREED AS BASIS particulars on which measurements of works are to be based. Such surveys shall be recorded
FOR and signed as agreed by the Engineer's Representative and the Contractor and shall form
MEASUREMENT basis of the measurements for the Engineer's Certificates. Failing such surveys and
agreements being signed by the Contractor the surveys of the Engineer's Representative shall
be final and binding on the Contractor.

DIMENSIONS AND 1008. The dimensions and levels shown on the drawings are believed to be correct but
LEVELS the Contractor must verify the same on the ground, as well as all other particular of the
contract and he will be held responsible for the consequences of any error contained therein
or omission therefrom. Levels on existing roads will depend upon the amount of wear and
maintenance which has taken place between the time of survey and the time of construction
and similarly the levels of river beds and banks will be affected by the amount of erosion and
repair which has taken place in the same interval. Should any discrepancy be discovered
between the levels shown on the drawings and those found on the site, which may affect the
levels and dimensions of any part of the works, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer's
Representative in sufficient time to enable the Engineer to prepare drawings showing the
amended levels and dimensions. The attention of the Contractor in this respect is particularly
directed to the extent of wing walls (also see Clause 1010).

PARTICULARS OF 1009. Such information as may be given on the drawings or in the specification or in the
EXISTING WORK Bill of Quantities as to the present condition, character, position and size of existing
structures, roadways, rivers, pipes, cables and other services are given without guarantee of
accuracy or completeness, and neither the employer nor the Engineer will be liable for the
consequences of any discrepancy therein or omission therefrom. Where existing works are
required to be removed completely or in part or otherwise modified, it will be the
responsibility of the Contractor to satisfy himself absolutely in all respects in all matters
pertaining to the carrying out and completion of the works and the rates given in the priced

2
Bill of Quantities for the carrying out and completion of the work shall be deemed to be
fully inclusive and no extras will be allowed to the Contractor on the said rates.

WORKING 1010. Before any part of the works is put in hand the Contractor must prepare and
DRAWINGS submit for the approval of the Engineer's Representative copies in duplicate (in the first
instance) of any further detailed working drawings which may be required for that part of the
work and at the same time call the attention of the Engineer's Representative to any
differences between these and the contract drawings. The Engineer's Representative will,
after the Contractor has made any alterations which he may require, record on the copies, as
amended, his approval and will return one copy to the Contractor who shall carry out the
work in accordance there-with. The Contractor shall forward to the Engineer's
Representative four additional copies of the working drawings as approved. In addition,
working drawings are also to be submitted (the same procedure being followed as above
described) in respect of any work proposed to be executed by Sub-Contractors, the
distribution of drawings being as directed by the Engineer's Representative. The approval by
the Engineer's Representative of all or any of the drawings shall not relieve the Contractor of
his responsibility.

ALTERATIONS OF 1011. In any cases where drawings are specified or required to be supplied by the
DRAWINGS Contractor for the approval of the Engineer any alteration to such drawings which the
Engineer may require shall be made by the Contractor without extra charge.

DRAWINGS OF 1012. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineers Representative for his approval,
TEMPORARY complete drawings of all temporary works, stagings, required for carrying out the work,
WORKS TO BE together with the calculations relating to their strength and anticipated deflections. The
SUBMITTED drawings shall show the method proposed for the erection of the various parts of the
temporary works and their application to the carrying out of the permanent works. All
temporary works shall be properly designed and substantially constructed to carry the loads
to which they will be subjected and all drawings and calculations pertaining thereto shall be
forwarded to the Engineer's Representative sufficiently in advance of the intention to
proceed as will allow for their proper study and the incorporation of any modification which
the Engineer's Representative may require notwithstanding the approval or modification by
the Engineer's Representative of any submitted design for any of the temporary works,
stagings, etc., the Contractor shall remain wholly and entirely responsible until the removal
of such works for their efficiency security and maintenance and for all obligations and risks
in regard to such works specified or implied in the contract and he shall reinstate the same at
his own entire cost should any mishap or accident occur causing damage or injury thereto
subject however to such provisions of the conditions of contract as may be applicable in the
case of such damage or injury.

Two copies of each drawing shall be submitted to the Engineer's Representative in


the first instance and he will record on these copies, amended and modified as required, his
approval and will return one copy to the Contractor who may then proceed in accordance
therewith. The Contractor shall forward to the Engineer's Representative four additional
copies of the drawings as approved.

The cost of complying with all the requirements of this clause shall be borne by
the Contractor.

SETTING-OUT 1013. The attention of the Contractor is directed to Clause 17 of the Conditions of
Contract. The Contractor shall give the Engineer's Representative not less than 24 hours
notice of his intention to set out or give levels for any part of the work in order that
arrangements may be made for checking.

To enable the Engineer's Representative to check the accuracy of the Contractor's


setting-out, the Contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineer's Representative
approved theodolites, levels, staves, bands, pegs, labour and all things necessary as may be
particularly specified in the respective clause. Any approval or collaboration in respect of
setting-out by the Engineer's Representative shall not in any way affect the Contractor's sole
responsibility for the accuracy of the setting-out and the consequent construction.

3
NOTICE OF 1014. No important operation and in particular no blocking or cutting of any road,
OPERATION water pipe or other service shall be carried out without the consent in writing of the
Engineer's Representative nor without full and complete notice being given to him also in
writing sufficiently in advance of the time of the operation and will enable him to make
such arrangements as may be deemed necessary for its inspection and the provision of all
relevant safety precautions.

EXISTING 1015. The Contractor shall satisfy himself entirely as to the location of all existing
SERVICES drains, pipes, cables and similar services whether above or below ground level. Drains,
pipes, cables and similar services encountered in the course of the works shall be guarded
from injury by the Contractor at his own cost so that they may continue in full and
uninterrupted use to the satisfaction of the owners thereof and the Contractor shall not store
materials or otherwise occupy any part of the site in a manner likely to hinder the operations
of such owners. If the interests of the work shall in the opinion of the Engineer so require,
the Contractor shall on his direction arrange for the construction by the respective
departments, bodies, corporations or authorities of permanent protective works or permanent
or temporary diversions of the said drains etc., (afterwards reinstating if temporary) and the
cost of such works or diversions including reinstatement shall be charged against the
appropriate provisional sum provided in the Bill of Quantities. The Contractor shall be at
liberty subject to the approval of the owners and the requirements of Clause 90 of the
Conditions of Contract to make any further diversions he may consider necessary. The cost
of these additional diversions including the cost of reinstatement shall be borne by the
Contractor. No services may be tampered with by the Contractor and all works in
connection with any services shall be carried out by their respective owners.

DAMAGE TO 1016. The Contractor shall be held liable for damage and interference to mains and
SERVICES pipes, to electric cables or services of any kind either above or below ground caused by him
or his Sub-Contractors in the execution of the works. Should any damage be done to mains,
pipes, wires, telecommunications or electrical apparatus or any other service, whether shown
on the drawings or not, the Contractor must make good the same without delay and do any
further work considered necessary by the Engineer or the owners all at his own cost or pay
the costs to the owner in so doing. The Contractor will be deemed to have provided for
these contingencies in fixing the rates, etc., inserted in the Bill of Quantities.

FILLING IN HOLES 1017. The Contractor shall take all precautions and provide any temporary fences
AND TRENCHES necessary to protect the public from accidents which may be caused by the presence of any
excavations, mounds, heaps or earth or any other materials or stores connected with the
works. The Contractor shall, at his own expense, and immediately upon completion of any
part of the work, fill up all holes and trenches and level all mounds and heaps of earth which
have been excavated or made in connection with the works. The Contractor shall bear and
pay all costs, charges, damages and expenses incurred or sustained on account of or in
consequence of any accident which may happen by reason of holes and trenches being dug
and left unprotected, or materials being left or placed in unprotected or improper situations.

JOINT 1018. In the event of the Contractor having to execute any work or provide any material
MEASUREMENT OF in regard to which he may propose to claim extras, he shall first obtain a written order from
EXTRAS the Engineer's Representative and shall at once make arrangements to take the measurements
of the said work or materials with the Engineer's Representative. If these measurements are
not taken jointly and booked and agreed at the time the work is being executed the
Contractor's measurements will not afterwards be recognized by the Engineer. The fact of
such joint measurements having being made will in no way commit the Engineer to a
recognition of the claim if he considers such a claim without foundation. The Engineer's
Representative shall at all times have full access to the Contractor's time book and may daily
check the time of any extra works with the Contractor's time-keeper or otherwise, but the
fact of his agreeing upon any time shall in no way bind the Engineer to value the work other
than by measurement if he thinks fit so to do.

4
PROTECTION 1019. All materials shall be stored on the site in a manner approved by the Engineer
FROM WEATHER and the Contractor shall carefully protect from weather all work and materials which may be
affected thereby.

WORKS TO BE 1020. All those parts of the works required to be carried out in the dry, whether
KEPT FREE FROM within any part specified to be enclosed or not, shall be kept free at all times from water
WATER from whatever source it may come to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. The
costs of complying with the provisions of this clause shall be borne by the Contractor.

STAFF 1021. The Contractor shall at his own expense provide for himself suitable offices and
ACCOMMODATION housing for his staff and labour. If required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall supply,
ETC. erect and maintain suitable furnished offices and Residential quarters for the Engineer's
Representative and his assistants, inspectors and staff on a site or sites to be selected,
together with all proper lighting, heating, water, sanitary arrangements and attendance.

SUPPLY OF 1022. The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for the provision of water and
WATER AND electricity, whether for use in the execution and construction of permanent works or
ELECTRICITY otherwise. In the event of the source of water being from any existing piped supply, the
Contractor shall comply with any regulation laid down by the water authority and shall pay
for such supply, standpipes, connections, meter rent and all other charges as required all at
his own expense. The same conditions apply for the temporary supply of electrical power.

RETURNS OF 1023. Every working day, the Contractor shall supply the Engineers Representative
LABOUR with a return of the men employed the previous day and of the work on which they were
engaged, specifying also the number employed in each trade. He shall also supply any other
returns, which may be required from time to time, as to the number of men and plant
employed and the nature, quality and quantity of the work done.

PHOTOGRAPHS 1024. The Contractor, shall, if required, supply to the Engineer monthly, or at such other
periods as he may direct, well executed and mounted photographs showing the progress of
the works and also such particular sections of the works, site, plant, machinery or materials
as the Engineer may direct. The cost of such photographs will be charged against the
appropriate provisional sum.

The copyright of the photographs shall be held by the Employers. The Contractor
shall provide the Engineer's Representative (within 5 days of the photographs having been
taken) with the negative and three prints of each photograph which shall be I.O. , standard
size A4 or a minimum of 200mm x 300mm. On the reverse side of each print the
following information shall be shown:

(1) Date photograph was taken.

(2) A brief description of the location illustrated or the name of the structure.

(3) The negative number of the photograph.

(4) The name and address of the photographer.

The prints of each approved photograph shall be signed and dated by the
Contractor and the Engineer's Representative.

REPORTS OF
ACCIDENTS OR
UNUSUAL
OCCURRENCE 5
1025. Notwithstanding the submission of the normal and regular monthly progress
reports the Contractor shall report to the Engineer's Representative promptly and in writing
the particulars of any accident or unusual or unforeseen occurrence on the site whether
likely to affect the progress of the work or not - stating also the steps he has taken or is
arranging to take in the matter.

MAINTENANCE 1026. (A) During the period of maintenance as defined in Clause 48 and 49 of the
OF WORKS Conditions of Contract, the Contractor shall maintain the works, or such part of the works as
are involved, for the period named in the tender to the entire satisfaction of the Engineer.
Such maintenance shall include repairs to the superstructures and sub-structures of the
bridges; defects in the subgrade, base-course and bituminous surfacing of the roadways;
landslips and failures of culverts, but shall not include grass cutting brushing or the
cleaning of drains.

(B) The Contractor will be responsible for the maintenance other than grass
cutting, of all verges, margins and side-slopes, including stone pitching, for the period of
maintenance and shall make good all erosions during such period whether attributable to
defects in workmanship or not.

(C) Before the commencement of the period of maintenance the Contractor


shall remove all his buildings and plant from the whole of the site and shall clear and regrade
the areas to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

AS-MADE 1027. On completion of the works, the Contractor shall prepare as-made drawings
DRAWINGS giving complete details of the entire works as constructed, including all work carried out by
Sub-Contractors. The as-made drawings shall be prepared in accordance with the
requirements of the respective clauses in the specifications and all costs arising out of their
preparation, supply and distribution etc., shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates
for the work to which they refer.

TRAFFIC ROUTES 1028. There shall be no unnecessary obstruction of roads, railways, footpaths,
TO BE MAINTAINED waterways, electrical installations etc., during the course of the work and in no
AND WORKS
circumstances shall closure, in whole or in part, of these or any other "Right of Way be
TRAFFIC
CONTROLLED permitted except with the prior permission of the Engineer in writing. Before granting such
permission the Engineer shall consult with the authorities, government departments and/or
persons concerned and when desirable shall publish due notice of the proposed action in the
government gazette. The Contractor shall maintain adequate through safe traffic routes for
vehicles and pedestrians throughout the whole length of the public highways within and
adjacent to the site of the works, including such diversion of highways as may be required,
and make arrangements for watching, signalling and control of traffic by day and by night and
for adequate lighting all to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The Contractor shall without
extra charge if instructed to do so by the Engineer install, make use of, adequately maintain
automatic "Stop and Go" signals, traffic lights or other special method or methods of traffic
control and direction as the Engineer may consider necessary, and the Contractor shall carry
out all such instructions to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Where directed by the Engineer, temporary single or double tracks shall be


constructed and maintained in a safe and satisfactory condition for the use of all traffic
during the construction of the works. The temporary tracks shall be removed and all
reinstatement made to the satisfaction of the Engineer when no longer required.

6
The Contractor shall, at his own expense, and during the period of this Contract,
maintain in a safe condition and adequately protect any work executed by him which is
exposed to traffic. The Contractor shall supply adequate advance warning signs of reflecting
type with letters not less than 150mm high and such warning signs shall be placed in
positions approved by the Engineer and shall be left in such positions as long as traffic is still
utilizing any such temporary running surface.

The Contractor shall make arrangements and cooperate with all other contractors
working in the area for directing, routing, marshalling, controlling and circulating the traffic
connected with the works under this contract in accordance with the Engineer's
Requirements, in order that the flow of all traffic may be facilitated, that all obstruction,
inconvenience and delay may be minimized, and that the interests of all concerned, including
the general public, may be protected.

The Contractor shall allow in his tender for complying with the requirements of
this clause and for any directions in connection therewith which the Engineer may issue from
time to time. The Contractor will be deemed to have allowed for additional expense he may
incur on account of extra running or kilometre covered by his vehicle or labour or material
involved in compliance with these requirements.

The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that the highways in the vicinity
of the works are kept clean of mud and other debris falling from vehicles connected with the
works or spreading on to the highways as a result of the works in any way.

BARRICADES, 1029. The Contractor will at all times during the contract, provide, erect and maintain
WARNING AND such barricades, warning lights, dangers signals, reflectors, signs and watchmen as may be
DEVIATION SIGNS
necessary to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. Any such warning signs etc.,
shall be left in position as long as traffic is utilizing any temporary running surface and/or
until such time as their removal is sanctioned by the Engineer's Representative.

Barricades and signs shall be constructed and used in accordance with the
requirements of the Engineer's Representative. All barricades, obstructions and such other
conveniences as are necessary to protect the travelling public, or as required by the
Engineer's Representative shall be illuminated at night by reflectors or red lanterns.

The cost of barricades, danger, warning and deviation signs and providing
watchmen, shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices.

WEATHER 1030. The Contractors shall be deemed to have taken all possible weather conditions
CONDITIONS into account when preparing their tender and they shall not be entitled to extra payment by
reason of the occurrence or effect of high winds, tornadoes, excessive rainfall, temperature
or humidity or any other meteorological phenomena.

OTHER WORKS 1031. During the continuance of the contract the employer may cause other works such
AND SERVICES as the installation of services to be carried out on, through or adjacent to the site.

The Contractor shall at all times comply with the requirements of the general
conditions of contract in respect of these and any other works not included in the Contract
and shall allow reasonable access as approved by the Engineer on and through the site of the
works to any other Contractors or workmen who may be working on or near the site.

7
The Contractor shall make adequate arrangements to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative for the disposal of all sewage, rubbish and all other waste
materials arising from or connected with the execution of the works.

The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for and shall provide any service
(including telephone and radio communications) which he may require in addition to the
foregoing.

In the programme and particulars required under Clause 14 of the Conditions of


Contract the Contractor shall:

(i) provide details of the sequence he proposes for carrying out the works,

(ii) state and allow a reasonable margin of time for contingencies and

(iii) state his intentions regarding shift work.

The Contractor's programme shall make due allowance for requirements specified
in all clauses of the Specification.

The Contractor shall report monthly progress to the Engineer on charts submitted
in triplicate and showing actual work done superimposed upon copies of the programme.

He shall furnish an explanation of any deviation from the programme and shall
state proposals for improving progress should this be lacking in any respect.

(CLAUSES 1032 - 1039 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

PART (B): MATERIALS AND TESTING

MATERIALS 1040. The Contractor shall provide and maintain materials laboratories, equipment
TESTING and staff as directed by the Engineer and more particularly described in Schedule No. VI of
LABORATORIES
the Bills of Quantities.
AND STAFF

The Contractor shall provide, maintain and staff laboratories at his own expense
throughout the Contract. The said laboratories shall be in a waterproof building or rooms
designated and used exclusively for the purpose and shall be maintained in a clean and tidy
fashion to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. The laboratories shall have an
adequate water and electricity supply. The laboratories shall be staffed with Engineers well
experienced in materials testing and approved by the Engineer. The laboratories shall be
located within 50 Km. of all works in the field requiring sampling and testing. Work will not
be permitted to begin until laboratories and staff have been provided within this distance.

The Contractor shall provide all the testing equipment, tools, etc., and shall carry
out tests on materials as directed and shall supply the Engineer's Representative with two
copies of the results of each test on approved printed forms. A third copy of the results shall
be retained in the laboratories.

Without limiting the Contractor's responsibility as stipulated above, the facilities


of the laboratories shall be available for the use of the Engineer's Representative and his
assistants to perform control tests on workmanship and materials as provided for in the
Specification.

8
Notwithstanding the results of tests carried out by the Contractor, approval of
workmanship and materials shall be based on the results of these control tests.

It is the responsibility of the Contractor to notify the Engineer's Representative


when any items of the works scheduled below are completed and ready for approval and the
Contractor shall give sufficient notice to allow control tests to be performed. Generally the
time required to perform control tests by the Engineer's Representative after the receipt of
the Contractor's notification shall be as follows:

All filling and subgrade 3 days


Unstabilized sub-base and base course 3 days
Crushed stone base 3 days
Surfacing materials 7 days
Structural concrete 30 days
Asphalt concrete 10 days

Note: Where construction is carried out in arid region where moisture of finished
fill, subbase base or stone base can dry out from the surface rapidly, the time of notification
may be reduced at the request of the Contractor making representation to the Engineer's
Representative on same.

Unless otherwise specified, the cost of carrying out all tests shall be deemed to be
included in the tendered rates and prices and the Contractor shall be deemed to have allowed
for the costs of providing all facilities necessary. No claim for delay of any kind shall be
entertained by the Engineer in this respect if the stipulations of the foregoing have not been
observed.

All samples and records shall be preserved as long as the Engineer's


Representative may direct and they shall be kept and labelled in an orderly fashion. The
laboratories, equipment, all records and samples shall be open to inspection and use by the
Engineer or his Representative during all normal work hours.

The laboratory building shall be in accordance with the standards specified for the
office of the Engineer's Representative. Concrete floors shall be provided throughout. The
Contractor also shall provide air conditioning throughout the laboratory and shall service,
clean and light the building to the standards specified for the Office of the Engineer's
Representative.

As specified elsewhere in the Contract documents, the Contractor shall supply


suitable vehicles equipped and reserved exclusively for the use at all times of the laboratory
staff to permit the carrying out of control tests in the field.

Where directed by the Engineer the Contractor shall remove and dispose of the
building and unserviceable vehicles make good any damage to the site and leave it clean and
neat.

9
The facilities of the testing laboratory shall be made available for use by the
Engineer's Representative at all times for the purpose of the works.

TESTING OF 1041. The Contractor shall arrange for the testing of all materials used throughout the
MATERIALS contract, to ensure that they are up to the standards specified.

The Contractor shall carry out such laboratory and field tests (including tests to
check the accuracy of testing equipment and methods but excluding tests specified to be
carried out in an independent testing laboratory) as specified and as may be necessary to
ensure and satisfy the Engineer that the requirements of the Specifications are met. The type
and frequency of testing shall be in accordance with the relevant Nigerian Industrial
Standards or British Standards except as otherwise specified herein or directed by the
Engineer.

The frequencies of testing specified in the relevant clauses are intended to


represent only a general guide. The Engineer's Representative shall be empowered to vary
the frequencies at which tests are conducted should he deem this necessary for the proper
control of the quality of the Works. Should the Engineer's Representative vary the
frequencies stated in the relevant clauses of the Specification, the Contractor will not be
entitled to extra payment.

Unless otherwise agreed or directed by the Engineer, methods of sampling and test
procedures shall be in accordance with the relevant Nigerian Industrial Standards/ British
Standards, British Standard Codes of Practice, Standard Methods of the Institute of
Petroleum and the American Society for Testing Materials, the Asphalt Institute, Building
Research Station Digests and published recommendations of the Transport and Road
Research Laboratory. Samples will be selected by the Engineer's Representative.

Where tests are specified or directed by the Engineer's Representative to be carried


out in an independent testing laboratory, the Contractor shall supply and deliver the samples
and shall arrange for the relevant tests to be carried out. The independent testing laboratory
shall be nominated by the Contractor and shall be acceptable to the Engineer's
Representative. Unless otherwise specified the Contractor shall arrange for one copy of the
independent testing laboratory's test certificates to be delivered to the Engineer's
Representative not less than 7 working days before the materials covered by the relevant test
certificate are incorporated in the Works. Each test certificate shall be relatable to the
materials from which the sample was taken.

When any material or article is required to comply with a British Standard or any
other Standard specified herein such material or article or its container shall bear the stamp
of the registered certificate trade mark of the British Standards Institution or the certification
of the applicable standard. Alternatively, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer
certified test certificates furnished by the supplier or manufacturer of the material or article
indicating compliance with the relevant British Standards or a copy of the manufacturer's or
supplier's test certificate showing that the material has been tested and found to comply in all
respects with the relevant standard. Notwithstanding the above, the Engineer's Representative
may require additional tests to be carried out by an approved local testing establishment and
the material shall be supplied by the Contractor. In such cases a copy of the test result shall
be submitted to the Engineer's Representative in lieu of the Manufacturer's/Supplier's
certificate. All testing carried out by the Contractor shall be undertaken by approved
qualified staff who shall be nominated by the Contractor and sufficient notice of the

10
intention to carry out such tests shall be given to the Engineer's Representative to enable him
to be present during the tests should he so desire.

The Contractor shall arrange and the Engineer shall have power to send inspectors
to the premises of the manufacturers and suppliers to inspect the manufacture and testing of
the materials intended for use in the works. Materials tested before leaving the
manufacturer's or supplier's premises may be tested again after delivery at the site, at the
discretion of the Engineer's Representative.

Notwithstanding the results of the tests at the supplier's or manufacturer's


premises, the production of a test certificate or the results of any tests carried out by an
approved testing establishment or by the Contractor, the Engineer's Representative shall have
power to reject after delivery at the site any materials found to be not in accordance with the
requirements of this specification.

The Contractor shall be deemed to have included in his tendered rates and prices
all costs arising out of compliance with the requirements of this clause.

INDEPENDENT 1042. Notwithstanding successful t test results being submitted for any material, and in
TESTS addition to the tests required under other clauses of this specification, the Engineer may
order further tests of any material to be carried out by his own central laboratory or by an
independent tester at such places as he may determine. The Contractor shall provide the
samples for such tests free of charge, but payment for the tests shall be the employer's
responsibility and charged against the appropriate provisional sum except as detailed in
Clause 36 (4) of the Conditions of Contract.

INSPECTION 1043. For the purposes of this contract and in accordance with Clause 36 of the
ENGINEER Conditions of Contract, the Engineer may appoint one or more Inspection Engineers for all
imported materials to be used in connection with the contract.

If any Inspection Engineer is to be appointed for the inspection of imported


materials the Engineer shall select the Inspection Engineer and inform the Contractor
accordingly.

For all materials of Nigerian origin the Inspection Engineer shall be the
Engineer's duly Authorized Representative in Nigeria.

Where an Inspection Engineer has been appointed for imported materials the
Contractor shall before he enters into any arrangement for the supply or manufacture of
materials, submit for the approval of the Inspection Engineer, the names of the
manufacturers or merchants he proposes to employ. Should the Inspection Engineer at any
time be dissatisfied with any of the methods or operations carried out at the manufacturer's
works or place of business, he shall be empowered to cancel his previous consent for
materials to be obtained from such manufacturer or merchant. Should the Contractor fail to
submit for the approval of the Inspection Engineer samples of material of satisfactory quality
or workmanship, the Inspection Engineer shall have the power to specify any particular
manufacturer or merchant for the supply of the materials and the Contractor shall obtain
such materials from the said manufacturers or merchants without additional charge.

The Inspection Engineer shall examine and test and if necessary analyze all
materials and test the fabrication of any structures or structural components to be used in the

11
permanent works. The Inspection Engineer and his Representatives shall have free access at
all reasonable times to the manufacturer's or merchant's premises and shall be afforded every
facility for making inspections and for taking of samples for testing and analyses.

The manufacturers or merchants shall provide free of charge and to the


satisfaction of the Inspection Engineer all appliances required for the testing of the materials
at the manufacturer's or merchant's premises and they shall supply samples and meet the
costs of transport thereof to enable tests and analyses to be made at a laboratory if and when
directed by the Inspection Engineer.

All materials to be provided by the Contractor shall be submitted for the approval
of the Inspection Engineer before removal from the place of manufacture and under no
circumstances shall materials be shipped without the approval certificate issued by the
Inspection Engineer. The Contractor shall give twenty-one days' notice in writing to the
Inspection Engineer of his intention to remove materials from the place of manufacture or
fabrication.

If in the opinion of the Inspection Engineer the despatch of any materials or things
have been unduly delayed after they have been inspected and approval certificates issued, the
Inspection Engineer may issue an order in writing that the materials or things shall be
reinspected.

Invoices or shipping lists in triplicate showing in detail the net weights and
quantities of all materials for the permanent work despatched to the site shall be forwarded
to the Inspection Engineer directly when the materials are despatched. In the case of steel
and iron work such invoices or shipping lists shall show separately the net weight of articles
under each item in the schedule of prices included in the invoice or shipping lists.

All materials and any iron or steel articles supplied by the Contractor for use in
the permanent works or any materials for fabricating permanent steel or iron structures and
other articles shall be subjected from time to time before the issue of the approval certificate
to such tests and inspections as may be required or directed by the Inspection Engineer.

All the tests shall be carried out in the presence of the Inspection Engineer or his
Representative and shall be performed in such a manner and by such processes at such
premises and at such times as he may consider desirable.

Notwithstanding any examination or tests that the Inspection Engineer may wish
to be carried out on any perishable materials prior to their despatch to the site, the Engineer
shall be at liberty to carry out any further tests that he may consider desirable after delivery
of such perishable materials at the site and to reject such materials which fail to comply with
the required quality or conditions, notwithstanding any provisional approval before despatch
to the site. The Engineer shall arrange for the inspection on site of all materials and
fabricated components to ascertain whether these materials and fabricated components have
in any way become damaged in transit to site.

The Engineer and the Inspection Engineer shall be kept properly informed as to
the progress of any work in hand or materials being prepared and supplied by the Contractor
in order that they shall be able to make such arrangements for examination, testing and
analysis as they may desire.

12
The Contractor shall weigh without any extra charge any materials, articles or
things supplied for the execution of the permanent work that the Engineer or the Inspection
Engineer may require and such weighing shall be carried out in their presence or in the
presence of their representatives.

When the Inspection Engineer is satisfied in all respects with the inspection,
regarding samples and test results of materials and fabrication of structures, he shall issue to
the Contractor an approval certificate thereof.

Where the Contractor/Manufacturer could not agree with the inspection Engineer
the Contractor may request with the permission of the Engineer that such materials be tested
by an independent testing body as may be agreed by both parties in dispute, and cost of such
test shall be borne by the Contractor.

MATERIALS 1044. As provided in Clause 36 of the General Condition of Contract and in


SPECIFIED TO B.S. accordance with the Standard Organization of Nigeria or British Standard Specifications
quoted for any materials used on the works of this Contract, tests may be called for by the
Engineer to be carried out at the place of manufacture, fabrication, on the site, or at any of
such places.

The Contractor shall arrange for the testing of all materials used throughout the
contract to ensure that they are up to the standard specified, i.e., aggregates, sand, cement,
water, reinforcement, concrete, blinding materials as specified or decided by the Engineer.

The tests to be carried out on any material except as detailed hereafter, shall be
those specified, implied or intended in the appropriate N.I.S or B.S.

APPARATUS 1045. Notwithstanding that any test, piece of equipment or apparatus is not specifically
REQUIRED FOR mentioned or described in the various pages hereof, nevertheless if directed by the Engineer
TESTING
the Contractor is to supply at his own expense all apparatus and equipment of whatever kind
necessary to carry out any test mentioned in or required by the provisions of the various
clauses in this specification and the British Standard Specifications incorporated in this
Specification.

The Engineer shall be the final arbitrator on which tests are necessary for the
proper execution of the works.

NOTICE OF TESTS 1046. Where the Contractor is responsible for the carrying out of any control test, he
shall first give notice of his intention to carry out such a test to the Engineer's Representative
to enable him to be present during the test. Where the Engineer or his Representative
conducts any control test, he shall give the Contractor sufficient notice to enable him, should
he so wish, to be present during the test. Should the Contractor not wish to witness any
control tests conducted by the Engineer or his Representative, the Contractor shall be
deemed to accept the validity of the results of such tests.

SAMPLING 1047. All samples of materials to be tested shall be selected according to the method
laid down in the appropriate Nigerian Industrial Standards or British Standard Specification
or where there is no such standard it shall be by the method to be mutually agreed between
the Engineer's Representative and the Contractor in so far as the selection has not been
prescribed below.

13
SAMPLING OF 1048. Trial pits in proposed borrow pit areas shall be dug from original ground level.
MATERIALS FROM Trial pits shall be at least one metre by one metre in size, dug to such a depth that the
BORROW PIT
full extent of the material intended for incorporation in the works is exposed.

Materials for testing shall not be taken from the spoil of the trial pit but shall be
made up of increments taken from each face of the pit, each increment to be a representative
sample of the entire depth of a horizon. The four increments shall be mixed three times and
quartered or riffled down to the size required for testing. Visual examination will be made to
ensure that sampling more than one horizon in any sample is avoided.

SAMPLING OF 1049. The surface material of a stock pile shall be removed before sampling. At least
MATERIALS FROM twelve samples shall be taken from different parts of the stockpile, avoiding segregated
STOCK PILES
material, and thoroughly mixed by hand before quartering down to required size.

TEST TO BE 1050. In addition to the specific requirement of the various clauses of this
CARRIED OUT specification, the Engineer may direct that any or all of the following procedures and tests be
carried out.

(A) The following tests and procedures as described in B.S.1377 (1975)


"Methods of Tests for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes":-

Item 1.5 Preparation of disturbed soil samples for Testing.

Test 1 (A) Item 2.1.1 Determination of moisture content (Standard Method).

Test 2 (A) Item 2.2.1 Determination of Liquid Limit (CONE Penetrometer


method)

Test 2 (B) Item 2.2.2 Casagrande apparatus method

Item 2.3 Test 3 Determination of Plastic Limit, using the following


modifications:-

(1) Materials for testing shall be moisturized, mixed for 15 minutes and sealed
in an approved air-tight container for a minimum period of 24 hours before testing.

(2) After the above period of curing, the material shall be removed from the
container and remixed with 10mm spatula for an exact period of fifteen minutes.

(3) For the method of determining the liquid limit as laid down in B.S. 1377
at least five points in the range 10-60 blows, evenly distributed when plotted on a logarithm
scale, shall be made. Consecutive tests with respect to moisture content shall form a wetting
and not a drying curve.

(4) Alternatively the one point method of determining the liquid limit may be
used.

LL = W (N/25) tan LL = W (N/25) 0.10

14
Where W is the moisture content %, N number of blows and tan  = 0.10 this is
the slope of the calculated flow line. The value of N shall lie in range 20-30. The liquid
limit shall be taken as the mean of at least two such tests.

(5) The plastic limit of material shall be taken as the mean of at least three tests.

2.6.1 Test 6 (A) : Determination of the specific gravity of soil particles


suitable or fine, medium and coarse grained soils

2.6.2 Test 6 (B) : Suitable for fine grained soils

2.7.1 Test 7A Determination of particle size distribution in soils, using the


wet method with following modifications:-

WET SIEVE ANALYSIS

All materials passing 5mm sieve shall be sampled for moisture to determine the
natural moisture content of the sample for wet sieving. For different sizes of materials the
weight of soil sample to be used is as listed in Table I-1:-

TABLE I-1 WEIGHT OF SAMPLE FOR WET SIEVING

Maximum Size of Particle present in Minimum weight of Sample to be


substantial proportion (more than 10%) taken for Testing
retained on Standard Test Sieves
mm kg

63 50

50 35

37.5 15

28 5

20 2

14 1

10 0.5

6.3 0.2

passing 2mm to 63m 0.1

(A) All material passing the 5mm sieve shall be sampled for moisture content,
weighed, wet sieved through the No. 75 m sieve oven dried, and sieved through the full
nest of sieves. The portion retained on each sieve shall be weighed. The weight of the
original sample shall be adjusted for moisture content.

(B) Material retained on the 5mm sieve if it is porous or tends to retain fine
particles on the surface shall be wet sieved as described in the paragraph above full
allowance being made for the air dry moisture content.

15
(C) If the material retained on the 5mm sieve is clean of clay and contains no
pores or adhesions, the coarse fraction may be dry sieved.

(D) Pre-treatment and the analysis of the fraction passing 75m sieve may be
omitted.

Item 4.1.12: Determination of Density/Moisture Content Relation of Soil (B.S.


Compaction Test)

Item 4.4.1, 4.4.2, Field Density by Sand & Replacement Method.


4.4.3:15 A, B & C

Item 15 D Determination of Dry Density by Core-Cutter Method (for


fine-grained soils).

(B) THE WEST AFRICAN COMPACTION TEST:-

This test is identical with Test 13 in B.S.1377, (1975) except as follows:

(I) The size of the mould shall be, 150mm internal diameter, and 125mm
internal effective height and a volume of 2210cm3.

(II) The weight of the metal rammer shall be 4.5kg instead of 2.5kg (the
diameter of bottom face remaining at 50mm

(III) The drop of the rammer shall be 450mm instead of 300mm

(IV) The moist soil shall be compacted in the mould in five equal layers each
layer being given twenty-five blows.

(V) The percentage moisture content corresponding to the maximum density on


the moisture content dry soil density curve shall be reported as the optimum moisture
content for West African Compaction.

(VI) Separate materials shall be used for each compaction point, i.e. materials
only air dried previously and not oven dried, mixed with water and allowed to moisturize for
12 hours before compaction.

(C) THE MODIFIED A.A.S.H.O. (AMERICAN


ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS) COMPACTION TEST:-

This test is identical with Test 13 in B.S.1377, except as follows:

(I) The size of the mould shall be 150mm internal diameter, and 125mm
internal effective height and a volume of 2210 cm².

(II) The weight of the metal rammer shall be 4.5kg instead of 2.5kg (the
diameter of bottom face remaining at 50mm

(III) The drop of the rammer shall be 450mm instead of 300mm

16
(IV) The moist soil shall be compacted in the mould in 5 equal layers, each layer
being given 61 blows from the rammer dropped from a height of 450mm above the soil.

(V) The percentage moisture content corresponding to the maximum density on


the moisture content dry soil density curve shall be reported as the "Optimum Moisture
Content for Modified A.A.S.H.O. Compaction".

(VI) Separate materials shall be used for each compaction point, i.e. materials
only air dried previously and not oven dried, mixed with water and allowed to moisturize for
12 hours before compaction.

(D) LABORATORY C.B.R. TEST: To be carried out in accordance with the


method laid down by "The Materials Testing Conference, February 1961" as follows:

(I) Different samples of materials shall be used for each point in the
compaction for C.B.R. Test.

(II) The materials for testing shall be moisturized and sealed in an airtight
container for a minimum period of 12 hours before testing.

(III) The Standard Compaction used for C.B.R. Tests shall be as follows:

(a) Sub-Grade Materials and all Filings:- The British Standard


Compaction.

(b) Sub-Base Course Material: The West African Standard


Compaction.

(c) Base Course Material: The West African Standard or Mod.


A.A.S.H.O. Standard as directed by the Engineer may be used for laterite, stone or
Mechanically Stabilized Base Course and the B.S. Compaction for Cement Stabilized Base
Course. For other type of Base-Course Compaction shall be decided by the Engineer.

(E) SAMPLING AND TESTING OF MINERAL


AGGREGATES

The following procedures and tests shall be as described in B.S. 812 "Sampling
and Testing of Mineral Aggregates, Sands and Fillers":-

Section One: Sampling and Submission of Samples.

Section Three: Determination of Particle Size and Shape.

Section Four: Determination of Specific Gravity, Density, Voids and


Absorption.

Section Five: Organic Impurities.

(F) METHOD OF TESTING CONCRETE

17
The following procedures and tests as described in B.S. 1881 - "Method of
Testing Concrete":-

Part 1. Sampling Fresh Concrete in the Field.

Part 2. Slump Test.

Part 3. Compacting Factor Test

Part 6. Making and Curing of Compression Test Cubes in the Laboratory.

Part 7. Making and Curing of Compression Test Cubes in the Field.

UNSATISFACTORY 1051. Should in the opinion of the Engineer's Representative any of the results of the
TEST RESULTS specified tests on materials be unsatisfactory, the Engineer's Representative may order the
work to be stopped pending his further instruction. Executed work for which test results are
unsatisfactory shall be liable to be rejected, and, if so directed by the Engineer, the work
represented by the tests shall be cut out and re-executed at Contractor's Expense.

The cost of all such cutting, preparation of specimens, testing, and of making
good the portions of the works affected shall be borne by the Contractor.

TRIAL SECTIONS 1052. One or more trial stretches as directed by the Engineer's Representative shall be
OF ROAD constructed with the proposed materials prior to the start of the main construction to
determine the most efficient compaction technique, the suitability of the proposed materials
and of the plant. Each of these trial sections shall be at least 30 metres in length, at a site and
in the alignment as directed by the Engineer's Representative. The results obtained from these
trial rolling stretches shall be used as guide and complement with laboratory test results for
subsequent construction and control.

It is likely that these stretches will be incorporated in the works. Should one or all
of these stretches or a part thereof be rejected the Contractor will be reimbursed for the
rejected work in accordance with the rates at which the relevant items have been priced in the
Bill of Quantities.

ROLLING TEST

1052A. DEFINITION

Rolling Test shall be used to establish the optimum moisture and maximum dry
density of the proposed plant for a particular type of soil material. In addition it shall be used
to determine the economic number of passes of the plant that may be required to achieve the
maximum dry density at a known moisture. This test is a corollary to laboratory tests already
carried out using CBR mould and specified compactive effort.

1052B. TEST PROCEDURE

(a) Prepare a formation of a reasonable length (about 48m) adequately


compacted to serve as a good platform for the rolling test.

18
(b) Spread the loose material on the prepared platform to a desired loose depth.
(Between 200mm to 300mm for laterite)

(c) Divide the test section into at least five bays (each bay not less than 8m) and
leaving a gap of two metres between bays to avoid intermixing of materials from adjacent
bays. Determine the moisture of the material in each bay. This may be done by using the
speedy method and sampling in various points, taking the mean result of four as the moisture
content.

(d) Adjust the moisture content in each bay with a view to straddling the
optimum moisture content. This could be achieved by progressively increasing the passes of
the water tank in different bays as shown in the Table 1.2

TABLE I-2 SHOWING THE NUMBER OF PASSES OF WATER TANK

Bay 1 Bay 2 Bay 3 Bay 4 Bay 5


4 passes 6 passes 8 passes 10 passes 12 passes

(e) Mix the loose soil and water to ensure thorough moisturization using either
hand, pulvimixer or rotovator. (To ensure uniform moisturization the watered material
could be left over night before mixing).

(f) Compact to refusal the loose material whose OMC and MDD is required
with the available plant. For practical purposes fifteen to twenty passes of 10 to 15 tonnes of
a three wheel roller or ten or fifteen passes of a vibrating roller will be adequate for a
lateritic material. For the three wheel roller the rear wheel is the compacting wheel while the
front is the compacting wheel for he vibrating roller.

(g) Determine the insitu dry density and moisture content of each bay based on
the mean of four tests. Concentrating the measurement on the wheel path of the rear or front
wheel as the case may be.

(h) Plot results of the dry density and moisture content and determine the
optimum moisture content and dry density appropriate to the plant.

1052C DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC PASSES

(a) Prepare another test section as in clause 1052B and bring the moisture
content to the optimum moisture content earlier determined.

(b) Divide the section into bays and vary the number of passes of the roller on
each bay as shown in Table 1.3

TABLE I-3 NUMBER OF PASSES OF THE ROLLER

Bay 1 Bay 2 Bay 3 Bay 4 Bay 5


4 passes 6 passes 8 passes 10 passes 12 passes

(c) After rolling determine the dry density of each bay (based on mean of four
tests)

19
(d) Plot the dry density and number of passes relationship to determine the
minimum number of passes that will achieve the maximum density.
TABLE I-4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPACTION PLANT AND LABORATORY
TEST: MDD AND OMC

SOIL TYPE

COMPACTION
HEAVY SILTY CLAY SANDY SAND GRAVELLY
CLAY CLAY SANDY CLAY

MD OM MDD OM OM MDD om MDD OMC


D C C MDD C c

B. S. 2.5kg 1554 26 1666 21 1842 14 1938 11 2067 9

B. S. (Heavy) 1810 17 1922 14 2051 11 2083 9 2211 7


4.5kg

2800KG 522 21 1762 17 1826 16 2034 10 2147 8


S. W. ROLLER

8000 kg 1666 20 1778 16 1858 14 2115 8 2211 7


S. W. ROLLER

PNEUMATIC 1570 25 1666 20 1730 19 2034 11 2018 7


TYRED
ROLLER

SHEEPSFOOT 1714 15 1842 14 1927 12 2051 5


(TAPPER-
FOOT)
ROLLER

HANDLING AND 1053. All materials to be used in the works shall be handled with due care and whenever
STORAGE OF not in immediate use shall be adequately stored and protected having particular regard in all
MATERIALS
cases and throughout to the nature of the material and its susceptibility to damage, breakage,
deterioration, attack by weather or any act of abuse.

(CLAUSES 1054 - 1059 NOT USED)

PART (C) MISCELLANEOUS:

ASSISTANCE FOR 1060. The Contractor shall provide at all times during the continuance of the contract all
ENGINEER'S equipment and instruments for the exclusive use of the Engineer's Representative on the
REPRESENTATIVE
scale as set out in detail in Schedule No. VI. The Contractor-shall be solely responsible for
all such instruments and shall ensure that they are at all times in good repair and adjustment.

The Contractor also shall supply such workmen as may be deemed necessary by
the Engineer's Representative, from time to time during the continuance of the contract, to

20
assist the Engineer's Representative in carrying out his duties. These workmen shall be
selected for their intelligence and knowledge of the English language, and where possible the
same men shall be provided throughout the period of the Contract.

Payment for furnishing workmen and instruments, etc. to assist the Engineer's
Representative shall be charged against provisional sum item "Payment of Wages to
Engineer's Daily Paid Staff". All instruments and equipment so furnished become the
property of the Federal Ministry of Works on the completion of the Works.

OFFICE 1061. The Contractor shall provide air-conditioned office accommodations and
ACCOMMODATION equipment for the sole use of the Engineer's Representative and his assistants. The extent of
the office accommodation and equipment to be provided as set down below unless specified
in Schedule No. VI.

The offices shall be 28.95 metres long by 5.55 metres wide with 2.45 metres
headroom all measured internally complete with ceiling and smooth concrete or wooden
floor, and a 2.02 metres wide covered veranda on all sides. The office shall be divided into
three rooms each 3.6 metres long. The rooms shall be adequately ventilated and lighted and
through ventilation shall be provided in the roof space. The walls must be constructed of
either prefabricated timber sections or sand-cement blocks. All doors and windows shall be
arranged so that they can be securely fastened on the inside. All doors shall be provided with
cylinder locks with two keys.

The following furnishings shall be supplied for each site office:-

6 Desks 1.5 metres x 0.75 metres with 2 chests of drawers


6 Chairs with arms
1 Table 1.5 metres x 0.75 metres with two drawers and chairs
1 Typist's table with one chest of drawers and chair
1 Typewriter, standard office size 3 Draughtsman's tables and stools
3 Sets of Normal Equipment for a Draughtsman
1 Six-drawer steel filing cabinet
3 Four-drawer steel filing cabinets
2 Cupboards 2.0 x 1.0 x 0.5 metres with 4 shelves
2 Clerk's tables 1.2m x 0.75m with 12 chairs
2 Pairs of set squares 600 and 450
2 Planimeters
3 Sets of Engineer's scales, metric
1 Set of shelves and hooks as required
2 Stainless Steel straight edges 1 metre long
1 Refrigerator
1 Conference Table with 8 chairs
4 Small Tables with chairs
1 Set of Applicable British Standards, Current Edition
1 Copy of AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Materials and
Method of Sampling and Testing Volumes 1 & II, Current Edition.
1 Civil Engineer's Radius Guide
1 Set of transparent plastic railroad curves
1 Electronic calculator
1 Electric adding machine
1 Electric erasing machine

21
1 Photocopy machine with accessories and supplies.

Adjacent to the two ends of the building the Contractor shall erect a board
750mm x 600mm bearing the following inscriptions.

Principal Resident's Engineer's Office

(Project Designation)

Section No. or Description

In addition each door of the building shall be lettered in accordance with the
instructions of the Engineer's Representative.

These building(s) shall be erected at locations as directed by the Engineer's


Representative. The offices shall be separate from those of the Contractor and shall be
fenced off and provided with a separate entrance.

The Contractor shall provide two water closets and two wash hand basins with
mirrors in rooms attached to the use of the Engineer's Representative. The Contractor shall
keep clean and maintain this lavatory accommodation.

He shall also provide soap, towels and all necessary fittings and cleaning materials.

The Contractor shall arrange for the offices to be connected to a water and
electricity supply.

The Contractor shall provide a roofed shelter for six cars which shall be built
adjoining the offices.

The cost of providing the offices, water, electricity supply and maintenance during
the whole period of the contract shall be deemed to be included in the price inserted under
the appropriate item in the Bill of Quantities. The buildings and equipment shall be for the
sole use of the Engineer's Representative during the period of the Contract and shall remain
the property of the Employer after the completion of the Contract.

FENCING 1062. The Contractor shall provide and erect fencing or walls complete with access
gates along the land acquisition boundaries during the period of construction as and where
directed by the Engineer's Representative.

Payment for fencing and walling will be made from the appropriate item in the
Bill of Quantities.

No payment will be made for fencing or walls erected by the Contractor for the
purpose of making secure his own working areas, yards, stores, as this will be deemed
included in this pricing.

COMPLIANCE WITH 1063. Where the works abut, enter into or pass over property or properties belonging to
THE REGULATIONS the Nigerian Railway Corporation, the Contractor shall comply with all the regulations laid
OF THE NIGERIA
down and give all notices required by the Nigerian Railways Corporation and the
RAILWAY
CORPORATION, Government Inspector of Railways.
ANDGOVERNMENT
INSPECTOR OF
RAILWAYS 22
COMPLIANCE WITH 1064. Where the works are sited in, or operations connected with the works in any way
THE REGULATIONS whatsoever pass through, waters controlled by the Nigerian Ports Authority the Contractor
OF THE NIGERIAN
shall abide by all the regulations laid down, and give all notices required, by the Nigerian
PORTS AUTHORITY
Ports Authority.

TAKING OVER OF 1065. The site shall be handed over to the Contractor in minimum lengthsof sixteen
SITE BY kilometres. The date on which each portion is taken over shall be recorded and certified in
CONTRACTOR
writing by both the Engineer's Representative and the Contractor's Agent and from the date
on which each portion is taken over the Contractor shall be responsible for maintaining that
portion of road in good condition and for repairing damage of any kind to the road culverts
or bridges arising from whatever cause save and except the excepted risks as defined in
Clause 20 of the "General Conditions".

(CLAUSES 1066 - 1099 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

23
SPECIFICATION

SECTION II - CONCRETE: MASS AND REINFORCED

1
SECTION II

MASS AND REINFORCED CONCRETE

GENERAL 2000. In addition to any other relevant clause of this specification, the following shall be
deemed to apply in particular to mass and reinforced concrete work, and shall be read in
conjunction with all other relevant clauses of the conditions of Contract and this
Specification.

PART A - MATERIALS

CEMENT 2001. (1) GENERAL

The Cement shall be ordinary or rapid hardening portland cement and shall
conform to the requirements of NIS 11 or B.S. No. 12 portland cement (ordinary and rapid
hardening) and B.S.C.P.114 and shall be supplied by manufacturers of good repute to be
approved by the Engineer.

(2) SULPHATE RESISTING CEMENT

Where the use of a sulphate resisting cement is indicated as specified or in the


bills it shall be a sulphate resisting portland cement of approved type and manufacture
complying with B.S. 4027.

(3) COLOURED CEMENT

White or coloured cement shall be of approved quality and chemical composition


and shall comply with the physical requirements of NIS 11 or B.S. No. 12

(4) BLENDING

There shall be no blending or mixing of cements, and the use of any air-entraining,
wetting agents, or accelerators such as calcium chloride will only be permitted if called for
by the Engineer.

(5) EXTRA PAYMENT

The Contractors shall not receive extra payment for using rapid hardening
portland cement unless they do so under the specific instructions of the Engineer.

(6) TEST CERTIFICATE FOR CEMENT

Each consignment of cement intended for use in the works shall be accompanied
by a manufacturer's test certificate showing that the cement offered has been tested and
analysed, the date and results of such tests and analyses, and that the cement conforms in all
respects with NlS 11 or B.S.12.

Where such a certificate is not available due to exceptional circumstances which,


in the opinion of the Engineer are acceptable, then the Contractor shall arrange for each
consignment of cement to be tested and analyzed strictly in accordance with NIS 11 or
B.S.12 by a tester to be selected by the Engineer and the tester shall supply a certificate
satisfying all the requirements laid down for the manufacturer's test certificate. Irrespective
of the results of these tests, the Contractor shall bear all costs in connection with or arising
out of them.

(7) INDEPENDENT TESTS ON CEMENT

In addition to any tests mentioned elsewhere in this specification, the Engineer's


Representative may require cement to be sampled at the manufacturer's works and
subsequently tested by an independent tester. No cement shall be despatched until the results
of such tests and analyses are known and have been approved in writing by the Engineer's

24
Representative. Payment for these tests shall be the employer's responsibility and charged
against the appropriate provisional sum, except as detailed in Clause 36 (4) of the
Conditions of Contract.

(8) PACKING AND MARKING OF BAGS FOR CEMENT

After each consignment of cement has been tested and approved as complying
with B.S. No. 12 and unless approval is given by the Engineer's Representative for the
handling of cement in bulk, all cement shall be packed into bags of an approved type. The
bags of each consignment shall be given a distinctive mark, to be agreed between the
Contractor and the Engineer's Representative, also a consignment number, so that each
consignment can be easily identified on being delivered to the site and when being used
subsequently in the works.

(9) NOTICE OF DESPATCH AND DELIVERY OF CEMENT

Before ordering the despatch from the manufacturer of a consignment of cement


for use in the works,the Contractor shall give notice in writing to the Engineer's
Representative of the number of the consignment, the name of the manufacturer and the
number of tonnes in the consignment.

When each consignment is delivered to the site, the Contractor shall issue to the
Engineer's Representative a written statement showing the number of the consignment, the
name of the manufacturer,the number of tonnes in the consignment, the number of bags and
enclosing the respective test certificates. The statement shall also show where the
consignment is stored. Cement may be shipped in bulk or in 50 Kg bags subject to approval
of the Engineer and subject to such requirements as he may deem necessary. Railroad cars or
trucks in which cement is shipped shall be loaded under the supervision of and sealed by the
Engineer. Cars or trucks with broken seals may be unloaded, but the cement shall not be used
until retested and approved.

(10) STORAGE OF CEMENT ON SITE

On delivery at the site, the cement shall be stored in suitable, thoroughly dry and
well-ventilated lock-up sheds to be erected by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer's
Representative. Great care must be taken to provide a perfectly dry floor of timber or
concrete for each shed so as to prevent damp rising to the cement. Small quantities left at the
site shall be stored on suitable platforms and protected with waterproof covering to the
satisfaction of the Engineer.

Each consignment, brand and type of cement shall be kept separate in the sheds
and suitable labels are to be provided for each consignment, brand and type, on which shall
be entered the consignment number, date of despatch, date of delivery at the site, the number
of bags, the date when using commenced and the date when using finished. All these labels
shall be handed to the Engineer's Representative when the cement has been used and will be
retained by him.

No cement shall be used without the permission of the Engineer's Representative


and each consignment must be used singly and in order of delivery at the site, or as may be
directed by the Engineer's Representative.

(11) STOCK OF CEMENT AND MONTHLY RETURNS

25
The Contractor shall at all times maintain at the site such a stock of cement as
will ensure due and proper progress of the works.

Each month, on the date corresponding to the interim certificate date, the
Contractor shall forward to the Engineer's Representative, a return of the various
consignments in store, giving the total tonnage at site, the quantity received during the
month, from whom it was obtained and in what sheds it has been deposited.
Also the quantity issued during the month, from what consignment and sheds it
was issued and in what portions of the works it was used.

(12) TESTS ON CEMENT AFTER DELIVERY

After delivery on the site the Engineer's Representative may require each
consignment of cement to be subjected to any or all of the tests and analyses required by
B.S.12

Payment for these tests shall be the Contractor's responsibility and deemed to be
included in the tendered rates and prices.

(13) REJECTION OF CEMENT

Notwithstanding the production of test certificates whether from manufacturer


tester or independent tester, the Engineer's Representative shall reject any cement found not
to comply with this specification, at any time. He shall also reject any cement which has been
damaged or which has deteriorated owing to inadequate protection during storage or
transport or any other cause. Cement containing lumps of hardened cement or which has
been stored for more than 6 months shall not be used.

The Contractor shall remove all rejected cement from the site without delay and at
his own expense.

(14) ADMIXTURES

Admixtures for accelerating or retarding the setting of the cement, etc., shall not
be used in any circumstances except with the written permission of the Engineer. When such
permission is sought, the Contractor must supply full details of the admixture he wishes to
use.

WATER 2002. Water used for mixing and curing concrete shall be clean, fresh water from an
approved source and it shall be free from injurious oils, chemicals, vegetable matter, organic
and other impurities and shall comply with the requirements of B.S.3148

The Contractor shall ensure that all pipes, tanks and other receptacles for the
storage of water intended for use in the makings of concrete are kept in a clean condition.

AGGREGATES 2003. (1) GENERAL

The aggregates (fine, coarse and all-in) for all grades of concrete and mortar shall
comply in all respects with B.S.882 (1973) and the Contractor shall test all samples as
described therein and in B.S.812 (1967) as often as the Engineer's Representative may
require,to ensure that they are continuously up to these standards. All aggregates shall be
hard, strong, durable, perfectly clean and free from organic matter and deleterious coatings

26
such as clay. They shall contain no harmful material in such quantities as to affect adversely
the strength or durability of the concrete, or attack the reinforcement as ascertained by tests
on concrete cubes as described hereafter and by tests as described in B.S.882 (1973).

(2) THE SOURCES OF ALL AGGREGATES SHALL BE APPROVED BY


THE ENGINEER'S REPRESENTATIVE

All aggregates whether fine or coarse if considered unsuitable by the Engineer's


Representative shall be removed from the site by the Contractor at his own expense.

(3) TESTING

As soon as possible after receiving the Engineer's Authority to commence the


works (and before commencing any concreting) the Contractor shall have delivered upon the
site sample loads of aggregate representative, of those proposed for the works, and shall
forward samples prepared in accordance with the method laid down in B.S. 812. The
moisture content of aggregates shall be determined using the siphon can procedure
notwithstanding the foregoing, Speedy Moisture Content Apparatus may be used for
measuring the water content of fine aggregates. Each sample shall consist of not less than
45 Kg weight of fine aggregate and 90 Kg of coarse aggregate in accordance with the
specification. No aggregate shall be used in the works until the results of these tests shall
have been submitted to the Engineer's Representative and his approval in writing obtained.

The minimum frequency of testing at each concrete mixing plant shall not be less
than the following:

(I) TESTS OF COARSE AGGREGATES

(i) Sieve analysis 7 weeks

(ii) Determination of clay, fine silt and fine


dust (Method B - Determination of amount
of aggregate passing a 75 microns 3 days

(iii) Determination of flakiness index 2 weeks

(iv) Moisture Content Immediately prior to


commencement of mixing of
concrete for each cast, and
thereafter every half hour during
which concrete is being mixed.

(v) Determination of "ten per cent fine value" 2 weeks

(II) TESTS OF FINE AGGREGATES

(i) Sieve analysis 2 weeks

(ii) Determination of fine silt and fine dust


(Method C - Field settling test 3 days

(iii) Estimation of organic impurities 3 days

27
(iv) Moisture content Immediately prior to
commencement of mixing
concrete for each cast thereafter
every half hour during which
concrete is being mixed.

(III) TESTING DRYING SHRINKAGE

(i) Drying shrinkage 8 weeks

Notwithstanding the foregoing additional tests shall be carried out as and


when directed by the Engineer's Representative

(4) WASHING

Washing of aggregate may only be carried out using clean fresh water obtained
from an approved source. The Contractor is to provide adequate storage facilities and
arrange to obtain this water at times chosen so as to cause the minimum of inconvenience to
other consumers.

(5) STORAGE OF AGGREGATES

The Contractor shall provide proper means of storing the aggregates at each point
where concrete is made and in such a manner that there is no possibility of the various
aggregates mixing one with the other. Effective precautions shall be taken to prevent the
aggregates segregating in the storage heaps and from being contaminated by the ground and
other foreign matter.

Storage heaps shall be capable of draining freely. Wet aggregates shall not be
used until, in the Engineer's Representative's opinion, they have completely drained. Where
aggregates are damp, the Contractor must measure the moisture contents of the aggregates
continuously and adjust the amounts of aggregates and added water in each batch of concrete
mixed to allow for the water contained in the aggregates. If necessary, to meet the
requirements of this Clause, the Contractor shall protect the heaps of aggregates from
inclement weather.

(6) METHOD OF CALIBRATING SPEEDY MOISTURE TESTER

(a) Procedure

Sufficient fine aggregate passing sieve 1.25mm and retained on pan shall be
prepared and dried to constant weight. Weigh 3 kg to make 20 separate number of specimen.

(b) Air-tight moisture content tins shall be weighed empty and to each shall be
placed 200 g of the dried soil and weighed again.

(c) Varying quantity of water as indicated in the table below shall be added to
each pair of container and allowed self moisturization for 24 hours and weighed thereafter
before placing in the oven or for speedy tester method.

TABLE II-1 OVEN METHOD

28
Tin Number a b c d e

No. of Specimen 2 2 2 2 2

Weight of dry soil, 200 200 200 200 200


g

Volume of water 100 120 140 160 200


cc

Note: After weighing, place all oven method tins into a standard oven with
temperature not greater than 105oC and dry the specimen to constant weight and thereafter
determine the moisture contents.

TABLE II-1A SPEEDY TESTER METHOD

Tin Number a b c d e

No. of Specimen 2 2 2 2 2

Weight of dry soil, 200 200 200 200 200


g

Volume of water 100 120 140 160 200


cc

Note: For the speedy tester, use the apparatus to determine the moisture content
of each pair of specimen to constant moisture reading.
The average reading of each pair shall be the moisture of
the specimen. Same holds for the oven method.

(d) Calibration

Plot a straight line graph of oven moisture against speedy tester results. By using
the plotted graph, speedy test results can be converted to
oven method results.

FINE AGGREGATES 2004. (1) GENERAL

Fine Aggregate shall either comprise natural quartz sand or be obtained by


crushing clean granite or shall consist of naturally
occurring sand obtained from fresh water river deposits
or a combination thereof and shall comply with Grading
Zone 1 or Grading Zone 2 of B.S.882 or such other
grading as may be approved by the Engineer. (see Table
II-2)

(2) FINE DUST

The total quantity of fine dust passing through a 75 m mesh sieve in fine
aggregate derived by crushing rock shall be determined

29
by the method described in B.S.812. and shall not exceed
8% by weight.

(3) QUANTITY OF CLAY AND SILT

The total quantity of clay and silt in natural sand shall not exceed 4% by weight
when determined by the field settling test decantation
method described in B.S.812. The quantity of organic
impurities present in natural sand shall not be such as to
produce a reaction as dark as the standard solution when
the organic impurities are determined by the method
described in B.S.812 (1975).

TABLE II - 2

FINE AGGREGATE GRADING ENVELOPES.

BS 410 Percentage by weight passing B.S. sieves.

Test sieve Grading Grading Grading Grading


ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3 ZONE 4

10.00mm 100 100 100 100

5.00mm 90 - 100 90 - 100 90 - 100 95 - 100

2.36mm 60 - 95 75 - 100 85 - 100 95 - 100

1.18mm 30 - 70 55 - 90 75 - 100 90 -100

600m 15 - 34 35 - 59 60 - 79 80 - 100

300m 5 - 20 8 - 30 12 - 40 15 - 50

150m 0 - 10* 0 - 10* 0 - 10* 0 - 15*

* For crushed stone sands, the permissible limit is increased to 20% because of its
non clay nature of the fine materials. The 5% tolerance
permitted may be applied to the percentages. In the last
three sets of sieves, it can be applied as follows: 1% on
the first of the three sieves and 2% on the others or 4%
on one sieve and 1% on others. The application of
tolerance will depend upon the shape of the grading
graph.

COARSE 2005. (1) GENERAL


AGGREGATE
Coarse Aggregate shall comprise natural gravel or crushed granite obtained by
crushing sound hard granite taken from a source approved by the Engineer's Representative
and shall contain no harmful material in sufficient quantity to adversely affect the strength or
durability of the concrete or in the case of reinforced concrete to attack the reinforcement.
All coarse aggregate shall be washed after crushing if necessary to comply with the
specification. The flakiness index when determined by the method described in B.S.812

30
(1975) shall not exceed 30 per cent. The individual pieces shall be roughly cubical or
spherical in shape and have neither glassy nor powdery surfaces.

(2) CRUSHING VALUE

The aggregate crushing value of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 45 per cent
when determined by the method described in B.S.812.

(3) THE GRADING

The grading of coarse aggregate particles is required to satisfy strictly the


percentages,stated for 20mm nominal sizes stated in the B.S.82 with a content not exceeding
1% passing the B.S. 2.4mm sieve size. The percentage passing through 75 m sieve shall be
determined by the method described in B.S.812. Sieves shall comply to the requirements of
B.S.410.

STEEL 2006. (1) GENERAL


REINFORCEMENT The reinforcement shall be one of the following:-

(I) Rolled steel bars or hard drawn steel wire complying with the requirements
of B.S.785 "Rolled steel bars and hard drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement" and
B.S.4449 (1969) Hot-rolled steel bars for the reinforcement of Concrete.

(II) Cold twisted steel bars complying with the requirement of B.S.114 "Cold
twisted steel bars for concrete reinforcement and B.S. 4461 (1969) Cold works steel bars for
the reinforcement of concrete.

(III) Such other reinforcement as may be suitable having regard to the yield
stress, ductility tensile strength and other essential properties.

(2) DIAMETER OF BAR

The Diameter of any Bar for the purposes of this code should be taken as that of a
circle having an area equal to the cross-sectional area of the bar.

At the option of the Contractor, the reinforcing bars can be purchased from the
manufacturer using metric units provided that the area of required steel will not be rounded
downwards.

When the diameters of the reinforcing bars are given in one system on the contract
drawings, and they do not have exact equivalent of the bar in another system, the basic
dimension must be converted to the nearest higher cross section area. The cost arising from
additional weight of the reinforcing steel shall be borne by the Contractor.

(3) TEST CERTIFICATES

For each consignment of steel reinforcement used in the works, the Contractor
shall supply a certificate giving the ultimate strength, yield stress, elongation and result of
the cold bend test described in B.S.4449 and B.S. 4461. The Engineer's Representative shall
have power to select pieces of steel for testing if no test data are supplied by the Contractor
and the costs arising out of such tests shall be borne by the Contractor.

31
Reinforcement obtained from re-rolling scrap metal shall not be used.

(4) DELIVERY

When each consignment is delivered to the site, the Contractor shall issue to the
Engineer's Representative a written statement showing the number of the consignment, the
name of the manufacturer, the number of tonnes in the consignment.

(5) STORAGE

Reinforcement shall be stored on site in racks off the ground and shall be
protected from rusting, damage, oil or other deleterious matter and shall be clean and free
from all such matter before concrete is placed.

(6) MEASUREMENT AND PRICES FOR STEEL REINFORCEMENT

The prices inserted in the Bill of Quantities for steel reinforcement shall include
for supplying, handling, bending, wiring, placing, cutting, cleaning, supporting and every
other expenses necessary to complete the works as shown on the drawings or as may be
directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall be paid for the net calculated weight of
reinforcement, excluding binding wire used in the work, in accordance with the drawings, or
as may be directed by the Engineer's Representative and no allowance will be made for
margins or otherwise.

WATERPROOF 2007. Waterproof Building Paper used as an underlay to concrete to prevent the loss of
BUILDING PAPER cement or as a means of providing a non-bonding joint between two parts of any structure
shall comply with the requirements of B.S.1521 (1949) with the extra provision that the
material shall not become sticky in the roll under any of the climatic conditions encountered
in Nigeria.

JOINT SEALING 2008. (1) JOINT COMPOUND


COMPOUND AND
PRIMER The joint sealing compound shall be hot poured material approved by the
Engineer. The material shall adhere readily to the concrete and to the primer. It shall be
ductile, not excessively soft or tacky at a temperature of 82 0C nor brittle at a temperature of
20C.

(2) PRIMING PAINT

A priming paint suitable for the joint sealing compound used, shall be applied to
the concrete surfaces prior to the pouring of the sealing compound with the object of
improving the adhesion.

PART B - WORKMANSHIP

PROPORTIONS OF 2009. Concrete to be used in the works shall be a mixture of cement, fine aggregate,
CONCRETE MIXES coarse aggregate and water and the various grades of concrete to be used shall be in
accordance with Table II -3.

CONCRETE MIX 2010. At the commencement of the works, the Contractor shall indicate the type of
DESIGN compaction which he intends to use in the various parts of the works and obtain the approval
of the Engineer's Representative thereto. The Contractor shall then design mixes for
concretes of grade as required, each design fulfilling the following requirements:-

32
(A) The cement, the aggregates and the water shall all comply with the
appropriate clauses of this specification.

(B) The cement shall not be less than that shown in Table II-3 of this
specification.

(C) The water content for each mix shall be in accordance with Clause 2013 (2)
of this specification and shall be such as to give the required compacting factor and/or
slump: where different methods of compaction are to be employed for the same grade of
concrete, involving different compacting factors and/or slump, then a separate design mix
shall be prepared for each case, to satisfy the requirements of the appropriate clause of this
specification.

TRIAL MIXES 2011. Following the Engineer's Representative's approval of the mix designs, the
Contractor shall prepare, in the presence of the Engineer's Representative, a trial mix of each
design grade of concrete. The mixes shall be prepared as follows:

Before mixing, a sieve analysis of the aggregate shall be made by the method
described in B.S.812 (1975) and the weight and volume of the cement, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate and water comprising the mix carefully determined. Each trial mix shall be not
less than half a cubic meter in bulk before mixing and shall be mixed as specified in Clause
2012 of this specification in a mechanical mixer of the type approved for use in the works.

The compacting factor and slump of each trial mix shall be determined
immediately after mixing as directed in NIS 12 B.S.1881 (1970)and shall not exceed the
maximum value obtained in the mix design.

Each trial mix shall be handled and compacted by the methods which the
Contractor proposes to use for that mix in the works, and the mixes shall show no tendency
of inadequate compaction by the methods proposed.

Six cubes of 150mm compression test cubes shall be made from each trial mix.
The cubes shall be made, cured, stored and tested in accordance with the requirements of
B.S.1881 (1971).

33
TABLE II - 3 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE FOR
STRUCTURES AND GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

MINIMUM CEMENT WORKS TEST


CONTENT PER M3 OF MINIMUM
GRADE OF MAXIMUM SIZE FINISHED CONCRETE WATER COMPRESSIVE
PURPOSE CONCRETE OF AGGREGATE WORK - Kg. CEMENT STRENGTH IN N/mm2 CEMENT
mm RATIO
N/mm2

7 DAYS 28 DAYS

PRESTRESSED 50 20 500 0.35 - 0.45 40 50 Rapid hardening


CONCRETE 45 20 450 0.35 - 0.45 35 45 Portland cement

-do- 40 20 425 0.35 - 0.45 30 40

-do- 35 20 400 0.45 - 0.55 25 35

Ordinary
REINFORCED 30 20 350 0.45 - 0.55 20 30
Portland Cement
CONCRETE

-do- 25 20 295 0.45 - 0.55 15 25

-do- 20 20 235 0.45 - 0.55 12 20

-do- 15 20 205 0.55 - 0.65 10 15

MASS CONCRETE 12 40 175 0.55 - 0.65 7 10

BLINDING 10 40 150 0.65 - 0.75 7 10


CONCRETE

34
Three cubes shall be tested 7 days after manufacture and three 28 days after
manufacture. The strength requirements of the cubes at
each age shall be considered to be satisfied if none of the
strengths of the three cubes tested at each age falls below
the appropriate design strength or if the average strength
of the three cubes is not less than the strength and the
difference between the greatest and least strengths is not
more than 20 per cent of that average.

Failing this, the Contractor shall re-design the mix and make such further trial
mixes and test such further cubes as the Engineer's Representative may direct until the
requirements of this specification are satisfied.

The design mixes which fulfill the requirements of this specification for a
particular grade of concrete shall be called the approved mixes for that grade of concrete and
the Contractor shall only use the approved mixes where that grade of concrete is specified,
and shall not depart therefrom without the written permission of the Engineer's
Representative. The Engineer's Representative may require further trial mixes and further
cube tests to be made before such permission is given.

The Contractor shall allow ample time in his programme for designing and
making trial mixes and for the preparation and testing of compression test cubes obtained
therefrom. Should any design mix fail to satisfy the requirements of this specification and
should the Engineer consider that it is essential to commence the production of that grade of
concrete before the results of the cube tests of a further design mix are available, he will
consult with the Contractor and decide on an interim mix for use until such time as the
results of the cube tests have become known, any extra cost involved being borne by the
Contractor.

The Contractor shall be deemed to have satisfied himself that the materials on
which he has quoted will produce a concrete which, with the specified nominal proportions
and subsequent adjustments as indicated by trial mixes, will develop the cube strengths
specified and at same time have the desired workability in the work itself.

The cost of all trial mixes, test cubes and their testing shall be deemed to be
included in the tendered rates for concrete.

MIXING OF 2012. (1) GENERAL


CONCRETE
Concrete shall be mixed in mechanical mixers of the weigh-batch type as stated in
the Contractor's mix design proposal, complying with the requirements of B.S. 1305 (1967)
and fitted with an approved weight measuring device. No hand-mixing will be permitted.
Mixing shall continue until there is a thorough distribution of the materials, and the mass is
of uniform colour and consistency. The period of mixing, judged from the time that all
materials including the water are in mixer, shall be not less than that or should not be more
than 2 minutes per m3 or as recommended by the manufacturer. The concrete mixer shall
revolve at the speed recommended by the manufacturer, or as ordered by the Engineer's
Representative. The entire contents of the drum shall be discharged before materials for the
next batch are fed in. Should there, for any reason, be a stoppage of greater than 30 minutes
duration, the drum of the mixer shall be thoroughly washed out with clean fresh water before
mixing is resumed. Stationary mixers shall be equipped with an acceptable timing device that
will not permit the batch to be discharged until the specified mixing time has elapsed.

35
(2) RE-MIXING OF CONCRETE

No partly set concrete shall be placed in the works. Concrete which has
commenced to set shall not be remixed either with or without additional water and in no case
shall such concrete be used in the works.

QUALITY OF 2013. (1) APPROVAL OF MATERIALS ETC.


CONCRETE
Before their use in the works, the Contractor shall show, to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative that all materials and methods of storage and mixing to be
employed in the production of concrete, conform in every way with the requirements of this
specification.

Such deliveries of materials to the site as the Engineer's Representative may


designate shall be tested and analyzed to ensure that they do so comply and the tests shall be
carried out sufficiently in advance of their intended use in the works to allow the results to
be studied and the materials approved, modified or rejected by the Engineer's Representative
as the case may be. The Contractor shall remove all rejected materials from the site without
delay and at his own cost. Permission to use any material shall not be construed as an
approval of its source, nor any acceptance as continued acceptance.

(2) COMPACTING FACTOR

Workability of concrete shall be measured by compacting factor. The Contractor


shall provide a compacting factor apparatus conveniently accessible to each concrete mixer
and shall measure the compacting factor by the method described in B.S.1881 at frequent
intervals or as frequently as the Engineer's Representative may direct, but in any case, tests
shall be carried out at least once every half-an-hour during which concrete is being mixed.
Whenever the compacting factor varies from that of the approved mix the quantity of water
added to the mix shall be immediately adjusted to counteract the variation. The successive
values of the compacting factor and the quantity of water added shall be recorded on a
suitable quality control chart, which shall be kept near the mixer and submitted to the
Engineer's Representative for his inspection as he may direct. Notwithstanding the
foregoing, the "V-B" consistometer test may be used in place of the compacting factor test
and in such cases tests shall be carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the
manufacturer of the "V-B" Consistometer; see B.S 882 part 19.

The Contractor shall ensure that all their concrete mixer operators are aware of
the importance of maintaining uniform controlled quality of the concrete and that they are
experienced in detecting variations in concrete quality and workability and in rapidly
correcting the same.

(4) TESTS ON AGGREGATES

In addition to the tests mentioned above, as frequently as the Engineer's


Representative may decide and at least once each day when concreting is in progress, the
Contractor shall sample and test the aggregates due shortly for incorporation into the works
as follows:- the tests being carried out in accordance with B.S. 812 (1975).

(I) SIEVE ANALYSIS OF BOTH COARSE


AND FINE AGGREGATE

36
The gradings of all aggregates must be within the respective limits specified
in Clause 2004; failing which the Engineer or his Representative shall instruct the
Contractor to make such modifications to the proportions of aggregate in the mix as will
allow for such difference, and the Contractor shall immediately do so.

(II) DETERMINATION OF CLAY, FINE SILT


AND FINE DUST IN THE FINE
AGGREGATE - FIELD SETTLING TEST

Should the amount of clay, fine silt and fine dust exceed 4% by volume,
then the Contractor shall refrain from using the aggregate until he satisfies the Engineer's
Representative of its suitability for making concrete of the quality required.

(III) DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC IMPURITIES

Should the colour produced by the test be as dark as the standard solution,
the aggregate shall not be used until further comparative
compression tests specified in B.S.882 (1973) have been
carried out and given satisfactory results.

(5) PROTECTION OF CEMENT

During windy weather, effective precautions shall be taken to prevent the cement
from being blown away during the process of apportioning and mixing. One method of
checking this, is by use of wide planks as wind breakers in the direction of the wind, During
wet weather both cement and concrete shall he adequately protected either by covering with
polythene or tarpaulin.

(6) PRELIMINARY CUBE STRENGTH TESTS

(I) Prior to the commencement of any concreting work and


subsequently whenever a change is intended in the materials or in the proportions of the
materials to be used, preliminary cube strength tests shall be made in accordance with
B.S.1881, "Methods of Testing Concrete", to establish that the mean strength of the mix
conforms with the design requirement. Reliance shall not be placed on the strength obtained
from only one set of three test specimens, but separate samples of the material to be used,
taken on three occasions at intervals of not less than one day, shall be forwarded to the
testing authority for preliminary cube strength tests. From each sample of material, six
cubes shall be made, three for test at seven days and three for test at twenty-eight days.

(II) WORKS CUBE STRENGTH TESTS

Works Cubes, whether required for the normal method or for the
special method of quality control described respectively hereunder,shall be made and cured
in the manner described in B.S.1881. Where the concrete is vibrated, the cubes shall be
compacted by similar means in such a way that full compaction of the concrete with neither
segregation nor excessive latex is obtained. Samples of concrete from which works test
cubes shall be made shall be taken in accordance with B.S.1881 and in particular at the time
and place of deposition of the concrete and at such other times and places as the Engineer's
Representative will direct.

37
(III) The frequency of sampling for each concrete mixing plant used for
the Contract shall be as follows:-

(1) When each mix is first made for use in the works, batches shall be
sampled at the rate of 8 batches per day for the first 5 days of using that mix or at such other
times as directed by the Engineer's Representative until a total of 40 batches have been
sampled, with a minimum requirement that

(i) one batch shall be sampled each day particularly when any
concrete of a particular mix is made.

(ii) one batch shall be sampled for each cast of concrete to be


post tensioned.

(2) Thereafter one sample shall be taken on each day any grade of
concrete is made.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, additional samples shall be taken by the


Contractor as and when directed by the Engineer's Representative.

From each sample of concrete and at the place where the sample was taken six test
cubes shall be made; 3 shall be tested at an age of 7 days and 3 at an age of 28 days. The test
cubes shall be made cured and tested in accordance with B.S.1881.

If cured at a mid-point temperature of 270C, then the 200C strengths will be


assumed to be 0.80 times the 270C strength.

For the strength of concrete to be acceptable to the Engineer, the following shall
be achieved:-

(1) Each test cube shall have compressive strength of not less than that
specified on the drawings.

(2) Notwithstanding the provision of sub-clause (1) above, should the 200C
compressive strength of a test cube or cubes tested at an age of 7 days be below the
minimum specified strength, then if the other test cubes of the set tested at 28 days comply
with the Specification, the concrete shall be deemed to have passed the tests.

(3) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of the Clause, the quality control
exercised at each mixing plant and for each mix shall be such that the overall average 200C
compressive strength achieved (measured in N/mm2) minus 1.64 multiplied by the standard
deviation achieved (measured in N/mm2) shall be more than or equal to the specified
minimum 28 days 200C compressive strength.

Overall average compressive strength and standard deviation shall be calculated


from the results obtained from the latest forty consecutive sets of 3 test cubes of any one
mix and from any one mixing plant.

( x ) 2
( x) 
S N
N 1

38
(x) 2
( x ) 2 
S N
N 1

where N = Number of cubes tested


x = 28 day compressive strength
of 150mm cube in N/mm2
S= Standard deviation in N/mm2

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the standard deviation shall not be calculated for a
mix until there are at least 40 sets of 3 test cube results available.

Test reports shall include the following information:-

(1) Reference number of test cubes

(2) Class of concrete

(3) Location of concrete in works from which the sample was taken

(4) Time and date test cubes were taken

(5) Age of test cubes at test and curing conditions

(6) Workability

(7) Cement/fine aggregate/coarse aggregate ratio by weight

(8) Water/cement ratio by weight

(9) Individual and average compression strengths of the 3 test cubes and
assumed 200C values if different

(10) Individual and average densities of the 3 test cubes

(11) Average compressive strength and standard deviation for which the mix has
been designed

(12) Overall average 200C compressive strength and standard deviation achieved
using the results obtained from the latest forty consecutive sets of 3 test cubes made from
the same mix and the same mixing plant.

(13) Overall average compressive strength from (12) minus 1.64 multiplied by
deviation from (12).

If results of the cube tests do not comply with-the Specification, such remedial
works as the Engineer may accept or direct shall be carried out.

39
If results of cube tests do not comply with the Specification and/or if the
figure from item (13) of the test report is less than the specified minimum 28 day
compressive strength, then either the quality control at the relevant mixing plant shall be
improved to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative or the mix shall be redesigned
to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. If directed by the Engineer, redesign of
the mix shall include carrying out further preliminary laboratory tests in accordance with the
Specification with the redesigned mix.

(IV) INDEPENDENT TEST CUBES

The Contractor shall arrange for the Engineer's Representative to be present


during the sampling of the concrete and the manufacture, storing and curing of the cubes to
ensure that there is complete agreement between himself and the Engineer's Representative
that the said cubes are entirely acceptable as test cubes. Should the Contractor fail to arrange
for the Engineer's Representative to be present when required, or decline to do so, the cubes
so manufactured will not be accepted as test cubes. Should the Contractor wish to make
independent test cubes he may do so at his own expense, but the results will not be valid
unless the cubes are manufactured in the presence of the Engineer's Representative and tested
by an approved Agency, all in accordance with B.S. 1881.The approved form, giving the
reference number of the cube, its size and weight, the grade of concrete from which it was
made, the compaction factor, the date on which it was made, the date on which it was tested,
the total load in kN at which it failed, the stress in N/mm² and the location of structure at
which the sample of concrete was taken. Two copies of each test certificate, containing all
the information mentioned above, shall be forwarded to the Engineer's Representative for his
retention and a third copy retained in the Contractor's laboratory.

(V) FAILURE OF TEST CUBES FOR STRENGTH REQUIREMENT

Should either the test cubes crushed at 7 days or those crushed at 28 days or both,
fail to satisfy the specified requirements, the Contractor shall, on the Engineer's
Representative instructions, take one or more of the following steps:-

(A) He shall alter the design of the mix to increase its average compressive
strength

(B) He shall alter the method of making the concrete and controlling its quality
to reduce the variability of the concrete.

(C) He shall cut out and replace concrete placed in the works on any day in
which a cube (was made and failed if, in the opinion of the Engineer's Representative, such
concrete is likely to be incapable of fulfilling its purpose.

The Engineer may require the Contractor to cut out defective concrete from the
works even though test cubes made from that concrete have not failed. This may arise if the
concrete failed to meet other salient features and quality standard like the following:

(i) Honey combing


(ii) Cold joint

(7) CORRELATION OF TESTS

40
Tests on concrete materials and concrete shall be made as often as directed by the
Engineer's Representative and at instances such that the test results can be directly correlated
to the works test cubes for a particular batch of concrete.

(8) COST OF TESTS

The Contractor shall bear the cost of carrying out and supplying all labour,
materials and equipment for the sieve, silt, organic impurities, bulking, compacting factor
and slump tests mentioned above and any other tests required by the Engineer or the
Engineer's Representative to ensure proper quality control of the concrete. He shall also bear
the cost of supplying all labour, materials and equipment necessary for the preparation of the
compression test cubes and their subsequent storing, curing, packing, transportation and
testing. All costs arising out of modifications to the concrete mixes, cutting out and
replacing of defective concrete and all other work carried out in accordance with this Clause
shall be borne by the Contractor.

TRANSPORTATION 2014. Concrete shall be taken from the place of mixing to the place of deposition by
OF CONCRETE methods which will prevent the drying-out and consolidation of the concrete, the segregation
and loss of the ingredients, and which are sufficiently rapid to ensure that the concrete does
not commence to set before it is finally compacted in position. During transportation, the
concrete shall be protected from all adverse effects of sun, wind and rain. The concrete shall
be deposited as near as possible to its final position in the works, and no concrete shall be
dropped freely or deposited by means of chutes through a depth exceeding 3 metres. All
mixers, barrows, spades and other mixing and distributing equipment will be thoroughly
clean before commencing each period of use and shall be kept free of partly set concrete
which shall not be used in the works. No concrete shall be transported over or near to new
work that has insufficiently hardened, in order to prevent harmful vibration of the new work
and no planks or ways for skips, etc., shall be supported on either formwork or
reinforcement for the same reason.

PLACING AND 2015. No concrete shall be placed in any part of the works until written permission to do
COMPACTION so has been obtained from the Engineer's Representative. Well in advance of the intention to
place concrete, the Contractor shall forward to the Engineer's Representative for his
approval full information about the order in which he proposes to place concrete in the
various parts of the works, the height of each lift of concrete, details of the shuttering which
he proposes to employ with relevant calculations, and positions of all construction joints.

All construction joints shall be formed as specified in Clause 2019 and there shall
be no stoppage of the placing of concrete except at such proper construction joints.

The Contractor will be required to furnish the Engineer's Representative with


satisfactory evidence that all preparations, precautions and provisions have been made to
ensure that the concrete shall be placed and compacted in accordance with this specification
before the Engineer's Representative will give his permission for concreting to proceed.

For members involving "vertical" placing of the concrete, (e.g. piers) each lift
shall be deposited in layers extending for the full width between shuttering and of such depth
that each layer can be easily and effectively incorporated with the layer below by the means
of compaction being employed. The layers shall be placed horizontally, sloping beds not
being permitted unless particularly so specified.

41
For members involving "horizontal" placing of the concrete (e.g. deck slabs), the
concrete shall be placed along the line of the starting point, in such quantities as will allow
the member to be cast to its full depth along the full width between side shuttering and then
gradually brought towards the finishing point along its entire front, parallel to the starting
line, the tampers for giving the required surface and compaction following as closely behind
as practicable.

All members shall be concreted at such a rate as will eliminate any possibility of
fresh batches of concrete being deposited immediately adjacent to batches which have
commenced to set, and all members shall be poured in one continuous operation until
completed, no interval being allowed to lapse while the work is in hand.

Care shall be taken to ensure that the process of placing concrete does not cause
any harmful vibration to adjacent work that has insufficiently hardened.

Should any unforeseen occurrence result in a stoppage of concreting for such a


time as might allow the concrete already placed to begin to set before the next batches can be
compacted into place, the Contractor shall immediately insert, at his own cost, a proper
end-shutter to form a proper tongue and groove construction joint as specified in Clause
2019 normal to the work at that point which will ensure that the section already cast is
formed complete in accordance with this specification. Any additional reinforcement
required as a result of the joint shall be provided by the Contractor at his own expense.

No concrete for work which will present a large exposed surface (e.g. deck slab)
shall be placed in the direct rays of the sun and the Contractor shall erect shades to protect
such work therefrom.

Compaction of the concrete shall be effected by either hand or mechanical means


and all compacting tools must be approved by the Engineer's Representative before being
used in the works. The concrete shall be worked well up against whatever surface it adjoins
and compacted to such a degree that it reaches its maximum density as a homogeneous mass,
free from air and water holes, and penetrates to all corners of the moulds and shuttering and
completely surrounds the reinforcement. Care shall be taken to ensure that neither hand
pounders nor mechanical vibrators come into contact with the formwork, reinforcement, or
any embedded fittings and to prevent the operation of compaction from transmitting any
harmful vibrations or shocks to concrete which has not yet hardened sufficiently.

Compliance with the conditions of this clause may require working longer hours
than usual and the Contractor must allow for this in his schemes for concreting and in the
rates for the work inserted by him in the Bill of Quantities.

CONCRETE PLACED 2016. Concrete shall be placed under water only where particularly so specified and
UNDER WATER approved by the Engineer's Representative. The quantity of cement in any concrete placed
under water shall be increased by at least 25 per cent above the cement content of the
appropriate approved mix. Concrete shall be placed in still water only and every precaution
shall be taken to prevent the cement and fine materials from being washed out of the
concrete. Concrete shall be placed either with a tremie or a bottom opening box of a type
approved by the Engineer's Representative. Bottom opening boxes shall not be opened until
they are resting on the work and the lower ends of tremie pipes shall always be kept below
the surface of the wet concrete already deposited. No concrete shall be allowed to fall
through water at any time. Concrete shall be placed evenly over the whole area enclosed by
the shuttering and must not be raked over, only the minimum of screeding being allowed
once the concrete has been replaced.

42
Concrete under water shall be placed in accordance with the provisions of the
British Standards Code of Practice 2004 (8.2.2.3 or 8.2.2.3.4).

PROTECTION 2017. In cases where concrete is to be deposited against ground known or suspected to
AGAINST CHEMICAL contain sulphate salts or other deleterious chemical agents, sulphate resisting portland
ACTION
cement shall be used instead of ordinary portland cement. The sulphate resisting portland
cement shall be of approved manufacture and in accordance with B.S.12 (1958) and in such
situations where its use is required, particular care shall be taken to keep the ground water
level below the level of the concrete being placed until that concrete has hardened and has
been cured as specified in Clause 2022.

ATTENDANCE OF 2018. During all concreting operations, the Contractor that a competent joiner and a
JOINER AND competent shall ensure steel fixer (in the case of reinforced work most especially in work in
STEEL FIXER which fittings are embedded) are in attendance on each concreting operation. It shall be their
duty to ensure that the formwork is maintained in accordance with the specification,
temporary construction joints inserted as necessary, and reinforcement and fittings
maintained in place as the work proceeds.

CONSTRUCTION 2019. All construction joints in all classes of work shall be formed by inserting
JOINTS stopping-off boards normal to the work to form a tongue and groove joint as detailed on the
drawings and against which the concrete can be properly compacted. They shall be formed in
the position shown on the drawings or as directed and approved by the Engineer's
Representative. There shall be no construction joints in precast members nor in the
reinforced concrete deck slabs of minor spans. In the case of tee beams the rib and slab shall
be cast together in one continuous operation. In other work, construction joints shall be
located at points where shear stresses or tensile concrete stresses are a minimum and at place
where they will least affect the appearance and properties of the finished works, but no
construction joint may be inserted without the written approval of the Engineer's
Representative. All reinforcement required by the Engineer's Representative as a
consequence of the position selected for any proposed construction joint shall be provided
by the Contractor at his own cost, unless, in the opinion of the Engineer's Representative, the
joint is absolutely necessary and there is no alternative position for such joint.

When work is resumed against a horizontal surface which has hardened or


recently set, the surface of the concrete shall be roughened by hacking and all laitance, loose
and porous material and poorly compacted concrete shall be removed from it. When
reinforcement or fittings project from the older concrete, these shall be carefully cleaned,
utmost care being taken not to break the bond, and freed from all adherent coatings of
concrete and other matter likely to reduce the bond between the steel and the concrete about
to be poured. The surface of the concrete (and steel if applicable) shall then be swept clean,
brushed with a steel wire brush to remove all loose material, saturated with water,
thoroughly cleaned and all surplus water removed. A 12mm layer of stiff, freshly mixed
mortar containing the same proportions of cement and fine aggregates as the grade of
concrete used, shall be applied to the damp surface of the concrete immediately before
concreting commences and the fresh concrete carefully pounded into it without delay.

When work is to be resumed against a vertical face which has hardened or recently
set, the surface of the concrete (and projecting steel and fittings if any) shall be treated
exactly as described above for horizontal surfaces, but the application of the 12mm layer or
mortar shall be omitted and the fresh concrete shall be thoroughly compacted against the
damp vertical surfaces after the final saturation with water and the final thorough cleaning.

43
All costs incurred in complying with the requirements of this clause shall be
deemed to be included in the tendered rates for concrete.

JOINTS TO PREVENT 2020. Where it is specified on the drawings that a joint is to inserted to prevent bonding
BONDING OF between two adjacent parts of the structure, the Contractor shall insert two layers of
ADJACENT
approved building paper between those parts as specified. The paper shall be tailored to fit
SURFACES
the surfaces of the structure in the positions accurately without any folding or wrinkling, and
cut overlapping edges shall be covered with adhesive tape to prevent any turning or
movement during concreting operations. Throughout the area of the joint, there must be not
less than two thicknesses of approved waterproof building paper. Concreting operations and
pounding etc., shall be carried out carefully to ensure that no damage shall be done to the
paper.

SURFACE FINISHES 2021. All concrete surfaces not requiring shuttering shall be smooth finished with
approved floats to give a dense surface with a minimum of cement and fine materials being
brought to the surface. The top surface of deck slabs shall be tamped to a smooth finish,
aided by floats if necessary, to the levels, falls and cambers shown on the drawings or as
instructed. The tamping shall not be done to the extent of bringing an excess of fine materials
to the surface.

Shuttered surfaces of work in mass concrete which will always be in contact with
the ground and more than 0.5 meter below finished ground level on the external surfaces of
abutments and piers may be cast against sawn timber shuttering. All other surfaces,
including all reinforced work and all precast and prestressed, shall be cast against steel or
planed timber formwork. Any surfaces, irrespective of the shuttering employed, which show
honeycombing or voids shall be made good by cutting back the concrete to behind the
reinforcement in the case of reinforced work or to such depth as the Engineer's
Representative may specify in the case of mass work, and in either case to sufficient depth to
remove all defective concrete, but no repair work shall be started until after the defective
surfaces have been inspected by the Engineer's Representative. The cut shall be slightly
belled to ensure that the new surface will be keyed to the sound concrete, and the new
surface will be cast in accordance with the requirements of this specification and against
shuttering which has been carefully aligned with the sound concrete on either side and tightly
secured in position by wedging etc.

All exposed concrete surfaces shall be fair finished to the entire satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative.

All concrete surfaces shall be protected from damage and disfigurement due to the
subsequent pouring of concrete or the carrying out of other work in the vicinity or any cause
whatsoever, and the Contractor shall remove all blemishes and repair all such damage to the
satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

All costs for making good honeycombed and defective concrete and repairing
damaged surfaces shall be deemed to be included in the rates for concrete and shuttering
inserted in the Bill of Quantities.

CURING OF 2022. (1) GENERAL


CONCRETE
During curing of the concrete, all precautions shall be taken to ensure a slow heat
evolution and the absence of cracks. The temperature of the hot concrete surfaces should
not be subjected to sudden changes by spraying of cold water and the concrete must be
protected from sunshine and wind. Freshly placed concrete must be protected from rain.

44
If low heat portland cement is preferred, the cement shall conform to the
requirements of B.S.1370.

(2) WATER CURING

Very great importance is attached to the proper curing of the freshly placed
concrete and the Contractor must ensure that is effectively done. All newly placed concrete
shall be protected from the effects of rain, drying winds and the sun by suitable screens of
damp hessian, or damp sand after the concrete has hardened sufficiently to support them
directly without marking. The ends and sides of the screens shall be held down at the edges to
prevent draughts from getting underneath. As soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently
to support the coverings without marking. It shall be covered with clean sacks, hessians, or a
50mm thick layer of clean sand or other approved material which shall be kept continuously
in a wet condition by frequent spraying with fresh clean water. Where the concrete to be
cured is enclosed by shuttering, the shuttering shall be covered with clean sacks or hessian
which must be kept continuously in a wet condition When the shuttering is removed, the
damp hessian or sacks shall be hung directly around the concrete member and kept
continuously wet by spraying with clean fresh water. Providing that the shuttering has been
covered with approved mould oil which will prevent the timber from absorbing water from
the concrete, the time that the concrete remains in formwork under the conditions herein
specified shall count as part of the curing period. Curing of all concrete shall continue for at
least 7 days, or as directed by the Engineer's Representative, or as otherwise specified. On no
account must the surrounding sacks, hessian, etc., be allowed to dry out during the curing
period. The cost of curing shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates for concrete

(3) RESINOUS CURING

As an alternatived method of curing, the surface may be protected, where


approved by the Engineer's Representative by treating with an approved resinous curing
compound, mechanically sprayed on the surface of the finished concrete at a rate approved by
the Engineer's Representative as soon as it is possible to produce a membrane of uniform
thickness. Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer's Representative, the compound shall be
applied immediately after completion of the laying and finishing of the concrete. Any groove
over a joint shall be protected from the entry of curing liquid.

FORMWORK 2023. (1) GENERAL

All Formwork shall be adapted in every respect to the structure and to the
required surface finish for the concrete. It shall be fixed in perfect alignment and securely
propped and braced so as to withstand without displacement, distortion or movement of any
kind the weight of construction and the movement of persons, materials and plant.

It shall be sufficiently watertight to prevent any loss of liquid from the concrete
and shall be capable of being removed without shock, vibration or damage to the concrete.

Where wrot shuttering is specified, the faces to be in contact with the concrete
shall be planed perfectly smooth and true, to form in all the surfaces, curves or shapes
specified and joints shall be planed and perfectly watertight.

Where rough shuttering is specified the faces to be in contacted with concrete


shall be planed smooth and true to form. All joints must be true and perfectly tight.

45
All Formwork for new lifts of concrete shall be tightly and accurately fitted
against the concrete already cast to ensure that the surface of the new work will be quite
flush and in line with that of the old.

Wedges and clamps shall be used wherever practicable instead of nails and where
it is proposed to employ mechanical vibration the formwork shall be strengthened
accordingly by increasing the number of bracing and props, nailing wedges in position and
using screws instead of nails where necessary. Particular care shall be taken to ensure that
joints remain tight during the process of vibration.

All forms for beams and kindred members shall be designed and constructed so
that the sides may be removed without disturbing the bottom boards or supports thereto. The
bottom of each form shall be set with a camber of l/300th of the span or as otherwise
specified or required according to the dimensions of the beams. The supporting struts shall
be adjusted and securely fixed in position by approved means.

Formwork for encasing steel joists shall be suspended from the joists to relieve
the concrete of dead-load stresses.

Unless otherwise specified, fillet strips shall be fixed in the shuttering to form a
chamfer 12mm by 12mm on all external corners of the finished work.

Should the Contractor wish to erect the formwork by passing ties through the
work, or embedding bolts therein, he must first obtain the approval of the Engineer's
Representative and when seeking such approval, shall forward full details of the type of
fitting proposed for use, and show how it will be employed in the work. No type of fitting
will be permitted which cannot be removed easily after use or which does not allow easy and
effective making good of the concrete surface. The use of wires, etc., requiring subsequent
cutting into, and plastering over, of the concrete will not be permitted.

Where steel shuttering is to be used, it shall be of approved manufacture and


panels shall fit tightly and accurately to form a true surface and joints which will not allow
the escape of liquid from the concrete. All rivet and bolt heads must be countersunk on the
inside face and finished flush so as to leave no mark on the resulting concrete surface. The
provisions for timber shuttering specified above shall also apply to steel shuttering as
applicable.

If metal forms are used, the metal shall conform to the provisions of the
B.S.4360. For prestressed units the additional 10KN/m² shall be added to the weight of the
wet concrete in the design of horizontal areas of the formwork.

All side forms for the prestressed units shall be eased as early as possible and the
soffit forms shall permit deformation of the member when the prestress is applied.

The formwork should be designed to withstand the additional forces due to the
vibrations during concrete placing. The soffit shutter should be adequately supported to
prevent any settlement which might cause cracking of the concrete. On the soffit shutter,
provision should be made for the elastic shortening of the concrete under prestress.

An upward camber shall be given to ensure that the girders do not sag under
working loads. The Contractor shall make measurement before and after concreting each
section, and submit the results to the Engineer.

46
The Contractor shall notify the Engineer in advance of the time he proposes any
adjustments to the forms prior to concreting next section, should any adjustments be needed.

All surfaces of the formwork which will come into contact with the wet concrete
shall be painted with an approved non-staining mould oil, to prevent adhesion between
concrete and formwork. The mould oil shall be insoluble in water, unharmful to the
concrete, non-flaking and shall not be removable by rain or wash-water. The Contractor shall
ensure that the oil shall be kept from contact with the reinforcement or embedded fittings.

Before placing any concrete, all shavings, loose binding wires, soil, rubbish and
all foreign matter shall be removed from the formwork and the formwork shall be carefully
and thoroughly washed with water. Loose planks shall be incorporated in the bottom of
panels of shuttering to facilitate the removal of rubbish from the section to be concreted, as
necessary.

No concrete shall be placed until the Engineer's Representative has inspected the
formwork and props and given his approval to do so.

(2) STRIPPING

No formwork shall be removed without the prior approval of the Engineer's


Representative and in no case shall any shuttering or props be removed before the periods
mentioned in Table II-4 have elapsed after placing the concrete:-

TABLE II-4 FORMWORK MINIMUM STRIPPING TIME

ORDINARY PORTLAND
TYPE OF WORK PART OF WORK CEMENT CONCRETE

SLABS SOFFIT BOARDS 5 DAYS


PROPS 14 DAYS

BEAMS SIDE BOARDS 3 DAYS


BOTTOM BOARDS 14 DAYS
PROPS 28 DAYS

COLUMNS 7 DAYS

WALLS, MASS CONCRETE 3 DAYS


PIERS AND REINFORCED 7 DAYS
ABUTMENTS CONCRETE

Where props are to be left in position under slabs and beams the formwork shall
have been made in such a fashion that it can be removed
without disturbing the props in any way, otherwise it
must be left in position for the full period that the props
are left in position.

The formwork shall be removed by gradual easing without jarring and only under
competent supervision. Before removal of the shuttering, the concrete shall be examined and
removal shall only be proceeded with if the concrete has attained sufficient strength to

47
sustain all the loads to which it will be subjected. The Contractor shall be responsible for any
injury or damage to the work caused by or arising out of the removal of formwork and props
and any advice, permission or approval given by the Engineer's Representative, relative to
the removal of formwork and props shall not relieve the Contractor of this responsibility.

(3) MEASUREMENT AND PRICES FOR FORMWORK

All timber or metal moulds inclusive of all necessary supports and stagings
(unless billed separately), bolts, nuts, straps, clamps, wedges and other fixings also all
cutting and waste and cost of all labour and materials in making, erecting and removing the
formwork and for any other work required to construct the forms to shapes and dimensions
shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer, shall be included in the rate for
formwork.

Formwork shall be measured as the nett area in contact with the finished concrete
surface. No measurement will be allowed for formwork for temporary construction or day-
work joints.

REINFORCEMENT 2024. Schedules of steel reinforcement giving the location, bending, diameter, length and
SCHEDULES number of the various bars may be incorporated in the drawings or prepared on separate
sheets. These schedule have been prepared for the convenience of the Contractor, but their
accuracy is not guaranteed. It will be the Contractor's responsibility to check all the schedule
against the drawings and to satisfy himself as to errors, omissions and all other things
regarding their suitability for the work before such work is put into operation. All
discrepancies shall be brought to the notice of the Engineer's Representative immediately and
well in advance of placing the reinforcement in the works. Where new schedules are required
or existing ones require to be amended, the Contractor shall prepare such new or amended
schedules in accordance with B.S.4466 (1969) and forward three copies of each to the
Engineer's Representative well in advance of placing reinforcement in the works. The
Contractor shall be responsible for his own ordering sheets.

The cost of checking all new and amended schedules as specified above shall be
deemed to be included in the tendered rates for reinforcement.

BENDING AND 2025. (1) GENERAL


FIXING OF
REINFORCEMENT
All reinforcing bars shall be carefully bent with an even and gradual motion to the
correct dimensions by experienced steel benders and in a manner which will not injure the
material. In particular, no reinforcement shall be heated before bending. Unless stated to be
otherwise in the schedules, all bends and bending shall be in accordance with B.S. 4466.

Unless otherwise directed or authorized by the Engineer, the number, size, form
and disposition of all reinforcing bars shall be strictly in accordance with the drawings. Bars
generally must be of the required lengths and lapping and welding of main bars will not be
permitted unless so indicated on the drawings.

All reinforcements shall be rigidly in position. To prevent displacement before


and during concreting the bars shall be bound together at all intersections with annealed soft
black iron wire of 1.5mm diameter and the ends of the wire shall be turned inwards, away
from the surface of the member.

48
Where necessary, upper layers of reinforcement shall be maintained in position by
"chairs" made from bars of suitable size and supported on the lower layers of reinforcement.
The chairs shall be securely tied to both upper and lower layers of reinforcement and shall be
of such shape as will produce a frame of sufficient stiffness.

Details of the chairs showing their size, bending and disposition in the work shall
be forwarded to the Engineer's Representative for his approval before incorporation into the
work. The use of temporary supports will not be permitted.

Any parts of metal supports that are left in place within 50mm of an exposed
surface of the concrete shall be non-rusting metal or coated with non-rusting metal.
Galvanizing of such parts will be acceptable provided the weight of the zinc coating per
1000cm² of actual surface shall average not less than 56 grams and no individual specimen
shall show less than 50 grams.

Splicing of reinforcement steel, except where shown on the drawings or approved


by the Engineer, will not be permitted. Splices shall have a length sufficient to develop the
full strength in bond of the bar, and shall not be made at points where the section is
insufficient to provide at least 50mm between the splices and the nearest adjacent bar or the
surface of the concrete. At splices, the bars shall be rigidly clamped or wired together in a
manner acceptable to the Engineer. Where practicable, reinforcement shall be assembled as
rigid cases before placing in the formwork.

Concrete blocks shall be used to maintain the correct distance between the
reinforcement and the formwork i.e. to maintain the correct concrete cover to the
reinforcement. Such blocks shall not exceed 50mm in width nor 50mm in length and their
thickness shall be exactly that required to give the cover specified on the drawings. Binding
wires shall be securely embedded into each block to permit adequate fastening to the
reinforcing bars. The number and location of the blocks used in the work shall be to the
satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

All reinforcement shall be perfectly clean and free from loose scale, rust, oil,
grease and any other matter which might reduce the bond between the steel and the concrete.
Loose pieces of binding wire and other foreign matter shall be removed.

The Contractor shall provide adequate scaffolding, boards, runways, etc., to


ensure that the reinforcement is not displaced during concreting by being walked upon. No
runways, etc., shall be supported on the reinforcement. The ends of bars which will project
beyond the limits of the section being concreted shall be adequately supported and protected
to prevent them from being damaged or,removed by collision, wind, or any other cause
which might result in a reduction of the bond between the steel and concrete or any
movement of those portions of the bars lying within the freshly poured concrete.

No concrete shall be poured until the Engineer's Representative has inspected and
approved the reinforcement and the arrangements for placing the concrete and the Contractor
has ensured that competent steel-fixers and carpenters are in attendance See Clause 2015.

(2) ELECTRIC ARC WELDING

Electric Arc Welding may be permitted for joining bars, provided the approval of
the Engineer has been obtained, and for work of this type the use of electrodes of the covered
alloy or shielded arc type will be permitted, provided that they conform to the requirements
for Class A electrodes, as described in B.S.639 "C"Covered Electrodes for Metal Arc

49
Welding Wrought Iron and Mild Steel". Workmanship shall conform to the general
requirements of B.S.693 (1960), 1856 (1964) and 2642 (1965) as applied to general
building construction. All such connections shall be butt-welded with standard Double V or
Double U welds.

PART C - PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS


(NOT TO BE PRESTRESSED)

PRECAST 2026. GENERAL


CONCRETE
UNITS
The requirements of the foregoing clauses for concrete will apply to all precast
work where applicable and in addition the following
special clauses are to be observed. Rapid hardening
portland cement shall conform to the requirements of
B.S.12 and may only be used with the approval of the
Engineer or his Representative.

(1) FORMWORK

All formwork is to be such as to ensure true arris and sound surfaces and metal
lining formwork will generally be required by the Engineer.

(2) DIMENSIONS

Units are to be formed to the dimensions and tolerances shown on the drawings.

(3) MOULDS

Units are to be made in strongly constructed moulds which are closely jointed,
perfectly smooth and true in alignment. The moulds must be constructed so that no bulging
or distortion can occur during consolidation of the concrete, and should be fitted with
suitable fastenings to facilitate easy removal without injury to the units.

(4) MANUFACTURE

The Contractor shall provide facility for the Engineer or his Representative to
carry out any tests or inspection during all stages of manufacture as may be required to
ensure the quality and soundness of the units. The proposed method of manufacture is to be
approved by the Engineer before production of the units commences. All units shall have
impressed upon them in some convenient position the date of manufacture and such
distinguishing letters as the Engineer may direct.

(5) CURING

The moulds will be struck at such a time so that the units are not subject to risk or
damage or distortion. All concrete shall be kept damp for seven days and protected from the
direct rays of the sun for a further period of 14 days. This can be achieved by covering roof
or tent.

(6) CURING AND LIFTING OFF MOULDS

50
Concrete surfaces and moulds shall be protected during casting and for 14 days
thereafter from the effects of sun, wind and rain etc., and the concrete shall be cured for a
period of 7 days after casting, all to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. The
striking of moulds shall be without damage to or distortion of the concrete surfaces.

(7) REJECTED UNITS

Units which show signs of honeycombing or are badly pitted on any of the faces
or are otherwise defective will be rejected and must be immediately broken up.

(8) STACKING

Units are to be stacked to the approval of the Engineer's Representative and


arranged so that they are available for use in order of age.

(9) TRANSPORT AND DELIVERY

The methods of transporting and delivery of the units to site must be such that the
units are protected from severe shock and any damage whatsoever. The proposed methods of
loading, transporting and off loading must be approved by the Engineer or his Representative
before delivery commences.

(10) STANDARD FOR PRECAST CONCRETE WORK

Precast concrete goods, whether they have been purchased for use in the works, or
manufactured by the Contractor shall be in accordance with the requirements of the
following British Standards, as applicable:

B.S.340: Precast Concrete Kerbs, Channels, Edgings and Quadrants

B.S.368: Precast Concrete Flags

B.S.556: Concrete Cylindrical Pipes and Fittings

B.S.1194: Concrete Porous Pipes

B.S.2028: Precast Concrete Blocks

(11) RECONSTRUCTION OF FAULTY WORK

Should any portion of the work give evidence, in the opinion of the Engineer or
his Representative that the concrete is of inferior quality, insufficiently compacted,
segregated or improperly deposited and rammed in the forms or that any of the reinforcement
or fittings has been omitted, incorrectly placed or subsequently displaced or that it suffers
from any defect, omission or injury from any cause whatsoever which may adversely affect
the strength or durability of the construction, the Contractor shall, on the written instructions
of the Engineer, remove and reconstruct that portion of the work in such manner as the
Engineer shall direct or approve to ensure that the requirements of this specification are
fulfilled.

No repairs shall be made to any faulty work until it has been inspected by the
Engineer's Representative and his permission to proceed obtained. All costs involved in the
reconstruction of faulty work shall be borne by the Contractor.

51
PART D - CEMENT MORTARS AND GROUTS

CEMENT 2027. Mortar and Grouts shall be composed of portland cement, sand and water
MORTARS AND satisfying the requirements of this specification and mixed together in the proportions
GROUTS
indicated in Tables II-5 and II-6. The cement and sand shall be measured by volume in gauge
boxes of approved size. The common size is 0.03m³. The gauge boxes shall be filled with
the respective materials without compaction, and struck level, proper allowance being made
for any bulking of the sand due to moisture content. Mixing shall be done in an approved
mechanical mixer, the amount of water added being just sufficient to give the consistency
and workability desired by the Engineer's Representative for the use to which the mortar is to
be put. Mixing shall be carried out as specified for concrete.

Hand-mixing of mortar will only be permitted where very small quantities are
required and the approval of the Engineer's Representative has been obtained. In such cases,
the dry sand and cement shall first be mixed together by turning over with a clean shovel or
trowel on a clean steel platform or other approved surface until a mixture of uniform colour
has been-obtained.

Water shall then be added, a little at a time, the mixture being turned over after
each addition, until a homogeneous paste has been obtained. This process shall be repeated
until the required consistency has been obtained. Only perfectly clean implements and
surfaces shall be used in hand-mixing and care shall be exercised to ensure that no cement is
washed away during the addition of the mixing water.

All mortar must be in its final position in the works within 30 minutes of the
initial mixing together of the sand, cement and water.

TABLE II - 5 MORTAR - CEMENT/SAND MIXING PROPORTIONS

PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME
MORTAR NOMINALMI
QUALITY X

PORTLAND CEMENT SAND

M1 1:1 1 1

M2 1:2 1 2

M3 1:3 1 3

M4 1:4 1 4

NOTE: Allowance should be made for moisture content of sand.

BUILDING IN 2028. All foundations, bolts, fittings, kerbs, etc., are to be built into the work as
FOUNDATION concreting proceeds by supporting them either from the formwork in their correct position
BOLTS,FITTINGS
or grouted into recesses cast in the work as specified or directed by the Engineer or his
KERBS ETC.
Representative. Recesses to accommodate such item shall be cast against properly
constructed formwork and in no circumstances shall they be formed by cutting out green
concrete. Similarly, no fittings shall be positioned in the works by inserting into concrete
which has commenced to set.

52
The Contractor shall set the metal work which is to be embedded into position
before concreting. All items shall be carefully cleaned, placed and firmly secured to ensure
that it will not be displaced during concreting operations. Anchor bolts shall be placed by
means of templates supplied by the Contractor. All threads shall be carefully greased after
the bolts are firmly in position, but prior to concreting. The position of all embedded items
shall be carefully observed during and at the completion of concreting operations to ensure
they are in the proper position upon completion of the work.

EMPLOYMENT OF 2029. The grade of concrete, mortar or grout to be used in the various parts of the work
CONCRETE shall be as specified on the drawings. Where no specification is given on the drawings as to
MORTARS AND
the grade of concrete, motar or grout to be used, it shall then be as given in the following
GROUTS
Table II-6 below.

TABLE II-6 MORTAR FOR GROUTING MIX PROPORTIONS

GRADE MIX USE

M1. 1:1 GROUTING IN HOLDING DOWN BOLTS,


BEDDING GIRDER BEARINGS; PACKING BETWEEN
STEEL JOISTS AND EXISTING DECKS, MAKING
GOOD CONCRETE SURFACES, PIPE JOINTING ETC

M3 1:3 BEDDING & JOINTING PRECAST KERBS


M4 1:4 STONE PITCHING

The materials shall be mixed to a consistency suitable for the purpose intended.
All mortar shall be used within 30 minutes after the
mixing water has been added.

Admixtures of hydrated lime, fire clay, diatomaceous earth or other approved


inert material may be used in the mortar to facilitate workability if the Contractor elects. The
amount of admixture to be added shall be of the quantity permitted by the Engineer.

PART E - GRANOLITHIC CONCRETE FLOOR FINISHED

CEMENT 2030. All cement used in the works shall be from an approved source, and shall comply
with the latest appropriate Nigerian Industrial Standards or British Standards.

The type of cement to be used in portland high alumina cement: is to comply with
the latest revision of B.S. 915.

The provisions of foregoing clauses relating to ordinary portland cement shall


apply to high alumina cement where applicable.

AGGREGATES 2031. Concrete shall be made with specially selected aggregates of a hardness surface
texture and particle shape suitable for use as a wearing finish to floors, all to be to the latest
B.S.1201.

All aggregates fine and coarse shall comply with the requirements for aggregates
for concrete work and shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer's Representative.

GRANOLITHIC
TOPPING
53
2032. Granolithic Topping shall be composed of portland high alumina cement, fine
aggregate as specified and granite chippings as specified. The water/cement ratio shall not
exceed 0.45 and shall be kept as low as possible compatible with workability.

Typical mixes are:


2 parts of portland high alumina cement to 5 parts of fine granite chippings by
volume, graded as to B.S.1201 (1954).
Or 1 part of portland high alumina cement to 1 part of sand, to 2 parts of fine
aggregate, the aggregate passing a 150 microns (100 mesh) sieve but free from dust.

THE SUB-FLOOR 2033. The Granolithic Topping shall be laid and floated on a new concrete sub-floor
within 12 hours of laying the latter. Where the sub-floor consists of an existing concrete
surface, this shall be hacked, thoroughly cleaned, wetted and brushed over with cement grout
prior to laying granolithic topping.

LAYING 2034. The Contractor shall ensure that successive trowellings are applied at appropriate
times by skilled workmen.

The topping shall be rendered with a wood float and struck off with a steel trowel
after the set has commenced. The topping shall be laid to a thickness of 25mm to 40mm
Slightly increased thicknesses are necessary when the topping is laid on matured concrete
sub-floors.

The toppings shall be divided into bays not larger than about 3.5m. x 3.5m. laid
alternately or as directed.

CURING 2035. Granolithic topping shall be cured for a period of seven days after laying all as for
normal concrete.

RETARDATION OF 2036. A solution of calcium chloride added integrally or a solution of sodium silicate or
DUSTING other surface hardener as approved by the Engineer's Representative shall be used to retard
dusting. The amount of solution added shall be as specified by the respective manufacturers
or as directed by the Engineer's Representative.

CARBORUNDUM 2037. For non-slip finish to treads of stairs and to landing surfaces, carborundum
FINISH thickly sprinkled in the proportion of 1.50Kg. per square meter of paving shall be used,
being well trowelled in before the granolithic sets.

GRANOLITHIC 2038. Where granolithic monolithic topping is ordered, it shall be applied in the
MONOLITHIC following manner:
TOPPING

Concrete shall be laid to finished level and while it is still wet and soft shall be
sprinkled with a mixture of 1 part of chippings to 1 part of high alumina portland cement
mixed together in a dry state and applied at a rate of spread of 8Kg/m² of surface. The
chippings shall consist of a suitably graded material 6mm to dust with not more than 20%
content of fine material.

This mixture shall be tamped-in with a wooden float and twice trowelled with a
steel trowel to a smooth and fine finish. After the topping is dry it shall be treated with one
application of 10% solution of silicate of soda.

DAMP
PROOFING 54
2039. MISCELLANEOUS

The surface to be damp proofed shall be primed and then thoroughly mopped with
waterproofing asphalt.

The mastic asphalt shall be laid in two courses in the manner described in British
Standard Code of Practice CP 144 Part 2. Joints shall be staggered at least 150mm between
courses.

When the first mopping of asphalt has set sufficiently, the entire surface shall then
be mopped with a second coating of hot asphalt. Special care shall be taken to see that there
are no skips in the coatings and that all surfaces are thoroughly covered. The two sides of all
joints shall be intimately bonded. The surfaces of any gullies and other features with which
the waterproofing will be in contact shall be clean and painted with bitumen.

The cost of all materials, labour, tools, equipment and incidentals, and for doing
all the work involved in applying the damp proofing, complete in place as shown on the
drawings or as directed by the Engineer, shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates
for concrete.

(Clauses 2040 – 2999 inclusive not used)

55
SPECIFICATION

SECTION III - CONCRETE: PRESTRESSED

1
SECTION III - PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

GENERAL 3000. In addition to any other relevant clause of this Specification, the following shall be
deemed to apply in particular to prestressed concrete work, and shall be read in conjunction
with all other relevant clauses (especially those referring to mass and reinforced concrete) of
the conditions of Contract and this Specification.

This work shall consist of prestressing precast concrete by furnishing, placing and
tensioning of prestressing steel in accordance with details shown on the drawings, and as
specified in the specifications.

This work shall include the furnishing and installation of any appurtenant items
necessary for the particular prestressing system to be used, including but not limited to
sheaths, anchorage assemblies and grout used for pressure grouting sheaths.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his approval plans and working
drawings. The working drawings, of the prestressing system shall contain details and
substantiating calculations of method and materials the Contractor proposes to use, in the
prestressing operations including any additions or rearrangement of reinforcing steel from
that shown on the drawings. Such details shall outline the method and sequence of stressing
and shall include complete specifications and details of the prestressing steel and anchoring
devices, working stresses, anchoring stresses, type of sheaths, and all other data pertaining to
the prestressing operation, including the proposed arrangement of the prestressing steel in the
member.

Working drawings shall not exceed 594mm x 841mm in size and each drawing and
calculation sheet shall include the job site, name of the structure as shown on the contract
drawings.

Working drawings shall be submitted sufficiently in advance of the start of the


affected work to allow time for review by the Engineer's Representative and correction by
the Contractor of the drawings without delaying the work. In no case shall such time be less
than six weeks.

Throughout the prestressing work the Contractor shall employ on the works at least
one suitably qualified engineer who shall be experienced in the systems of prestressing being
used. His duties shall be as follows:

(1) Supervision of the storage and fixing of prestressing components

(2) Calibration of prestressing equipment

(3) Supervision of tensioning operations

(4) Supervision of grouting operations

(5) Compilation of tensioning records

(6) Such other duties as the Engineer's Representative may direct.

All personnel operating the stressing equipment shall


have been properly trained in its use. In addition to the normal precautions against accident
which should be taken at all times for the whole of the Works, special precautions shall be
taken when working with the tendons which have been tensioned or are in the process of
being tensioned.

The personnel should not stand in line with the tendons, their anchorages or jacking
equipment. Simple protective measures such as stout timber shields sheathed with steel
should be placed in line with tendons and behind the jacks to protect personnel passing in the
usual course of their duties, if applicable.

56
PART (A) - MATERIALS

CEMENT 3001. The Cement shall be rapid-hardening portland cement in accordance with the latest
B.S. 12 with all latest amendments or portland blast furnace cement conforming to the
requirements of B.S.146 with all latest amendments. The use of high alumina cement will
not be permitted.

The cement is to be packed in waterproof bags or steel drums and delivered to the
site in first class condition. Each consignment is to be clearly marked with the date of
manufacture and the date of arrival. The drums of cement are to be lifted and handled with
care so as to avoid damage; and stored in a damp free location ready for use. The
consignment is to be used in the order of arrival to the site.

Cement is to be stored on site under cover from the weather and is to be protected
from deterioration. Each drum is to be fully used once opened, and no cement is to be stored
in drums which have previously been opened.

AGGREGATES 3002. All concrete aggregates to be used for prestressed concrete work shall be properly
cleaned and graded strictly to the requirements of the latest B.S. No. 882 to which end the
Contractor shall provide washing and grading equipment on the site.

Materials which are rejected from the grading process may be used up in 10 N/mm2
grade concrete in other parts of the works at the discretion of the Engineer's Representative.
Any rejected material is to be removed forthwith from the site by the Contractor at his own
expense.

(1) FINE AGGREGATE

Fine Aggregates shall consist of naturally occurring sand obtained from fresh water
river deposits approved by the Engineer's Representative. The grading of sand particles shall
satisfy the percentages stated for Zones 1 or 2 in B.S. 882, and as given in Table III-1

(2) COARSE AGGREGATE

Coarse Aggregate shall consist of natural gravel or crushed granite rock obtained
from a source to be approved by the Engineer or his Representative. The grading of coarse
aggregate particles shall strictly satisfy the percentages for l9.0mm - 4.76mm nominal size
stated in B.S. 882 as given in Table III-1 with a content not exceeding 1% passing the
2.36mm sieve size.

57
TABLE III-1 GRADING OF FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATES

PERCENTAGE PASSING

AGGREGATE SIEVE SIZES

150 300 600 1.2 2.4 4.76 9.5 19.0 38.1


m m m mm mm mm mm mm mm

FINE
AGGREGATE 0-10 5-20 15-34 30-70 60-95 90- 100 - -
ZONE 1 100

FINE
AGGREGATE 0-10 8-30 35-59 55-90 75-100 100 - -
ZONE 2 90-
100

COARSE
AGGREGATE - - - - 0-1 25-55 95-100 100

0-10

(3) TESTS

Samples of the chosen aggregates shall be delivered to site and prepared by the
Contractor at his own expense. Methods of testing shall be in accordance with Clause 2003
(3) of these specifications. Samples of each aggregate are to be submitted by the Contractor
to a testing authority approved by the Engineer or his Representative. The Contractor shall
obtain from the Engineer or his Representative written approval of the tests and types of
aggregate chosen, together with the proposed arrangement for use on the works.

WATER 3003. The Water to be used for concrete manufacture shall be clean water free from
chemical or organic impurities and dissolved salt solutions, which may have a harmful effect
on the concrete. The Ph value shall range from 6.8 - 7.5. Periodic test on water used for
concrete should be carried out on site in accordance with B.S. 3148.

3004. Such reinforcement is to be of mild steel or high yield steel as specified in the
UNTENSIONED
drawings. Mild steel reinforcement shall be rolled mild steel bars as for reinforced concrete
REINFORCEMENT
works and shall comply in all respects with the latest B.S. 4449.

Untensioned high-tensile steel reinforcement shall be hard drawn pre-stressing wires


as specified hereunder, hot rolled high yield deformed bars complying with B.S. 4449 or
cold worked deformed bars complying with B.S. 4461.

PRE-STRESSING 3005. For the purpose of this specification the term "Pre-Stressing Tendon" or "Tendons"
STEEL shall mean a single wire, bar or strand or a number of wires or strands grouped into a cable
or a group of bars.

(1) The prestressing steel should be one of the following:

(I) Plain hard-drawn steel wire complying with the requirements of B.S.2691,
"Steel for prestressed concrete, Part 1 Plain hard-drawn steel wire".

(II) Indented or crimped hard-drawn steel wire complying with the requirements
of B.S.2691 in all respects except that for the bend test.

58
(III) High tensile steel bars of open hearth steel with sulphur and phosphorus
contents each below 0.05 per cent.

Bars whether plain or deformed should have a tensile strength of not less than 926
N/mm2 with a 0.2 per cent proof stress of not less than 75 per cent or more than 92 per cent
of the actual ultimate strength. For methods of testing see B.S. 18, "Tensile testing of
metals".

(IV) Such other wires, strand, or bars having properties not inferior to those laid
down in B.S. 2691 or Sub-Clause (III) above respectively.

Seven wire steel strand for prestressed concrete shall comply with B.S. 3617.

Notwithstanding the foregoing strand shall comply with the following:

(1) It shall contain no welds

(2) It shall be at least low relaxation strands complying with Section 3 of B.S.
3617.

TABLE III-2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PRESTRESSING STEEL

NOMINAL BREAKING LOAD KN MINIMUM


PRE-
DIAMETER (1000kgf) ELONGATION
STRESSED
mm TO FRACTURE
STEEL
IN GAUGE REMARKS
LENGTH

Wire 7 65 (6.63) to 69 (7.038) 6% Tensile Testing is to be


carried out as per
5 35 (3.57) to 38 (3.876) 6%

4 25 (2.55) 6%

*
Strands 8 67 (6.834) 10% BS 5896 Mechanical
10 94 (9.588) 10% Testing of Steel Wires.
13 160 (16.320) 10%
22 480 (48.960) 10%
Additional Mechanical
Bars 25 650 (66.30) 12%
Properties which are not
28 800 (81.60) 12%
specified in this Table
shall be subject to the
approval of the
Engineer.

All bars in any individual member shall be of the same grade. When bars are to be
extended by use of couplers, the assembled units shall
have a tensile strength, of not less than manufacturer's
minimum guaranteed ultimate tensile strength, when
tested in accordance with Test Method No. California
641, or equal. Failure of any sample to meet this
requirement will cause for rejection of the heap of bars
and lot of couplers. The location of couplers in the
member shall be subject to approval by the Engineer.

59
(V) The Engineer may permit the use of prestressing steel manufactured to
standards equivalent to those mentioned above provided that minimum strength
requirements are complied with, as indicated in this specification.

(2) CERTIFICATES

Copies of Manufacturer's Test Certificates and stress/strain diagrams shall be


furnished by the Contractor and given to the Engineer or his Representative for each
consignment of prestressing steel reinforcement. These certificates must be submitted to and
approved by the Engineer or his Representative before the prestressing steel reinforcement is
used in the works.

(3) DELIVERY

All prestressing steel shall be protected against physical damage and rust or other
exposures that will result to corrosion at all times from manufacture, to grouting or
encasing in concrete. Prestressing steel that has sustained physical damage at any time shall
be rejected. The development of visible rust or other results of corrosion shall be cause for
rejection, when ordered by the Engineer.

Prestressing steel shall be packaged in containers or shipping forms for the


protection of the steel against physical damage and corrosion during shipping and storage. A
corrosion inhibitor which prevents rust or other results of corrosion shall be placed in the
package or form, or shall be incorporated in a corrosion inhibitor, carrier packaging material
type, or when permitted by the Engineer, may be applied directly to the steel. The corrosion
inhibitor shall have no deleterious effect on the steel or concrete or bond strength of steel to
concrete. Packaging or forms damaged from any cause shall be immediately replaced or
restored to original condition.

The shipping package and the form shall be clearly marked with a statement that
"PACKAGE CONTAINS HIGH-STENGTH PRESTRESSING STELL, PLEASE HANDLE
WITH CARE." The type, kind and amount of corrosion inhibitor used, including the date
when placed, safety orders and instructions for use shall be indicated.

(4) STORAGE

Coils and bundles of prestressing steel shall be stored flat on a floor raised off the
ground and under full cover from the weather. They shall be protected from damage, oil,
corrosion or any deleterious matter, and shall not be opened until required. Before being
manufactured into prestressing cables, the wire shall be cleaned free from loose rust and any
deleterious matter, and inspected by the Engineer's Representative for approval. Prestressing
steel reinforcement which shows signs of pitting or has any surface defects such as splits,
roughness or necking is not to be used, and any lengths of wire or strand so affected are to be
cut out of the coil and rejected.

(5) TESTS

Tests on prestressing steel in addition to those of the manufacturer, may be required


by the Engineer and the Contractor is to make all arrangements to supply samples for testing
to a nominated testing authority.

SHEATHING 3006. Sheathing to prestressing tendons is to be of corrugated type such as "hydrarigid" or


similar, approved by the Engineer. Sheathing enclosures for prestressing steel shall be
mortar-tight, and accurately placed at the locations shown on the drawings or approved by
the Engineer. All sheathings or anchorage assemblies shall be provided with pipes or other
suitable connections for the injection of grout after prestressing. Sheathings for prestressing
steel shall be securely fastened in place to prevent movement.

60
After installation of the forms, the ends of sheathings shall at all times be covered as
necessary to prevent the entry of water or debris.

The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Engineer that the
sheathings are free of water and debris immediately prior to installation of the steel.
All sheathing for continuous structures, shall be vented over each intermediate
support, and at additional locations as shown on the drawings. Vents shall be 12.5mm
minimum diameter standard pipe. Connections to sheathings shall be made with metallic
structural fasteners. The vents shall be mortar tight, taped as necessary, and shall provide
means for injection of grout throughout the vents and for sealing the vents. Ends of vents
shall be removed 25mm below the roadway surface after grouting has been completed.
Grout vents shall be provided at crests and valleys in the duct profile and at intervals of not
more than 15 metres in straight ducts.

All sheathings for continuous structures, except sheathings in bent or pier caps, shall
consist of rigid galvanized ferrous metal. Transition couplings connecting the rigid
sheathings to anchoring devices need not be galvanized. At the Contractor's option, such
rigid sheathings may be used in simple spans prestressed members. Rigid sheathings may be
fabricated with either welded or interlocked seams. Galvanizing of the welded seam will not
be required.

Rigid sheathings shall have sufficient strength to maintain their correct alignment
during placing of concrete. Joints between sections of rigid sheathings shall be positive
metallic connections, which do not result in angle changes at the joints. Waterproof tape
shall be used at the connections.

Corrugated sheathing is to be delivered to the site coiled on to large diameter


wooden drums, securely fastened and protected from damage, or stored straight in
containers.

Corrugated sheathing is to be stored on site under cover from the weather, and shall
be protected from rusting, damage, oil or any other deleterious matter and shall be clean and
free from all such matter before being used in the works.

PART B - WORKMANSHIP

3007. (1) PRELIMINARY TESTS


CONCRETE
PROPORTIONS
Preliminary Tests to determine the grade 50 N/mm², 45 N/mm² or 35 N/mm2
concrete mix proportions for prestressed work shall be undertaken as soon as the sources and
qualities of cement, water and aggregate have been chosen.

(2) PROPORTIONS

The Contractor shall deliver, to a testing authority to be approved by the Engineer,


sufficient quantity of cement and prepared aggregates to enable concrete cubes to be made.
Such cubes shall be manufactured under laboratory conditions, using dry aggregates and
proportions calculated to give the desired workability and 10% more than the average 28
days works cube strength given in Table II-3 Clause 2009. At the same time the Contractor
shall arrange to make two concrete mixes on site using the same proportions of cement,
water and aggregates as used in laboratory tests, with the methods to be adopted for the
whole of the works. Six cubes shall be made from the second batch of concrete out of the
mixer, and subsequently tested by the approved testing authority. The amount of water used
for mixing under site conditions shall take into account the weight of water contained in the
wet aggregates stored at the mixer and the weights of aggregates used shall be adjusted
accordingly.

(3) PROCEDURE

The results of these preliminary tests shall give cube strengths of not less than 10%
more than those stated in Table II-3 Clause 2009 in the case of cubes made under laboratory
and at least the values stated in Table II-3 Clause 2009 in the case of cubes made under site
conditions.

61
All cubes shall be 150mm x 150mm x 150mm and made in standard steel moulds
according to the procedures described in B.S. 1881 and shall be vibrated. As a result of
these tests, the mix proportions for the prestressed concrete work shall be chosen and
approved by the Engineer. Thereafter these proportions shall be adhered to throughout the
works and may be varied only on instructions given by the Engineer's Representative.

(4) WATER CEMENT RATIO

The Water-Cement Ratio shall be chosen from the laboratory tests, and shall
be taken as the total weight of water added to the mix
using completely dry aggregates, divided by the total
weight of cement. The amount of water to be added to
each batch of concrete under site conditions, shall be
calculated from the results of moisture tests on the
aggregates and the weight of cement used for each batch,
using the same total water-cement ratio as used in the
laboratory tests. No deviation from this water cement
ratio shall be made except with written approval of the
Engineer's Representative. Strict adherence to
established water cement ratio can be maintained during
the manufacture and placing of concrete by using slump
value established during mix design exercise.

3008. The Contractor is to provide the following apparatus on site for the testing of
FIELD TESTS
aggregates and concrete mixes which, where applicable, shall comply with the requirements
of B.S. 1881 and 812.

1. Sampling pans for aggregate moisture tests.

2. Electric ovens for drying out samples of wet aggregates.

3. Accurate compensating balance weighing up to 10 Kilograms with weights.

4. 12 No. steel moulds for 150mm cubes, with base plates.

5. Kango hammer vibrator for making cubes.

6. 2 No. slump cones with base plates and tamping rods.

7. 1 compacting factor apparatus.

8. Water tank for curing concrete cubes.

9. Concrete cube testing apparatus

10. Check weights for mixer weigh batchers.

11. Copper sampling tube for extracting cement samples.

12. Apparatus for testing contents of silt, clay, organic impurities in fine aggregates.

13. Airtight tins or jars for dispatch of cement samples.

14. Two sets of B.S. 410 test sieve listed below.

Size

mm
25

62
12.5
10
5

mm
28
37.5
600 m
300 m
150 m

15. Complete apparatus for gamma-ray inspection of grout in ducts for pre-stressing
tendons.

16. Cover-meter for inspection of concrete cover to reinforcement


pre-stressing steel or ducts.

17. Load cell for directly reading tension in prestressing tendons during stressing.

All the equipment listed as above shall be supplied and maintained in perfect
condition by the Contractor at his own expense for the
duration of the works. After completion of the works all
equipment shall remain the property of the Contractor.

BATCHING AND 3009. All materials used for concrete manufacture shall be batched by weight.
MIXING
Before the casting of each prestressed beam the quantity of aggregates to be used
shall be separated from the stockpiles at the mixer and thoroughly turned over by hand, to
produce uniformly moist aggregate. Samples shall then be taken of each aggregate and
moisture contents tests carried out to determine the percentage of water content of each
aggregate by dry weight method.

From these results the weights of wet aggregates and water to be used in mixing shall
be calculated for the chosen quantity of cement to be used for each mix, using the dry
weights proportions determined from the preliminary concrete mix design.

During the casting of each beam strict control shall be maintained at the mixer to
ensure that the correct weights of materials are consistently used for each mix of concrete.

The workability of the concrete shall be frequently checked using the compacting
factor test so that the consistency of the concrete is kept uniform. Mixes which show large
variation from the workability aimed at, due to varying aggregate conditions or errors in
batching, will be rejected and the necessary corrections are to be made to the mix
immediately after this is observed. Stockpiles of aggregates at the mixer must always be
maintained so that no fresh aggregates are fed in while casting of the beam is taking place.

The mixer and adjacent aggregate stockpiles shall be placed under temporary roofing
so as to be fully protected from the direct rays of the sun and rain. Where compacting factor
test apparatus is not available, slump test may be used to control the consistency of the
concrete being produced and placed.

PLACING OF 3010. Casting of prestressed beams shall be carried out on specially prepared casting
CONCRETE beds, which are to be constructed under a temporary roofing so as to be fully protected
especially from the direct rays of the sun and rain.

(1) VIBRATION

The methods of vibration to be used shall be carefully designed to ensure full


compaction of the concrete, thus producing first class appearance without subsequent
patching of concrete faces. Full details of the Contractor's proposed methods of
manufacturing the beams shall be submitted to the Engineer's Representative for approval.

63
(2) PRELIMINARY TESTS

When a design mix has been approved by the Engineer's Representative, the
Contractor is to allow for a preliminary casting of a short length of beam complete with
prestressing cables and reinforcement, using the proposed methods of vibration for the
whole works.

(3) CASTING

Each prestressed component shall be cast in one continuous operation and no


construction joints will be allowed.

CURING 3011. Curing of the prestressed components shall ensure a slow heat evolution in the
concrete so that shrinkage cracks may be avoided.

Prestressed components shall be


completely covered with hessian, which shall be
kept continuously wet for a period of seven
days. If tensioning of the prestressing tendons
takes place before this time, the hessian shall be
retained in position until the period of seven
days has expired.

The prestressed components shall then be cured in air for a further period of seven
days or enough time to achieve the necessary strength before being erected into position on
the bridge.

3012. Formwork shall be of purpose made steel moulds or plywood panels, and shall be
FORMWORK
rigidly fastened together so that no displacement can take place during casting. Formwork
shall be designed so that it can be removed without shock or damage to concrete, and must
be braced and held in position so as to avoid any holes or fastenings through the prestressed
component.

Moulds shall be of such a nature as not


to allow the concrete member to deform when
the prestress is applied. The bottom portions of
the moulds shall be prevented from adhering to
the concrete.

Subject to the approval of the Engineer's Representative, stripping of side formwork


may take place 24 hours after casting or as soon as is convenient after the concrete has
reached its final set. Stripping of bottom formwork shall not be carried out until after
transfer of prestress to the prestressed component.

SURFACE FINISH 3013. Prestressed concrete work shall, unless otherwise specified, have a smooth finish on
all surfaces exposed in the completed work. Surfaces which will be in contact with concrete
cast in place to form a composite construction shall be purposely left very rough, in order to
provide an adequate key. The valleys and ridges of any roughening system shall be transverse
to the direction of stressing.

3014. The Contractor shall provide continuous, experienced supervision during all
TOLERANCE
mould-assembly and concreting operations, in order to ensure that the tolerance in
longitudinal dimensions for all concrete work shall remain within the following limits:

(1) For Component about 9m Long ± 6mm

(2) For Component about 18m Long ± 10mm

(3) For Component about 36m Long ± 13mm

64
The tolerance for lack of straightness on plan or variation in camber shall also be of
the same order as shown above for the respective lengths of the components.

The dimensional tolerances on web steel shall be of the order of 3mm.

3015. (1) GENERAL


PRESTRESSING
Wires shall be straightened if necessary to produce equal stress in all wires or wire
groups or parallel lay cables that are to be stressed simultaneously or when necessary to
insure proper positioning in the sheathings.

When wires are to be button-headed, the buttons shall be cold formed symmetrically
about the axes of the wires. The buttons shall develop the minimum guaranteed ultimate
tensile strength of the wire. No cold forming process shall be used that causes indentations
in the wire. At transfer of the prestress the concrete shall have a minimum cube-strength of
30 N/mm2.

In order that any applied force may be maintained after the tensioned tendons have
been anchored, an allowance must be made in assessing the value of the applied force for
loss of stress due to the yield in the anchorages and for slip when the tendon is wedged after
tensioning. At transfer of the prestress, the concrete shall have the cube strengths as shown
on the drawings, or as specified. These requirements shall be ascertained from works tests
on three cubes manufactured and cured under the same conditions as the concrete member.
Sufficient cubes shall be made so that if the stipulated strength is not achieved,
further cubes will be available for such additional testing as may be required.

At transfer of prestress, the measured deflection of the beam shall not exceed the
limits given on the drawings, or as specified.

(1) POST TENSIONING

(I) The system of prestressing and the magnitude of the post tension in a structural
component shall be as shown on the drawings.

(II) MANUFACTURE OF CABLES

Prestressing cables shall be preassembled in the factory or manufactured on site from


coils of wires or strands. The cable consisting of a number of high tensile steel wires or
strands shall be formed in the manner as directed by the Engineer or his Representative. In
estimating the length of all cables, extra allowance must be made for attaching either one or
two tensioning jacks as instructed by the Engineer. The method of measurement for the
purpose of payment shall be the length of the finished cable placed, positioned, tensioned,
anchored, cut and grouted complete as in the finished structure.

(III) SHEATHING

Sheathing shall be carefully examined prior to use and any damaged lengths shall be
cut away and rejected. Joints in corrugated sheathing shall be formed by the use of couplers
and/or by wrapping the joints with tape. They shall be so designed as to prevent the ingress
of cement, concrete or other material during casting. All joints in sheathing shall be
approved by the Engineer's Representative.

(IV) PLACING OF PRESTRESSING TENDONS AND SHEATHING

Tendons shall be carefully handled so as to avoid sudden bends or kinks, and


threaded into the flexible sheathing before being placed into the beam formwork. The

65
sheathing and the prestressing tendon shall be rigidly supported in the exact positions as
shown on the drawings so that no movement can take place during casting of the beams.

(V) PLACING OF ANCHORAGES

The anchorages shall be placed accurately in accordance with the drawings and firmly
fixed to resist displacement during vibration of the concrete. The anchorages shall be fixed
so as to be perfectly collinear with the axis of the tendons and to remain so throughout the
casting of the component.

(VI) SYSTEM OF POST TENSIONING

All post-tensioned prestressing steel shall be secured at the ends by means of


approved permanent type anchoring devices.

All anchorage devices for post- tensioning shall hold the prestressing steel at a load
producing a stress of not less than 95 percent of the guarantee minimum tensile strength of
the prestressing steel, when tested in accordance with Test Method No. California 641 or
equal.

When headed wires are used, the outside edge of any hole for prestressing wire
through a stressing washer or through an unthreaded bearing ring or plate shall not be less
than 5mm from the roof of the thread of the washer or from the edge of the ring or plate.

The load from the anchoring device shall be distributed to the concrete by means of
approved devices that will effectively distribute the load to the concrete.

Such approved devices shall conform to the following requirement:

(a) Bending stresses in the plates or assemblies induced by the pull of the
prestressing steel shall not exceed the yield point of the material or cause visible distortion in
the anchorage plate when 100 percent of the ultimate load is applied as determined by the
Engineer.

(b) Materials and workmanship shall conform to the requirements in Section V -


Bridgeworks, Part (B) Structural Steelwork.

(VII) JOINTS

Joints in the spaces between a series of precast elements which are to be prestressed
together shall be made precisely in accordance with the requirements shown on the drawings.

Suitable extensions or connections of the ducts through the gaps shall be provided
and steps taken to ensure that the jointing material does not enter the duct or press against
the prestressing steel. The holes for the prestressing steel shall be accurately made and meet
one another in true alignment at the ends and shall permit unobstructed passage of the grout.

The stressing operation shall not take place until the filling material in the joint has
attained a strength equal to at least 1½ times the stress at transfer of prestress. The time lag is
to be established during design process.

66
(VIII) TENSIONING

(1) No post-tensioning of pre-stressing tendons shall take place until the


concrete has attained the specified stress as ascertained from tests on cubes cured and
hardened under the same conditions as the concrete of the member. Before the stressing,
single wires or strands, the wires or strands in each cable shall be of equal length in tension.

(2) Tensioning shall be carried out with the approved type of jacks.

(3) Before tensioning the anchorages shall be carefully cleaned on all surfaces,
removing heavy dirt.

(4) The amount of tension given to the tendons shall conform to a schedule of
tendon tensions, to be supplied by the Engineer, and will be based on the test data for
prestressing steel.

(5) Measurement of the force shall be by an accurate gauge indicating the force
on the hydraulic jack and also by the elongation of the steel after allowing for any initial slip
in the wedges or jaws of the grips. The Engineer may also specify the use of a load cell to
determine the tendon tension directly.

(6) Approval shall be obtained from the Engineer's Representative before each
tendon is anchored. The contractor shall provide printed sheets and supply the Engineer's
Representative with a record of all extension and pressure readings for each tendon in every
prestressed structural component.

(7) No tensioning of tendons can commence until permission is obtained to do


so from the Engineer's Representative.

(8) The order and sequence of tensioning shall be as specified on the drawings
or as instructed by the Engineer's Representative.

(9) The prestressing force should be applied from one or both ends as specified
on the drawings.

(10) Each wire, pair of wires, cables, strand, or bar shall be attached in such a
manner as to ensure that the elongation is uniform throughout its length. Should any
tensioned steel or anchorage break or be damaged, it should be replaced if so ordered.
Throughout all tensioning operations a spare jack capable of maintaining the designated load
should be available.

(11) All tensioning shall be carried out in the order specified or approved. After
tensioning, the wires, strands or bars shall be secured in position and cut off as directed.

(12) Immediately before tensioning, the Contractor shall prove that all tendons
are free to move between jacking points and that members are free to accommodate the
horizontal and vertical movements due to the application of prestress.

(13) The Contractor shall establish the datum point for measuring extension and
jack pressure to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

67
(14) The tendons shall be stressed at a gradual and steady rate until they attain the
force described in the Contract.

(15) The Contractor shall keep full record of all measured tensioning operations,
including the extensions, pressure gauge or load cell readings and the amount of pull-in at
each anchorage. Copies of records shall be supplied to the Engineer within 24 hours of each
tensioning operation.

(IX) GROUTING

(1) After tendons have been tensioned and anchored they shall be grouted up
solid throughout. Suitable outlet with plugs being provided to prevent air locks unless
otherwise specified. Grouting trials shall be undertaken when required by the Engineer.

The method of mixing and injecting the grout shall be approved by the Engineer
before grouting is commenced. The pressure at which the grout is to be pumped into the
duct shall be approved by the Engineer and shall not normally exceed 552 kN/m².

(2) Grout shall be either a neat cement grout with a water cement ratio not
exceeding 0.4 or cement mortar (1:1 by weight). An expanding plasticizing admixture
should be used. All ducts and holes shall be thoroughly washed out with water, immediately
before grouting and after the stressing operation has been completed. Grouting is to be
carried out continuously, the discharge from consecutive air holes being observed
throughout. The mixer shall be thoroughly cleaned before grouting is commenced. A
complete spare grouting plant for immediate use in case of emergency or breakdown of the
equipment operation shall be available.

(3) Care shall be taken to avoid lumps in the cement, and sieving shall be
carried out before mixing the grout. It is essential to mix up a quantity of grout sufficient for
a particular duct immediately prior to its injection and to use only this batch on the duct.

(4) During the grouting operation grout shall be continuously added to the
bucket from which the grout is being pumped and the bucket shall not be changed otherwise
air may enter the sheathing with the grout.

(5) Before the commencement of grouting and after the completion of it,
reports shall be made to the Engineer's Representative in writing. The duct shall be plugged
when grout is issued freely from the outlet end, and once plugged the pressure shall be
gradually reduced to prevent blow backs or air pockets. The Contractor shall keep full
records of grouting including the date each duct was grouted, the proportion of the grout and
any admixtures used, the pressure, details of any interruption and tapping up required.
Copies of these records shall be supplied to the Engineer within 3 days of grouting.

Where required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall provide facilities and
attendance for the radio- graphic testing of ducts.

(6) The grout mixer shall produce a grout of colloidal consistency. The grout
injector shall be capable of continuous operation with sensibly constant pressure up to 690
kN/m² and shall include a system of circulating or agitating the grout whilst actual grouting
is not in process. All baffles to the pump shall be fitted with sieve strainers size 1.2mm.

68
(7) The equipment shall be capable of maintaining pressure on completely
grouted ducts. It shall be fitted with a nozzle which can be locked off without loss of
pressure in the duct.

(8) The pressure gauges shall be calibrated before they are first used in the
works and thereafter as required by the Engineer. All equipment shall be thoroughly washed
with clean water at least every 3 hours during the grouting operations and at the end of use
for each day.

(X) FINISHING OFF TENDONS

After grouting, the ends of the anchorages and any protecting ends of cut-off tendons
shall be covered over by a 1:1 mix mortar packed hard into the recesses on the beam.

(2) PRE-TENSIONING

(I) In long line beds for pre-tensioning, due consideration shall be given to the friction
caused by the varying shape and number of diaphragms which will affect the magnitude of
the applied pre-stressing force.

(II) In order to obtain concrete of uniform strength, where members are cast in a long
line bed, the difference in strength at transfer between components of the same type cast in
the same line shall not exceed 15 per cent. The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer's
Representative by tests on special cubes cured under the same conditions, as the members
that this condition is complied with.

(III) With pre-tensioning, the specified force shall be maintained by the use of approved
fixing devices, at the ends of the tensioned steel during concreting and curing, until the
concrete has attained the strength specified. The tensioned steel shall then be released
gradually and uniformly.

(3) TRANSVERSE PRE-STRESSING

(I) GENERAL

Transverse pre-stress shall be as specified and shown on the drawings.

(II) JOINTING

Joints between precast concrete units are to be made in accordance with the drawings
or instructions from the Engineer's Representative. They shall consist of dry or wet joints.
In the case of dry joints they shall be filled with dry concrete quality 50 N/mm² which shall
be mechanically rammed into position and in the case of wet joints they shall be filled with
wet concrete quality 50 N/mm² and fully vibrated into position. In both cases joints shall be
finished flush with, the pre-cast concrete faces. During jointing, protection and continuation
shall be given to the transverse cable holes, using a method to be approved by the Engineer's
Representative.

(III) TRANSVERSE CABLES

Transverse pre-stressing tendons, shall be as indicated on the respective drawings and


threaded through the transverse holes after the structural components are in position.

69
Tensioning will be carried out to a schedule of tendon tensions, to be supplied by the
Engineer, and must be commenced at the centre working towards the ends symmetrically.
The tendons are to be grouted in the same way as for the longitudinal pre-stressing.

Permission shall be obtained from the Engineer's Representative prior to the


commencement of stressing and grouting and the completion of stressing and grouting shall
be reported to the Engineer's Representative all as for the longitudinal pre-stressing.

ADDITIONAL 3016. The following additional requirements shall be complied with:


REQUIREMENTS
No cracks will be permitted due to:

(1) Shrinkage, settlement of formwork, or damage in handling before


application of pre-stress.

(2) Local weakness of concrete at or immediately following pre-stressing or

(3) Improper handling and transporting after application of pre-stress.

Where grooves are provided in which tendons have been placed, they shall be
cleaned before the mortar is inserted.

Mortar shall consist of one part by weight of cement to three parts of sand with a
water-cement ratio not exceeding 0.4 and shall be thoroughly compacted in the grooves,
preferably by the use of vibrators, and subsequently cured.

Alternatively, mortar comprising one part of cement to one part by weight of sand
together with an approved expanding plasticizing agent and less water may be used. External
cables shall be embedded in mortar of these proportions, an upper cover being placed over
the cables after vibration is completed to ensure that expansion occurs uniformly within the
original profile.

Any tension and retensioning procedure when allowed for offsetting losses
shall be strictly in accordance with the instructions of the
Engineer's Representative.

The procedure to be adopted for all operations, using large diameter single strands
used as prestressing tendon shall be specially approved by the Engineer.

LIFTING AND 3017 The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer's Representative with full details of the
HANDLING proposed method of transporting and erecting, prestressed beam for his approval, before
commencing this work. Should any cracking or other damage to components during
transport or erection render the components unfit for use the Contractor shall replace the
same at his own expense.

The method of lifting and handling prestressed beams is to ensure that the design dead
weight bending moment is not exceeded at any point in the beam throughout the whole
operation. Lifting from casting beds shall not take place until grouting is completed and at
least 24 hours old. Erection of the beams on to the bridge spans shall not take place until the
concrete has attained a cube strength as specified on the respective drawings. The lifting of
the beams shall be made using temporary lifting devices provided by the Contractor to the

70
Engineer's Representative's approval. Initial lifting from casting beds and final lowering on
to bearings shall be carried out using hand operated chain blocks so as to avoid sudden shock
in the beam.

(2) STORAGE

Beams shall only be stored on specially prepared temporary bearings, which must be
such that the design dead weight bending moment is not exceeded at any point. Beams shall
only be stored singly, and not on top of each other.

(3) TRANSPORTING OF BEAMS

Transporting of beams from place of storage to point of erection shall be carried out
using a purpose-made conveyance which will ensure that the design dead weight, bending
moment is not exceeded at any point over the length of the beam, this can be done by in-built
pad into the vehicle which actually come into contact with and support the structural units.
Frame may be introduced into the vehicles to support particular structural units. All units
must be coupled directly to the frame to eliminate movement of units in transit and shall be
designed so as to avoid winching or dragging the beams in a horizontal direction over rough
ground. The transporting of other structural components shall be as approved by the
Engineer.

QUANTITY AND 3018. No separate payment will be made for prestressing precast concrete members.
PAYMENT Payment for prestressing precast members shall be considered as included in the contract
price for furnishing precast members.

The contract lump sum price paid for prestressing precast members shall include full
compensation for furnishing all labour, materials, tools, equipment and incidentals and for
placing and tensioning the prestressing steel in precast concrete structures, complete in place,
as shown on the drawings, as specified in these and the special provisions and as directed by
the Engineer.

Full compensation for furnishing and placing additional deformed bar reinforcing
steel required by the particular system used, ducts, anchoring devices, distribution plates or
assemblies and incidental parts, for furnishing samples for testing, working drawings and
microfilms, and for pressure grouting ducts shall be considered as included in the Contract
Lump Sum Price paid for in prestressing cast-in-place concrete or in the contract price for
furnishing precast members, and no additional compensation will be allowed therefore.

(CLAUSES 3019 - 3999 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

71
SPECIFICATION

SECTION IV - PILING

102
SECTION IV - PILING

GENERAL 4000. In addition to any other relevant clause of this specification, the following shall be
deemed to apply in particular to piling works, and shall be read in conjunction with all other
relevant Clauses of the Conditions of Contract and this Specification.

PART (A) - GENERAL

TYPES OF PILES 4001. Piles used in the works shall be one of the following types:-
(I) Type "A": Precast reinforced concrete bearing and sheet piles.
(II) Type "B": Cast-in-place reinforced concrete bearing piles formed by driving a
steel shell which is filled with concrete and left in place.
(III) Type "C": Cast-in-place reinforced
concrete bearing piles formed by driving a steel
pipe casing, inserting a permanent steel shell,
filling it with concrete and then withdrawing the
driving casing.
(IV) Type "D": Cast-in-place reinforced concrete bearing piles formed by driving a
heavy steel pipe casing, filling the casing with concrete and
withdrawing the casing during or after concreting.
(V) Type "E": Prestressed concrete cylinder bearing piles driven in.
(VI) Type "F": Prestressed concrete cylinder bearing piles bored in.
(VII) Type "G": Steel sheet piles.

APPROVAL OF 4002. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his approval, details of all the types
TYPE of piles intended for use in the works. These details shall comprise complete detailed
drawings and specifications, a comprehensive list of the equipment to be used and a full
description of the methods to the employed.
The Contractor's attention is drawn to the fact that no equipment or material intended
for use in the construction or driving and/or boring of piles shall be imported on to the site
until the Engineer's approval has been obtained.

CONTRACTOR TO 4003. Should the Contractor elect to carry out the pile drive or boring from his own
DRIVE OR BORE resources he will be required to satisfy the Engineer that the personnel he intends to employ
PILES in the operation have had sufficient experience in similar installations under like sub-surface
conditions.

SUB- CONTRACTOR 4004. Should the Contractor elect to employ a Sub-Contractor for the piling, he shall satisfy
the Engineer that the Sub-Contractor is sufficiently experienced in similar operations under
like sub-surface conditions.

MANUFACTURE OF 4005. In addition to the particular requirements of this part of the specification, all the
REINFORCED AND relevant clauses of the specification shall apply to the manufacture of reinforced or
PRE-STRESSED prestressed concrete piles.
CONCRETE PILES

CEMENT 4006. The Cement used in the manufacture of all reinforced or prestressed concrete piles
shall be sulphate resisting portland cement in accordance with B.S. 4027 unless otherwise
shown on the drawings.

SETTING OUT OF 4007. The Contractor shall be responsible for the correct location of all piles and the
PILES establishment of all lines and levels.

ALIGNMENT 4008. Piles shall be driven or bored as accurately as possible to the vertical or to the
specified batter. Any pile deviating from its proper alignment to such an extent that its load
carrying capacity cannot, in the opinion of the Engineer, be corrected by the strengthening of
the foundations, pile-cap or pile ties, shall be replaced or supplemented by an additional pile
at the Contractor's expense. In general the allowable tolerances will be in the case of piles
type "A" - "D" within 75mm of the position shown on the drawings and within 1½ of the
inclination shown on the drawings, and in the case of piles type "E" and "F" within 150mm.

72
of the position shown on the drawings. No wedging or drawing into line of piles that have
wandered will be allowed.

DRIVING WITH 4009. Piles shall be driven with a drop hammer or with a single acting steam hammer. The
DROP HAMMERS weight of the hammer and the drop to be used shall be subject to the approval of the
OR SINGLE ACTING Engineer and shall conform to the recommendations of CP 2004 and will depend on the type
STEAM HAMMERS of pile to be used. In general the energy per blow will be of the order as follows:-

(I) For piles types "A", "B", "C" and "D" - at least 26,500 Joules or 35,000 Joules
depending upon cross-sectional dimensions of the piles, the lighter hammer being used up to
300mm diameter piles and the heavier from 300mm diameter to 400mm diameter.

(II) For piles of type "E" at least 54,300 Joules with a ram weight of not less than 6,800
Kg.

DRIVING WITH 4010. Double-Acting steam hammers may be used when driving piles to refusal but shall
DOUBLE ACTION not be used for other piles except with specific permission of the Engineer.
STEAM HAMMERS

PROTECTION OF 4011. Suitable anvils or cushions, depending on the type of the pile, shall be used to
PILE BUTTS prevent damage to the pile butts.

LEADS AND 4012. Unless otherwise specified or directed driving shall be done using fixed leads which
FRAMES will hold the pile firmly in position in axial alignment with the hammer.
Raking piles shall be held in position during driving right down to the level at which
the piles enter reasonably solid ground and to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative.
Piles shall be driven from an approved type frame.

DRIVING TO BE 4013. When the driving of any pile commences it shall be continued without cessation for
CONTINUOUS TO any avoidable cause until the pile has been driven to the required set or level as directed by
FINAL SET OR the Engineer's Representative. Where levels or sets are indicated on the drawings these
LEVEL may be varied, at the Engineer's discretion, in accordance with the results of test piles driven
in representative areas.

JETTING 4014. Where water or air jetting is contemplated to assist the driving of the piles, the
permission of the Engineer must be obtained. The jetting shall be carried out in a manner to
the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative and must be discontinued when the toe of
the pile is 3 metres short of the estimated final depth of penetration. Driving shall be
completed by hammer only, without jetting, to the required set or as indicated by the
Engineer's Representative. Where it is intended to employ water or air jetting to assist the
driving of a number of piles in a group, the jetting of piles in the group must be completed
before the driving of any pile to its final penetration is commenced.

DRIVING TO FINAL 4015. All piles shall be driven to the specified final set in the presence of Engineer's
SET AND RECORD Representative.
OF DRIVING A record of the driving of each pile shall be kept in the form of the "Daily
Pile-Driving Record" as set out in the British Standard Code of Practice No. 8004. Four
copies of each of these records shall be forwarded to the Engineer's Representative for his
retention.

RE-DRIVING 4016. Observations and measurements shall be made in the field during the process of
HEAVED PILES driving piles, by any suitable method satisfactory to both the Contractor and the Engineer to
determine whether a driven pile has been lifted from its original seat during the operation of
driving adjacent piles. The Contractor shall provide the necessary tools such as tell-tale
pipes and instruments, to make these measurements. Such measurements shall be properly
corrected for any temperature variations that might exist in the case of the pile shell or
instrumentation.
Where such observations or measurements indicate that a pile has been unseated, it
shall be driven to the resistance specified.

73
DAMAGED AND MIS- 4017. Broken or shattered piles will not be accepted. Should any pile be damaged by
DRIVEN PILES over-driving or not conform to the tolerances of the specification, an extra pile or piles shall
be driven in its place, at the Contractor's expense unless in the opinion of the Engineer the
pile is out of place or plumb as the result of an underground obstruction.
Piles rejected after driving may remain in the ground at the descretion of the
Engineer, in case of shell piles the shell shall be filled with concrete, and be cut off as
directed. When rejected piling is withdrawn, the space, if another pile is not driving into it,
shall be filled solid with gravel or broken stone without payment thereof.

OBSTRUCTIONS 4018. Where boulders or other obstructions make it impossible to drive certain piles in the
location shown and to the proper bearing strata, the Contractor shall resort to all usual
methods to install the pile or steel pipes as required, including spudding, jetting, or other
feasible means. If, in the judgement of the Engineer, the Contractor is unable to complete the
pile driving properly by resorting to such methods, the Engineer may order an additional pile
or piles driven for which the Contractor will be paid in accordance with the tendered rates.
Piles abandoned because of obstructions encountered before reaching the accepted bearing
strata shall be left in position or shells filled with concrete and be paid for as a complete pile
for the length driven.
Where directed by the Engineer, excavation operations shall be carried out to remove
obstructions and the Contractor shall be reimbursed for such operations at rates and prices to
be agreed between the Contractor and the Engineer.

CUTTING OFF PILE 4019. The tops of piles shall be cut off true and level at the elevations indicated on the
HEADS ETC drawings, all to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. All portions which are
battered, split, wrapped or buckled, or damaged or imperfect in any way shall be removed.
Shells and casings shall have sufficient excess length to allow the complete removal
of working tops.

BORED PILES OR 4020. The method of boring steel casing or pipes into the ground
CASINGS shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

PAYMENT 4021. Payment for piling shall be made as detailed hereunder in the parts of this section of
the specification dealing with the particular types of piles.

(CLAUSES 4022 - 4029 INCLUSIVE NOT USED.)

PART (B) - TEST DRIVING AND TEST LOADING OF PILES

GENERAL 4030 (i) Test piles shall be driven or bored as appropriate and loaded in the manner
detailed hereunder in the numbers and locations indicated on the drawings and/or in the
contract documents and/or as directed by the Engineer.

(ii) Unless otherwise directed the test piles shall remain as working piles under
the completed foundations.

(iii) Test piles shall be driven or bored using the equipment and methods
approved by the Engineer for the remaining working piles.

(iv) Before any load test is made, the proposed apparatus, structure and method
to be used, in making the load test, shall be approved by the Engineer. All load tests shall be
made under the supervision of the Engineer's Representative.

RECORDING OF 4031. The results of all piles loading tests shall be set out in a report the form of which
TESTS RESULTS shall be as directed by the Engineer. This report shall include a description of the pile and its
driving record; type and size of hammer used, a tabulation of the load time, settlement and
rebound data; and remarks concerning unusual circumstances during the driving or boring or
loading of the pile and any other information which the Engineer or his Representative may
require.

PROCEDURE FOR 4032. The following procedure shall be adopted for the testing of piles referred to above as
TESTING PILES OF types "A", "B", "C" and "D"
TYPES A,B,C AND D

74
(i) Piles shall be load tested to twice the design load with the test load applied in seven
increments equal to 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2.0 times the design load with a
minimum of two hours between the addition of load increments. Increments shall not be
added until the rate of settlement is less than .25mm per hour, or if each increment thereafter
for the test load shall remain in place until there is no settlement in a 2-hr. period.

(ii) If the full test load can be applied without failure of the pile, this load shall remain
on the pile for 48 hours, after which the test load shall be removed in four equal decrements
with a minimum of one hour between decrements.

(iii) Readings of settlements and rebounds shall be made with a minimum of two dial
gauges mounted on an independent framework and positioned on opposite corners of the test
plate. Readings shall be recorded to the nearest 250 m and shall be made every 30 minutes
during the loading cycle and every hour during the application of the full test load. Readings
of rebound shall be made before and after each decrement and 24 hours after the entire load
has been removed.

(iv) The load test shall be considered satisfactory provided that the net settlement (after
rebound) does not exceed 10% of the pile diameter.

(v) Piles to be load tested will be contract piles driven in their proper location. During
the load testing of piles, the driving of contract piles may be continued at the Contractor's
option provided the testing process is not affected by the pile driving. Should the results of
the load test indicate that longer piles are necessary, the Contractor will be required to
further drive piles driven during the load testing operation without additional cost to the
owner except for the added pile length. Piles driven during the testing operation shall not be
filled with concrete until the required length and/or resistance has been determined by load
test.

PROCEDURE FOR 4033. The following procedure shall be adopted for the piles referred to above as types "E"
TESTING PILES OF and "F":-
TYPES "E" AND "F Pile driving or sinking requirement as to depth of embedment and/or requested final
driving resistance shall be determined in each area of similar soil conditions by load testing
at least two piles selected by the Engineer. The total applied load shall equal 150% of the
design dead load, plus 200% of the design live load. The test load shall be applied in six
increments equal to 25, 40, 55, 70, 85 and 100% of the total test load. Time interval
between increments shall not be less than two hours and increments of load shall not be
added until the rate of settlement has dropped below .25mm per hour. The full load shall
remain on the pile for 48 hours, after which a test load shall be removed in four equal
decrements allowing one hour between decrements. Readings on settlements and rebound
shall be taken before and after each increment or decrement, every two hours during the 48
hours the full load is on the pile and 24 hours after the full load is removed from the pile.
The test shall be considered satisfactory if the net settlement (after deduction of rebound)
does not exceed 10% of the pile diameter.

LATERAL 4034. The Engineer may order, if he so desires, that lateral displacement tests be carried out
DISPLACEMENT by jacking between adjacent piles to a given lateral displacement. The method of carrying out
TESTS
lateral displacement test shall be as directed by the Engineer.

ASSESSMENT OF 4035. The information obtained from the driving of the test piles shall be applied to a
RESULTS OF PILE suitable dynamic pile formula or formulae. The formula or formulae to be employed shall be
LOADING AND as selected by the Engineer. The results of this application or these applications shall be
DRIVING TEST
considered in conjunction with the results obtained from the loading test and lengths of the
remaining piles in a particular area or group shall then be agreed between the Contractor and
the Engineer.

75
PAYMENT FOR 4036. Payment for the fabrication and driving or boring of the test piles shall be made at the
TEST PILES AND tendered rates and prices for working piles of the same type entered in the bills of quantities.
LOAD TESTS Payment for the pile load tests shall be made at the unit price quoted for load test on
the particular type of pile in the bills of quantities, except where the Contractor should have
made any kind of guarantee as to safe bearing capacity of any particular type of pile in any
location, payment for load test shall only be made for tests which are, in the opinion of the
Engineer, successful.
The price by the Contractor for the carrying out of a load test shall be deemed to be
inclusive of all the cost involved in the carrying out of the load test and also of the cost of
obtaining the stipulated information during the driving of the test pile.

(CLAUSES 4037 - 4049 INCLUSIVE NOT USED.)

PART (C) - PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE BEARING AND SHEET PILES -


TYPE "A".

In addition to any other requirements of other parts of this section of the


specification the following requirements shall be complied with in respect of precast
reinforced concrete bearing and sheet piles.

GENERAL 4050. The piles shall be manufactured at the site of the work in which they are to be used
and in an area entirely free from the harmful effects of shock and vibration. They shall be
cast in lengths as determined by test.

MOULDS AND 4051. The moulds shall be so supported that the pile is not distorted during or after casting
CONCRETING and shall be such as to ensure that the resulting pile is straight and true on each face. The
sides of the moulds shall be capable of being removed without shock or jarring of the pile.
Shoes, reinforcement, links, toggle-hole tubes and all other fittings shall be fixed accurately
in the positions shown on the drawings. Shoes shall be of the type shown on the drawings
and of approved manufacture. They shall weigh not less than as shown on the drawing, and
shall have chilled-hardened cast iron bases and mild steel straps cast in, i.e. The straps shall
run continuously through the cast iron bases. All castings shall be of clean, grey, tough
metal, free from sand, honeycombing, porous places, air holes or other defects and shall be
delivered to the site without being painted, stopped or plugged in any part, otherwise they
will be rejected. Shoes shall be fixed accurately to the piles with the points truly on the
longitudinal axis and the lower ends of the reinforcing bars shall bear on the top of the shoe.
Forks for retaining the longitudinal reinforcing bars in position shall be of cast iron or
pressed steel and of approved shape and length.
Each pile shall be poured in one continuos operation. During concreting and
subsequently, the pile shall be protected from the effects of sun, wind and rain by covering
with screens of clean, damp sacks or hessian, care being taken to prevent contact with the wet
concrete until it has hardened sufficiently to prevent marking. When so hardened, the
concrete and moulds shall be intimately and completely covered with the damp sacks or
hessian and these shall be kept in a continuously wet condition for a period of not less than
10 days after casting.

STRIPPING AND 4052. The sides of the moulds shall not be removed before two days after casting and the
HANDLING piles shall not be disturbed on the bottom boards for at least 10 days after casting. The piles
shall be removed from the bottom boards only by canting sideways and shall be rolled
carefully to the stacking ground for final curing. The runners and other supporters upon
which the piles are canted and rolled shall not be more than 2 metres apart and shall be
perfectly level one with the other so that during the operations of canting and rolling each

76
pile shall be fully supported at each interval of 2 metres along its length. Each pile shall have
the date of manufacture painted on one side and this date shall determine the sequence in
which the piles are driven. The piles must on no account be lifted at this stage and, until
ready for driving, must be adequately supported at each 2 metres interval throughout their
length. The Contractor shall keep the piles in a continuously wet condition until a period of
at least 14 days has elapsed since manufacture.
Otherwise than as aforesaid, the piles shall not be handled, lifted, slung, pitched or
driven before 6 weeks after manufacture and then shall be slung only from the toggle-holes
provided in the positions shown on the drawings or as approved by the Engineers
Representative.
Should the Contractor wish to use rapid hardening cement he shall first obtain the
approval of the Engineer's Representative. Where approval has been given, and rapid
hardening cement used in the manufacture of the piles, the sides of the moulds shall not be
removed earlier than 2 days after casting, and the piles shall not be disturbed on the bottom
boards for at least 4 days after casting. Curing shall continue for the full period of l4 days,
and the piles shall not be driven before three weeks after manufacture.
Notwithstanding the foregoing requirements, the Contractor shall be responsible for
any damage done to the piles due to the sides of the moulds being removed too soon or the
piles being moved from the bottom boards too soon or from any other cause and all piles
damaged during manufacture, handling, driving or at any other time shall be replaced at the
Contractor's expense.

LENGTHENING OF 4053. In every case where it is found to be necessary to increase the length of a pile after it
PILES has been driven, the head of the pile shall be cut off to expose the reinforcement for a length
not less than 1.2 metres below the top of the steel reinforcement. The joint shall be made by
butting the lengthening bars to the pile bars with the addition of a supplementary bar to every
pile bar and of equal area. These supplementary bars shall extend at least 1.2 metres on each
side of the joint and shall be secured to both pile and lengthening bars by No. 16 S.W.G.
wire, links being provided as directed. The extension shall be carried out vertically so as to
form a true continuation of the pile. Butt welding of reinforcement may be allowed by the
Engineer's Representative and where so allowed shall be carried out in strict compliance
with the instructions of the Engineer's Representative.

STRIPPING HEADS 4054. After the piles have been driven, the concrete shall be cut away from those portions
OF PILES of the piles extending above a level of 75mm minimum above the bottom of the pile cap,
without damaging the reinforcement and leaving exposed a minimum length of 0.90m of the
main bars. The binders, links, forks and toggle-hole tubes within this portion shall be
removed and the main bar reinforcement shall be bent into the base of the foundation as
shown on the drawings.

PAYMENT FOR 4055. Payment for precast reinforced concrete bearing and sheet piles shall be made on the
PRECAST basis of the length of the pile per linear metre measured from the tip to the cut-off elevation
REINFORCED
CONCRETE at the tendered rates and prices entered in the bills of quantities for the sheet piles particular
type and dimensions of pile.
The tendered rates and prices shall be deemed to include for all materials, equipment,
labour and supervision involved in the completed pile driven and in place. No payment shall
be made for withdrawn or ejected piles.

(CLAUSES 4056 - 4059 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

PART (D) - CAST-IN-PLACE REINFORCED CONCRETE


PILES. TYPES "B" AND "C"

77
ln addition to any other requirements of any other parts of this section of the
specification the following requirements shall be complied with in respect of cast-in-place
reinforced concrete piles of types "B" and "C".

CAST-IN-PLACE 4060. These piles shall be formed by driving a shell to the required bearing, leaving the
REINFORCED shell permanently in place, and filling it with concrete. Shells shall have sufficient strength
CONCRETE PILES
TYPE "B" and rigidity to permit their being driven and not to be distorted by soil pressure or the driving
of adjacent piles; they shall be sufficiently watertight to exclude water during placing of
concrete. No concrete is to be placed until all piles in a cluster have been driven and
approved.

CAST-IN-PLACE 4061. These piles shall be placed by driving a heavy steel pipe casing with an
REINFORCED interior core or point to the required depth, removing the core and inserting a permanent
CONCRETE PILES
steel shell, filling it with concrete, and then withdrawing the driving casing. Shells shall have
TYPE "C"
sufficient strength and rigidity not to be distorted by soil pressure or the driving of adjacent
piles and they shall be sufficiently watertight to exclude water during placing of concrete.
Shells shall be cylindrical with a minimum diameter of 315mm.No driving casing shall be
withdrawn until all piles within 3 metres centre to centre, have been driven. Pile shells may
be step tapered, cylindrical or a combination of such shapes and may be plain or corrugated.
Plain cylindrical shells and shells driven without an internal mandrel shall have a minimum
diameter of 325mm. and a minimum wall thickness of 8mm. with steel meeting respective
B.S. requirements. Piles driven with an internal mandrel shall have a minimum top diameter
of 255mm. and a minimum butt diameter of 355mm. For the step taper portion of any pile,
the maximum distance between changes of diameter shall be 3.6 metres for shells driven
with an internal mandrel, the Contractor shall assume responsibility for providing shells of
sufficient strength and thickness to withstand proper driving without injury, to obtain proper
penetration and to resist harmful distortion and/or buckling due to soil pressure.
The lower end of each pile shell shall be closed by a butt steel plate or shoe firmly
welded to the shell.

EQUIPMENT 4062. Pile driver leaders shall be of the rigid or fixed type to insure accurate alignment of
the pile and hammer during driving. The use of swinging leads will not be permitted.
The cushion block used shall be a one-piece hardwood block with grain parallel to
the pile axis and enclosed in a close fitting steel housing, except that subject to the approval
of the Engineer, a cap-block of other materials may be used providing the hammer energy
transmission characteristics of the proposed capblock are equal to or greater than the wood
capblock specified herein. The use of wood chips, small wood blocks, rope or other material
which permits excessive loss of hammer energy shall not be permitted. The introduction of
fresh capblock material just before or during the final driving of the pile shall not be
permitted.

CONTROL OF 4063. Observation shall be made during driving to determine whether or not the soil and/or
INTERNAL water is rising inside the pile.
PRESSURES
If this occurs to such an extent that soil and/or water is trapped in the pile under the
follower, provision shall be made for the escape or removal of such soil and/or water before
driving is continued.

CONCRETE 4064. No concrete shall be placed in any pile shell until the shell has been inspected and
found to be free of water, debris or other foreign matter.
Concrete for cast-in-situ piles shall have an ultimate compressive strength of not less
than 20 N/mm² at the end of 28 days and shall be composed of approved portland sulphate

78
resisting cement, clean sharp sand and gravel or crushed stone of maximum 25mm diameter.
Care shall be taken to ensure that the concrete is thoroughly compacted and that the
minimum cover of 38mm to the main reinforcing bars is maintained throughout.
After driven shells have been inspected and found satisfactory, approximately 0.03
cu.m. of 1:2 cement grout shall be deposited in each pile followed by concrete of 100 to
125mm slump deposited in the pile in a continuous operation through a funnel hopper
having a discharge opening not greater than 200mm. in diameter.
Concrete strength shall be determined from Standard Cube Test made from each
day's pour as specified for reinforced concrete.

STEEL 4065. All Steel Reinforcement shall be in accordance with the drawings prepared by the
REINFORCEMENT Contractor or the Engineer whichever is applicable. It shall comply with the latest issue
B.S.785, B.S.4449 or B.S.4461 depending on the type specified. All bars bending to be in
accordance with B.S.1468. Reinforcement shall not be welded except where indicated on the
drawings.

PAYMENT FOR CAST- 4066. Payment for Cast-In-Place Reinforced Concrete Piles of Types "B" and "C" shall be
IN-PLACE made on the basis of the length of the pile per linear metre, from the tip to the cut-off
REINFORCED
elevation at the tendered rates and prices entered in the Bill of Quantities for the particular
CONCRETE PILES
TYPES "B" AND "C" type and dimension of pile.
The tendered rates and prices shall be deemed to include for all materials, equipment,
labour and supervision involved in the complete pile driven and in place.
No payment shall be made for withdrawn or rejected piles.

(CLAUSES 4067 - 4069 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

PART (E) - CAST-IN-PLACE REINFORCED CONCRETE


PILES TYPE "D"

In addition to the requirements of any other parts of this section of the specification
the following requirements shall be complied with in respect of cast-in-place reinforced
concrete piles of type "D".

GENERAL 4070. Cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles of type "D" are formed by the driving of a
heavy steel pipe casing closed at the lower end by a cast steel pointed shoe firmly fitted to the
casing so as to provide a watertight joint. Reinforcement steel is then placed within the
casing and concrete poured, the casing may be removed whilst the concrete has being poured
or may be removed after the concrete has been poured. Alternatively the casing may be filled
with the concrete aggregate mix and cement-sand grout injected after the casing has been
removed.

DETAILED METHOD 4071. Where this type of piling is proposed for the works, the Contractor shall submit, in
OF CONSTRUCTION detail, his proposed method of carrying out the piling, to the Engineer for his approval, and
shall carry out the work strictly in accordance with the method as approved by the Engineer.

PAYMENT FOR 4072. Payment for cast-in-place reinforced concrete pile of type "D" shall be made on the
CAST-IN-PLACE same basis as for piles of types "B" and "C" at the tendered rates and prices.
REINFORCED
CONCRETE PILES
OF TYPE "D"

(CLAUSES 4073 - 4079 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

79
PART (F) - PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CYLINDER PILES TYPE "E"

In addition to any other requirements of any other parts of this section of the
specification the following requirements shall be complied with in respect of prestressed
concrete cylinder piles of types "E" AND "F".

GENERAL 4080. Prestressed concrete cylinder piles of type "E" shall have outside diameter and
minimum dimensions as indicated on the drawings or as approved by the Engineer.
Prestressing cables of the composition, number and type as indicated on the drawings or
approved by the Engineer, shall be uniformly placed in the wall of the piles.

MANUFACTURE 4081. (I) All materials shall be as stated in the relevant parts of the
specification.
(II) Metal forms shall be used and they must be well braced
and stiffened against deformations under pressure of the wet concrete. They shall have
smooth joints and inside surfaces accessible for adequate cleaning. The portions of the form
which form the end surfaces of the pile (or sections) must be a true plane and perpendicular
to the axis of the pile with the following tolerances: Maximum allowable deviation for
abutting end surfaces 3mm, for head end surfaces, 13mm and for the point end 76mm
Forming tubes for the longitudinal holes for the prestressing cables shall be 35mm
nominal diameter and shall be positioned so that there will be a minimum cover of 38mm to
the outside finished surface of the pile, shall be inside the spiral steel reinforcement and shall
be uniformly spaced around the pile circumference.

HANDLING 4082. Piles shall not be handled or moved in any manner that would result in cracking or
permanent damage to the concrete or to the grout surrounding the wires.

EQUIPMENT 4083. Piles shall be driven with an approved hammer which shall develop a rated energy per
blow of not less than 54,300 Joules and which shall have a ram weight of not less than
6,800 Kg. A solid hardwood cushion block, at least 150mm thick, shall be used in the base
of the hammer between the hammer ram and the follower. A laminated ring-shaped cushion
block at least 150mm thick made up of 25mm hardwood boards and cut to fit the head of the
pile, shall be used between the follower and the top of the pile. Both cushion blocks shall be
inspected periodically during driving and blocks that have been unduly worn and compacted
with use shall be replaced before driving is continued.
Piles may be driven without guides or leaders except that the hammer shall be kept in
accurate alignment with the axis of the pile.

REINFORCING 4084. Each pile or pile section shall have a cage of non-prestressed reinforcing steel of the
STEEL size, dimension and arrangement shown on the contract drawings or as approved by the
Engineer. This reinforcing cage shall be securely held in position during the casting and
spinning of the concrete. The spiral steel reinforcement shall have a minimum concrete
cover of 25mm to the outside surface of the finished pile.

CONCRETE 4085. Concrete used shall be not leaner than Grade 35 N/mm2 or as indicated on the
Contract drawings. The concrete mix shall be such as to give the most uniform possible
distribution of the aggregates across the wall of the pile. The fine and coarse aggregates
shall be as nearly as possible of the same specific gravity.

CASTING 4086. Piles shall be centrifugally cast and shall be cast in convenient sections as approved
by the Engineer.

80
CURING 4087. Piles or pile sections may initially be steam cured. After removal of forms,
membrane curing may be applied to all surfaces except abutting end surfaces and core holes.

METHOD OF 4088. The Method of Handling piles or pile sections shall be such that no permanent
HANDLING damage to the concrete will occur. If piles are made up of sections, any section which has
more than 10% of the end surfaces spalled to a depth of more than 3mm shall be rejected.

ASSEMBLY OF 4089. In making up the full length pile, the abutting surface of each section shall be
SECTIONS covered by a sealing material of sufficient thickness to fill all voids (except at the cable
holes) when the sections are brought together under compression as later specified. This
sealing material must attain a minimum ultimate strength of at least equal to or greater than
that of the concrete and must be as resistant to exposure and weathering as is the concrete.
After the sealing material is applied, the pile sections shall be brought into contact and held
together by a force equivalent to not less than 0.79 N/mm2 on the gross concrete area while
the sealing material sets. The individual sections shall be lined up so that the maximum
deviation in the alignment of the outside surfaces of two adjacent sections at the joint will
not exceed 6mm and the maximum deviation in the alignment of the prestressing cable holes
at the joint will not exceed 6mm

STRESSING OF 4090. Piles shall not be stressed until the compressive strength of the concrete is at least
PILES 30.0 N/mm2 after the prestressing cables have been threaded through the cable holes to make
up cables of the required number of wires; the cables shall be tensioned to an average cable
unit stress as indicated on the drawings or approved by the Engineer. This tension shall be
measured by the elongation of the wires and checked by the jack pressure. The tension in the
wire shall be transferred to mechanical end-locks or anchors. Aggregate stress losses through
transfer of the stressing force from the jack to temporary anchorage shall not exceed an
average of 10% on one cable or an average of 5% on all cables in any one pile.

GROUTING OF 4091. All cables holes shall be grouted with a mixture of cement and water in such a
CABLES manner that the interstices are completely filled with the grout material. The cable tension
shall be maintained by the mechanical anchors while the holes are grouted and until the grout
attains sufficient strength to hold permanently the tension in the cables. During this period,
the piles shall not be moved or handled in any manner that would result in permanent damage
to the grout. The grout curing period must be sufficient to permit the removal of the
temporary anchors without slippage of the wires in the grout except that the stress loss
through transfer shall not exceed an average of 10% on one cable or an average of 5% on all
cables in any one pile. During removal of end anchors, if the wires do not part under stress
with a "Cup and Cone" fracture, but can be burned completely through with a cutting torch,
no slippage is considered to have occurred.

DRIVING 4092. Piles shall not be driven until the concrete has attained the minimum strength as
RESISTANCE specified on the drawings.
The piles shall be driven to a resistance or tip elevation as determined by load test to
be satisfactory for the required design load, but the final resistance shall not exceed 10 blows
per 25mm with the approved hammer. In no case shall the stroke of the hammer exceed
1200mm.

TENSION FORCES 4093. When the point of the pile is passing through soft soil so that there is little or no
DURING DRIVING resistance to penetration at the bottom of the pile, the stroke of the hammer shall be reduced
to approximately 600mm

81
CONTROL OF 4094. Observation shall be made during driving to determine whether or not the soil and/or
INTERNAL water is rising inside the pile casing. If this occurs to such an extent that soil and/or water is
PRESSURES
trapped in the pile under the follower, provision shall be made for the escape or removal of
such soil and or water before driving is continued.

PRE-EXCAVATION 4095. The Contractor may use any combination of driving and drilling approved by the
Engineer to obtain the required pile embedment. Jetting or pre-excavation shall be done
below the pile tip elevation and the final seating of the pile shall be done by driving only for
the last 3 metres.

TOLERANCE 4096. Piles may be driven with the use of template or other method approved by the
Engineer. The top of each pile shall not vary more than 150mm from the required plan
location.

CUT-OFF 4097. Where piles are required to be cut-off, cuttings may be performed with pneumatic
tools, sawing, or other method approved by the Engineer. In no case shall explosives be used
for cutting off piles.

PILE SPLICES OR 4098. If pile tops are driven below the established cut-off elevation, or if pile tops are
BUILD UPS damaged below the cut-off elevation, the pile shall be built up to the required elevation
using a cast-in-place concrete extension of the cylinder or by use of an acceptable length of
cylinder pile section. The pile splice shall consist of a poured plug or reinforced concrete
extending at least l.4 metres into the original pile and, where possible, the same length into
the added section as detailed on the drawings. This concrete plug may be an extension of the
plug connecting the pile to the cap.

DEFECTIVE PILES 4099. Piles damaged by improper driving or manipulation to force them into proper
position shall be repaired at the Contractor's expense to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Any
pile damaged by handling or in transit shall be repaired to the satisfaction of the Engineer or
shall he replaced all at the Contractor's expense.

PAYMENT 4100. Payment for prestressed concrete cylinder piles of type "E" shall be made on the same
basis as for piles of types "D" or "C" at the tendered rates and prices.

(CLAUSES 4101 - 4109 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

PART (G) - PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILES OF TYPE "F"

In addition to any other requirements of any other parts of this section of the
specification the following requirements shall be complied with in respect of prestressed
concrete cylinder piles of the types "F"

GENERAL 4110. Prestressed concrete cylinder piles of type "F" are formed by the forcing into the
ground of heavy steel casing and the removal of the earth from its inside. After the casing
has been installed to the required depth a precast prestressed concrete cylinder pile is inserted
into the casing either in sections and stressed insitu or as a complete unit. The space between
the steel casing and the prestressed concrete shall be grouted with sand-cement grout as
directed and approved by the Engineer.

METHOD OF 4111. Where prestressed concrete cylinder piles of Type "F" are proposed for use in the
MANUFACTURE works, the method of manufacture and construction shall be as approved by the Engineer and
the Contractor shall comply strictly with this approved method.

82
PAYMENT 4112. The payment for prestressed concrete cylinder piles shall be made on the same basis
as for piles of type "E".

(CLAUSES 4113 - 4119 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

PART (H) - STEEL SHEET PILES

STEEL SHEET PILES 4120. All steel sheet piles shall be of an inter-locking section as shown on the drawing and
shall be a type and manufacture approved by the Engineer.
Steel sheet piles, tie rods, rivets, and bolts shall conform to the minimum
requirements of B.S. 4360, Parts 1 & 2 and B.S. 449. If cofferdams for foundation
construction are used, the steel sheet piling for the cofferdams shall be carried well below
the bottom of the footings and shall be well braced and as watertight as practicable.
The interior dimensions of cofferdams shall provide sufficient clearance inside the
walls for constructing forms and driving pile and to permit pumping outside the forms.
For purpose of constructing the cofferdam, any enlargement in excess of 50mm
outside the dimensions of the footing as shown on the drawings shall be considered as being
for the sole purpose of expediting the work of the Contractor as is of no value to the
F.M.W.H. and quantities of such excavation and backfill will not be included in the
quantities to be paid for.
In tidal waters or in streams at a time of probable flood, cofferdam walls shall be
vented at low water elevation to ensure equal hydrostatic head both inside and outside of the
cofferdam during the period of placing and setting of seals.
No shoring will be permitted in cofferdams which will induce stress, shock, or
vibration in the permanent structure.
When permitted by the Engineer, cross struts or bracing may extend through
foundation concrete. Such struts or bracing below low water will be permitted to remain in
place, or when specified in the special provisions or shown on the drawings, to be removed.
Struts or bracing above low water shall be removed and the resulting space filled with
concrete of the same mix as that specified for the surrounding concrete.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer, for approval, drawings showing his
proposed method of cofferdam construction and other details left open to his choice or not
fully shown on the drawings. The drawings shall be submitted at least two weeks in advance
of the time the Contractor begins construction of the cofferdams.
After completion of the substructure, the cofferdams with all sheeting and bracing
shall be removed at least to 1 metre below the level of the stream bed, by the Contractor at
his own expense, and such removal shall be performed in a manner that will not disturb or
mar the finished concrete or masonry.

WELDING 4121. Electrodes used for welding shall comply with B.S. 639 or B.S.693 depending on the
ELECTRODES type employed.

PROTECTIVE 4122. Where directed on the drawings or in the specifications, steel sheet piles shall be
PAINTING coated before driving with two coats of an approved bituminous paint, in a manner as
directed by the Engineer's Representative.

DRIVING ETC. 4123. The piling shall be driven either singly or in pairs vertically and to true lines and even
planes in the position shown on the drawings and to the levels indicated thereon. Should
there be any defect in the horizontal or vertical alignment of the piling or should a break,
through any cause whatsoever, occur in the continuity of the piling, the Contractor shall
withdraw such defective pile or piles and drive such further piles as may be necessary to

83
remedy the defect. Should any distortion, fanning or creep occur in the alignment of the
piling the Contractor shall immediately take steps to rectify the defect and shall, where
necessary, supply and drive suitable tapered piles to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative. All costs incurred by the Contractor in carrying out the necessary remedial
measures shall be at his own expense.
Should any tapered piling have to be manufactured locally they shall have along the
joint 22mm diameter rivets at 150mm pitch except for a length of 600mm 150mm at each
end the pitch shall be 75mm
All necessary holes for tie-rods shall be neatly drilled and for drains they shall be
neatly burnt out, all in the positions shown on the drawings.

TIE RODS AND 4124. The steel sheet piling shall be connected to the anchor piles by mild steel tie-rods or
ROPES ropes as approved by the Engineer. They shall be in lengths as indicated and coupled
together with forged steel coupling boxes or turnbuckles. Each end of each rod shall be
threaded for a distance of 230mm with standard whitworth right and left-handed threads as
the case may be. Mild steel bearing plates and washers of approved sizes shall be provided
for the outer end of the tie-rods, the washers being tapered.
The tie-rods and ropes coupling boxes or turn- buckles and other fittings shall be
cleaned with wire brush or other approved means to remove all millscale, rust, etc., and shall
then be given one coat of the bituminous solution and the tie-rods and ropes shall, after
fixing in position, be wrapped in approved hessian and, with all fittings, be given a second
coat of the approved solution. Where possible the coupling boxes or turnbuckles shall also
be wrapped in hessian.

PAYMENT 4125. The quantity of sheet piling to be paid for under this item in this section except for
cofferdams, will be the number of square metres of sheet piling placed in its final position.
The unit price bid for this item shall include the cost of furnishing all labour, materials and
equipment necessary to complete the work, including the cost of furnishing and placing, if
necessary removing, all wales and braces. No separate payment will be made for providing
cofferdams unless it is called for on the drawings.
When Cofferdams are called for on the drawings they shall be paid for at the contract
lump sum price bid for the item COFFERDAM in the proposal.
This price shall constitute full compensation for constructing cofferdams,
controlling, removing water from excavation, all labour, materials, tools, equipment, and
incidentals.

(Clauses 4126 – 4999 inclusive not used)

84
SPECIFICATION

SECTION V - BRIDGEWORKS

1
SECTION V - BRIDGE WORKS

GENERAL 5000. In addition to any other relevant clause of this specification, the following shall be
deemed to apply in particular to bridge works, and shall be read in conjunction with all other
relevant clauses of the conditions of contract and this specification.

PART (A): PRELIMINARIES. EXCAVATIONS, FOUNDATION, DEMOLITIONS,


TEST LOADS ETC.

GENERAL 5001. The Contractor shall himself obtain full and accurate information in connection with
the existing structures, traffic, periods of flow and non-flow in the waterways, normal water
levels, whether above or below ground level, flows and frequencies, floods, nature and
condition of soils and sub-soils etc., And generally acquaint himself with all factors
influencing the construction and maintenance of the works as shown on the drawings and
specified herein, and shall be deemed to have allowed for all such conditions in the rates
inserted by him in the bill of quantities.

TRAFFIC 5002. Before commencing any operation of construction, the Contractor shall
DIVERSION forward to the Engineer's Representative, and obtain his approval of, his proposals for
avoiding interference with the existing traffic-way, rail road and water, and for providing,
and maintaining alternative ways for all such traffic. All diversions shall be of dimension,
capacity and standard at least equal to those of the traffic-ways which they replace when such
traffic-ways are maintained in a good condition and they shall be maintained continuously to
this standard during the period they are in use.
Where the use of temporary bridge spans is involved the Contractor shall submit
complete and detailed drawings and calculations for the scheme to the Engineer's
Representative. The Engineer's decision on whether such methods may be adopted or not
shall be absolutely final.
Notwithstanding the approval or modification by the Engineer's Representative of
any schemes, drawings or calculations, the Contractor shall remain wholly and entirely
responsible for the sufficiency of all traffic diversions and temporary works and for all
obligations and risks in regard to such works specified or implied in the contract and he shall
reinstate the same at his own cost should any mishap or accident occur causing damage or
injury thereto subject to such provisions of the conditions of contract as may be applicable.
Payment for all such diversions including for temporary bridging or
converting as necessary shall be deemed to be
included in the tendered rates and prices, unless
elsewhere expressly allowed for.

CLEARING OF THE 5003. The site of the works shall be cleared completely to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
SITE Representative. Generally, the waterway shall be cleared of all obstructions to the flow of
water. All fallen trees, bushes and accumulations of debris shall be removed and deposited
as directed. Trees which are to be retained shall be indicated by the Engineer's
Representative.

WATER TRAINING AND PROTECTION WORKS 5004. Such details of training works
and protective works to the banks and protection beds of waterways as may be shown on the
contract drawings are schematic only. Exact details of the training and protective works
shall be supplied by the Engineer's Representative after consideration of the final disposition
of the works, local site conditions etc.

EXCAVATION AND 5005 (A) GENERAL


BACK FILLING
Excavations shall be of the widths and lengths necessary for the construction of the
works and shall be taken down to the depths shown on the drawings. Or as otherwise
specified hereafter or to such other depths as the Engineer's Representative may require.
When the final level of the excavation has been reached, the Contractor shall so inform the
Engineer's Representative, and together they shall inspect, measure and agree in writing all
particulars on which measurements of the works are to be based. No back filling or
construction shall be undertaken until after the final levels and dimensions of the excavation
have been surveyed and agreed. Failing such surveys and agreements being signed by the

85
Contractor, the surveys of the Engineer's Representative, shall be final and binding on the
Contractor.

Any obstacle encountered in the course of


excavations shall be reported to the Engineer's Representative and dealt with as directed by
him. Excavations shall, where necessary, be properly shored and supported and the
Contractor shall provide pumps, cofferdams, sheet piling etc., as necessary to ensure that all
construction is carried out in the dry. Should any slips or falls result from the omission by
the Contractor of any precaution, all loose and disturbed material shall be completely
removed and the ground made up at the Contractor's own expense with approved material
which shall include concrete grade 10 N/mm² should the Engineer's Representative so
require. Should the material forming the bottom of any excavation, whilst acceptable at the
time of excavation, become puddled, soft or loose during the progress of the works, the
Contractor shall remove such damaged, softened or loosened materials and replace them
with concrete grade 10 N/mm² or as directed by the Engineer's Representative, at the
Contractor's own expense. Sumps dug in the bottom of excavations shall be cleaned out, all
soft and puddled material removed, and the hole made up with approved material as
described above. Should excavations be taken to a depth greater than that required by the
Engineer's Representative such extra depth shall be made up at the Contractor,s expense with
concrete grade 10 N/mm² or as directed by the Engineer's Representative.

The Contractor shall not leave any item or


temporary works in position in the excavations after back-filling, without the permission of
the Engineer's Representative. Permission will only be given in cases where the Engineer's
Representative is satisfied that no adverse effect will result to the finished works. No
payment shall be made to the Contractor for any item of temporary works so left in position,
unless such item was left in on the explicit instructions of the Engineer's Representative.

Excavations shall be backfilled with approved


materials in layers not exceeding 150mm compacted thickness, and shall be thoroughly
compacted by approved methods. Where such material lies below a roadway or will form
part of an embankment it shall be selected and compacted entirely in accordance with the
requirements of all relevant clauses of this specification. Back-filling of excavations for
reinforced concrete culverts, open drains and any other structure shall be brought up equally
on either side of the structures to eliminate unbalanced earth pressures.

Earth and other material taken from excavation


shall be set aside for selection for re-use as filling materials, and materials unsuitable for this
purpose shall be disposed of by the Contractor at his own expense, as directed by the
Engineer's Representative.

Selected material shall be free draining-material.


The material shall have Plasticity Index (PI) of not more than 5, and shall meet the following
gradation requirements when tested in accordance with
B.S. 410:-

Sieve Size Total Per cent


Passing
(by weight)

50mm 100
25mm 60 - 100

86
1.1mm 20 - 100
500 m 10 - 70
255 m 8 - 40
75 m 5 - 10

When tested for bearing capacity, selected material shall


have a California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of not less than 20% when compacted to 95% of
maximum density, using BS compactive effort up to a depth not more than 600mm to
formation level; there after compaction shall be 100% MDD of the material using BS effort.

Free draining shall be defined as a material having


coefficient of permeability of not less than 1x 10-2mm/sec.

Before driving piles, the common embankment material


shall be placed and compacted to the top elevation of the prism of selective material.

No payment for placing of selective material will be


made, but the cost thereof shall be included in the price bid for the item "Excavation and
Backfill" scheduled in the proposal.

(B) ROCK

The term "solid rock" shall mean rock found in ledges or


masses in its original position, which would normally be removed by blasting and pneumatic
tools or by wedges and sledge hammers if removed by hand, and all solid boulders or
detached pieces of rock exceeding 0.2 Cubic metres in size trenches and 0.3 Cubic metres in
size in general excavations, to the classification of which the Engineer's Representative is
satisfied. Should any difference of opinion arise between the Contractor and the Engineer's
Representative as to whether any material is rock, the Engineer's decision shall be final and
shall be made before the material is disposed of or covered up. Should the Contractor wish
to use explosives for the excavation of rock, he must obtain the permission of the Engineer's
Representative. When permission is granted the Contractor shall proceed as directed in, and
satisfy all the requirements of, clause 99 of the conditions of contract and clause 5010 of
this specification.

PAYMENT FOR 5006. Excavations for foundations shall be paid for on the actual quantities measured on
EXCAVATIONS FOR site by multiplying the horizontal area of the base of the foundations by the mean depth from
FOUNDATIONS
surface level, and at the appropriate rates for excavation inserted in the bill of quantities.
The rate shall include for all shoring, pumping, backfilling and compactions, and for all
pumping, digging, backfilling of sumps and for all other things necessary to allow the proper
placing of the foundations. No payment shall be made to the Contractor for any item of
temporary works left in position unless it has been left on the instruction of the Engineer's
Representative. No item of temporary works shall be left in position without the approval of
the Engineer's Representative.

EXCAVATIONS FOR 5007. Where excavations have to be made and foundations formed below water level,
FOUNDATIONS suitable arrangements shall be made to exclude the water from the site, and the Contractor
BELOW WATER
shall, when tendering, submit a full and clear description, supported by drawing and sketches,
LEVEL
of the methods he proposed to use in respect of each foundation where these conditions will
be encountered. The methods proposed shall be directed in all cases to permit the execution
of the whole of the work in the dry unless this is shown in the method statement to be
entirely impracticable or uneconomical. The Contractor must satisfy himself absolutely as to

87
what water levels may be experienced at and during the period of construction, whether such
water levels be above ground level or below and as to what flows and water levels will be
attained during flood and high tide periods and as to the condition of soils and subsoils and
all other matters pertaining to the adequacy of the temporary works and the efficient and
proper construction of the works themselves. The Contractor shall take all precautions to
prevent flooding of the works and shall make good any loss or damage to the temporary
works and the works themselves caused thereby at his own cost and to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative.

If Contractor chooses to use steel cofferdams for the below water level foundation
excavations, the materials shall conform to SECTION IV, Clause 4120 "STEEL SHEET
PILES."

No separate payment for cofferdams will be made, but the payment shall conform to
the applicable portion of the SECTION IV, Clause 4125 "PAYMENT."

PREPARATION FOR 5008. The depths to which foundations are to be taken, and their dimensions as shown on
FOUNDATIONS: the drawings are an indication only of the anticipated requirements. The actual depths and
NORMAL
consequently the dimensions are to be finally determined on site by excavating through the
various strata until a material is reached, which is capable, in the opinion of the Engineer's
Representative, of safely sustaining the pressure exerted and of providing complete security
against the effects of scour. All excavations shall be taken out as nearly as possible to exact
dimensions to minimize back- filling, and in accordance with clause 5005 of this
specification.

No concrete shall be placed in any foundation until the Engineer's Representative has
inspected and approved the excavation and the arrangements for transporting and depositing
the concrete, and given permission in writing to proceed. The sides of the excavation shall be
such as to eliminate any possibility of loose material falling into the work as concreting
proceeds. The bottom of the excavation shall be clean and levelled off and free from all
loose material. Contractor shall draw the attention of the Engineer's Representative to any
soft spots which may occur and these shall be cut out as directed, measured in conjunction
with the Engineer's Representative, and afterwards filled with concrete grade 10 N/mm2. No
payment shall be made for cutting out and filling soft spots which have not been measured in
conjunction with the Engineer's Representative. When foundations are to rest on rock, all
adherent clay, etc., drummy, soft and loose rock, shall be cut away until the hard solid rock is
exposed and the base left approximately horizontal or to a slight fall or stepped, as may be
directed by the Engineer's Representative. Immediately before concreting is commenced, the
surface of the rock shall be thoroughly cleaned and wetted and the concrete shall be poured
directly on to the rock and against shaped side-shuttering. The filling of the hollows with
rubble, broken rock etc., will not be permitted.

It is the intention that all concrete shall be placed in the dry, and the Contractor shall
direct all his efforts towards this end.

REMOVAL OF 5009. Before any part of any existing structure is removed the Contractor shall forward to
EXISTING the Engineer's Representative for approval, full details of the method by which he proposes
STRUCTURE:
to dismantle the structure and provide an alternative way for traffic during the subsequent
GENERAL
works. (See also clauses 90 of the conditions of contract and 5002 of this specification).
Such details shall be accompanied by drawings and calculations as required by the Engineer's
Representative showing that no part of the structure which may be required for re-use in
another part of the works or by the Engineer elsewhere under another contract, shall be over

88
stressed or damaged in any way during the operation. Such details shall be submitted to the
Engineer's Representative sufficiently in advance of the intention to commence the work as
this will allow the proper study of the proposals and the incorporation of any amendments
which the Engineer may require. Notwithstanding the incorporation of any such
amendments or any approval given by the Engineer's Representative to any method proposed,
the Contractor shall remain wholly and entirely responsible for the safety of the work and for
all obligation and risk specified or implied in the contract and shall make good at his cost
any damage resulting from any mishap or accident arising from the operation, subject to such
provisions of the conditions of contract as may be applicable. The demolitions and
dismantling shall be carried out in a workmanlike manner and the Contractor shall observe
all rules, regulations and orders which may have been made or may be made by the
government or any other responsible authority with regard to the safety of all persons,
whether employed by him or not during such operations.

Before removing any superstructure or sub-structure, the Contractor shall bring to


the notice of the Engineer's Representative any existing damage to the structure and point
out any missing parts and the Engineer's Representative and the Contractor shall together
agree in writing that such damage did exist and that such parts were missing before the
commencement of operations by the Contractor. Should the Engineer then require the
Contractor to repair such damage or to replace such missing parts, the Contractor shall do so
as directed and he shall be paid for the work at rates to be mutually agreed between him and
the Engineer. Should the Contractor fail to bring such damage or missing parts to the notice
of the Engineer's Representative it will be deemed for the purpose of subsequent payment
that the Contractor accepts that the structure is complete and entirely free from damage
before the commencement of dismantling operations. After dismantling, the Contractor
shall spread out all the components and advise the Engineer's Representative that they are
ready for inspection. Any damage or loss discovered in addition to that previously agreed
shall be made good at the Contractor's own cost and to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative. Parts which have been lost shall be replaced by entirely new material and
members which have been damaged shall be repaired or completely replaced as required by
the Engineer, who shall consider the degree of damage in relation to the importance of the
member, and the Engineer's decision in these matters shall be final.

EXPLOSIVES 5010. Should the Contractor wish to demolish any part of the existing structure by using
explosives, he must first satisfy the Engineer's Representative that this is the most
economical and satisfactory way of performing the work and obtain his permission to
proceed. The Contractor shall provide proper buildings or magazines in suitable positions
for the storage of the explosives in a manner and in quantities to be approved. He shall also
be responsible for the prevention of any un-authorized issue or improper use of any
explosive brought on to the works, and shall employ experienced and responsible men by
whom only shall explosives for the purpose of the works be handled, all to the satisfaction of
the Engineer's Representative and in conformity with the statutory regulations. During
blasting, the greatest care shall be taken by the Contractor that no injury be done to persons
or property or to any finished work or any work which is to remain untouched. The shots
shall be properly loaded and covered and only moderate charges shall be used, and where
directed by the Engineer's Representative, the Contractor shall provide heavy mesh blasting
nets. Blasting shall be restricted to whatever hours the Engineer's Representative shall
prescribe. If, in the opinion of the Engineer's Representative, blasting would be dangerous to
persons or adjacent structures, or is being carried on in a reckless manner he may prohibit it,
and order that the demolition be carried out by other means see also clause 99 of the
Conditions of Contract.

89
REMOVAL OF 5011. Existing concrete deck, where required to be remove shall be demolished in a manner
EXISTING SUPER which will ensure that no damage whatever shall be caused to the supporting steel troughing
STRUCTURES AND
joists, trusses, bracing, or any other member or part of the structure. The use of explosive is
SUB-STRUCTURES
STEEL AND forbidden.
CONCRETE
Before dismantling any part of any structure which is to be re-used either wholly or
in part either by the Contractor in another part of the works or by the Engineer elsewhere
under another contract, the Contractor shall mark each part of the structure with a
distinguishing mark which shall be assigned to it in a marking plan to be prepared by him, in
figures or letters not less than 50 mm. high and in such a manner that the pieces may be
readily identified and put together again in their proper positions when required. The figures
and letters shall be painted on, in at least two places on each member, and on a surface which
has first been thoroughly cleaned and freed from all rust, loose paint, grease, dirt and other
deleterious coatings and given one coat of protective paint. The colour of the paint to be
used for the letters and figures shall be such as to make them readily visible against the
background of protective paint. Where more than one bridge is to be marked in any contract,
the Contractor shall ensure that no combination of figures and letters employed in the
marking of one bridge is repeated in the marking of another. All markings shall be to the
approval of the Engineer's Representative and dismantling of the structure shall not be
proceeded with until the Engineer's Representative has checked and approved the marking on
the structure and compared them with those on the marking drawings and given his
permission to proceed. The drawings showing the markings shall conform to the
requirements of Clause 5020 hereinafter.

The Contractor shall forward to the Engineer's Representative one set of hand-made
negatives on best quality linen, one set of velograph negatives on best quality linen and one
set of prints on linen showing black lines on a white ground, of the marking drawings and the
cost of producing and supplying all these negatives and prints shall be deemed to be included
in the rates for dismantling.

Troughing, joists, trusses, trestle, piers, cylinders, etc., shall be dismantled with great
care. Temporary supports, horses, jacks, wedges, stiffening, bracing, etc., being provided to
ensure that there will be no overstraining or buckling of any member or connection during
the operation. Bolts and other fastenings shall be removed without causing damage to or
elongation of the holes from which they are withdrawn.

Where required for re-use by the Engineer under another contract the Contractor
shall, after dismantling and satisfying the requirements of clause 5009, scrape, clean and
free all parts of the dismantled structure from all loose paint, grease and other deleterious
coatings. Areas of rust should be cleaned down to the bare metal and all thick edges, fins,
blistering etc., due to previous coats of paint removed. The surfaces, when thoroughly dry,
shall be given one coat of protective paint, particular attention being given to surfaces which
have been in contact or inaccessible whilst the structure was erected. Care shall be taken to
ensure that the distinguishing marks are not obliterated during this operation. Surfaces
which have been galvanized shall be examined by the Engineer's Representative who shall
direct whether the whole is to be cleaned thoroughly, freed from all deleterious matter and
given one coat of protective paint or whether only the bad spots are to be touched up with an
approved proprietary galvanizing commodity (aluminium paint is not to be used for this
purpose). All bright and machined surfaces shall be cleaned and well coated with a mixture
of white lead and tallow free from acid, or with other approved coating which will not
readily melt when exposed to the sun in the tropics. Exposed machined surfaces shall be
further protected by timber casings or other approved means. Free ends of members shall be

90
stiffened to prevent distortion during transit, and the ends of members with turned bolts
connections suitably protected. A full set of new bolts, nuts and washers, rivets and all other
fastenings should be supplied together with spares in accordance with clause 5066 of this
specification, and in addition a complete set of erection tools (drifts spanner, screw-drivers
etc., but not riveting apparatus) in accordance with clause 5065 of this specification. Turned
bolts, nuts and washers shall be covered with a mixture of white lead and tallow free from
acid and black bolts, nuts and washers, and field rivets shall be thoroughly cleaned, heated to
about the melting temperature of lead and whilst hot dipped into boiled linseed oil.

Straight bars and plates shall be bundled and temporarily bolted together. If this is
not possible they shall be bound in at least three places with annealed steel wire of not less
than 6mm diameter which must be tightly fastened. All rivets, bolts, nuts, washers, screws
small plates and small article generally shall be packed in bags. A separate bag being used for
each diameter and length of rivet, bolt etc., and each bag having a metal label wired on
indicating its contents. The bags shall be packed into strong wooden cases or casks whose
gross weight shall not exceed 300 kilograms. Each case, cask etc., shall be clearly marked
with its weight and an indication of its contents. Bundles shall have a metal label, stamped
with similar information, attached to each end, the label being secured at each of the end by a
separate wire so that it lies flat with the bundles. All marking and labellings shall be to the
satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. All parts of the structure protected, marked
and packed as above specified shall then be stacked in a position indicated by the Engineer's
Representative to await collection by him and transport to his store, and all operations
mentioned in this clause up to and including this final stacking shall be deemed to be
included in the rates for dismantling the structure. Should the Engineer require the
Contractor to transport the structure to his store, the Contractor shall do so without delay
and payment shall be made in accordance with the rates in the day work schedule referred to
in the bill of quantities or as mutually agreed before transporting.

Where the structure is to be incorporated elsewhere into the works, either wholly or
in part, the Contractor shall proceed as follows. On the marking drawings specified above,
he shall indicate

(i) Those parts of the structure which are not required for incorporation into
the works and which will be stacked in readiness for transport to the Engineer's store, and

(ii) Those parts of the structure which will be required for incorporation
elsewhere into the works.

Those parts covered by (i) shall be treated entirely as specified above for structure
required for incorporation elsewhere into the works.

Those parts covered by (ii) shall be treated entirely as specified above for structures
required by the Engineer for re-use under another contract, with the following amendments.
After dismantling, the required items shall be spread out and the Contractor shall inform the
Engineer's Representative that they are ready for inspection. The Engineer's Representative
shall then examine the items with respect to length, quality weight and condition and shall
pronounce upon their suitability for incorporation into the works and shall advise the
Contractor as to what cuts etc., should be made to permit their proper fitting, and they shall
together agree as to where such work shall be carried out. The items shall then be transported
to that part of the works unto which they are to be incorporated and the Contractor shall then
proceed as directed in clause 5071 of this specification. The cost of all operations involved

91
in complying with these requirements shall be deemed to be included in the rates for
dismantling and re-erection.

All paint and painting shall be in accordance with clause 5049 of this specification.

REMOVAL 5012. Existing decks, trestles, mud sills, piles etc., in timber shall be removed as carefully
OFEXISTING SUPER as possible. The use of explosives is forbidden. Timber piles shall be withdrawn completely,
STRUCTURE AND
or sawn off, as directed by the Engineer. All timber, fastenings etc., shall be cleaned and
SUBSTRUCTURE: ALL
TIMBER stacked neatly as directed in a place to be indicated by the Engineer's Representative. Unless
particularly so mentioned in the drawings no distinguishing marks,making plans, painting or
protective coatings will be required.

TOTAL 5013. The demolition of existing abutments, piers and landing will be permitted only after
DEMOLITION OF the superstructure has been removed to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. The
EXISTING
demolition shall be carefully carried out and the use of explosives will be subject to the
ABUTMENTS PIERS
AND LANDINGS approval of the Engineer's Representative. Generally, abutments and piers which are
specified in the drawings to be completely removed, shall be completely removed above the
lowest level of the ground in contact with the abutments or piers as approximately indicated
in the drawings and in the bill of quantities, or as directed by the Engineer's Representative,
below this level only so much will be removed as is required for the proper construction of
the new abutments and piers. Reinforced concrete piles shall be completely withdrawn or cut
away above the levels stated in the drawings or as directed by the Engineer's Representative.

PARTIAL 5014. Abutments, piers and landings which are required to be only partially demolished in a
DEMOLITION OF manner which will ensure that no damage whatever will be caused to that portion or the
EXISTING
structure which will remain. The use of explosives for this work will not be permitted. The
ABUTMENTS, PIERS
AND LANDINGS demolitions shall be carried out to the lines and levels shown on the drawings or to such
lines and levels as the Engineer's Representative may determine after examination of the
material exposed. The surfaces remaining after demolition shall be freed from all loose
stones, rubble, mortar or other material and left in a perfectly sound condition, to the
satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. Under no circumstances shall any new work be
constructed upon or against any part of the structure that remains until the Engineer's
Representative has inspected it and given his permission to proceed.

DISPOSAL AND RE- 5015. All concrete and masonry rubble and all other such material resulting from
USE OF RUBBLE demolition shall be tipped as directed. No debris shall be allowed to block, interfere with or
RESULTING FROM
hinder the flow of water under the new structure, or along any part of the watercourse or
DEMOLITION
through any drain, gully or water course, in the vicinity of the work, nor shall any debris be
allowed to obstruct the passage of traffic or cattle or other animals along recognized paths.
The rubble may be re-used as plums in the construction of the new abutments and piers
should these be of mass concrete, at the discretion of the Engineer's Representatives.

PREPARATION OF 5016. After demolition operations have been completed the surfaces of the remaining
SURFACES OF portions of the substructures which are to receive new concrete shall be thoroughly hacked
EXISTING ABUTMENTS,
and freed from all loose plaster, mortar and other material and random stones shall be
PIERS, ETC., PRIOR TO
PLACING OF removed in the case of masonry walls as directed by the Engineer's Representative to provide
CONCRETE IN an efficient key between the new work and the old. Immediately before concreting begins, the
CONTACT surfaces shall be thoroughly washed with clean fresh water to remove all deleterious matter,
all surplus water being then removed. The wet horizontal surfaces shall be covered with a
12mm layer of stiff, freshly mixed mortar class M1 which shall be thoroughly worked into
all interstices to ensure intimate contact with the old structure and the fresh concrete shall be
poured and carefully pounded into it without delay. The fresh concrete shall be carefully

92
worked into all corners, crevices and interstices in the wet vertical surfaces to ensure
complete bounding with the old structure.

PREPARATION OF 5017 Where the drawings require a non-bonding joint or a gap to be left between the
SURFACES OF surfaces of the remaining portions of the existing substructure and those of the new work,
EXISTING
the relevant surfaces of the existing structure shall be thoroughly cleaned and freed from all
ABUTMENTS, PIERS,
ETC., PRIOR TO loose material. Irregularities in the surfaces shall be filled in with concrete Grade 10 N/mm²
CONSTRUCTION OF or the whole rendered with a minimum 12 mm thickness of plaster of a grade to be
NON-BONDING JOINT approved by the Engineer's Representative, to give a smooth surface over the whole area of
the joint. The non-bonding joint shall then be constructed as directed by the Engineer's
Representative or a gap left as directed in the drawings.

TEST ON 5018 (A) CONCRETE STRUCTURES


COMPLETED
STRUCTURES
The Engineer may instruct that a loading test be made on the works or any part
thereof if, in his opinion, such a test is deemed necessary for one or more of the following
reasons:-

(a) The site made concrete tests cubes failing to reach the specified strength,

(b) The shuttering being prematurely removed,

(c) Overloading during construction of the works or part thereof,

(d) Concrete improperly cured.

(e) Any other circumstances attributable to alleged negligence on the part of the
Contractor which, in the opinion of the Engineer may result in the works or part thereof
being of less than the expected strength.

(f) Any reason other than the foregoing.

If the loading test be instructed to be made solely or in part for the reason (a) the test
shall be made at the Contractor's own cost. If the test be instructed to be made for one or
more of the reasons (b) to (e) inclusive, the Contractor shall be reimbursed for the cost of
the test if the result thereof is satisfactory. If the test be instructed to be made for the reason
(f) the Contractor shall make the test and shall be reimbursed for all costs relating thereto
unless the result of the test is unsatisfactory in the opinion of the Engineer.

The test load shall not be applied within eighty-four days of the completion of
placing of the concrete in the part of the structure to be tested, and the latter shall not be
supported during the test by the shuttering or other non-permanent support. Means shall
however be taken to ensure that in the event of failure under the test, temporary support of
the loaded members shall be immediately available. The test shall proceed strictly as directed
by the Engineer.

If the result of the loading test is not satisfactory in the opinion of the Engineer, the
Engineer shall instruct that part of the works be taken down or cut out and reconstructed to
comply with this specification, or that other remedial measures be taken to make the work
secure.

93
All remedial measures shall be carried out expeditiously by the Contractor at his own
expense.

The test load to be applied shall be a series of tractors, lorries, or road rollers
equivalent to the 1.10 times the design load of the particular structure, disposed of in one or
more arrangement so that the maximum bending moments, thrusts, tensions and shear forces
due to the test load are produced at the critical sections. During the test a record of the
sequence of all cracks and deflections at mid-span will be kept together with any other
observations which the Engineer may elect to record. The residual deflection if any shall be
recorded and if required by the Engineer the test will be repeated. The period of loading
shall be one hour in any particular case or as otherwise directed by the Engineer.

(B) STEEL STRUCTURES

If, through any negligence or bad workmanship or carelessness or default on the part
of the Contractor or any Sub-Contractor or for any other reason whatsoever, the Engineer
shall deem the strength of any steel span or any part thereof to be adversely affected, the
Engineer shall order such tests to be carried out as shall indicate the real strength of the
structure. The test may follow that specified above for reinforced concrete structures or any
other form that the Engineer may consider desirable.

If in the opinion of the Engineer, the result of the test is not satisfactory the Engineer
shall order such remedial measures to be carried out as may be necessary in his opinion, and
the Contractor shall carry out such remedial measures without delay and at his own expense.

LOADING OF 5019. Under no circumstances shall any part of any structure included in the works be
STRUCTURES: loaded in any way until permission to do so has been obtained in writing from the Engineer's
CONSTRUCTION, Representative.
BACKFILLING,
TRAFFIC, ETC
The Contractor shall arrange his programme of construction so that the loads of
subsequent construction shall not be imposed upon work already completed until, in the
opinion of the Engineer's Representative, that work has developed sufficient strength to
withstand safely the resulting stresses.

No backfilling of earth against or on top of any part of any structure shall be


commenced until the Contractor has sought and obtained the written permission of the
Engineer's Representative so to do. This will be given after the Engineer's Representative
has inspected and measured the work to be covered and the Contractor has carried out all
repairs, and all other work that the Engineer's Representative may require to ensure that the
work complies with this specification. Additionally, no backfilling shall be undertaken until
the requirements of the preceding paragraph of this clause are satisfied and the following
conditions fulfilled:-

(i) No earth shall be backfilled against or on top of a mass concrete structure


until at least 14 days have elapsed since the pouring of the last concrete, without the
approval of the Engineer's Representative.

(ii) No earth shall be backfilled against or on top of a reinforced concrete


structure until at least 28 days have elapsed since the pouring of the last concrete and the
results of the 28 days compression cube tests have been studied and proved acceptable

(iii) No earth shall be backfilled against the walls, nor placed on top of the roof
slab, of a reinforced concrete culvert until at least 28 days have elapsed since the pouring of

94
the last concrete in the complete structure, including wingwalls should these be monolithic
with the barrel, and the results of the 28 days compression cube tests have been studied and
proved acceptable. No earth shall be placed on to the roof slab unless this is so specified on
the drawings, and then strictly within the limits shown thereon.

(iv) Backfilling of all excavations for abutments, piers, culverts, etc., shall be
brought up equally and simultaneously on all sides to eliminate unbalanced earth pressures,
filling to open-type abutments shall likewise be brought up equally and simultaneously
around supporting columns, walls, etc., to eliminate unbalanced earth pressures. All backfill
shall be done in layers not exceeding 150mm compacted thickness, and in accordance with
the requirements of all relevant clauses of this specification. During backfilling operations,
the Contractor shall take every care to ensure that no undue loads shall be imposed upon the
structure and he shall furnish the Engineer's Representative in advance with full details of his
proposed method of performing the task, showing that the structure will not be overstressed
in any way.

In no case shall any structure be used for the passage of constructural traffic, storage
of materials etc., without the written permission of the Engineer's Representative, whose
decision in these matters shall be final.

AS - MADE 5020. On completion of the work, and after it has been approved by the Engineer's
DRAWINGS Representative, the Contractor shall prepare as-made drawings of each bridge, showing
complete, fully dimensioned details of the foundations, material on which they are founded,
ground levels, road levels, protection works, superstructure and all other work carried out
under the Contract. The drawings shall be originals prepared from records taken as the
work progresses and agreed with the Engineer's Representative, and shall not be merely
amended prints of the contract drawings. Draughtsmanship shall be of a high standard,
to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. The drawings shall be by CAD
(Computer Aided Designed) or handmade drawing ink, on best quality tracing linen and shall
be 594mm by 841mm overall including a margin of 50mm on the left hand side, and a
margin of 10mm on the other three sides and the title box shall follow the form shown on
the contract drawings. These original tracings together with one black and white print of each
on linen shall be forwarded to the Engineer for his permanent retention.

The cost of preparing and supplying all these negatives, velographs, prints etc., shall
be deemed to be included in the rates for carrying out the works to which they refer.

SETTLEMENT OF 5021 The Contract shall include:-


BRIDGE AND (a) The return to site and carrying out of a survey of settlement of
APPROACHES
bridge and approaches at a time just prior to the completion of the maintenance period and
the submission of a report of the results of this survey to the Engineer. The cost of this
survey shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices.

(b) The carrying out of any jacking operation or other remedial works deemed
necessary by the Engineer as a result of this settlement to re-establish the bridge and
approaches to the proper levels. The cost of any such operation shall be deemed to be
included in the tendered rates and prices.

BEARINGS 5022. Bearing devices expansion or fixed, shall be constructed in accordance with the
details shown on the drawings and approved by the Engineer.

95
Metal bearing shall comply in all respects with the requirements of B.S 5400 and as
specified on the drawings.

The masonry plates shall be set level. The expansion devices shall be set to conform
to the temperature at the time of erection or to the setting specified.

When masonry plates are shown on the drawings to be placed (not embedded)
directly on concrete, the concrete bearing area shall be constructed slightly above grade and
shall be finished by grinding or other approved means to a true level plane which shall not
vary perceptibly from straight edge placed in any direction across the area. the finished plane
shall not vary more than 3mm from the elevation shown on the plan.

ELASTOMERIC 5023. Elastomeric bearing pads shall conform to the requirements of B.S. 1154 and the
BEARING PADS special provisions.

Where elastomeric bearing pads are shown on drawings, the concrete surfaces on
which pads or packing are to be placed shall be wood float finished to a level plane which
shall not vary more than 1.5mm from a straight edge placed in any direction across the area.
The finished plane shown on the drawings.

Pads 12mm and less in thickness may be either laminated or all elastomer.

Pads over 12mm in thickness shall be laminated. Laminated pads shall consist of
alternate laminations of elastomers and metal or elastomer and fabric bonded together.

The outside laminations shall be metal or fabric. The outside and edges of metal
laminations shall be coated with elastomer not more than 3mm in thickness.

Laminations of elastomer shall be 12mm ± 3mm in thickness. Variation in thickness


of an individual elastomer lamination shall not exceed 3mm within the width or length of a
pad and the variation in thickness of all elastomer laminations within a pad shall be such that
each metal or fabric lamination will not vary by more than 3mm from a plane parallel to the
top or bottom surface of the pad.

The total out to out thickness of pad shall not be less than the thickness shown on the
drawings nor more than 6mm greater than that thickness. Variation of total thickness within
an individual pad shall not exceed 3mm.

The length and width of a pad shall not vary more than 3mm from the dimensions
shown on the drawings.

Pads containing metal laminations shall be fully moulded. Pads of all elastomer or
with fabric laminations may be cut from large sheets. Cutting shall be performed in such a
manner as to avoid heating of the material and to produce a smooth edge with no tears or
other jagged areas and to cause as little damage to the matter as possible.

Corners and edges of moulded pads may be rounded at the option of the Contractor.
Radius at corners shall not exceed 9mm and radius of edges shall not exceed 3mm.

96
The bond between elastomer and metal or fabric shall be such that, when a sample is
tested for separation, failure shall occur within the elastomer and not between the elastomer
and metal or fabric.

Metal laminations shall be rolled mild steel sheets not less than 1.0mm.

Fabric laminations shall be either (1) a long chain synthetic polymer containing at
least 85 percent of polyester from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid or (2) a long chain
synthetic polymeric amide from hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid. Each ply of fabric
shall have a breaking strength of not less than 12.5 N/mm². Fabric laminations shall be
single ply at top and bottom surfaces of the pad and either double ply or double strength
within the pad.

The sole polymer in the elastomeric compound shall be neoprene and shall be not
less than 60 percent by volume of the total compound.

The Contractor shall furnish to the Engineer a certification by the manufacturer that
the elastomer, and fabric (if used ) in the elastomeric bearing pads to be furnished conforms
to all of the requirements specified in the British Standard. The certification shall be
supported by a certified copy of the results of tests performed by the manufacturer upon
samples of the elastomer and fabric to be used in the pads.

Where elastomeric bearing pads over 12mm in thickness are shown on the drawings,
such pads may be manufactured as a moulded laminated pad, or at the option of the
Contractor, may be made up by stacking individual laminated pads. Individual laminated
pads used for stacking shall be normally 12mm in thickness. When laminated parts are
stacked, their contact surfaces shall be cleaned prior to stacking and a positive method shall
be used to hold the individual parts in the stack in proper alignment.

The quantity of Elastomeric Bearing pads for which payment will be made, will be
the number of pads actually constructed and installed as prescribed.

Payment for the Elastomeric Bearings pads shall be made for the quantities as above
determine, at the unit price shown in the Bill of Quantities, which price shall include the cost
of bearing pads, dowels, hardware, setting, all material, equipment, labour, and all else
necessary thereof and incidental thereto.

(CLAUSES 5024 - 5029 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

PART (B) - STRUCTURAL STEELWORK

GENERAL: 5030. All materials and workmanship involved in the fabrication of steelwork shall
MATERIALS AND comply with the requirements of B.S. 5400 together with the additional requirements and
WORKMANSHIP
modifications specified hereinafter. All materials and fittings shall be the best of their
respective kinds and free from defects. Accurate workmanship is essential and all work shall
be neatly finished.

WORKING 5031. Before any part of the work is put in hand, the Contractor shall prepare working
DRAWING drawings in accordance with clause 1010 of this specification.

The working drawings shall be submitted as mechanically reproduced prints on


medium weight paper showing either black lines on a white background, or white lines on a

97
blue background, and all costs involved in supplying them shall be deemed to be included in
the rates for steelwork.

SCHEDULE OF 5032 As soon as possible after the signing of the contract, the Contractor shall prepare
PARTS schedules of all parts which go to make up the work, including bought-out material, and
shall forward a copy, to the Engineer's Representative, the duly authorized inspector for
guidance during inspection.

MILD STEEL FOR 5033. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, structural steelwork shall comply with the
STRUCTURAL provisions of B.S 4360 (1990) "Weldable Structural Steels" and shall be of the grade
MEMBERS ETC indicated on the drawings. All sections shall conform to British Standard dimensions.

ROLLED STEEL 5034. Steel for rolled steel pins, knuckle pins, rollers etc., shall be of the minimum tensile
PINS, KNUCKLE strength as specified on the drawings and finished as indicated. (Not rivet steel)
PINS, ROLLERS
STEEL CASTINGS 5035. Steel casting for bearings shall comply with the requirements for B.S. 3100: and
FOR BEARING shall be Grade A steel except where noted on the drawings.
PATTERNS OF
CASTINGS 5036. Patterns of all castings are to be submitted to the
Inspection Engineer, and shall be approved before moulding is commenced and the casting
are run. Where this cannot be done on account of their large size the pattern shall be kept
available at the manufacturer's works for approval by the Inspection Engineer.

Each casting shall be legibly marked with a number or identification mark by which
it can be traced to the cast from which it was made. All castings shall be subject to tensile
and bend tests and wherever possible the test samples shall be attached to the castings. No
casting shall be repaired or welded without the previous sanction of the Engineer's
Representative. If permission be given to effect repair by welding, the Engineer's
Representative shall decide whether further heat treatment is necessary and such treatment
shall be carried out to his satisfaction. All surfaces to be machined shall have adequate
allowance left on to enable the castings to be machined to the plan dimensions but in no case
shall the allowances be less than 3mm. Unless otherwise specified or shown on the drawings
all holes in castings shall be boldly filiated and free of all faults affecting their strength and
value for the service intended.

GUNMETAL FOR 5037. Gunmetal for girder bearing strips etc., shall be made of the following mixture:
BEARING
Copper 88 per cent, tin 10 per cent, zinc 2 per cent, and shall show a tensile strength
of not less than 215 N/mm² with 7.5% elongation on 50mm.

FORGINGS 5038. Forgings shall comply with B.S.29 and the steel shall have a minimum tensile
strength of 430 N/mm² or as indicated on the drawings.

RIVETS 5039. Steel for high tensile steel rivets shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 548
"High Tensile Structural Steel for Bridges, etc., and General Building Construction",
Amendments CE 52, May 1936; CE6854 February 1938: CG 715 June 1942 and current
amendments.

Steel for mild steel rivets shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 15 1948
"Structural Steel", Amendment PD 3346, April 1959 or latest edition.

BOLTS 5040. All bolts must comply with the requirements of B.S. 1083: 1965 (Precision
Hexagon Bolts, Screws, Nuts and Plain Washers), and of B.S. 1968: 1963 (Unified

98
Precision Hexagon Bolts, Screws, Nuts (Unc and Unf Threads) and Plain Washers Normal
Series), Amendment PD5706 November 1968 and PD 6623 or latest edition.

High strength bolts and nuts washers for high strength bolts shall comply with B.S.
3139 and B.S. 3294, part 1.

All galvanized bolts shall conform with requirements of B.S. 729, Part 1. Minimum
zinc coating shall be 90 m.

HANDRAILING AND 5041. Hand-Railing and Guard-Railing shall be as shown on the drawings or as directed by
GUARD RAILING the Engineer.

HIGH TENSILE 5042. High Tensile Steel to be used for plates and rolled sections that are specified to be
STEEL FOR welded must comply with the requirements of B.S. 4360 with the following additional
WELDING
requirements:

(A) The chemical composition shall be as specified in tables 6, 8, 11, 13 and 16


of B.S. 4360 and upon

request, the supplier shall supply details of the ladle analysis to the Engineer.

(B) The steel to be used for plates shall be delivered in a normalized condition.

(C) The high tensile steel (welded quality) for plates shall be subjected to the V-
Notch Charpy 2 millimetre impact energy test. The average of three test specimens and the
average impact energy at 00C shall not be less than 35 joules

(D) As a result of the V-Notch Charpy test the crystalline area in the fractures of
the high tensile steel (welded quality) test pieces shall be measured. In general the average
crystalline area in the fractures of the test pieces shall not be greater than 80 per cent of the
original area of the test piece below the notch.

(E) The high tensile steel (welded quality) for plates shall be subjected to the
Vicker's test for hardness. For the hardness control test of the steel; a single welded bead
shall be deposited on the outer surface on the plate with 4mm diameter welded electrode,
and a cross section of the bead and the plate shall be cut and etched. The hardness in the heat
affected zone shall be measured by the Vickers method and shall not exceed 350 Vickers.

(F) The frequency of the tests described in (C), (D) and (E) above shall be the
same as those for tests for the control of tensile strength, yield point and elongation as
specified in B.S. 4360.

(G) Should the results of the tests described in (C), (D) and (E) above not reach
the requirements specified then the steel may be re-normalized and re-submitted for
inspection. The cost of re-normalizing the steel shall be borne by the manufacturer.

If the steel is re-normalized then all the tests required under this specification shall be
repeated if after re-normalizing the results of the tests do not reach the requirements
specified then the inspection Engineer will reject the steel and the costs of the rejected shall
be borne by the manufacturer

HIGH TENSILE
STEEL: NOT TO BE
WELDED
99
5043. High Tensile Steel to be used for plates and rolled sections and welding will not be
permitted except where shown on the drawings.

HIGH TENSILE 5044. All High Tensile Steel shall be marked strictly in accordance with the requirements
STEEL: MARKING of B.S. 4360. All steel not correctly marked and identified may be rejected by the
Inspection Engineer.

CAST STEEL 5045. Steel castings are to be true and clean and shall comply as regards quality and tests
with the requirements of B.S. 3100 for Steel Castings for General Engineering Purposes,
1967. The casting shall be thoroughly annealed and stress relieved and tested as per the
above for cracks. They are to be well fettled and dressed where necessary to remove
roughness or inequalities. All holes for bolts shall be drilled unless shown on the drawings
to be cored.

CAST IRON 5046. Cast Iron shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 1452: (1961) for Grey Iron
Castings. All holes in cast iron for bolts shall be drilled unless shown to be cored.

ELECTRODES 5047. The Electrodes to be used for welding steel must be of the best heavily coated type
and of such make as the Inspection Engineer may approve. They shall be kept in a dry store
in unbroken packets and shall be accompanied by the Maker's Certificate of date of
manufacture and guarantee that they fulfil in all respects the requirements of B.S. 639, B.S
1856 and B.S 2642 depending upon the grade of steel employed in the Contract.

1. Electrodes shall not be used in a damp condition. The inspection Engineer


shall have access at all times to inspect the store at the works and may reject electrodes
which he considers unsuitable.

2. The Contractor shall submit to the inspection Engineer the name(s), and all
relevant particulars of the electrodes he proposes to use.

3. The quality and type of the electrodes to be used for the submerged arc
welding of high tensile steel must be approved by the Inspection Engineer and will depend on
the submerged arc welding process that will be used.

GREASE FOR BEARINGS 5048. Grease for bearings shall be such as will ensure adequate lubrication of the bearings
under tropical conditions. The following is the approximate analysis of a suitable grease:-

high-class viscous mineral oil 78.0 Per cent


pure soap (dry) 5.0 Per cent
best flake graphite 17.0 Per cent

The melting point of the grease shall be not less than 1380C

The grease shall be packed for shipment in strong airtight metal drums.

PAINT AND PAINTING 5049. All paint used in the works, whether applied in the shop or in the site shall be the best
of its kind and all ingredients used in its manufacture shall comply with the appropriate
British standards. In any paint system (viz: primer, undercoats and finishing coats) each coat
of paint shall be compatible one with the other, and to ensure this, all paint shall be obtained
from the same approved manufacturer with a guarantee of compatibility. The paints shall be
used as specified for the various parts of the work.

100
PRIMING PAINT All priming paint shall be in accordance with B.S.2523.

UNDERCOAT Exterior quality aluminium paint tinted with sufficient blue


pigment to distinguish if from the finishing coat.

FINISHING COAT Exterior quality aluminium paint

PROTECTIVE PAINT Where steel is specified to be given one coat of


protective paint, such paint shall be of priming paint, as specified by the Engineer's
Representative. Where the paint has to be applied to a surface already painted with a
bituminous paint, the protective coat shall be of bituminous paint of best approved quality
and colour.

The aluminium content of the paint used for undercoat and finishing coat shall
comply with B.S 388 and shall constitute not less than 20 per cent by weight of the total
paint. The approved volatile matter of the paint shall not exceed 45 per cent. The paint shall
be of the type in which the aluminium paste is mixed with the vehicle immediately prior to
application and the date of manufacture shall be marked on each container. Mixing of the
paint and its application to the work shall be strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions and this specification. During painting, the paint shall be stirred as necessary to
keep the pigment in suspension.

Prior to shop painting all surfaces of steelwork shall be cleaned and de-sealed to bare
metal by steel grit or sand blasting.

Before the application of any paint, the surfaces to be treated shall be thoroughly
cleaned and freed from all scale, loose paint, grease, rust and other deleterious coatings.
Surfaces shall be protected in accordance with CP 2008. The paint shall not be applied to
any surface which is not thoroughly dry and shall be applied entirely by hand brush and
thoroughly worked into all crevices, corners and splices and around all bolt heads, nuts,
rivets, etc. Successive coats of paint shall differ in colour and each coat shall be thoroughly
dry before the next is applied. All paintings shall be carried out in accordance with the
standards laid down in British Standard Code of Practice C.P 231 and all testing, where
directed by the Engineer shall comply with B.S 3900.

Before the application of any paint, the surfaces to be treated shall be thoroughly
cleaned and freed from coatings. The paint shall not be applied to any surface which is not
thoroughly dry and shall be applied entirely by hand brush and thoroughly worked into all
crevices, corners and splices and around all bolt heads, nuts, rivets, etc. Successive coats of
paint shall differ in colour and each coat shall be thoroughly dry before the next is applied all
painting shall be carried out in accordance with the standards laid down in British Standard
code of practice C.P.231 (1952)

INTERCHANGE 5050. Corresponding parts of each unit should be Inter-changeable as far as economic
ABILITY OF PARTS manufacturing conditions permit.

PREPARATION OF 5051. When single universal plates are used with their edges flush with heels of angles or
EDGES AND ENDS channels, as in box girders, end posts etc. the edges shall be planed. The edges of universal
plates shall also be planed when used as web plates of riveted plates girders and there are
flange plates. Where two or more universal plates or flats of the same nominal width are
used in tier (excluding covers to a single plate) the edges shall be machined to make them
straight and flush.

101
HOLES FOR BOLTS 5052. All holes for rivets and black bolts shall be 1.5mm larger than the nominal diameter
AND RIVETS of the cold rivet or bolt as manufactured and all hole shall be drilled, or drilled small and
reamed. Punching and sub-punching and reaming shall be permitted only for floor plates and
troughing and only when these do not exceed 12 millimetre in thickness.

Holes for turned bolts shall first be drilled at least 3.0mm small in diameter and
afterwards when the structure is assembled, they shall be reamed or drilled to the correct size
through all thicknesses in one operation. Sub-punching will not be permitted.

RIVETS AND 5053. Rivet heads shall be of standard shape, unless otherwise specified, and of uniform
RIVETING size for the same diameter of rivet. They shall be full, neatly made, concentric with rivet
holes, and in full contact with the surface of the member.

Rivets shall be heated uniformly to "light cherry red colour" and shall be driven
while hot. Any rivet whose point is heated more than the remainder shall not be driven.
When a rivet is ready for driving, it shall be free from slag, scale, and other adhering matter.
Any rivet which is scaled excessively, will be rejected.

All rivets that are loose, burned, badly formed or otherwise defective shall be
removed and replaced with satisfactory rivets. Any rivet whose head is defective, in size or
whose head is driven off centre, will be considered defective and shall be removed. Where
required, rivets shall be cut for examination by the Engineer's Representative and afterwards
replaced free of charge. Stitch rivets that are loosened by driving of adjacent rivets shall be
removed and replaced with satisfactory rivets. Caulking, recupping, or double gunning of
rivet heads will not be permitted.

WASHERS 5054. All bolts shall be provided with washers, those for turned bolts being bright
finished. Round washers shall not be less than 6mm thick for turned bolts and not less than
3mm thick for black bolts. Tapered washers of the correct angle shall be provided under all
heads and nuts bearing on bevelled surfaces and where tapered washers are required for
turned bolts, round washers shall also be supplied. Tapered washers shall be not less than 5
mm mean thickness. All washers shall comply with the requirement of B.S 3410.

WELDING 5055. No welding of any description will be permitted except where shown on the
drawings.

Unless otherwise described in the Contract, metal-arc welding shall comply with B.S
1856 and B.S.2642 as appropriate except for tack welds and temporary attachments for
which the procedures laid down in B.S. 2642 shall be followed.

The temperature of steels welded in accordance with B.S 2642 shall be not less than
10 C when welding is commenced.

Electrodes and fluxes shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's


instructions. The use of welding processes other than those covered by B.S. 1856 and B.S.
2642 shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

The general welding programme for shop; and site welds, including particulars of
the preparation of fusion faces, the method of pre-heating where required, the methods of
making the welds, and the types of electrodes shall be submitted to the Engineer for his
approval before the work is put in hand. No departure from the agreed welding programme
or from the details shown on the drawings shall be made without the agreement of the

102
Engineer. Electrodes and fluxes shall be so chosen that the properties of the deposited metal
are not inferior to those of the parent metal.

The position of welds required for temporary attachments shall be agreed by the
Engineer before the work commences.

Where automatic or semi-automatic processes are used back gouging of the


deposited weld will not be required where the Engineer is satisfied that the root is free from
imperfection.

The cost of furnishing materials, labour, equipment and all else necessary thereof and
incidental thereto.

JOINTS 5056. Joints shall not be made in any plate or section or in any part of the bridgeworks,
except where shown on the drawings. Abutting joint in compression members and girder
flanges and where shown on the plans shall be faced and brought to an even bearing.

NOTCHING OF 5057. When the flanges or webs of any member have to be cut or notched to enable the
FLANGES AND section to be trimmed into another member,a hole of suitable diameter shall first be drilled
WEBS through the flange or web so as to leave a fillet at the intersection of the cut lines.

BENDING AND 5058. Troughing up to 8 mm thick may be pressed cold. Over 8 millimetre and up to 12
PRESSING mm thick cold pressing shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer's Representative.

SHOP ASSEMBLY 5059. Members shall not be riveted up until the parts have been thoroughly scraped,
cleaned and freed from all scale and other deleterious matter. Thereafter, surfaces which
will be in permanent contact after shop assembly shall be given one coat of priming paint on
each face and the parts drawn firmly together with bolts whilst the paint is still wet. All rivet
holes shall be thoroughly brushed out and all burrs and exuded paint removed before rivets
inserted and riveting commenced. Surfaces not in contact but which will be inaccessible
after shop assembly shall receive the full protective painting treatment before assembly viz
one coat of priming paint, one undercoat and assembly viz: one coat of priming paint, one
undercoat and one finishing coat. All paint and painting shall be in accordance with
requirements of clause 5049 of this specification. All reamering of holes shall be carried
out in the manufacturer's works and the edges of all holes on the outside faces of members
shall be slightly arrised.

MACHINING 5060. The bearing surfaces of bearing plates etc., shall be planed level, the cut being made in
the direction of expansion of the girder. Surfaces which require machining shall be
indicated on the drawings.

ERECTION AT 5061. Before being despatched, all bridge spans shall be temporarily erected complete in
MANUFACTURER'S the manufacturer's works so that the Inspection Engineer can be satisfied as to both the
WORKS AND alignment and fit of all connections.
MARKING UP FOR
RE-ERECTION
After the work has been passed by the Inspection Engineer and before it is
dismantled, each part shall be stamped with the distinguishing mark, assigned to it on the
marking drawings, in figures not less than 16 mm high, in such a manner that the pieces may
be readily identified on arrival at site and put together in their proper positions. The marking
shall also be stencilled on each part in one or more places after it has received the coat of
paint mentioned in Clause 5062 and a circle of white paint shall be placed round each
stamped erection mark. No marking other than that specified shall be put on the steelwork.

103
The drawings showing the markings shall be as set forth in Clause 5020. The
Manufacturer shall forward to the Engineer one set of hand made tracings on best quality
polyester or tracing linen, one set of mechanical copies on tracing linen (e.g. velograph) and
one set of prints showing black lines on white background of the marking drawings. The
cost of producing and supplying all these tracings and prints shall be deemed to be included
in the rates for steel work.

SHOP PAINTING 5062. After approval by the inspection Engineer but not before, the whole of the
AND PROTECTIVE work shall be thoroughly wire brushed, scraped, cleaned and freed from all scales, grease and
COATINGS
coatings. Areas of rust shall be cleaned down to the bare metal. The surfaces shall be
thoroughly dried and given one coat of priming paint. All paint and painting shall be in
accordance with requirements of clause 5949 of this specification. See also clause 5059 for
the treatment of surfaces which will be in permanent contact or inaccessible after shop
assembly.

All machined surfaces, turned bolts, nuts and washers, and all bright surfaces shall be
well coated with other approved coating which will not readily melt when exposed to the
sun in the tropics. Exposed machined surfaces shall be further protected by timber casings or
other approved means.

Field rivets, black bolts, nuts and washers shall be thoroughly cleaned, heated to
about melting temperature of lead, and whilst hot, dipped in boiled linseed oil.

GALVANIZING 5063. Items which are shown on the drawings to be galvanized shall first be cleaned by
pickling and then galvanized by the hot process. The smelter used in this process shall
comply with B.S 222 and the manufacturer shall produce evidence to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative that this is so, and at his own cost. In addition, samples of metal
from the batch may be taken by the Inspection Engineer for independent analysis and if found
to contain less than 98.5 percent of pure zinc, the galvanized parts represented will be
rejected. The cost of this independent analysis will be borne according to clause 36 (4) of the
conditions of contract.

The galvanized surfaces shall be evenly covered, clean and free from drops or
spelter, spots and blemishes of every kind. After coating, all traces of flux shall be removed.
The coating shall weigh not less than 34 grams per square metre of surface treated.

All cutting, holing, threading etc. shall be carried out before galvanizing. Cutting,
holing, threading etc., after galvanizing will only be permitted where the written approval of
the Inspection Engineer has been first obtained. Where such permission has been given, the
cut edges shall be protected by an approved proprietary galvanizing commodity, aluminium
paint must not be used for this purpose.

All materials shall be stored for a period of 7 days after galvanizing in such a manner
that air comes freely in contact with the surfaces. At the end of this period each article will
be examined by the Inspection Engineer and those showing signs of acid spot, cracks, blisters
or other defects will be rejected.

At the discretion of the Inspection Engineer the quality of the galvanizing may be
tested by the copper sulphate test as described in B.S 729: 1961 and the ductility and
adhesion of the zinc coating tested by bending or otherwise. For the purpose of these tests

104
more than 1 per cent of the articles will be selected for testing and the cost of the tests and
replacement of the articles thus destroyed shall be borne by the Contractor.

DRIFT, SPANNERS 5064. Drifts for rivets and bolts shall be supplied to the
ETC. extent of one per cent (with a minimum of six for each size) of the net number of rivets or
turned bolts used in the work. Drifts for use with turned bolts shall be turned to suit the
holes. Spanner, the handles of which shall be made in the form of a podger and joggled,
shall be supplied in the proportion of 1 in every 500 or less for each size of bolt and nut.
Where necessary, brace spanners, screw drivers etc., shall also be supplied. The Contractor
shall ensure that an adequate number of all tools necessary for the proper and efficient
erection of the work at site are provided; the above requirements are regarded as a minimum.

NUMBER OF SITE 5065. The full number of rivets, bolts, nuts, washer etc., required to complete the work
RIVETS, BOLTS, shall be supplied and in addition, the following spares shall be provided for each span:-
NUTS, SERVICE
BOLT ETC
Black bolts, nuts 10 percent of the full
and washers number of each size required.

Turned bolts, nuts 10 per cent of the full


and washers number of each size required.

Foundation bolts 5 per cent of the full number with a minimum of 2% of


each size required.

Rivets 15 per cent of the full number of each size when the
number is 250 or less plus 10 per cent of the number of
each size in excess of 250.

Service bolts complete with nuts and washers shall also be supplied equal to 25 per
cent of the net number of site rivets for all girder work and 10 per cent of the net number of
site rivets for trough and plated floors.

There shall be no reduction in any of the above number in the case of multiple spans.

The bolt lists including all lengths of rivets to be provided shall be submitted on
acceptable reproduced prints, and all costs involved in suppling them shall be deemed to be
included in the rates for steelwork.

MEASUREMENT 5066. Payment for steelwork shall normally be made on the computed weight of the
FOR PAYMENT OF structure as determined from the dimensions given on the drawings, on the basis given in
STEELWORK
B.S. 5400, if however the weight of any materials falls short of the calculated weight by
more than 2½ per cent, but nevertheless be accepted, the actual weight of such material only
shall be paid for. If there is any difficulty in obtaining the B.S. section specified or shown on
the drawings, the nearest B.S. section may be submitted for approval. Should the weight of
the substituted section differ from that of the specified section the weight to be taken for the
purpose of payment shall be the lighter of the two.

For the purposes of payment and unless otherwise shown on the drawings, castings,
forgings, special alloy steels, wrought iron and all structural shapes and plates of expansion
joints, pier protection, access manholes, steel deck drains and other miscellaneous steel
members, shall be considered as structural steelwork except that when specific items of the

105
above are called for in the Bill of materials, the weight or unit of measurement of each
selected item as specified therein, will be paid at the respective contract unit price as named
in the bid schedule.

PACKING AND 5067. All works shall be protected from damage in transit, full allowances being made for
MARKING FOR handling under difficult conditions. Particular care shall be taken to stiffen free ends and to
SHIPMENT
prevent distortion and to adequately protect all machined surfaces, the ends of members
with turned-bolt connections etc.

Straight bars and plates, when bundled, shall be temporarily bolted together. If this is
not possible they shall be bound in at least three places with annealed steel wire of not less
than 6 millimetre diameter which must be tightly fastened. All rivets, bolts, nuts, washers,
screws, plates and small articles generally shall be packed in bags, a separate bag being used
for each diameter and length of rivet, bolt, etc., and each bag having metal label wired on
indicating its contents. The bags shall be packed into strong wooden cases or casks, whose
gross weight shall not exceed 300 kilograms.

Each case, cask, or drum, shall be clearly marked with the shipping marks, and
indication of its contents and its weight. Bundles shall have a metal label, stamped with
similar information, attached to each end, the label being secure at each of its ends by a
separate wire so that the label lies flat with the bundles.

All marking and labelling shall be carried out to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative:-

ERECTION AT SITE 5068. The steelwork shall be erected at site in accordance with B.S.153: with the following
amendments and additional requirements.

All lines and levels shall be as shown on the drawings or as specified by the
Engineer's Representative. The Contractor shall be responsible for all setting out and shall
give all necessary assistance and facilities for checking by the Engineer's Representative (see
clause 1013). Any stakes or marks set out by the Engineer's Representative on site shall be
carefully preserved.

In addition to the requirements given under clause 7 of B.S. 153, the Contractor shall
comply with the requirement of Clause 1012 of this specification relating to drawings and
calculations for temporary works and stagings etc. The Contractor shall obtain the prior
approval from the Engineer for the method of erection and he shall forward to the
Engineer's Representative complete details, drawings and calculations for the proposed
method of erection at the time of seeking such prior approval.

SITE PAINTING 5069. Surfaces which will be in permanent contact after site assembly or erection shall be
thoroughly clean and freed from all scale, loose paint, grease and other deleterious coatings.
Areas of rust shall be cleaned down to the bare metal. The surfaces shall be thoroughly
dried and one coat of priming paint applied to each face. The parts shall then be drawn
firmly together whilst the paint is still wet. All rivet holes shall be brushed out and exuded
paint removed before the rivets are inserted. Similarly for bolts and bolt holes.

Surfaces which will be inaccessible after site assembly or erection shall be


thoroughly cleaned and freed from all scale, loose paint, grease and other deleterious
coatings. Areas of rust shall be cleaned down to bare metal. The surfaces shall be

106
thoroughly dried and then given one priming coat, one undercoat and one finishing coat of
paint.

Care shall be taken to ensure that no paint shall be applied to or allowed to foul any
reinforcement or other steelwork which is to be embedded in concrete. In the case of steel
joists which will be so embedded and steel troughing which will be concrete filled, and all
other such surfaces, those surfaces which will be in contact with the concrete shall be
thoroughly cleaned and freed from all rust, scale, loose paint, grease and other deleterious
coatings before the concrete is poured against them.

Where concreting or any other operation likely to foul the steelwork has to be carried
out (e.g. pouring of concrete deck slabs supported on R.S.Js.), preparation and painting of
surfaces shall not be undertaken until such time as the cause of likely fouling or damage no
longer exists.

All paint and painting shall be in accordance with clause 5049 of this specification.

ADDITIONAL 5070. Before embarking on the strengthening of any bridge the Contractor shall forward to
STEELWORK IN THE the Engineer's Representative for approval full details of the method he proposes to
STRENGTHENING OF
employ to carry out the work. Such details shall be accompanied by drawings and
EXISTING BRIDGES
calculations showing that no part of the existing structure shall be overstressed or likely to
suffer any damage during the strengthening operations and to ensure that this will be so, the
Contractor shall provide temporary supports, bracing, struts etc., as necessary. In no case
shall any part of an existing bridge be removed to facilitate strengthening until a temporary
substitute has been fixed in place to the complete satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative. The Contractor shall amend his proposals for undertaking the strengthening
of the bridge as required by the Engineer's Representative and shall not commence the work
until the Engineer's Representative has given his approval to the scheme and his permission
to proceed.

Before ordering the additional steelwork, the Contractor shall completely satisfy
himself in all respect as to the dimension and positions of all fastenings and members of the
existing structure and shall be responsible for ensuring that all new plates, joists etc.,
required for the strengthening shall avoid or accurately pick up all such existing fastenings
and members as the case may require. The Contractor shall also check existing spans as
indicated on the drawings to ensure that the lengths of new joists etc., are adequate for the
work proposed, and before ordering any such material shall inform the Engineer's
Representative of the dimensions, weights etc., which he proposes to obtain and obtain his
approval therefore. Any indications of the sizes or positions of any part of any existing
structure as are shown on the drawings are of a general nature only and the Contractor must
on no account regard such indications as accurate. The Contractor shall be deemed to have
inspected each and every structure and to have taken all necessary information and
measurements required for the proper carrying out of the work, and to have allowed for such
in his rates.

The additional steelwork shall be manufactured, fabricated, protected, transported,


fixed in position and be in all respects in accordance with requirements of this specification
and the drawings. All fabrication which can be done in the shop shall be done there and only
the absolutely necessary minimum, as approved by the Engineer, shall be done at the site,
where the additional steelwork comes into permanent contact with the existing steelwork,
the contact surfaces of both shall be thoroughly scraped and cleaned and freed from all loose
paint, scale, grease and other deleterious coatings. Areas of rust shall be cleaned down to the

107
bare metal. The contact surfaces shall then be given one coat of priming paint and brought
together and fastened whilst the paint is still wet. Surfaces of both existing and additional
steelwork which will be inaccessible after strengthening measures are complete shall be
prepared as described above and given the full protective paint treatment viz:- one priming
coat, one undercoat and one finishing coat, before assembly is begun. Where site welding
is to be employed, paint and other coatings shall be removed from the areas to be welded for
a suitable extra distance to ensure that the quality of the welds will not be impaired. When
strengthening is complete, the surfaces of all added steelwork, and those of the existing
steelwork which have been damaged during the operation shall be prepared as above and
given one coat of priming paint, one undercoat and one finishing coat. All paint and
painting shall be in accordance with the requirements of clause 5049 of this specification.

The cost of fulfilling all the requirement of this clause shall be deemed to be covered
by the rates for supplying, fixing and painting additional steelwork.

RE-USE OF GIRDERS, 5071. Girders, joists etc., from a dismantled structure which are to be re-used in the
JOIST ETC., strengthening or reconstruction of another structure are thus indicated on the drawings. The
OBTAINED FROM
Contractor shall check the dimensions of such girders, joists etc., against those of the
DISMANTLED
STRUCTURES structure into which they are to be incorporated and obtain the approval of the Engineer's
Representative as to their suitability for such use before commencing any cutting, drilling
etc., that may be necessary. (See also clause 5011).

All work shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the drawings or as directed
by the Engineer's Representative, and in compliance with this specification. When the work
on the girders, joists etc., has been completed, and before they are incorporated into the
structure, they shall be submitted to the Engineer's Representative for approval and when
this has been obtained and not before, the Contractor shall forthwith incorporate them into
the works as directed on the drawings.

The Contractor shall ensure that during fabrication, assembly and subsequent
incorporation into the works, the girders, joists etc., are given the paint treatment specified
in clause 5069.

GROUTING OF BASE 5072. The base plate, etc., shall first be located accurately with respect to both line and
PLATES, ETC., OF level, by careful tapping, levering, wedging etc., as approved by the Engineer's
BEARINGS
Representative. Care shall be taken to ensure that no damage is done to any item, especially
machined surfaces. Immediately before the operation of grouting in, the entire area covered
by the bearing, including pockets for holding down bolts, and a sufficient extra area around
to prevent contamination, shall be thoroughly cleaned by washing with water from hose
pipes, compressed air etc., and all dust,loose and deleterious matter shall be removed. All
surplus matter shall then be dried off by mopping and the use of compressed air and the
surfaces left damp. Freshly mixed mortar, as directed and of suitable consistency shall then
be introduced to fill the pockets for the holding down bolts, and the space beneath the
bearing plates. the mortar shall be well pounded into the space, working from one side with
suitable pounders until the mortal appears on the opposite side and every care should be
taken to ensure that the mortar appears on the opposite side and every care shall be taken to
ensure that the entire void is filled, giving complete support to the bearing over the entire
area, without air holes etc. To ensure this, wooden screed shall be introduced around the
edges of the grouting space to contain the mortar during the pounding operations. Any
mortar which may foul the threads of bolts, nuts, or affect their bearing on washers and
plates shall be carefully removed without disturbing the mortar already placed, and on
completion of the operation, the edges of the mortar shall be trimmed as shown on the

108
drawings. The whole shall then be covered with wet sacks or hessian which shall be kept
continuously damp for a period of not less than 7 days, after which they shall be removed
and all loose, adherent or projecting mortar liable to reduce the efficiency of the bearings
carefully removed. After 28 days all holding down and other bolts shall be tightened as
directed.

EXPANSION JOINT 5073. Expansion joints shall be provided where shown on the drawings and be of the type
specified.

Detailed working drawings shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

The drawings shall be supplemented by the materials specifications not covered in


the GENERAL SPECIFICATION OF THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF WORKS or
specified on the drawings.

Expansion joint sealant as shown on the drawings shall be produced from neoprene
compound and conform with the requirements of ASTM Specifications D2628-67T, (see
Clause 6269). Expansion joint sealant shall be placed in correct position. When nosing type
construction will be used the expandite expoform or equal epoxy resin special mortar shall
be used for forming the joint nosing for joint sealant. The epoxy shall comply with DOE
requirements for nosing materials contained in Technical Memorandum (Bridges) BE3/72.
The expansion joint sealant, shall conform to the following:

Density 1350 kg/m3


Hardness 50 to 60, Shore A
Tensile strength 13.8N/mm² (minimum)
Elongation at break 250% (minimum)

The size of the gap shall be compatible with the mean bridge temperature at the time
of installation. This temperature shall be determined in accordance with arrangements
agreed with the Engineers.

The position of all bolts cast into concrete and holes drilled in plates shall be
accurately determined from templates.

The mixing, application and curing of all proprietary materials shall comply with the
manufacturers requirements.

During the placing and hardening of concrete or mortar under expansion joint
components, relative movement shall be prevented between them and the supports to which
they are being fixed.

When one half of the joint is being set, the other half shall be completely free from
longitudinal restraint. In particular where strongbacks or templates are used to locate the two
sides of a joint, they shall not be fixed simultaneously to both sides.

Screw threads shall be kept clean and free from rust. Ramps shall be provided and
maintained to protect all expansion joints from vehicular loading. Vehicles shall cross the
joints only by means of the ramps until the Engineer permits their removal.

(CLAUSES 5074 - 5099 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

109
SPECIFICATION

SECTION VI - ROADWORKS

1
SECTION VI - ROADWORKS

GENERAL 6000. In addition to any other relevant clause of this specification, the following shall be
deemed to apply in particular to roadworks, and shall be read in conjunction with all other
relevant clauses of the conditions of contract and this specification.

PART (A): DESIGN: AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS

HORIZONTAL 6001. For new roads, the horizontal alignment must be carefully chosen as this is
ALIGNMENT cost related. A good alignment shall provide good drainage, minimum and balanced
earthworks and must avoid swampy and high water table areas, where this is possible. A
good horizontal alignment allows straight portions of the road on the horizontal plane to be
connected with horizontal curves which may be circular or transitional.

For the rehabilitation of roads in general, the proposed new alignment shall
follow closely on that of the existing road, except where
necessary to effect realignment to conform with the
current standards of the Federal Ministry of Works and
Housing or to effect the most economical sitting of new
bridges. It shall consist of a series of straights joined by
circular curves. All gradients, vertical and horizontal
curves, sight and passing distances, rate of super-
elevations etc., shall conform with the accepted
standards of the Ministry for the particular terrain and
adopted design speed as follows:-

TERRAIN LEVEL ROLLING HILLY


ADOPTED DESIGN SPEED, KM/H 100 80 60

HORIZONTAL CURVES AND SUPER-ELEVATION

Radii of horizontal curves and super-elevation rates shall comply with the
following formula:-

E = V²/2.25R

Where V = design speed in km/h


R = Radius of circular curve in metre
E = Super-elevation, this is normally limited to an absolute maximum of 8%.

DEFINITIONS:-

(I) TANGENT RUN-OFF That distance in which the level of the outer edge of the
pavement is brought to the level of the crown of the road section.

(II) SUPER-ELEVATION RUN-OFF That distance in which the super-elevation is


brought from zero to its maximum value.

Super-Elevation shall be achieved by rotating the pavement about the profile of the
inside edge of the pavement in flat terrain where the drainage of the inside edge of the curve
is likely to present a problem.

In cases where the inside edge of the curve may be easily drained, then the
super- elevation shall be achieved by the rotation of the
pavement about the centre-line profile. The sequence of
operations is as follows:-

110
(a) The outer half of the pavement width is brought to the same horizontal
plane with the crown of the cross section. This is done within the distance called the tangent
run-off.

(b) The outer half of the pavement is then brought to the same inclined plane as
the inner half of the pavement.

(c) (i) For rotation about the inner edge, the pavement shall then be
finally rotated about its inner edge to the required full super-elevation. No cut is involved
along the inner edge in this operation.

(ii) For the rotation about the centre-line, the


pavement shall be rotated about its centre-line to the
required full super-elevation. This operation involves
"cut" along the inner edge of the pavement.

TABLE VI-1 DESIGN SPEED WITH CORRESPONDING SUPER-ELEVATION AND


MINIMUM LENGTH SUPER-ELEVATION RUN-OFF

DESIGN SPEED KM/H 100 80 60

MAXIMUM GRADIENT OF SUPER- 0.45 0.5 0.57


ELEVATION RUN OFF RELATIVE TO
CENTRE-LINE OF ROAD (PERCENT)

MINIMUM LENGTH OF SUPER-ELEVATION 55 45 40


RUN-OFF (METRE)

MAXIMUM RATE OF CHANGE OF


SUPER-ELEVATION RUN-OFF 0.05 m/m PER 30 METRE

LENGTH OF SUPER-ELEVATION 20%


RUN-OFF WITHIN THE CURVE (CIRCULAR)

The proposed Road shall be constructed in accordance with the horizontal


alignment, formations and levels and other details as in
the DRAWINGS or as directed by the Engineer's
Representative.

VERTICAL 6002. The straight portions on the vertical plane which are connected by vertical curves are
ALIGNMENT called gradients. Two cases of vertical curves occur with gradients either meeting at
summits or meeting at sags. The choice of gradient will affect construction costs, vehicle
operation cost, road capacity and passenger's comfort. With these considerations, the vertical
alignment shall conform with adopted standards of the Ministry. The finished work shall be
to even gradients joined by vertical curves. The lengths of vertical curves shall be calculated
using the formula:-

L = K(G1-G2) = KA

Where L = length of vertical curve in metre, recommended minimum value of 100m


for all speeds.

A = (G1 - G2) = change in gradient (algebraic difference) percent. The ultimate sign
of A should be ignored, i.e. A is always positive.

111
K = constant for any particular speed

TABLE VI-2 DESIGN SPEED FOR VERTICAL, SUMMIT OR SAG CURVES WITH
CORRESPONDING K VALUES

DESIGN SUMMIT VERTICAL SAG VERTICAL


SPEED KM/H CURVE CURVE

100 80 60 100 80 60

K 50 26 12 35 23 13

The level of any point along the vertical curve shall be equal to the level at
the tangent point plus

G1X/100 + AX2/200L

where X = distance of the point from the tangent point in metre.

G1 = gradient of the road section (per cent).

A = change in gradient (algebraic difference) i.e. (G1 - G2) per cent.

L = length of the vertical curve in metre

AX2 should be positive for a sag vertical curve and


200L negative for a summit vertical curve.

ROLL-OVER 6003. Roll-Over is the algebraic difference in cross-falls of two adjacent lanes of pavement
area. The Roll-Over shall be in accordance with the details as shown on the DRAWINGS or
as directed by the Engineer's Representative.

CONTRACTOR TO 6004. The Contractor will be responsible for working out all levels of the pavement,
CALCULATE shoulders, ditches etc., that are necessary for the setting out of the works and will, if required
LEVELS
to do so, furnish the Engineer's Representative with lists of these levels for his approval
prior to setting-out. The Contractor shall locate and preserve where directed all concrete land
markers, beacons, bench-marks etc.

CONSTRUCTION 6005. The road shall be constructed to the following standards:-


STANDARD
(I) WIDTH
The formation width between drains comprising a carriageway, hard-shoulders
and soft shoulders shall be constructed to the dimensions
shown on the drawings or as ordered by the Engineer.

(II) BASE-COURSE
The base course of the carriageway, which may be continued over the hard
shoulders or extended a minimum of 300mm at either
side of the surfaced width as shown on the drawings or
as directed by the Engineer shall be constructed of
approved material having a finished compacted thickness
of not less than 150mm and complying in all respects

112
with this specification. The base course to the
hard-shoulders if different from that of the carriageway,
shall be constructed of such other approved material as
directed by the Engineer's Representative, but also
having a finished compacted thickness of not less than
150mm.

(III) SUBBASE COURSE


The Subbase Course of the carriageway, which may be continuous over
the hard shoulders as shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer's Representative,
shall be constructed of approved material having a finished compacted thickness as shown on
the drawings, or as directed by the Engineer depending on the C.B.R. value of the subbase in
question.

(IV) GEOMETRY
The horizontal and vertical alignments, superelevations and cambers of
the road shall be constructed in accordance with the DRAWINGS or as directed by the
Engineer.

(V) BITUMINOUS SURFACING


The surfacing of the roadway shall be two-coat bituminous surface
dressing or hot asphaltic concrete pavement as shown on the DRAWINGS or as directed by
the Engineer.

(VI) SIDE SLOPES TO EMBANKMENTS


Side slopes to embankments and cuttings shall be constructed in
accordance with the drawings or as directed by the Engineer's Representative. The co-
efficient of resistance of the material shall be the determinant factor for the embarkment
slope.

(VII) SIDE DRAINS


Unless shown otherwise on the drawings the invert of the side drains
shall be not less than 900mm below the finished level of the crown of the road. All side
drains shall, where shown, be excavated to the profile and dimensions shown on the
drawings, but the Engineer's Representative may direct that the side drains be constructed to
such lesser profiles consistent with drainage capacity as he may think fit due to the existence
of rock or other obstruction. Where the height of the embankment exceeds 900mm above
the existing ground, and the natural gradient of the surrounding area is towards the roadway,
then catch-water drains shall be constructed as shown on the drawings or as directed by the
Engineer's Representative.

(VIII) CULVERTS
Generally culverts shall consist of precast concrete pipes laid either as
single or multiple culverts, and where shown shall be bedded and haunched with a minimum
of 150mm of concrete. In cases where sufficient cover is not available the Engineer's
Representative may direct that culverts be surrounded with a minimum of 150mm of
concrete.

(IX) JUNCTION WITH ROADS

A Minor Roads

113
At all junctions with minor roads where shown on the DRAWINGS or
directed by the Engineer's Representative, bell mouth shall be constructed carrying the
construction and drainage to a minimum of 15.0 metres from the edge of the proposed
roadway along the minor road as shown in details on the DRAWINGS or as directed by the
Engineer's Representative.

B. Major Roads
All junctions with major road culverts shall be constructed as shown
on the DRAWINGS or as ordered by the Engineer's Representative.

(X) WIDENING OF ROADWAY THROUGH VILLAGES AND AT


RECOGNIZED LORRY HALTS
Where the roadway passes through villages and at recognized lorry
halts, the base course and the asphalt concrete pavement shall be widened. Concrete side
drains shall be constructed. All as shown on the DRAWINGS or as directed by the Engineer's
Representative.

(XI) HARD SHOULDERS


Surface dressed hard shoulders shall be constructed on both sides of the
roadway as shown on the DRAWINGS or as directed by the Engineer's Representative.

(XII) SOFT SHOULDERS AND EMBANKMENT SLOPES


Soft shoulders and embankment slopes shall be constructed so as to
have the top 75mm consisting of top soil and shall be grassed throughout unless otherwise
directed. At the discretion of the Engineer's Representative, the top 75mm may consist of a
compacted layer of approved lateritic material in lieu of top soil.

(XIII) SUBGRADE

A. Cuts
The subgrade of the road shall be shaped to the dimensions, formations
and levels as shown on the Drawing or as directed by the Engineer's Representative and the
top 150mm subgrade shall be watered and compacted to 100% B.S. standard compaction at
optimum moisture content (OMC).

B. Embankments
The subgrade of the roadway shall be shaped to the dimensions
formations and levels as shown on the DRAWINGS or as directed by the Engineer's
Representative.

(CLAUSES 6006 - 6099 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

PART (B) - EARTHWORKS, DRAINAGE, ETC.

(1) MATERIAL

GENERAL 6100. The materials used in the works shall be new and/or of the qualities and kinds
specified, and no materials shall be used in the works unless approved. Materials delivered
to the works shall be equal to the approved samples. Deliveries shall be made sufficiently in
advance of constructional requirements to enable samples to be selected by the Engineer's
Representative for testing before using the materials in the works.

114
Materials failing to comply with the specification shall be immediately
removed from the works at the Contractor's expense.

These specifications on materials shall be read in conjunction with latest amended


report of "the Lagos materials testing conference", a copy of which will be made available to
the Contractor on request.

No material shall be used until it has been approved by the Engineer or his
Representative. Permission to use any material shall not be construed as an approval of its
source nor any acceptance as continued acceptance.

UNSUITABLE 6101. In no case will material which contains organic matter or other deleterious substance
MATERIAL be used.

FILLING 6102. Material for filling in the embankment shall be obtained from sources approved by
MATERIAL the Engineer's Representative and no slurry, mud, soft or otherwise unsuitable materials
shall on no account or under any circumstances be placed in embankments. Large pieces of
rock, or other materials shall be properly broken up and beaten down and no accumulation at
the foot of side slopes of embankments of boulders or lumps having no cohesion will under
any circumstances be permitted. The Engineer's decision regarding the suitability of any
material shall be final, and any material of which more than 35% passes the No 75 m sieve
may be rejected depending on the plasticity characteristics of this material, provided good
quality fill materials are available, otherwise such material may be modified for use.

The material to be used for the forming of embankments shall generally be obtained
from cuttings which may be widened as agreed with the Engineer's Representative.

The material shall be spread evenly over the area of embankment and compacted in
uniform layers to the specified density and moisture using B.S. compactive effort. Each
compacted layer shall not be greater than 150mm.

SELECTED 6103. Where directed by the Engineer's Representative under the provisions of clause 6163
LATERITIC the material selected for the upper 75mm of the soft shoulder shall or preferably be a
MATERIAL FOR
well graded lateritic soil with a Plasticity Index of not less than 10 and not more than 20.
SOFT SHOULDERS

GRASS OR GRASS 6104. The seed, or the grass used for sowing or planting on the verges, the slopes of
SEED embankments and cuttings shall be daub grass (cynodon dactylion) or bahama grass. Tall,
quick-growing or tussock grasses shall not be used without the consent of the Engineer. The
Contractor must anticipate the requirements for the supply of suitable grass.

RUBBLE AND 6105. Stones for filling behind retaining walls or walls of culverts shall be angular and
PITCHING graded from 12mm to 75mm with a fine content below 12mm not exceeding 20% stones,
STONES
for pitching the inverts and sides of ditches embankment slopes and culvert inlets, and
outlets, shall be of durable natural broken rock of approximate cubical shape 225mm x
225mm x 225mm or 150mm x 150mm x 150mm as appropriate.

(CLAUSES 6105 - 6119 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

(II) WORKMANSHIP

SITE CLEARANCE 6120. The Contractor shall fell, grub-out roots and clear from the site all trees occurring
within the boundary of the works as directed. In addition all bushes, ant hills, ants' nests,

115
grass, stumps and other vegetation shall be cleared from the site and roots, grubbed up, holes
made in grubbing up, removing the ant hills, roots, stumps and the like shall be backfilled
and compacted to a density at least equal to that of the surrounding ground except that all
holes, cavities, and wells within the road width shall be backfilled with approved soil which
shall be thoroughly compacted throughout by power rammer to a density not less than the
dry density of the surrounding ground.

Outside the above limits, on the inside of bends, bushes and trees shall be felled and
their roots grubbed up as directed to give an unobstructed sight distance of 150 metres. For
purposes of measurement, the girths of the trees shall be taken 900mm above ground level
except that where a tree has a buttress the girth shall be taken immediately above the
buttresses. No economic trees or crops shall be removed prior to their enumeration and
valuation for compensation purposes.

The Contractor shall remove gates, gate posts, manhole covers, kerbs, signs, water
mains and other items to the extent directed by the Engineer's Representative. Foundations
shall be broken up and removed to a depth of 900mm below natural subgrade level or
finished grade level, whichever is lower.

Structures to be demolished shall be broken up and removed. Prior to demolition the


Contractor shall ensure that services have been disconnected to the satisfaction of the
appropriate authorities and/or owners. Foundations shall be broken up and removed to a
depth of 900mm below Natural Subgrade Level or finished grade level, whichever is lower.

Pits, tanks, underground chambers and the like shall be demolished to a depth of
900mm below Natural Subgrade Level or finished grade level, whichever is lower and the
remainder shall be properly cleaned out.

Clearing limits for this Contract shall be the entire length of the project within
widths as hereinbelow defined.

I. Buildings, walls and other man-made items


Clear everything within the Right-of-Way limits.

II. Compound walls - reconstruction


Any and all existing compound walls located within the Right-of-Way limits shall be
cleared and removed as part of the appropriate item in the Bill of Quantity. Also included as
part of this item shall be the reconstruction of all such walls, equal to the removed wall,
along the Right-of-Way line connecting to the points at the start and end of the removed
section. The cost of such reconstruction shall be considered included in this item.
Reconstruction of compound walls may be required anywhere along the alignment.

III. Wells

Working wells outside the limit of grading shall be maintained in a condition equal
to their present condition.

Working wells within the limits of grading shall be filled as herein- above required.
Replacement wells equal to the existing wells shall be constructed outside the limits of
grading. The cost of all replacement wells shall be considered as included in Item "Clear Site
as specified..... etc;."

116
Non-working wells within the Right-of-Way lines, shall be filled as hereinbefore
required.

IV. Trees and All Other Erosion Resisting Vegetation

All trees shall be cleared within a strip fifty (50) metres wide, (25 metres to each side
of the centre line). To ensure that future falling trees do not clog road side drains, all trees
outside this 50 metre strip whose height is such that, if they fell would reach to the nearest
roadside drain, shall be cleared.

All other erosion resisting vegetation shall be cleared only within the limits of
grading.

Outside the above limits and within the Right-of Way lines all vegetation shall be
selectively thinned and/or trimmed.

A. Selective thinning shall include the removal of live and dead trees both standing and
fallen, shrubs, and other vegetation and debris in the areas shown on the Drawings and
designated for removal by the Engineer.

The trees, shrubs and other vegetation to be removed will be so designated by the
Engineer's Representative. Trees shall be carefully felled to prevent damage to adjacent
vegetation, structures and property. Trees, stumps and all debris shall be removed in a
manner that will not compact or disturb the soil adjacent to trees and shrubs to remain.

B. Trimming existing trees shall include the complete removal of all defective or
undesirable limbs and the repair of all injuries or wounds on existing trees as directed by the
Engineer's Representative.

All diseased, dead, broken and seriously injured branches shall be removed. Healthy
low branches shall not be removed except as otherwise directed by the Engineer's
Representative. All wounds over 25mm diameter shall be painted with tree paint. The bark
around all wounds and other injuries shall be traced and treated in accordance with approved
arboricultural practice. All pruning tools and methods employed shall be in accordance with
arboricultural practice and shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

All trees to remain within the areas designated for selective thinning shall be trimmed
to remove all dead and undesirable limbs up to a height of 5m above ground. The Engineer
will determine which live limbs are undesirable.

Materials designated for incorporation in the Works shall be removed, marked where
necessary for future identification and stored for re-use.

The Contractor shall load, transport, unload and stock materials designated for
delivery to the owner's thereof.

Other materials resulting from clearing operations shall become the property of the
Contractor as soon as he takes possession of the land for the Works. The Contractor shall
remove and dispose of such materials.

Clear material shall be burnt or disposed of as directed by the Engineer's


Representative. Trees to be cut down shall have all light branches trimmed off and burned

117
and useful trimmer shall be cut in suitable lengths and stacked at the roadside ready for
removal as directed by the Engineer's Representative.

Payment will be made under this for the net areas cleared and shall include for the
satisfactory removal of anthills and ants' nests and for any backfilling and compacting
required and for disposal of material, but shall not include any areas of grass on the road
vergers or otherwise, which is subjected to periodic cutting and maintenance.

SCARIFYING 6121. Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer's Representative, the existing road shall be
EXISTING scarified, shaped to required formation level, and compacted as specified, where the average
SURFACE
difference between the proposed formation levels and the existing ground levels does not
exceed 75mm. Payment shall be made once only under the appropriate item in the Bills of
Quantities and shall include for all operations required to bring the existing road to the
required formation levels.

Where ordered in writing by the Engineer's Representative, existing bituminous


surfaces shall be scarified, re-shaped and compacted as specified and all surplus material
shall be disposed of as directed by the Engineer's Representative. Payment shall be made
under the appropriate item, in the Bill of Quantities and shall include for all operations as
required herein.

Except as provided above, the removal of existing bituminous surfacing by scarifying


and roughening of existing unsealed roads and vergers etc., shall be deemed to be included in
the tendered rates and prices for earthworks.

EARTHWORKS 6122. In the Contract the following words and expressions shall have the meanings hereby
assigned to them except where the context otherwise requires:-

(1) "Existing Ground Level" means the ground level shown on the Drawings
as existing at the start of the Works.

(2) "Finished Ground Level" means the ground level after the completion of the Works.

(3) "Natural Subgrade Level" means the level at the completion of excavation for
roadworks.

(4) "Formation Level" means the level at the completion of earthworks for roadworks
prior to top soiling.

(5) "Stripped Ground Levels" means the ground levels after the completion of clearing
operations.

(6) "Specified Finished Excavation Levels" means the levels of the completed excavation
after trimming, compacting and preparation of the surface of the excavation as calculated
from the levels shown on the Drawings, or the levels directed by the Engineer's
Representative.

(7) "Specified Finished Fill Levels" means the levels of fills after trimming, compacting
and preparation of the surface of the fill (excluding top soiling) placed in accordance with
the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer's Representative.

Excavated material shall be classified by the Engineer's Representative as suitable


material, or unsuitable material.

118
Unsuitable material shall include the following:-

(1) Material from swamps, marshes and bogs.

(2) Peat, logs, stumps, roots and other perishable or combustible material.

(3) Top soil and highly organic clay and silt.

(4) Clay having a liquid limit exceeding 80% or plasticity index exceeding 55.

(5) Highly micaceous materials.

Suitable material shall exclude the foregoing unsuitable materials and shall comprise
all other natural material acceptable for use in the Works, whether obtained from within or
without the Site.

Top soil shall mean soil which can be seen to have been broken down by agricultural
cultivation and/or is seen to be capable of supporting vegetable growth. It shall include turf.

Solid rock shall mean rock found in ledges or masses in its original position, which
can only be loosened by blasting or by pneumatic tools, or excavated by hand, by using
wedges and sledge hammers. Rock which is in a shattered condition and/or is capable of
being loosened by rippers or earthmoving plant is excluded from the definition of solid rock.
Boulders or detached pieces of rock each exceeding 2 cubic meter size in trenches or 6
cubic meter size in general excavation, shall be regarded as solid rock.

Where embankments are to be constructed on steeply sloping ground, including the


side slopes of existing embankments, existing sloping surfaces shall be excavated to form
benching as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer's Representative.
Materials for filling shall comprise the following:-

(1) General Fill

General fill shall consist of suitable material as defined herein. Subject to the
requirements regarding the forming of embankments isolated boulders not exceeding 3 cubic
metres in size may be included in general fill.

(2) Rock Fill

Rock fill shall consist of sound igneous rock or other sound rock acceptable to the
Engineer's Representative or such strength that when compacted an excess of fines will not
be produced. It shall be free draining and reasonably well graded and shall have a maximum
size of 3 cubic metres. The percentage of material by weight passing a 5mm sieve shall not
exceed 30%. It shall be free from silt, clay and organic material. Such material may be
deposited below water without the associated use of compaction plant.

(3) Granular Fill

Granular fill shall consist of an approved granular material of maximum, size not
greater than 38mm which is inert in water and which on analysis by sieving complies with
the following requirements.

119
Sieve Size Percentage by Weight Passing

10mm up to 100

5mm not more than 85

600m not more than 45

75m not more than 5

(4) Special Granular Fill

Special granular fill shall be hard and durable and shall consist of broken rock or
gravel. It shall be well graded with a maximum size of 38mm. The percentage of material by
weight passing 75 m sieve shall not exceed 10. It shall be free from silt, clay and organic
material.

(5) Granular Bedding

Granular bedding shall consist of crushed rock or gravel having a smooth grading
curve within the limits specified for l9mm nominal size all in aggregate to Table 3 of B.S
882. The fraction passing the 425 m sieve shall be non-plastic when tested in accordance
with B.S 1377 (1975) Sections 2, 3 and 4 unless such fraction constitutes less than 2 per
cent of the whole by weight.

Earthworks shall be measured by super- imposing the specified finished formation


levels on initial cross sections taken by the Contractor at 30 meter intervals or closer if
necessary along the centre line. The levels of such cross sections shall be agreed by the
Engineer's Representative.

A maximum quantity of material excavated from cuttings shall be placed to fill and
the utmost advantage shall be taken of the natural moisture content of the soil in placing
such fill provided the materials meet the qualities for use as such see clause 6102. Fill shall
be placed and compacted in layers of a compacted thickness 150mm or such thickness that
may be found necessary to achieve the required density over the full width of the formation.
The Contractor shall route his earth-moving equipment in such a manner over the full width
of the filling as to achieve a uniform compaction over the entire width by this method. All
fill including subgrade and vergers shall then be compacted to 100 per cent of the maximum
dry density obtained in the British Standard Compaction Test. In the case of extension to
existing embankments benching will be required as indicated on the drawings or as directed
by the Engineers's Representative and such benching shall be deemed to be included in the
tendered rates for earthworks.

PAYMENT FOR 6123. Payment for earthworks shall be made once on the basis of the total quantity of
EARTHWORKS measured fill by the Contractors together with the quantity of unsuitable material and/or of
excess cut placed to spoil, all as determined from the cross sections referred to in clause
6122. The depth of unsuitable material, if any, to the placed to spoil shall be agreed between
the Contractor's Agent and Payment for this material will be on the net volume as measured
in situ.

The quantity of suitable excess cut placed to spoil shall be determined as follows:-

(i) The net volume of suitable material excavated from cuttings or side drains shall be
determined by deducting the quantity of unsuitable material placed to spoil from the total
quantity of cut as determined from the cross-sections.

(ii) The total volume of filling placed in embankment shall be found from the
cross-sections.

120
(iii) The volume of suitable excess cut placed to spoil shall be taken as the volume found
in (i) above less the volume found in (ii) above with an adjustment made to the latter to
allow for compaction.

The adjustment which shall be made for compaction shall be based on the ratio of the
maximum dry density of the filling at 100% B.S. Compaction to the in situ dry density of the
material in the cutting or side drain.

Haulage rates will he assessed on the basis of the use of the nearest acceptable road
making materials to the section of work under construction.

Stripping of topsoil will not be measured as roadway excavation. The quantity of


stripping topsoil for which payment will be made will be the area stripped in accordance with
the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer, measured in units as specified in the bill of
quantities.

SELECTION OF 6124. Soils shall be obtained from areas of cut including ditching or from approved borrow
SOIL FOR FILL pits. All grass and vegetation shall be removed from the surface of the areas of cut or
borrow pits before excavation of the fill material is commenced and no such grass or
vegetation shall be included in the fill. In borrow pits the top soil, shall be carefully
removed and stockpiled.

Topsoil shall not be removed from any area until excavations or filling operations
are about to start in that area. Topsoil on the sites of cuttings and embankments shall be
excavated to the average depth directed by the Engineer's Representative or as specified
hereinafter.

The Contractor shall, at his own expense and to suit his own convenience, make
arrangements for and provide such temporary storage sites as may be required for heaps of
topsoil.

If any materials suitable for subbase, base or aggregates as specified herein are
encountered in material removed as roadway excavation, and the Contractor elects to use
such material for constructing items, payment for the various items shall be as follows:

If the Contractor elects to use materials removed from cuttings for constructing
items of subbase, base or aggregates, payment will be made for such material excavated
under the appropriate roadway excavation item and for such material so placed under the
appropriate item of subbase or base, provided that the Contractor furnishes and places
borrow excavation material, in embankment without cost, in an amount equal to the value of
the material used in the base, subbase or as aggregate in place prior to excavation.

The Contractor shall at his own expense, make arrangements for and
provide such spoil dumps as may be required for the
disposal of excavated materials which are not to be
incorporated in the Works.

The spoil dumps shall be located and shaped in accordance with the Contractor's
proposals as and shall be finished with neatly trimmed slopes, adequately surface soiled, all
to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

During the course of the excavation from an area of cut or borrow pit or other
approved source of fill material, the Contractor shall provide adequate supervision to ensure
that only soil of a type approved by the Engineer's Representative is excavated. Care shall be
taken during such excavations to avoid any pockets of heavy clay, vegetation or other
unsuitable material and if any such unsuitable material or soil of an unapproved type is

121
included in the fill it shall be dug out and made good with approved material where directed
by the Engineer's Representative and at the Contractor's own expense.

Where a sandy soil is encountered in the excavation of a cut or borrow pit, the
Engineer's Representative shall have the power to instruct the Contractors to place this sandy
soil to the top layer of fill.

Any material which in the opinion of the Engineer's Representative is not suitable for
fill shall be tipped to spoil as and where directed.

After removal of fill material from borrow pits etc., The area shall be levelled and
top soil replaced all to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

The Contractors shall arrange and pay for any compensations and other payments
whatsoever required for their access to and occupation and use of the borrow areas for fill
material.

Payment for all arrangements, compensations and other costs, clearance, removal and
replacement of topsoil, excavations and disposal of unsuitable materials and all other
operations and requirements of this clause shall be deemed to be included in the tendered
rates and prices for earthworks.

COMPACTION 6125. Compaction shall be measured by expressing the dry density of the sample as a
percentage of the maximum dry density at optimum moisture content.

Compaction of all material shall be carried out at a moisture content


optimum for the compaction effort of the plant used.
The Engineer's Representative may, however, direct that
the moisture content at compaction be further controlled
in order to reduce as far as possible any subsequent
consolidation or swelling.

Where it is necessary to add water to the material to achieve the dry density specified,
the cost of obtaining, transporting or pumping, spraying and mixing sufficient water must be
allowed in the Contractor's prices for compaction. Water shall be added as and where
necessary by a water carrier fitted with an approved sprinkler and the uniform wetting of the
layer to be compacted shall be achieved. Under no circumstances will compaction solely by
construction or other traffic be accepted.

Fill materials shall be placed, spread and levelled in layer of loose depth not
exceeding 230mm of general fill, 460mm of rock fill, 230mm of special and granular fill.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, where rock fill or granular fill is placed below water level
there shall be no restriction on the depth of layers.

The material of each layer, of whatever type, shall be uniform throughout the layer.
Except as otherwise necessary to conform to the zoning of the various types of materials,
each layer of material shall extend over the full width of the filling. No layer of fill material
shall be placed until the Engineer's Representative is satisfied that the underlying layer is
properly compacted.

Rock fill (including solid rock excavated from cuttings) shall be placed, spread and
levelled by a track laying tractor, and large voids shall be filled with broken fragments before
compaction.

122
Isolated boulders and isolated large fragments of solid rock forming part of general
fill shall be evenly distributed throughout each layer, but no stone exceeding 150mm in size
shall be placed within 300mm of formation level.

During the construction of embankments the Contractor shall control and direct
construction traffic uniformly over the full width. Unless permitted by the Engineer's
Representative, fill materials shall not be stockpiled on embankments.

Embankments shall be constructed in such a manner that the completed formation is


not damaged by construction traffic. The Contractor may elect to construct embankments to
such higher levels as may be necessary to protect the formation and in such cases shall delay
removal of the surplus material until preparation of the formation can immediately proceed.
The provision, placing, compaction and subsequent removal and disposal of such material
shall be at the Contractor's expense.

All road materials shall be incorporated in the works by an approved sequence of


operations namely the dumping of materials, spreading by grader, watering and mixing as
specified above and compacting by approved means. The Contractor shall keep the delays
between consecutive operations to a minimum.

All compaction equipment must operate over the whole area to ensure uniform
compaction by it. All filling including the subbase course and base course shall be
compacted in layers of a compacted thickness of 150mm or such other thickness as may be
found necessary to achieve the required density. Longitudinal and transverse joints in any
two successive layers shall be staggered to a minimum distance of 3 metres.

At the beginning of the Works and from time to time as may be necessary
in the opinion of the Engineer's Representative, the
Contractor shall carry out, to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative, field trials, supplemented by
any necessary laboratory investigations to determine
types of compaction equipment, suitable layer thickness
and moisture contents all within the requirements of the
specification for the placing and compaction of the
various materials to be used in the earthworks. The sites
of trials shall be agreed between the Contractor and the
Engineer's Representative. Copies of the full records of
all such trials shall be provided promptly to the
Engineer's Representative. If compaction trial fill is
placed as part of the permanent work, such fill shall
conform to the requirements of the specification and if it
does not it shall be removed or reworked until it does
conform. Extra work required either to rework or
remove the trial section shall be at the Contractor's
expense.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer's Representative his proposals, based on
the rolling test result's for the compaction of each variety of material to be used in the
earthworks, including proposals in relation to types of plant, numbers of passes and loose
depth of layers. Work (other than rolling test) shall not start on any particular variety of
material until the Engineer's Representative has signified in writing his agreement to the
Contractor's proposals for that material.

123
The Contractor shall not modify the agreed methods without the consent of the
Engineer's Representative.

Work in compaction of fill materials shall be carried out only when the moisture
content is within the range shown by the field or by laboratory tests whichever is appropriate
on that material to be suitable for the attainment of the densities specified below.

(i) For material which is within 600mm Formation Level or in the filling adjacent to
structures (including backfilling), not less than 100 percent of the maximum dry density for
the material obtainable by B.S standard compaction.

(ii) For all other material, not less than 95 per cent of the maximum dry density for the
material obtainable by B.S standard compaction.

The foregoing compaction requirements shall also apply to the subgrade material
which is within 600mm of formation level in cuttings.

The Contractor and the Engineer's Representative shall from time to time agree upon
field compaction methods and relevant plant for the various materials such that by
correlation using the relative density and ISO CBR control tests, the need for the extensive
tests on the finished road section may be reduced.

The Contractor and the Engineer's Representative shall also agree on procedures for
determining the areas of fill to which particular sets of test results should be deemed to be
applicable. Such areas shall include clay or peat deposit where consolidation test may be
necessary.

All sections of the works shall be protected from damage by plants, rainstorms or
other cause. All such damage should it occur, shall be made good by the Contractor at his
own expense.

In particular the exposed surface of each lift of fill or sub-base course or base course
material, after compaction, shall be protected by a cambered surface from excessive moisture
content changes due to rainstorms until the next lift is placed. If such changes in moisture
content do take place and the surface of the compacted layer softens, the Contractor shall, if
required by the Engineer's Representative, remove and replace the material affected at his
own expense. Should the material used for subbase or base course be prone to drying from
the surface the Contractor shall from time to time keep the finished surface slightly
dampened. This process will continue until another layer is placed.

Should there be patches of unsound ground, excessive sand or clay, which are, in the
opinion of the Engineer's Representative unsatisfactory, then such areas shall be rectified by
admixture of suitable materials or by cutting out and replacement to ensure a uniformly
compacted formation.

Tests for the control of compaction shall be carried out at regular intervals as
directed by the Engineer's Representative. If any test result from a particular area falls below
the minimum specified, then the Contractor shall at his own expense scarify, water and
recompact that area to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative, provided the
constituency of the material will not be adversely affected as double compaction may

124
increase percentage passing 75 m sieve to more than 35% thus reducing the strength of the
material.

The Contractor shall allow in his construction programme time for such tests and for
the results to be made known, before the next stage of the works.

BORROW PITS 6126. The Contractor shall at his own expense clear bush, topsoil and other inferior
materials from the site of borrow pits. The Contractor shall also bear the cost of
compensation for borrow pits outside the area of the site. Borrow pits for road materials
shall be excavated only where the natural slope of the ground is away from the road, except
that where he considers it essential for the proper execution of the works the Engineer's
Representative may approve the excavation of borrow pits in ground above road level.

Generally in rural areas the nearest edge of the pit shall be not less than 15
metres from the centre-line of the road. The Contractor
shall so plan his method of execution of the works that
the haul of road materials from borrow pits is reduced to
a minimum. The Contractor may be allowed to form
"side-borrow-trenches" for fill material wherever it is
required providing such trenches are self draining,
having a minimum fall along the line of the road of 1 in
120. All other pits shall be properly drained to the
satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative by the
construction of turnouts or other approved methods.

In build-up areas, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer, his proposals for
obtaining fill materials and shall furnish details regarding the locations, sizes and owner of
all borrow areas, together with his proposed method of working and all measures proposed
to eliminate damage or nuisance to persons or property. He shall be required to submit his
proposed method for the reinstating such borrow areas at the same time. The Contractor
shall obtain the Engineer's written approval for the above before commencing work on any
borrow area. In addition the Contractor shall comply with all other relevant clauses of the
conditions of contract and this specification.

No borrow pit shall be abandoned until the area has been levelled, topsoil replaced
and the sides battered to a slope of 1 in 1½ so that no animals may be trapped, all to the
satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative. The cost of all operations detailed under this
clause shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rate for earthworks.

Regulations under the mineral ordinance must be observed by the Contractor.

SAND FILL 6127. Where sand fill, either hydraulic or otherwise, is specified, it shall be obtained from a
source or sources approved by the Engineer. Where such sources occur in waters or areas
under the jurisdiction of the Nigerian ports Authority or the inland waterway department of
the Federal Ministry of Transport or other appropriate authority, then the Contractor shall
first obtain written permission to remove material from the authority concerned and shall
comply, in all respects with all regulations laid down by such an authority.

The quality of the material intended for use as sand fill shall be subject to
the approval of the Engineer. For hydraulic sand fill the
grading of the material shall be such that not more than
15% passes the 75 m sieve and in no-case will isolated

125
pockets or layers of silt, clay or other organic impurities
be accepted. For sand fill placed by any method other
than the hydraulic, the grading shall be such that not
more than 15% passes the 75 m sieve, and in no case
will isolated pockets or layers of silt, clay or other
organic impurities be accepted.

The relative density of hydraulics sand fill placed in embankment shall be as follows:

(A) Top 600mm 90%


(B) Next 600mm 80%
(C) Below the Top 1200mm 70%

Sand fill placed by any method other than the hydraulic shall be compacted
in layers by a method approved by the Engineer's
Representative to a density of not less than 100% of the
maximum dry density obtained in the British Standard
Compaction Test. Vibrative system of compaction is
recommended.

In the case of hydraulic sand fill the Contractor shall construct all drains,
ditches, spillways, marginal bonds necessary for the
proper protection of the works. Such drains, marginal
bonds etc., shall be constructed sufficiently in advance of
the deposit of the sand fill, so as to effectively drain and
retain the sandfill and to prevent any of the material from
flowing into any harbours, creeks, canals, drains etc., or
from causing any damage or nuisance to persons or
property. The Contractor shall be responsible for any
slip or settlements which may occur during the
construction of the sand fill or the bunds, drains, etc.,
and shall also be responsible for same during the
maintenance period. The Contractor shall make good
such slips and settlements to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative. The Contractor shall be
responsible for the full and efficient drainage of water
resulting from the hydraulic sand fill operation and shall
construct such open drains as may be necessary to drain
all surface and rainwater, so as to avoid all ponding. The
Contractor shall make due allowance for settlement and
drying-out of the sand-fill and for the making good of
same.

Before any hydraulic sand fill is commenced, the Contractor shall, in conjunction
with the Engineer's Representative, survey the site and mutually agree the surface levels, and
such agreement shall be recorded in writing by both parties. The levels shall be taken on a
grid with points at not exceeding 15 metres centres and the Contractor shall construct
concrete pilot-pillars to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative to enable the grid
lines to be located during the filling operations. The Contractor shall construct sufficient
tell-tales, consisting of 50mm x 50mm x 10mm angle of adequate length with a flange of
900mm in diameter fixed at one end, all in non-corrosive metal, to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative, to enable any subsidence of the original ground level to be

126
measured. The method of measurement of hydraulic sand fill shall be on the basis of the
volume of material placed as determined from the area filled and the depth of fill to the
finished level from the original ground level or the subsided original ground level, as
applicable. Should any dispute arise as to the subsided original ground level, as indicated by
the tell-tales, then the same shall be determined by the taking of borings or by the digging of
trial-pits. Payment for trial pits shall be from the appropriate item, in the bills of quantities.
Where no such item is included, payment will be from appropriate provisional sum. If
option of trial pit is chosen shuttering shall be provided to check the collapse tendencies of
sand fill.

Hydraulic sand fill shall be deposited in layers as directed by the Engineer, but in any
case the thickness of such layers shall not exceed the limits stipulated as follows:-

(A) First Layer - not exceeding 450mm in thickness

(B) Second Layer - not exceeding 750mm in thickness.

(C) All subsequent Layers - not exceeding 900mm in thickness

The finished level shall be as shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer,
and shall be agreed as the result of a joint survey carried out by the Contractor and the
Engineer's Representative. A tolerance of 75mm above or below the finished level may be
permitted during pumping operations, but the same shall be made good by subsequent
grading or dozing to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative and to the tolerances
stipulated for the sub-grade. Without limiting his commitments under the terms of the
contract, the Contractor shall not be required to make good any normal expected settlement
of the original ground levels after completion of the sand fill. The Contractor shall be
deemed to have allowed for all the foregoing provisions in his rates and prices for sand
filling. Should the Engineer so desire the Contractor shall place stock-piles of material in
quantities and areas as directed. Payment for theses stock pile shall be made at the tendered
rates and prices for hydraulic sand fill.

EXCAVATION TO 6128. The Contractors shall keep all excavations free from water and shall at their own
BE KEPT FREE expense construct such temporary grips and ditches and provide and maintain pumps as may
FROM WATER
be found necessary for this purpose. Excavation free from water may be possible if
underground design formation level is not close to the water level.

SLIPS 6129. During the carrying out of excavations the Contractors shall limit vertical and other
temporary faces to such heights as are suitable to the nature of the soil exposed. If in the
course of the works, any slips, slides, or subsidences occur and such slips, slides or
subsidences extend beyond the lines and slopes and below the levels shown on the drawings,
the excess excavation will not be paid for and the Contractors shall at their own expenses
carry away such materials and make good in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer's
Representative and without extra charge.

UNSUITABLE 6130. Where unsuitable ground or other unsuitable material is found below formation
MATERIAL BELOW level or below the slope of cuttings under areas of fill, this shall be excavated and disposed
FORMATION LEVEL
off as directed by the Engineer's Representative, and the space left void shall be backfilled
with selected fill and compacted to at least 100% of the M.D.D. achieved in the British
Standard compaction test.

127
Payment shall be made under this clause for any material removed as unsuitable soil
only on the written direction of the Engineer's Representative provided such unsuitable
material could not have been discovered during the tendering period.

Measurement for this item shall be on the compacted backfill only and payment for
this work will be at the rates entered in the bill of quantities for earthworks.

SWAMP AREAS 6131. Certain existing swampy areas on the proposed line of reconstruction may have been
delineated on the drawings.

The attention of the Contractor is particularly drawn to the fact that, under the
provisions of this specification, he is responsible for the safe passing of traffic in such areas
and that the cost of any diversions which may be required for this purpose are deemed to be
included in the tendered rates and prices.

The Contractor shall programme and execute his earthmoving operations such as to
complete the embankments in swamp areas prior to initiating work or other embankments
and to allow minimum settlement periods as specified in volume III, or as agreed by the
Engineer to elapse between first raising the embankments to the specified finished surface
level in the area or such other level as may be required and the start of the construction of
any part of the pavements, drainage or other permanent works in the area.

Prior to, during and subsequent to the settlement periods specified above the
Engineer's Representative will carry out investigations in filled sections of swamp areas to
collect information on which to base predictions of the magnitude and rate of settlement
which will occur after completion of the works. Such investigations will be undertaken, to
ascertain, inter alia, the strength, compressibility of ground beneath embankment, ground
water levels and vertical settlements and they will be made by means of various measuring
devices. The results of such tests shall be used by the Engineer's Representative to predict
the equitable surcharge to facilitate early maximum settlement.

The measuring devices shall be supplied and installed by the Contractor using
methods approved by the Engineer. They shall be read by the Engineer's Representative. The
Contractor shall supply such skilled and unskilled assistance as the Engineer may direct.

The Contractor shall take all practicable precautions to prevent damage or


disturbance to measuring devices. Should any damage or disturbance occur the Contractor
shall make good same at his own expense to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

The Contractor shall be deemed to have allowed for any reduction in the efficiency
of his operation and for any delays or stoppages caused thereto by the installation, testing and
reading of the various measuring devices and the avoidance of damage or disturbance
thereto.

As a result of the investigations described above, The Engineer may direct the
Contractor to take measures to reduce or to compensate for settlements which will occur in
filled sections of swamp areas after completion of the Works. Such measures shall consist
of :

(i) the surcharging of filled areas so as to accelerate the consolidation of foundation


materials and/or

128
(ii) providing settlement allowances in the finished levels of the pavements, drainage and
other permanent works constructed in the filled sections of swamp areas.

If so ordered by the Engineer, the Contractor shall construct surcharge loads of fill in
such locations and to such dimensions and levels as the Engineer directs. The Contractor
shall re-schedule his filling operations in other parts of the Site to compensate for the fill
materials so diverted and to provide for the incorporation in the works of fill material made
available on subsequent removal of the surcharge loads.

Except as provided hereunder, surcharge loads shall remain in position for such
periods as the Engineer directs, after which the Contractor shall remove the surcharge loads,
incorporate the fill material in the works and make good to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative the area on which the surcharge load was formed; provided that in no case
will the Engineer direct that surcharge load in any area should be left in position for a period
extending beyond the end of the settlement allowed for that area in accordance with Volume
III.

The Contractor shall incorporate such settlement allowances as the Engineer


considers necessary in the finished levels of the pavement, drainage works and other
permanent works in filled sections of swamp areas. Settlement allowances shall be provided
by the addition or removal of fill material and not by varying the dimensions of pavements,
drainage works or other permanent works.

The Contractor shall be deemed to have allowed for any reduction in the efficiency
of his operations and for any delays, stoppages or inconveniences caused thereto (directly or
indirectly) by the operation of this Clause.

The Contractor will be required to lay a satisfactory running surface of gravel or


other approved material on the completed earthworks. Further construction shall not be
permitted until all settlement has effectively ceased to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
Before further construction continues the road formation shall be made up to the specified
levels. The extent of such areas shall be defined by the Engineer's Representative before
construction starts, and the measurement of earthworks within the area declared by the
Engineer's Representative to be a settlement area shall be the net cubic contents of the voids
formed by the removal of the material excavated in accordance with the specification and
drawings, no allowance being made for bulking. The rates entered in the Bill of Quantities
under the various items for excavation shall include for the excavation of material and the
loading, transport, deposition and compaction as specified, as shown on the drawings or as
directed by the Engineer's Representative.

FORMATION 6132. The formation level shall be the level of the embankment or cutting in its final shape
LEVEL after completion of the earthworks and before the superimposition of the sub-base course,
base course, or hard shoulder, and before the surface material is applied.

PREPARATION OF 6133. All earthworks shall be graded to provide the required formation profile. The
FORMATION Contractor may elect to leave sufficient material above formation level to protect the
formation and to delay the excavation of this material until preparation of the formation can
follow immediately. The subsequent removal and disposal of such material shall be at the
Contractor's expense. Cuttings other than those in rock shall not be excavated to formation
level in wet weather. If suitable material below formation level is damaged by any cause
such material shall be removed and replaced by properly compacted general fill and such
operations shall be at the expense of the Contractor.

129
Not less than 150 metres of completed subgrade shall be maintained in advance of
the paving operations at all times. Failure to comply with the provisions of this paragraph
will be deemed sufficient cause for stopping the paving operations until this provision is
met.

During the preparation of the formation, suitable motor graders shall be used and
shall be operated by highly experienced operators. Payment for work done under this clause
will be deemed to be included in the tendered rates for earthworks.

TRIMMING OF 6134. All slopes of cuttings and embankments shall be trimmed to the batters specified by
SLOPES the Engineer's Representative with a permissible tolerance of plus or minus 50mm
measured at right angles to the batter. Payment shall be deemed to be included in the
tendered rates for earthwork.

EXCAVATION IN 6135. When solid rock is encountered in excavations, the Contractor shall excavate and
ROCK dispose of such material as directed by the Engineer's Representative. The Contractor shall
not use explosives for excavations in rock without the prior written approval of the
Engineer. Where such approval is given, the Contractor shall provide proper magazines in
suitable positions for the storage of explosives and take all necessary precautions to prevent
any unauthorized issue or improper use of any explosives, to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative. The Contractor shall comply with any regulations regarding the
times for blasting, sizes of blasts, loading of shots, provision of blasting nets, etc., that the
Engineer's Representative may prescribe.

Blasting may be prohibited if, in the opinion of the Engineer's


Representative, it will be dangerous to persons or
property or to any finished or existing work.

"Solid Rock" shall mean any material having a volume greater than 0.30 cubic
metres that, in the opinion of the Engineer's Representative, can only be removed by the use
of sledge hammers and wedges (if removed by hand) or explosives and pneumatic tools (if
removed mechanically). Soft or decomposed material or boulders in excess of 0.30 cubic
metres which can be removed by dozing, pushing, rooting, ripping, scarifying or by the use of
other normal earth-moving plant shall not be classified as "Solid Rock".

Payment will be per cubic metre of "solid rock" excavated and disposed of as
directed by the Engineer's Representative. Should any difference of opinion arise between
the Contractor and the Engineer's Representative the matter shall be referred to the Engineer,
whose decision shall be final and shall be obtained before the material is disposed of or
covered up. If the Contractor is still not satisfied, the matter may be referred to an
Arbitrator.

Any material having a volume of less than 0.30 cubic metres or material, which in
the opinion of the Engineer's Representative can be removed by dozing, pushing, rooting,
ripping scarifying or by the use of other normal earthmoving plant shall be classified as
earthworks, and the cost of such operations shall be deemed to be included in the tendered
rates and prices for earthworks.

BACKFILLING OF 6136. Existing borrow pits adjacent to the roadway shall be backfilled as and where
EXISTING directed by the Engineer's Representative.
BORROW PITS

130
Such areas shall be backfilled with approved soil which shall be thoroughly
compacted throughout by power rammers or other approved methods, to a density not
greater than insitu density of the soil to promote vegetation growth as obtained in the British
Standard Compaction Test.

Measurement for this item shall be on the compacted backfill only, based on initial
and final levels, and payment under the relevant items of the bill of quantities, shall include
for benching and providing, placing, watering and compacting the material to the required
density as specified herein.

EMBANKMENT IN 6137. The Contractor shall bring to the notice of the


BAD GROUND Engineer’s Representative cases where embankments are required to be sited over
swamp or unstable ground. Where such conditions exist the Engineer's Representative may
direct that the first lift of fill material before compaction can be increased to 450mm in
order to establish firm ground for the compacting plant. This may not be done without the
written approval of the Engineer's Representative and even if such approval is given, the
Contractor is not relieved of his responsibility to provide a well compacted stable
embankment of the same standard as the rest of the works.

BACKFILLING 6138. No backfilling shall be carried out until the Engineer's Representative has inspected
and passed the culverts and other structures which will be covered up.

The excavation containing culverts will be backfilled in layers not exceeding 150mm
thickness with materials approved by the Engineer's Representative.

When existing pipes and conduits have insufficient earth cover during embankment
construction, the Contractor shall protect them against damage by his equipment and
operations. The embankment above and for a distance of not less than 600mm each side of
such facilities shall be compacted by such means as the Contractor may choose so as to
prevent damage to such facilities. The Contractor shall repair or make good any damage to
such facilities that may be caused by his operations.

Embankments constructed in the vicinity of bridges and culverts prior to the


completion of abutments and wing walls shall terminate temporarily on slopes 5:1 or flatter
which shall be located so as to allow ample space for construction of the structure and for
placing and compacting the backfill and remaining embankment adjacent thereto.
Embankment around and adjacent to abutments, culverts and piers shall be placed
simultaneously on both sides thereof to approximately, the same elevation.

Any space over the culverts and between the sides of the culvert and the walls of the
excavations shall be filled with selected material in a damp state approximating to its
optimum moisture content. The material shall be thoroughly compacted by hand or power
rammers to not less than the dry density specified in Clause 6125. The cost of all backfilling
as specified herein shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices.

GRASSING OF 6139. On completion of the verges, margins, embankments, etc., or at such other times as
EMBANKMENTS may be approved for the purpose of planting, all areas specified to be grassed shall be sown
CUTTINGS,
VERGES, ETC with broadcast seed or individual planting at 225mm centres and running parallel to the
centre line of the road. The Contractor shall be responsible for watering and maintenance
and for ensuring that the grass takes root, spreads and forms a thick mat.

131
Except where otherwise directed, the Contractor shall keep grassed areas mowed or
cut until the commencement of the period of maintenance. The grass shall be cut three times
during the growing season, or as often as it may be necessary.

The condition of grassed areas will be assessed by the Engineer's Representative


immediately after the third cutting. Areas which have not become established to his
satisfaction for any reason whatsoever shall be made good to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative.

ROADSIDE 6140. Roadside drainage ditches shall be constructed to the lines, grades and levels shown
DRAINAGE on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer's Representative. Where ditches collect
DITCHING surface water along their length and if he considers it necessary, the side at which the water
enters the ditch shall be protected by constructing a bund and by allowing the water to enter
the ditch only at specific points through the bund.

Where the gradient of the road is flatter than 1 in 120 the ditch shall be deepened to
provide an adequate drainage slope. All ditches with a gradient steeper than 1 in 120 shall be
paved in the invert with small stones embedded in the bottom of the ditch and for a height of
150mm up the sides. Pitching with small stones if ordered by the Engineer' Representative
shall be paid for separately.

Payment for roadside drainage ditches is covered under earthworks and shall include
for all trimming, shaping and bunding required.

Spoil excavated from drains shall, where suitable be incorporated in the filling, and
the quantity so used shall be deducted from the quantity of fill. No spoil shall be placed
within 2 metres of the drain.

Use shall be made of suitable roadside ditches at the discretion of the Engineer's
Representative.

CONCRETE DRAINS 6141. Concrete drains shall be constructed to the lines and levels shown on the drawings,
or as directed by the Engineer's Representative and shall comply in all respects with the
requirements stipulated for mass and reinforced concrete. The grade of concrete and
quantity and size of reinforcement to be used shall be as shown on the drawings or as
directed by the Engineer. The invert of drains shall be trowelled to a smooth finish and the
inside face of walls shall be left with a fair finish as obtained from wrot shuttering.

Where possible, spoil excavated for the construction of the drains, if suitable, shall
be incorporated in the filling and payment will be made, once only, under the appropriate
item for earthworks in the Bill of Quantities. Otherwise, the material excavation shall be
disposed of as directed by the Engineer's Representative, and paid for under the appropriate
item in the Bill of Quantities.

SUB-SOIL DRAINS 6142. All water appearing on the formation as surface water held in depressions and
potholes and sub-soil water which in any way affects the stability of the formation or
pavement shall be carried to the side drains in rubble or stone filled drains, to the approval
of the Engineer's Representative.

Graded stone filling shall be hard and durable and shall consist of broken
rock or gravel. It shall be well graded with a maximum
size of 75mm and the percentage passing a 38mm sieve
shall not exceed 5%. Graded stone filling shall be placed

132
in layers not exceeding 225mm loose depth and shall be
well rammed as filling proceeds. Stone filled drains on
side slopes shall be constructed prior to any surface
soiling and grassing

Pipes for sub-soil drains shall be mainly slotted flexible PVC pipes or perforated
concrete pipes with ogee joints or perforated corrugated metal pipes. They shall be laid with
dry joints. The pipe trenches shall be filled with graded stone filling which shall be carefully
placed and packed in layers not exceeding 225mm in loose depth.

Stone filled pipe drains on side slopes and margins shall be constructed prior to any
surface soiling and grassing. Payment for work done under this clause shall be at the rate
entered in the Bill of Quantities.

CONSTRUCTION 6142A. A sure way of avoiding drainage problems of perched or spring water is to carry
IN PERCHED out a proper soil survey of the area concerned and modify or re-adjust either the vertical or
WATER AREA
horizontal alignment or (both) to make the formation level far away as much as possible
from the perched water table or under ground springs. If circumstances make this impossible
the following procedure may be useful:

Once the formation has been prepared water should be pumped out of the
section to allow perforated pipes to be laid across the
section in close proximity to enable water flow into it,
and get channelled out of the roadway. Thereafter the
pipes are to be covered with specially selected granular
materials which will serve as weep holes over and above
the perched water level, before approved fill is laid and
compacted to not less than 95% MDD at a moisture not
less than 2% above OMC using sheepsfoot (Taper-foot)
roller up to a depth of 600mm below formation level,
thereafter 100% compaction at OMC of compactive
effort will apply. Compaction depth shall not be greater
than 150mm per layer.

In the alternative water proof material of uniform thickness (gauge) polytene sheets
may be used to wrap the fill placed after the application of the weep pipes and selected fill to
prevent ingress of water into the pavement. This method

may be necessary particularly if the crown of the road is within one metre from the
level of the perched water table.

CUT-OFF 6143. Cut-off ditching, metre drains turn-outs and culvert outfalls, including bunding as
DITCHING and where required by the Engineer's Representative shall be constructed where shown on
the drawings or as directed by the Engineer' Representative and will be paid for under the
appropriate items of the bill of quantities. Payment shall include for all trimming, shaping
and bunding.

EXCAVATION FOR 6144. Excavation for drainage works shall be carried out to the lines, levels and depths
CULVERTS shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer's Representative and in such a manner
that the stability of the sides and bottom of the excavation is ensured. Excavation shall be
kept from water until, in the opinion of the Engineer's Representative, concrete or other
works therein are sufficiently set and any filling has been completed.

133
Trenches shall be excavated through natural ground, or, where pipe culvert structures
are to be placed under embankment, the Contractor shall, unless otherwise directed,
complete the construction of the embankment to a minimum elevation of 300mm above the
elevation of the top of pipe. The pipe trench shall then be excavated and the pipe placed in
the trench. The width of trenches at any point below the top of the pipe shall not be greater
than the outside diameter of the pipe at the bell or bank plus 900mm to permit satisfactory
jointing and thorough tamping of the bedding material under the pipe. Sheeting and bracing,
where required, shall be placed within the trench width as specified. Care shall be taken not
to over excavate. Where trench widths are exceeded, redesign with a resultant increase in
cost of stronger pipe or special installation procedures will be necessary. Cost of this
redesign and increased cost of pipe or installation shall be borne by the Contractor.

The width of trench for structural concrete pipe culverts shall not exceed the widths
shown on the Drawings or as specified above, and these widths shall be maintained to a
height of at least 300mm above the top of the barrels of the pipes.

Where directed by the Engineer's Representative soft material below the required
levels of excavation shall be removed and filled to the required level with compacted
granular bedding material or concrete grade 15N/mm².

Where excavation is taken out to a greater depth than is necessary or there is


over-excavation at the sides of the trench, the Contractor shall fill in the excess excavation at
his own expense with 10 N/mm2 concrete or with compacted granular bedding as directed by
the Engineer's Representative.

Rock encountered in trenches for pipes shall be excavated to the depths shown on the
Drawings. Where no depths are shown it shall be excavated to a depth 150mm below the
intended level of the bottom of the pipes and replaced with granular bedding or concrete
grade 10 N/mm2 as directed by the Engineer's Representative.

For measurement purposes, depths shall be measured from formation level in the
case of cuttings and from the original ground level where the new carriageway is on
embankments.

The rate for excavation shall include for any extra width over the net width which the
Contractor may consider to be necessary. The rate for excavation shall also include for any
timbering, shoring, strutting, or pumping if required, backfilling and compaction and for the
disposal of surplus material as directed by the Engineer's Representative to a distance not
exceeding 1.6 kilometres. Soft yielding material shall be dug out and replaced with
approved selected material compacted to 100% of its maximum dry density obtained in the
West African Compaction Test. All backfilling shall be compacted to 100% of its
maximumdry density obtained in the West African Compaction Test.

DEMOLITION OF 6145. The Contractor will be required to excavate and demolish existing culverts as and
EXISTING where directed by the Engineer's Representative. Materials from the demolition will be
CULVERTS
disposed off as directed by the Engineer's Representative. Where the culvert has been
demolished the area will be backfilled with suitable material as specified in the relevant
clause of the specification.

Payment will be made under the appropriate items in the Bill of Quantities, and shall
include for excavation, demolition and disposal of materials and backfilling, all as specified
herein.

134
NEW PIPE 6146. Where specified on the drawings, all pipe culverts shall be bedded on and haunched
CULVERTS with a minimum of 150mm thickness of Grade 15 N/mm² Quality Concrete.

(a) Unreinforced concrete pipes shall comply with B.S 556. They shall be unreinforced
standard pipes and the following shall apply:-

(1) Joints shall be ogee type

(2) High alumina or sulphate resisting cement will not be required.

(3) Samples of aggregate will not be required.

(4) Tests other than the manufacturer's quality control tests will not be
required.

(5) No variation will be allowed in the time of maturing.

(6) Certificates in accordance with Clause 8 of Appendix A will be required.

(7) Admixtures will be prohibited.

Unreinforced concrete pipes shall be surrounded with concrete and the pipe trenches
shall be filled to natural subgrade level with special granular fill.

No concrete shall be placed around any length of pipe until the Engineer's
Representative has approved the laying and jointing of same.

Special granular fill shall be placed and thoroughly compacted in layers not
exceeding 250mm loose depth.

(b) Structural concrete pipes shall comply with B.S 556. They shall be reinforced extra
strength pipes of the Class specified on the Drawings and the following shall apply:-

(1) Joints shall be flexible spigot and socket type with rubber gaskets and
performance data will not be required.

(2) High alumina or sulphate resisting cement will not be required.

(3) Samples of aggregate will not be required

(4) Tests other than the manufacturer's quality control tests will not be
required.

(5) Certificates in accordance with Clause 8 of Appendix A will be required.

(6) Admixtures shall be prohibited.

Pipes shall be laid true to line and level and each pipe shall be separately boned
between sight rails. Immediately prior to laying, pipes shall be examined for defects and no

135
defective materials shall be incorporated in the Works. Where non-standard lengths of
unreinforced concrete pipe are required at catch pits, headwalls, outfalls and the like, the
pipes shall be cut and the ends made good. Where it is necessary to cut structural concrete
pipes, they shall be sawn and the cut end shall be cast into the manhole catch pit headwall etc.
so that at least 75mm concrete cover is provided.

Ogee joints shall be thoroughly cleaned before laying and 1:2 cement sand mortar
shall be evenly applied to the ends so as to completely fill the joint. The pipes shall then be
properly drawn together, the outside of the joint shall be neatly pointed and any surplus
mortar on the inside of the joint shall be removed.

Structural concrete pipes shall be laid and joined in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations and the methods recommended for flexible jointed pipes in
National Building Studies Special Report 35 'Pipe Laying Principles'.

Care shall be taken to ensure that excess cement mortar and earth or other material is
thoroughly cleaned out of the pipes. Cleaning shall be carried out during the laying of the
pipes by drawing a timber badger through the pipes at a distance of 2 pipes lengths from the
last made joint or by other means acceptable to the Engineer's Representative. The timber
badges shall be not less than 450mm long and shall have a diameter 12mm less than the
internal diameter of the pipe. The badger shall only be removed from the pipe in the presence
of the Engineer's Representative.

If for any reason, the invert level of a pipe culvert is such that the depth of cover at
the edge of the pavement is less than 600mm or the diameter of the pipe, then, on the
instruction of the Engineer's Representative the culvert shall be given a complete surround
150mm thickness, of Grade 15 N/mm² quality concrete in place of a concrete haunch, and
payment shall be made for same at the appropriate rates in the Bills of Quantities.

The outlets of pipe culverts shall be pitched with stone to a minimum length of 2
metres from the face of the culvert or as directed, and the level of the pitching shall be at
least 75mm below the culvert invert. The width of pitching shall be decided on site by the
Engineer's Representative. The inlets of culverts shall be pitched only where directed by the
Engineer's Representative. In cases where pitching is unobtainable the Engineer's
Representative may order a 150mm thick apron of Grade 15 N/mm² concrete to be
constructed.

Where directed catchpits of the required internal dimensions shall be constructed at


the inlets of culverts. The inverts and walls shall be of Grade 15 N/mm² quality concrete,
reinforced if directed.

The backfilling shall be of approved material, compacted as specified in the relevant


clauses of this specification.

a. Backfilling trenches: After the bedding has been prepared and the pipe
installed, selected material from excavation or borrow pit, at a moisture content that will
facilitate compaction, shall be placed along both sides of the pipe in layers not exceeding
150mm in compacted depth. The backfill-shall be brought up evenly on both sides of the
pipe for its full length. Care shall be taken to ensure thorough compaction of the fill under
the haunches of the pipe. Each layer shall be thoroughly compacted with mechanical tampers
or rammers. This method of filling and compacting shall continue until the fill has reached
an elevation of at least 300mm above the top of the pipe. The remainder of the trench shall
be backfilled and compacted by spreading and rolling, or compacted by mechanical rammers

136
or tampers in compacted layers not exceeding 150mm. Tests for density will be made as
necessary and directed by the Engineer, at no expense to the Contractor.

b. Backfilling pipe in fill sections: The fill material shall be uniformly spread
in layers longitudinally on both sides of the pipe, not exceeding 150mm in compacted layer
and shall be compacted by rolling parallel with pipe or by mechanical tamping or ramming.
Prior to commencing normal filling operations, the crown width of the fill at a height of
300mm above the top of the pipe shall extend a distance of not less than twice the outside
diameter on each side of the pipe, or 4m whichever is less. After the backfill has reached at
least 300mm above the top of the pipe, the remainder of the fill shall be placed and
thoroughly compacted in layers not exceeding 150mm.

c. Construction machinery: In compacting by rolling or operating heavy


equipment parallel with the pipe, displacement of or injury to the pipe shall be avoided.
Movement of construction machinery over a culvert or a storm drain at any stage of the
construction shall be at the Contractor's risk. Any pipe damaged thereby shall be repaired or
replaced at the option of the Engineer's Representative and at the expense of the Contractor.

EXTENSION OF 6147. Existing pipe culverts shall be extended to the lengths shown on the drawings or as
EXISTING PIPE directed by the Engineer's Representative. The extension shall be of a similar diameter to the
CULVERTS
existing culvert, and constructed in a like manner. Where existing headwalls occur within
the carriageway width they shall be removed to a minimum depth of 300mm below new road
level and the new road constructed to the profile shown on the drawings.

The existing culvert and the new extensions shall be cleaned out and flushed as
necessary on completion to clear all dirt, cement mortar and other obstruction to allow the
free passage of water through its full internal area.

If so directed by the Engineer, the existing culverts which are to be retained and do
not already have a complete surround or haunch of concrete as required, shall be dug out and
the surround or haunch completed by 150mm of concrete as specified for new culverts.

ACCESS 6148. Access culverts shall if sufficient cover is not available for pipe culverts, be
CULVERTS constructed in the form of a small slab or box culverts to the grade, sizes and dimensions
shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer's Representative. The roof and floor
slabs shall consist of grade 25 N/mm² concrete reinforced as shown on the drawings. The
walls shall consist of grade 10 N/mm² mass concrete. Construction shall comply with all
relevant clauses of the specification or such modifications as the Engineer may decide. The
headwalls shall be constructed of precast concrete blocks with a 6:1 sand cement mix.

BOX CULVERTS 6149. Box culverts shall be constructed to the grades, sizes and dimensions shown on the
drawings, or as directed by the Engineer's Representative, and the finished surface shall be
smooth and regular free from flaws, air holes and excrescences and with a constant grade.

The grades of concrete and quantity and size of reinforcement to be used shall be as
shown on the drawings and shall comply in all respects with the requirements stipulated for
mass and reinforced concrete.

Culvert construction shall comply in all respects with the requirements of this
specification or such modification thereof as the Engineer may decide.

137
EXTENSIONS TO 6150. The Engineer shall provide the Contractor with additionaldrawings for the
EXISTING BOX construction of the extensions to the existingsmall section box culverts. Measurement of the
CULVERTS
works incorporated in these extensions shall be as for new reinforced concrete box culverts.

The existing culvert and the new extensions, shall be cleaned out and flushed as
necessary on completion to clear all dirt, cement mortar and other obstructions to allow the
free passage of water through its full internal area.

CORRUGATED 6151. Where corrugated metal culverts are specified, they ORshall be of galvanized
METAL"ARMCO" corrugated metal pipes or pipe arches of the"armco" or other approved type complying with
CULVERTS
the cross-section and gauge specified. The pipes or pipe arches shall be assembled in
convenient lengths in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or as directed by the
Engineer's Representative. Before laying, care must be taken to ensure that the bottom of the
trench or if laid under embankments, the prepared bed, is accurately graded and compacted to
provide a solid uniform bearing for the pipes or pipe arches and to ensure this the Engineer's
Representative may direct that a 300mm thick compacted layer of approved material be
constructed. The width of the trench shall be such that a minimum of 300mm is left between
the pipe or pipe arch and the side of the trench. Back filling shall be of approved material
laid in uniform layers of 150mm in depth and compacted to 100% of its maximum dry
density achieved in the West African Standard Compaction Test.

For multiple structures, the minimum clearance between each pipe or pipe arch shall
be not less than half of the maximum cross- sectional width of the pipe or pipe arch. The
minimum depth of compacted cover (excluding the base course) over any pipe or pipe arch
shall be at least 300mm. The maximum depth of fill over any pipe or pipe arch shall not
exceed the manufacturer's recommendation for the particular gauge of culvert used.

Corrugated metal pipes culverts and channels shall comply with the materials section
Standard Specification for Corrugated Metal Culvert Pipe, Designation M36-60 of the
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials except that:-

(i) The pipes culverts and channels shall be manufactured


from steel complying with B.S 1449: Part Al, or Part l B
with copper content when required at 0. 2 per cent
minimum.

(ii) The pipes culverts and channels shall be coated with spelter complying with
B.S 729: Part l, alternatively the pipes may be manufactured from steel sheet complying with
B.S 2989.

(iii) The pipes and culverts shall be bitumen coated in the course of manufacture
as specified hereinbelow.

Where available, all culverts shall be factory coated with a double layer of protective
bitumen. Where the culverts are not factory coated, i.e. in the case of the large diameter or
multiple culverts, the Contractor shall apply two coats of approved bitumen, as a protective
measure, to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative, and the Contractor shall be
deemed to have allowed for this in his tendered rates and prices. If for any reason, such as
the acidity of the sub-soil water, the Engineer considers any further protective measures to
be necessary, the Contractor shall carry out same as directed and shall be paid at rates to be
mutually agreed between the Engineer and the Contractor.

138
The Contractor shall take every precaution to ensure that the protective coatings,
including galvanizing, are not damaged in any way during transporting, storing, assembling
or laying of the culvert, and he shall make good any such damage to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative and at his own expense.

(1) Bitumen - Bitumen for coating shall have the following properties: as in Table
VI -3 below:

TABLE VI-3 QUALITY OF BITUMEN COATING


TEST TYPE LIMIT % TEST METHOD

Bitumen soluble in cold carbon tetrachloride, not less


than AASHTO T45
99.5

Loss in weight on heating to 163 C, not more than 1 AASHTO T47

Penetration of residue after heating compared with


penetration of same sample before testing for loss on 85 AASHTO T49
heating, not less than

INLETS AND 6152 The positions, lengths, dimensions and levels of all culverts including aprons shall be
OUTLETS OF as shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer's Representative. The culvert shall
CULVERTS
be cleaned out and flushed as necessary on completion to clear all dirt, and other
obstructions to allow the free flow of water through its full internal cross-sectional area.

The outlets of all culverts shall be protected from erosion by stone pitching or
concrete to a minimum length of 2 metres from its face. The width of the pitching or
concrete shall be decided by the Engineer's Representative and a toe-wall 450mm deep shall
be constructed at the edge of such pitching or concrete. The inlets to culvert shall be
similarly protected, only where directed by the Engineer.

Where the gradient of the roadside drainage ditch would be excessive if the ditch
were graded to the invert level of culverts, catchpits or balancing ponds shall be constructed
as and where directed by the Engineer's Representative. The catchpits shall be constructed of
mass concrete to such dimensions as required by the Engineer's Representative.

CLEARING DRAINS 6153. Before any drain or culvert is brought into use the Contractor shall ensure to the
AND CULVERTS satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative that it is free from all extraneous material, all
such material being completely removed from the site.

During the period of maintenance the Contractor shall ensure that the drains and
culverts shall be kept clear of all obstructions and before the maintenance certificate is
granted all drains and culverts must be cleaned out to the satisfaction of the Engineer. All
costs incurred shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices.

PITCHING 6154. Pitching will be provided where shown on the drawings or as directed by the
Engineer's Representative. The stone used for pitching shall comply in all respects with the
requirements of this specification.

The pitching shall be either 150mm or 225mm thick as appropriate and if directed or
shown on the drawings shall be set in mortar comprising 1 part of cement to 4 parts of sand.
The ground on which the pitching is to be placed shall be shaped and compacted to the

139
satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative before the pitching is laid. At the extremities of
the pitching, toe-walls shall be formed in the same construction and they shall be carried
down to a depth of 450mm, or to such greater depth as may be specified on the drawings or
by the Engineer.

Pitching shall be measured per square metre of complete pitching and payment will
include for the supply of all materials, labour etc., and the construction of the completed
pitching shall be as specified in this Clause. Catchpits where required may also be
constructed in pitching stone laid in cement mortar as directed on site by the Engineer's
Representative, and measurement shall be per square meter of wall. Payment for toe walls
shall be based on the length of wall constructed and shall include for excavation and
backfilling.

APPROVAL OF 6155. The Contractor shall not commence work on the sub-grade, sub-base course, base
METHOD course or surfacing until he has obtained the Engineer's Representative's approval of the
plant, materials and methods that he proposes for clearance, excavation, mixing,
transporting, heating, spreading, grading and compacting the same as appropriate compaction
tests will be required before such approval is granted.

The foregoing provisions shall not prevent the Engineer from requiring the
Contractor to vary his plant, material or methods at any time during the execution of the
works, should he considers this essential for carrying out the contract. The Contractor shall
not vary plant, material or methods which have been approved by the Engineer's
Representative without previously obtaining his approval of such variation.

The Engineer or his Representative's approval of any of the Contractor's plants,


material or methods shall not at any time imply responsibility for the execution of the work
involved and the Contractor shall at all times be solely responsible for constructing the
sub-grade, sub-base, base and pavement surfacings in accordance with the specification and
drawings.

PREVENTION OF 6156. The Contractor shall ensure that the passage of any vehicle or plant over the partially
DAMAGE TO completed pavement or over the sub-grade, sub-base or base does not occasion any rutting or
COMPLETED
other damage or disturbance to the partially completed works, and should such rutting or
PAVEMENT
other damage or disturbance occur, the Contractor shall make the same good as directed by
the Engineer's Representative at his own expense.

Vehicles and plant passing repeatedly over the partially completed pavement or over
the sub-grade, sub-base or base shall not be allowed to travel in a single track, but such
traffic shall be spread out over as great a width as practicable. There shall be no storage or
stockpiling of materials on top of partially completed pavements or on the base, sub-base or
sub-grade.

WATER FOR 6157. The Contractor shall provide all water necessary for the construction of the
CONSTRUCTION sub-grade, sub-base, base and pavement surface. Such water shall be clean and free from
organic matters, waste matter or other harmful or deleterious substances, and shall be
obtained from an approved source.

The Contractor shall provide all plant necessary for conveying and distributing water.
Where it is necessary to increase the moisture content of materials comprising the sub-grade,
sub-base or base, the water shall be evenly sprinkled on the surface of the soil by spraying
machine of a type or types to be approved by the Engineer's Representative, such machines

140
being capable of uniformly distributing the water at a known predetermined and constant
rate.

ROLLERS 6158. Smooth-wheeled, sheepsfoot and pneumatic tyre rollers where employed for
compacting soils and pavement materials as detailed in subsequent clauses shall be of a type
and compacting effort approved by the Engineer's Representative and shall be capable of
achieving the specified degree of compaction. The compactive effort shall be designated as
the weight per centimetre width of rolling wheel, for the smooth wheeled and pneumatic type
rollers. The comapctive effort of the sheepsfoot roller shall be expressed dividing the total
load of the roller by the foot area (square centimetre) in contact on hard ground.

The distribution of wheels on any roller shall be such that the whole of the ground
surface within the width of the roller is loaded during each pass of the roller.

VIBRATORY 6159. Where vibratory compactors or power rammers are used on the works they shall be
COMPACTORS of the type approved by the Engineer's Representative and shall be capable of obtaining the
specified degree of compaction approved.

TRENCH 6160. Where the exiting carriageway is to be widened on its existing alignment, the
EXCAVATION FOR Contractor shall excavate a trench with neat and vertical sides to each side of it to contain the
WIDENING OF additional pavement construction required for the new carriage way width.Each edge of the
EXISTING PAVEMENT
existing surfacing shall be cut-back as directed by the Engineer's Representative on site, but
such cut-back will be kept to the minimum compatible with the provision of a straight and
clean sharp edge to the surfacing on the inside edge of the trench. Payment for the
excavation of the trenches including for the trimming back of the existing surfacing and the
disposal of all excavated material shall be made per cubic metre of material excavated under
the appropriate item for earthworks in the Bill of Quantities.

Measurement shall be based on sections taken before and after excavation of the
trenches but payment shall not be made for excavation in excess of that specified and
required to receive the specified pavement.

The maximum amount of trench excavation shall be placed to fill and payment shall
be made once only as decided above.

PREPARATION OF 6161. The sub-grade whether in trench excavation or construction shall be graded and
SUB-GRADE compacted to such level as will permit the works to be constructed to the required thickness
and specified finished levels and tolerances.

Before it is compacted, the Engineer's Representative will inspect the sub-grade and
the Contractor shall notify the Engineer's Representative when each area of sub-grade is
ready for inspection, and shall allow reasonable time for the inspection to be made.
Wherever ordered by the Engineer's Representative, the Contractor shall excavate any
unsuitable material from below the sub-grade and shall deposit the same as and where
directed by the Engineer's Representative. The Contractor shall replace the void with fill
material approved by the Engineer's Representative. Payment will be made in accordance
with the relevant clause of this specification, excepting where the unsuitable material has
been imported by the Contractors.

All loose pieces of stone or other material exceeding 75mm in size in any dimension
shall be removed from the surface of the sub-grade before compaction is commenced and
disposed of as directed by the Engineer's Representative.

141
The Contractor shall then compact the whole of the Sub-grade by the use of approved
smooth wheeled, sheepsfoot or pneumatic tyred rollers, static or vibratory type as approved
by the Engineer's Representative.

Final compaction shall be by smooth wheeled roller. The density required shall be
100 per cent of the maximum dry density obtained in the British Standard Compaction Test.

Payment for compaction of sub-grade will be made once only either through
earthworks items, or other appropriate items in the Bill of Quantities.

COMPLETION AND 6162. Immediately before the construction of the subbase course, the upper surface of the
SHAPING OF SUB- sub-grade shall be tested for smoothness and accuracy of formation and if any areas are
GRADE
found to lack the required smoothness or accuracy, such areas shall be scarified, reshaped,
re-compacted as specified, or otherwise treated as the Engineer's Representative may require
until the required smoothness and accuracy is obtained.

The finished surface of the sub-grade shall be left as smooth as possible and the
accuracy of finish in the longitudinal direction shall not vary at any point by more than
12mm from a 5-0 metre straight edge, placed in any position on the finished surface parallel
to the centre line. The transverse profile shall conform to the same accuracy using a
correctly shaped template instead of the straight edge. The level of any point on the aforesaid
surface shall not vary by more than 12mm from the finished level of the pavement less the
specified thickness of the pavement construction. Payment for all of the work required by
this clause shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices.

The requirements of this clause shall not be held to apply to the existing bituminous
surfacing scarified, shaped and recompacted on lengths of strengthening of the existing
alignment. Payment for all of the operations required under this clause shall be deemed to
be included in the tendered rates and prices.

COMPLETION OF 6163. On completion of the carriageway and hard shoulders, the verges and medians shall
VERGES AND be brought to finished level, shaped to the cross-falls as shown on the drawings and
MEDIANS
compacted so that the upper 150mm has a dry density of not less than 100% of the
maximum dry density as determined by the West African Standard Compaction Test.

Where the material forming the verges or medians is of such a nature that it is liable
to erosion, the Engineer may direct that the top 75mm of the verges or medians be formed of
cohesive lateritic soil, or other approved material, and the 75mm of filling material below it
shall be compacted in one operation to 100% of the maximum dry density as determined by
the West African Compaction Test. The selected lateritic soil for the verges or medians shall
be preferably a well graded lateritic soil with a plasticity index of not less than 10 and not
more than 20. Payment for this selected compacted 75mm of topping to the verges or
medians shall be made under the appropriate item in the Bill of Quantities.

The verges or medians shall be cleared of any windrows or heaps of material and
shall be graded evenly, as directed, so that water drains in the required manner. The verges
and medians shall be grassed, sealed or paved where directed by the Engineer.

STRIPPING 6164. Stripping topsoil shall apply only to those sections of the roadway to be realigned;
TOPSOIL that is, where the proposed roadworks will not fall within the limits of the existing
roadworks. Only those areas of the new construction outside the existing roadworks will be
stripped of topsoil.

142
Before grading work is commenced the vegetation and underlying topsoil within
excavation and embarkment areas shall be stripped off to a depth of not less than 100mm and
not more than 150mm below the existing ground surface. Stripped material which is or may
be made suitable for topsoiling shall be stored and used therefore if needed. Stripped topsoil
in excess of the quantity required for the Project topsoiling shall be stored at locations
specified for future use of the Engineer. Topsoil shall not be stored in areas where it will
interfere with surface drainage or with the conservation of trees, shrubs and other vegetation
that are to remain.

CATCHPITS AND 6165. Catchpits and cascades shall be constructed of in-situ concrete Grade 15N/mm² as
CASCADES shown on the drawings. Unshuttered exposed concrete surfaces shall be finished with a
wooden float. The ends of pipes shall be properly built into the catahpits and unreinforced
concrete pipes shall be cut off flush with the inner surface of catchpits.

Excavation not occupied by the catchpit cascade or by adjacent pipe drains shall be
backfilled with the excavated material which shall be placed and compacted in layers not
exceeding 225mm loose depth to a dry density equivalent to that of the surrounding ground.
Should the excavated material become unsuitable for backfilling due to any cause, the
Contractor shall provide other suitable material for filling at his own expense.

(CLAUSES 6166 - 6179 INCLUSIVE NOT USED.)

TESTS

TESTS FOR THE 6180. The following tests shall be carried out on all material proposed for use as fill:-
SELECTION OF
FILLING MATERIAL
(I) PLASTICITY TESTS

(II) GRADING TESTS

(III) DENSITY/MOISTURE CONTENT COMPACTION TESTS

(IV) LABORATORY C.B.R. TESTS.

Unless otherwise stated to the contrary, these tests shall be carried out as described in
section 1 of this specification.

TESTS FOR THE 6181. The tests listed below will normally be required to be carried out for each 2
CLASSIFICATION OF kilometres of sub-grade or each layer of fill. The numbers and types of tests listed however,
COMPACTED SUB-
are given only as a guide to the Contractor for tender purposes and the actual number and
GRADE AND FILLING
type of tests which will be carried out during the construction of the works will be
determined entirely at the discretion of the Engineer.

(I) CLASSIFICATION TESTS

2 NO. LIQUID LIMIT TESTS

2 NO. PLASTIC LIMIT TESTS

2 NO. SIEVE ANALYSIS TESTS

143
4 NO. BRITISH STANDARD COMPACTION TESTS

2 NO. LABORATORY C.B.R. TESTS AT THE SPECIFIED DENSITY AND


MOISTURE CONTENT.

(Il) CONTROL TESTS

20 NO. INSITU DRY DENSITY TESTS.

Except where otherwise stated to the contrary, these tests shall be carried out as
described in section 1 of this specification, or where no such description is given in
accordance with the appropriate British Standard, AASHTO and ASTM Standards.

The sieve analysis shall be carried out in accordance with the standards laid down in
the latest amended report of the "Lagos materials testing Conference", a copy of which shall
be made available to the Contractor on request, or as per the latest B.S 1377.

TRIAL SECTIONS TO 6182. The Contractor's attention is particularly drawn to the necessity for carrying out trial
DETERMINE sections with each type of proposed filling material prior to the start of the main
TECHNIQUE
construction for the particular type of material, to determine the most efficient technique, the
most suitable compacted thickness of each layer and the suitability of the proposed materials
and plant, all as described in the Clause 1052 of this specification.

(CLAUSES 6183 - 6199 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

PART (C) SUB-BASE COURSE, BASE COURSE ETC.

(1) LATERITE

GENERAL 6200. In addition to any other clause of this specification, the following shall be deemed to
apply in particular to laterite sub-base course and base course work, and shall be read in
conjunction with all other relevant clauses of the conditions of contract and this
specification.

MATERIALS

MATERIALS FOR 6201. All materials for the sub-base course, base course and hard shoulders shall be
COMPACTED selected by the Contractor. Where a preliminary soil survey has been carried out by the
SUB-BASE COURSE
Engineer, a copy of the report on the soil survey shall be made available to the Contractor.
AND BASE COURSE
Where no such soil survey has been carried out the Contractor shall make his own
arrangements for the location of borrow pits and sources of materials, and the cost of any
survey shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices. The soil survey report
of the Engineer, when available, shall be used for guidance only, and shall not relieve the
Contractor of his responsibility for executing the works in accordance with the Conditions
of Contract and this Specification. All selected material shall be free of roots, vegetable
matter, and other deleterious material and shall be approved by the Engineer's Representative
before its incorporation into the works.

Normally the minimum strength of such base course material shall not be less than
80% C.B.R. value being determined at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content
unsoaked with either West African or Modified A.A.S.H.T.O. compaction. However, where

144
the Engineer's Representative considers it necessary on account of perched water-table or any
other reasons, he may specify that a C.B.R. value of 80% be obtained after at least 24 hours
soaking. For construction on perched water area see clauses 6142 and 6142A.

Base Course

The requirements below in Clauses 6250, 6251, and 6252 shall apply herein.

Subbase Type 1

The subbase material shall consist of pit-run laterite, sand, or screening, and soil of
other similar binding or filler material and shall be obtained from approved sources. The
maximum dimensions of any particle shall not be greater than two-thirds of the compacted
thickness of the layer in which it is to be placed. Oversize material shall be removed by
screens, grizzlies or by hand picking. The gradation and soil constants shall comply to the
requirements specified herein. The material shall be free from vegetable matter, and
excessive amount of lumps of clay, and other objectionable or foreign substances.

Table VI-4 Gradation of Subbase Material:

Sieve Percent Passing by Weight

75mm 100
600 m 25-60
425 m 10-40
75 m 5-20

The percent by weight passing the No-75 m sieve shall be less than but not greater
than 35%. The material passing the 425 m sieve shall have a liquid limit of not more than
35% and a plasticity index of not more than 12, as determined by American Society for
Testing Materials methods, serial designation D 432-39 and 424-39 respectively or as
determined by test No 2 or 2A and test Nos 3 of B.S 1377 (1975). Prior to approval of the
subbase material a test section shall be constructed to the thickness shown on the typical
pavement section and compacted to 100 percent of maximum density. When the test section
is compacted to 100 percent maximum density at optimum moisture content, the subbase
material shall be of such quality that it shall have the minimum CBR of 30% after at least 24
hours soaking. Once established that the subbase meets the CBR quality requirement at 100
percent maximum density it shall be placed and compacted in the field to that density.

Subbase course, Type 2

The minimum strength of material for Subbase Course type 2, shall not be less than 20%
CBR after at least 24 hours of soaking, for light traffic.

The C.B.R. values shall be assessed in the same manner as for base course, at the optimum
moisture content and maximum dry density of the West African Compaction Test.

At the Engineer's Representative discretion material with a liquid limit greater than 35%,
and a plasticity index greater than 12 may be disallowed for use as subbase course or base
course.

Subbase Course Type 3

145
The use of Substandard Material for Subbase

If the Engineer's Representative is satisfied that good materials for base or subbase course
are not available, sub standard materials may be used adopting the following guide lines.

Class A Materials

These are materials rejected either due to too much fine, silt, or clay content but slightly fall
short of strength specified.

(i) The material may be used by compacting it to a dry density slightly less than
maximum at moisture content slightly greater than OMC, to contain the tendency for such
material to swell or shrink due to cycle of weather. To make up for strength deficiency, a
ratio of strength proportion of the material to what is specified shall be worked out and the
depth of the subbase/base course adequately increased to account for the deficiency.

(ii) On the other hand, where sand is available at economical rate, mechanical
stabilization shall be used to reduce the fines content thus increasing the strength of the
material.

It will be necessary to determine economic percentage of the sand required before the
method is put into use.

Subbase Course - All Types

The gravels as excavated from the pits may contain oversize material and such material must
be broken down so that all material used in base course shall pass a 25mm sieve; and that
used in subbase shall pass a 50mm sieve. The work of breaking down or disposal of such
oversize material shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices.

ROCK LATERITE 6202. Rock Laterite for base course shall be hard and durable and shall be from a source
FOR SUBBASE approved by the Engineer’s Representative. Samples of the stone shall be submitted to the
COURSE AND BASE
Engineer’s Representative for his approval and shall be tested by soaking the specimen in
COURSE
water for 96 hours to ensure they do not disintegrate. The stone shall not be less than
225mm deep, and shall be not less than 230 sq.cm. base area, where the thickness of the
course is 225mm. The percentage of wear shall not exceed 50% as determined by ASTM
C131-51 procedure.

Rock Laterite for blinding shall be clean crushed laterite aggregate graded from 5mm
to dust from the same source as material for pitching, free from excessive clay or silt.

(CLAUSES 6203 - 6204 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

WORKMANSHIP

SEQUENCE OF 6205. The pavement construction for the roadway shall consist of the following as
OPERATIONS specified herein and shown on the drawings:-

(A) The scarifying of the subgrade where no filling is applied.

(B) The compacting of the subgrade.

146
(C) The laying and compacting of the sub-base course and base course.

(D) The providing of prime and first coat bituminous surface dressing to the base course
of the carriageway if applicable.

BORROW PITS FOR 6206. The Contractor shall arrange and pay for any compensations or other payments
SUB-BASE, BASE whatsoever required for access to and occupation and use of the borrow pits for course and
COURSE AND HARD
selected shoulder materials. The Contractor shall clear subbase, base the areas and remove
SHOULDER
MATERIALS and stockpile overburden to such depths as may be required by the Engineer's Representative.
Under no circumstances will payment be made for removal of overburden. Materials used
which may include the incorporation of suitable overburden as directed shall be taken only
from such areas and to such depths and in such a manner as the Engineer's Representative
shall direct. The Contractor shall at his own expense remove and dispose of all unsuitable
materials, the removal of materials may require prior rooting and scarification and the
Contractor shall be deemed to have allowed for this in the tendered rates and prices. The
material as excavated may not fall within the required limits of grading for the completed
pavement and the Contractor shall be deemed to have included in the tendered rates and
prices for any additional work which may be required to bring the material within the
specified limits when laid and compacted in the road bed.

Borrow pits shall be worked and drained so as to obtain the maximum quantities of
available suitable materials and shall be finally drained, levelled, and topsoil replaced all as
specified and to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

Payment for all arrangements, compensation, operations and other requirements of


this clause shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices.

The width of the subbase course and base course shall be as shown on the drawings
or as directed by the Engineer. The compacted thickness of the subbase course and base
course is dependent on the C.B.R. values of the Sub-grade and that of the material used, and
shall be as shown on the drawings or as otherwise directed by the Engineer's Representative
in accordance with the following provisions:-

The specified combined thickness for the subbase course and the base course has
been derived from the pavement design diagram, curve E(RRL.RN/2503) based on an
anticipated minimum C.B.R. value (after at least 48 hours soaking) for the compacted
Sub-grade. Where a C.B.R. value in excess of the anticipated value is achieved, then
compacted thickness of the Sub-base course may be reduced at the discretion of the
Engineer's Representative and in accordance with curve E(RRL.RN/2803). Under no
circumstances shall the combined compacted thickness of the pavement be reduced to less
than 150mm.

Before compaction, the subbase course and base course material shall be brought to
the optimum moisture content for the compaction effort of the plant to achieve the density
specified. Where the existing moisture content of the material is higher than this, the soil
shall be allowed to dry out by aeration; where it is lower sufficient water shall be added to
the soil such that uniform wetting of the material to optimum moisture content is achieved.

Compaction of the subbase course and the base course shall be carried out
separately, and shall begin immediately the soil has been brought to the required moisture
content and shall be carried out rapidly until completion. The compaction of the subbase

147
course and base course shall be carried out to a dry density not less than 100% of that
achieved in the West African Standard Compaction Test at optimum moisture content, but
the compaction of the base course may be carried out to a dry density of not less than 100%
of that achieved in the Modified A.A.S.H.O. Compaction Test at optimum moisture content,
if so directed by the Engineer.

The base course shall be finished to camber or cross-fall as shown on the drawings or
as otherwise directed by the Engineer's Representative.

COMPLETION OF 6207. Immediately before the construction of the base-course, the Sub-base
SUB-BASE COURSE course shall be tested for thickness, surface finish, and
accuracy, and if any areas are found to lack the required
thickness surface finish, or accuracy or specified density,
such areas shall be scarified, recompacted to the
specified density or otherwise treated as the Engineer's
Representative may require until the required thickness
smoothness accuracy or density is obtained.

The finished surface of the Sub-base course shall be left as smooth as possible and
the accuracy of finish in the longitudinal direction shall not vary at any point by more than
12mm for a 5 metre straight edge, placed in any position on the finished surface parallel to
the centre line. The transverse profile shall conform to the same accuracy using a correctly
shaped template instead of straight edge. The level of any point on the aforesaid surface
shall not vary by more than 12mm from the finished level of the pavement less the specified
thickness of the base construction.

The thickness of the Sub-base course at any point shall not be less than the specified
thickness by more than 12 mm The Contractor shall include in his rates the digging of trial
holes, and making good same, to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

COMPLETION OF 6208. Immediately before the application of the surfacing the base course shall be tested for
BASE COURSE thickness, smoothness and accuracy as specified below and if any areas are found to lack the
required thickness, smoothness and accuracy or the specified density, such areas shall be
scarified, reshaped and recompacted with additional approved material added where
necessary or otherwise treated as the Engineer's Representative may require until the
required thickness smoothness, accuracy or density is obtained.

The finished surface of the base shall be left as smooth as possible and the accuracy
of finish in the longitudinal direction shall not vary at any point by more than 5mm from a
3.0 metre straight edge, placed in any position on the finished surface parallel to the centre
line. The transverse profile shall conform to the same accuracy using a correctly shaped
template instead of the straight edge. The level of any point on the aforesaid surface shall
not vary by more than 5mm from the finished level of the pavement. The thickness of the
base course at any point shall not be less than the specified thickness by more than 12mm and
the average thickness over a length of 0.4 kilometres shall be equal to, or in excess of the
specified thickness. The Contractor shall include in his rates for digging necessary trial
holes, and making good same, to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

In the process of completing the base course it may be necessary to place material to
a greater thickness than that specified and to grade it to the specified finish. In so doing
excess material will be wasted. Payment for this and for all other operations required to
obtain the specified finish shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices.

148
ROCK LATERITE 6209. The base course for the carriageway shall consist of approved rock laterite
FOR BASE COURSE as specified, laid to the required total thickness after
compaction. The lumps of rock laterite shall be tightly
wedged across the prepared formation and interstices
shall be filled with approved spalls from the same source
as the rock laterite before thoroughly rolling. Rolling
shall be carried out with a roller weighing not less than
58 kilograms per centimetre width of roll and any
depression or surface irregularity which occurs during
rolling shall be corrected with approved crushed quarry
fines as specified, watered and again rolled with a roller
weighing not less than 58 kilograms per centimetre
width of roll. No blinding shall be done until the rock
laterite bottoming has been inspected and approved by
the Engineer's Representative. When completed the
surface of the base course shall be smooth and even, free
from irregularities or loose material and true to cross
section, line and level as shown on the drawings.

If any clay or mud appears to the surface of the foundation, the Contractor shall
without additional charge dig out the affected areas of such depth as directed and make good
the foundation and finish in conformity with the adjacent surface.

SURFACING OF 6210. The base course of the carriageway shall, where applicable, be provided with a prime
BASE COURSE coat and other surfacing as specified in the relevant clauses of this specification. The
surfacing shall be laid as soon as possible after the construction of the base course.

PREPARATION OF 6211. Immediately before spraying of the prime coat, the surface of the base course shall be
BASE COURSE TO swept clean, and all loose dust, dirt and the like removed. The Engineer’s Representative
RECEIVE BITUMEN
may also direct that any very smooth surface to which the surfacing is unlikely to adhere, be
PRIME COAT
roughened with wire brushes or other approved means.

If any weak areas are found they shall be cut out and refilled with base course
material and rolled to correct cross-section and gradient.

The surface shall be slightly damped before the application of the prime coat surface.

(CLAUSE 6212 - 6214 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

TESTS

TESTS FOR THE 6215 The following tests shall be carried out on all material proposed for use as
SECTION OF subbase course and base course:-
LATERITE SUBBASE
COURSE AND BASE
COURSE 1. Plasticity Test.
MATERIALS
2. Grading Test.

3. Density/Moisture Content Compaction Test.

4. Laboratory C.B.R. Test.

149
These tests shall be carried out as described in Section I of this specification.

TEST FOR 6216. The tests listed below will normally require to be carried out for each 2 kilometres
CLASSIFICATION AND of subbase course and base course. The numbers and types of tests listed are, however,
CONTROL OF
given only as a guide to the Contractor for tender purposes and the actual number and type of
COMPACTED
LATERITIC SUBBASE tests which will be carried out during the construction of the works will be entirely at
COURSE AND BASE the discretion of the Engineer's Representative:
COURSE
CLASSIFICATION TESTS

2 No. Liquid limit tests

2 No. Plastic limit tests

2 No. Sieve Analysis Test

4 No. West African Standard compaction tests, or

4 No. MOD A.A.S.H.T.O compaction.

CONTROL TESTS

4 No. Laboratory C.B.R Tests at specified conditions

20 No. Insitu dry density tests per 2 km in an alternate manner, i.e. Right, Centre, Left,
Centre, Right, etc.

Except where otherwise stated to the contrary these tests shall be carried out as
described in Section I of this specification or where no such description is given, in
accordance with the appropriate B.S.

The sieve analysis shall be carried out in accordance with the standards laid down in
the report of the "Material Testing Conference, February 1963" A copy of which shall be
made available to the Contractor on request.

6216A INTRODUCTION OF ISO CBR

ISO CBR is introduced because of the known factors that our pavement elements i.e.
subgrade, subbase and base courses are usually compacted at a higher moisture content than
the plant optimum moisture content (OMC). The word ISO means equal. The procedure for
establishing the control data with the working system is as follows:

1. BORROW PIT FOR FILL

When borrow pit is approved for fill after passing all necessary tests, as carried out
in the laboratory, three sets of moisture/density CBR tests shall be performed on the
specimen using the following levels of compactive efforts: (a) Sub-B.S., (b) B.S. and (c)
West African Standard. Each set of tests will have a minimum of five specimens. All
specimen shall be soaked ideally for 48 hours, however the following soaking periods are
recommended: for the southern part of the country 96 hours soaking whilst for the north 48
hours to 24 hours soaking.

150
NOTE:- For Sub - BS compaction, the following shall apply:- Use CBR mould,
number of layers shall be three using 2.5kg rammer. Height of fall = 300mm, Number of
blows per layer shall be 25.

After determination of the dry density, moisture and CBR of each set of tests,
relevant graph of density/moisture of each shall be plotted. Thereafter the values of CBR for
compacted specimen so obtained shall be plotted as individual points on the compaction
curve of each set of specimen using corresponding dry density points. Typical method of
plotting ISO graph is shown in Fig. VI-1 while the completed specimen of an ISO-CBR
graph is show in Fig. VI-1A.

2. SUBBASE AND BASE COURSE

The above test will be performed on the materials approved for use as either subbase
or base course using the following compactive efforts: B.S., WAS and Modified A.A.S.H.O.
The results will be treated as above and relevant graphs with ISO CBR plotted.

3. USE OF ISO CBR FOR CONTROL

In our present day control system we have no method of checking whether the
compacted layer meets the specified CBR criteria, we are only concerned with 100% relative
density and moisture content relative to the laboratory design moisture and invariably the
laboratory determined OMC do not often tally with the plant OMC. We are aware that
maximum CBR can only be obtained around OMC if this moisture is not achieved on site
the strength of the pavement will be less than specified, if plant OMC is less than laboratory
OMC: meaning that the section is compacted to a moisture over and above the plant OMC,
thus producing a compacted pavement with weak strength. When the density and moisture
of compacted layer is determined, same is plotted on the control graph and the field CBR is
read from the ISO CBR line, this being the CBR value of the pavement. This is a surer way
of ascertaining that both the density, moisture and required CBR are obtained on site.

TRIAL SECTIONS OF 6217. The Contractor shall carry out trial sections with the proposed materials prior to
LATERITE SUBBASE the start of the main construction to determine the most efficient compaction, technique,
COURSE AND BASE
layer thickness and suitability of the proposed materials and plants, as described in the
COURSE
relevant clause of this specification. See clause 1052A for a rolling test method.

(CLAUSES 6218 - 6219 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

(11) SOIL CEMENT SPECIFICATION

DESCRIPTION 6220. Soil cement shall consist of a course or courses composed of soil stabilized with
portland cement. It shall be constructed on prepared and accepted subgrade, subbase or
existing pavement in accordance with these specifications and in conformity with the lines,
grades and typical cross sections as shown on the drawings and compacted to a specified
finished thickness to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

151
FIGURE VI-1

152
FIGURE VI-1A

153
MATERIALS FOR SOIL 6221. The materials used for soil-cement stabilization shall comply with the following
CEMENT
specifications:-
STABILIZATION

(A) CEMENT The cement used shall be ordinary portland cement and
shall comply with B.S 12 or with the latest British standard specification for the cement
specified, or NIS 11 of 1974 or NIS 15 1980.

(B) WATER: The water shall be clean and free from harmful amounts
of alkalis, acids or organic matter. No water shall be used for stabilization without the
approval of the Engineer's Representative. The Contractor may be required to collect
samples of water in an approved manner and to arrange for an analysis of the water by an
approved testing agency.

(C) SOIL: The soil shall be free from roots, vegetable matter or other
deleterious substances. It shall be the nearest available approved material which when
stabilized with 3% - 7% cement shall meet the design criteria specified in clause 6228 of
this specification.

APPROVAL 6222. Representative samples of all materials proposed for use in the soil-cement shall be
submitted to the Engineer by the Contractor at the Contractor's expense. The Engineer will
test the proposed materials and inform the Contractor if the tests indicate compliance with
the specifications. No material shall be used until it has been approved by the Engineer.
Permission to use any material shall not be construed as approval of its source nor any
acceptance as continued acceptance.

GENERAL METHOD 6223. All materials to be tested shall be selected according to the method laid down in the
OF SAMPLING appropriate British Standard Specification and "Amended Decisions of Material Testing
MATERIALS
Conference" or where there is no such standard by a method to be mutually agreed between
the Engineer and the Contractor.

SAMPLING OF 6224. Trial pits in a proposed borrow pit area shall be dug from original ground level and
MATERIALS TO BE not from the bottom of any existing borrow pits. Trial pits shall be at least 1.2 x 1.2 metres
STABILIZED FROM in size and dug to such a depth that the full extent of the material intended for incorporation
BORROW PITS
in the works is exposed.

Materials for testing shall not be taken from the spoil of the trial pit but shall be
made up of increments taken from each face of the pit after the overburden soil has been
removed. The four increments shall be mixed three times and quartered or riffled down to
the size required for testing.

SAMPLING OF 6225. The surface material of a stockpile shall be removed before sampling. At least
MATERIALS FROM twelve samples shall be taken from different parts of the stockpile and the resulting large
STOCKPILES sample shall be thoroughly mixed by hand before being quartered for testing.

SAMPLES OF 6226. Soil samples shall be taken by digging trenches across the full width of the proposed
MATERIALS pavement to the depth of processing so that soil sampled shall be the soil that will be actually
EXISTING used ins oil-cement construction.
MATERIAL
TESTS FOR THE 6227. The following tests shall be carried out on all materials
SELECTION OF proposed for soil-cement stabilization:-
SOIL TO BE
STABILIZED
(i) Liquid Limit Test
(ii) Plasticity Test
(iii) Grading Test

154
(iv) Density/Moisture Content Compaction Test
(v) Laboratory C.B.R Test
(vi) Unconfined Compression Test.

The tests are to be performed in accordance with the relevant B.S as modified by the
latest "amended decisions of Materials Testing Conference".

DESIGN CRITERIA 6228. The stabilized soil shall meet the following specification for C.B.R test results. The
specimens shall be cured with a wax cover for 6 days and soaked for 24 hours before testing,
after allowing the specimen to drain for 15 minutes.

TABLE VI-5 DESIGN CBR VALUES FOR SOIL CEMENT MIX-IN-PLACE OR PLANT MIX

METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
DESCRIPTION OF TEST

MIX-IN-PLACE PLANT MIX

LABORATORY TEST ON MATERIAL MIXED IN THE


LABORATORY 180% 160%

LABORATORY CONTROL TEST ON MATERIAL


MIXED EACH DAY IN THE FIELD OR ON CORED
SPECIMENS FROM COMPLETE SOIL-CEMENT
PAVEMENT (AVERAGE)
100% 100%

LABORATORY CONTROL TEST ON MATERIAL


MIXED IN THE FIELD OR ON CORED SPECIMENS
FROM COMPLETED SOIL-CEMENT PAVEMENT
(MINIMUM)
80% 80%

PROCEDURE FOR 6229


ESTIMATION OF (A) Classify the soil according to U.S public road Administration system
CEMENT CONTENT
(B) The estimated range of cement content is determined using the A.A.S.H.O soil group
(shown in table VI-6 below)

(C) Material requiring high cement content should be rejected as unsuitable.

(D) Perform B.S. compaction on the material to establish M.D.D and O.M.C using the
middle cement content e.g. (4.5)% cement for A-2 as shown in table VI-6 etc.. The C.B.R
and U.C.S specimens shall be moulded to this density and moisture content.

(E) Establish the relationship between cement content vs C.B.R. and U.C.S (unconfined
compression shear) for soaked and unsoaked specimens.

(i) Moulding 3 C.B.R specimens and 6 U.C.S. at each cement content, with a minimum
of three cement contents. e.g. for A-2 3%, 4.5% and 6%.

(ii) Wax and cure all specimens for 6 days (Except 3 U.C.S specimens at each cement
content which should be cured for 7 days and tested without soaking).

155
(iii) Testing all C.B.R Specimen and the 3 U.C.S specimens at each cement content after
24 hours soaking by complete immersion in water and allowed to drain for 15 minutes.

(iv) Plot graphs of Cement contents vs C.B.R. (soaked).


Cement contents vs U.C.S.(soaked and unsoaked).
Establish the required cement content at 180% C.B.R for site mix or 160% for plant
mix and the corresponding U.C.S. values soaked and
unsoaked for quality control in the field.

TABLE VI-6 MODIFIED CEMENT CONTENT


REQUIREMENTS OF A.A.S.H.O. SOIL GROUPS

ESTIMATED PERCENTAGE
USUAL RANGE IN PERCENT OF CEMENT
CEMENT AMENDED CEMENT USED CONTENT BY
AASHO REQUIREMENT CEMENT IN MOISTURE WEIGHT OF DRY
SOIL PERCENT BY CONTENT BY DENSITY SOIL FOR
GROUP WEIGHT OF SOIL WEIGHT OF DETERMINA- MOULDED
DRY SOIL TION BY SPECIMEN
WEIGHT OF
DRY SOIL

A-1-4 4-6 2-4 3.0 2-3-4

A-1-B 4-7 2-5 3.5 2-3.5-5

A-2 5-8 3-6 4.5 2-4.5-6

A-3 6-9 4-7 5.5 4-5-6

A-4 7-11 5-9 7.0 5-7-9

A-5 8-12 6-10 8.0 6-8-10

A-6 9-13 7-11 9.0 6-9-12

A-7 10-14 8-12 10.0 8-10-12

Note: Heavy clay soils ranging from A-5 to A-7 should be avoided where
practicable.

CONSTRUCTION 6230. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval his method of stabilization
which may be based on either the mix-in place or plant mix principle.

Whichever method of mixing is used the maximum period between mixing of the
cement and final roll off of stabilized material shall be 2 hours. The lengths of the treated
sections shall be regulated to ensure that the 2 hours time limit is not exceed.

MULTIPASS-MIX- 6231. (A) Level pegs shall be set at 30 metres intervals and the base course material to
IN-PLACE be stabilized imported from borrow pits, spread and shaped to the required cross-section and
METHOD longitudinal gradient. It may be necessary to compact the base course material to obtain a
fair estimate to correct grade and cross-section. If the material of the existing roadbed is to
be used the surface shall be graded to required cross-section and longitudinal gradient. The

156
cross-section and grade shall be checked by the Engineer's Representative before
construction starts.

(B) The material to be treated shall be scarified to the required depth and
thoroughly pulverized (including pre-wetting the soil if necessary to aid pulverization).
Precaution shall be taken to obtain a uniform condition of the material for the full depth and
width to be treated. A pulverization of 80% (i.e. ratio of the weight of soil mixture passing
the 5mm sieve to the weight of the total representative sample taken exclusive of the gravel
retained on the 5mm sieve shall be achieved before the cement is spread.

(C) Cement shall be spread uniformly over the pulverised soil. Cement may be
supplied in bags or in bulk. If bags of cement are used, the bags shall be placed at calculated
intervals along the verge, the bags opened and the cement spread evenly on the pulverized
soil by shovels and rakes.

If the cement is supplied in bulk, it shall be spread by an approved


mechanical cement spreader and each batch in the spreading equipment shall be weighed so
that the average rate of spread can be determined by the Engineer. The rate of spread per
linear metre shall not vary more than 10% from the approved rate.

(D) Wet Mixing is preferred to avoid

(i) Loss of cement due to formation of clouds of cement


dust during dry mixing

(ii) Loss of time in excessive adjustment of moisture content due to rapid


evaporation

(iii) Variation in cement content due to segregation caused by prolonged mixing.

The road mixing plant shall have provision for introducing water at the time of
mixing, through a metering device or by other approved method.

The water shall be applied by means of controls that will supply the correct quantity
of water to produce a complete mixture with a uniform moisture content. Leakage of water
from equipment will not be permitted and care shall be exercised to avoid the addition of an
excessive amount of water.

TRAVELLING 6232. The procedure for construction with either windrout type or flat-type travelling
MIXING MACHINE mixing plant shall be as directed by the Engineer.

COMPACTION 6233. Compaction shall commence as soon as an intimate mixture has been obtained and
the specified degree of pulverization has been achieved. It is essential that the moisture
content at the time of rolling shall be at the optimum of the compaction plant in use.

GENERAL 6234. The mixing equipment shall be batch type mixing plant using revolving
REQUIREMENT FOR blade, or rotating drum mixers or continuous type at the
PLANT MIX
option of the Contractor. The soil, water and cement
PROCESS
may be proportioned either by weight or by volume.

In all plants cement shall be added in such a manner that it is uniformly distributed
throughout the soil during the mixing operation; the charge in a batch mixer, or the rate of
feed to a continuous mixer, shall not exceed that which will permit complete mixing of the

157
material. Dead areas in the mixer, in which the material does not move or is not sufficiently
agitated shall be corrected either by a reduction in the volume of material or by other
adjustments.

The weights or rates of feeds of soil and water shall be within 5% of the amount
specified by the Engineer and the weights or rates of feed of cement shall be such that the
cement content in samples taken from any part of a mixed batch or from different batches or
from time to time from the product of continuous mixers or from mixtures spread on the
roadbed, shall not vary more than 0.4% above or below the designed cement content by
weight of dry soil.

BATCH MIXING 6235. The mixer shall be equipped with a sufficient number of paddles of a type and
arrangement to produce a uniformly mixed batch. The mixer platform shall be of ample size
to provide safe and convenient access to the mixer and other equipment. Mixer and batch
box housing shall be provided with hinged gates of ample size to permit ready sampling from
each of the plant bins and of the mixture from each end of the mixer. The mixer shall be
equipped with a timing device which will indicate by a definite audible or visual signal the
expiration of the mixing period. The device shall be accurate to within 2 seconds. The plant
shall be equipped with a suitable automatic device for counting the number of batches.

The time of mixing a batch shall begin after all ingredients are in the mixer and shall
end when the mixer is half emptied. Mixing shall continue until a homogeneous mixture of
uniformly distributed cement is produced. In general the time of mixing shall not be less
than 30 seconds, except that the time may be reduced when tests indicates that the
requirement for the variation of cement content (±.4%) is being consistency compiled with.

WEIGHT 6236. When weight proportioning is used the discharge gate on the weight box shall be so
PROPORTIONING arranged as to blend the different sizes of the soil as they enter the mixer. Cement shall be
weighed on scales, separate and distinct from the soil batching scales.

VOLUMETRIC 6237. Where volumetric proportioning is used for batch mixing, the volumetric
PROPORTIONING proportioning device for the soil shall be equipped with separate bins, adjustable in size, for
the various sizes of soil. Each bin shall have an accurately controlled gate or other device so
designed that each bin shall be completely filled and accurately struck-off in measuring the
volume of soil to be used in the mix. Means shall be provided for accurately calibrating the
amount of material in each measuring bin.

CONTINUOUS 6238. In addition to the General requirements as provided in section 15, continuous mixing
MIXING of the material shall conform to the following requirements. The correct proportions of
each soil size introduced into the mixer shall be drawn in from storage bins by a continuous
feeder, which will supply the correct amount of aggregate in proportion to the cement, and
so arranged that the proportion of each soil size can be separately adjusted. The bins shall be
equipped with a vibrating unit which will effectively vibrate the side walls of the bins to
prevent any "HANG UP" of material while the plant is operating.

A positive signal system shall be provided to indicate the level of the material in each
bin and as the level of the material in any one bin approaches the strike-off capacity of the
feed gate, the device will automatically close down the plant instantly. The plant shall not be
permitted to operate unless this automatic signal system is in good working order.

The drive shaft on the soil feeder shall be equipped with a revolution counter reading
to 1/100 of a revolution and of sufficient capacity to register the total number of revolutions

158
in a day's run. The continuous feeder for the soil may be mechanically or electrically driven.
The continuous mixing plant shall be equipped with a hopper of at least 0.6 cubic metre
capacity which is divided into as many compartments as there are sizes of soil being
proportioned. The hopper shall be suspended under the soil feeders on a scale frame in such
a manner that the discharge from each soil feeder may be diverted into separate
compartments in

the hopper when the feeders are in full operation. The weight of a loaded hopper
shall be indicated on a springless dial scale of 2,278 kilograms maximum capacity with 2
kilogram graduations. Each compartment of the hopper shall be equipped with a gate so that
each size may be withdrawn separately on a conveyor below the hopper in order that the total
weight of each size of soil may be determined and representative samples obtained. The
material so over withdrawn may be returned to storage.

SPREADING 6239. Side forms shall be set to the lines and grade as shown on the drawings. Forms shall
be of steel or stout timber and shall be of sufficient strength to resist springing out of shape
during placing of soil cement.

The mixed material shall be protected by covers against moisture loss while being
transported to the spreading site and each layer shall be spread in one operation without
segregation (not more than 30 minutes shall elapse between mixing and spreading).

Immediately prior to spreading, the area to be covered shall be moistened and kept
moist, but not excessively wet.

The mixture shall be simultaneously deposited and spread with a self-propelled


mechanical spreader ready for compaction without further shaping.

The spreader shall be provided with a screed that strikes-off and distributes the
material to the required width and thickness within 5% of the pre-determined rate. The
screed shall be adjustable to the required cross section. Screed action includes any cutting,
crowding, or other practical motion that produces a finished texture of uniform appearance.
If the spreader leaves ridges, indentations or other objectionable marks in the surface that
cannot be eliminated by rolling, or prevented by adjustments in operation, its use shall be
discontinued.

The use of motor grades, except for final trimming after compaction, will not be
permitted.

The mixed material shall be spread for the full planned width, either by one spreader
or by several spreaders operating in a staggered pattern across the subgrade or subbase
course, unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer or if traffic conditions require part width
construction. Should permission be granted or part width construction be required, for the
use of one spreader operating alternately on continuous lanes, not more than 30 minutes
shall elapse between the time of placing material in

adjacent lanes at any location. If longitudinal construction joints are necessary they
shall fall on lane lines.

Where the required compacted thickness is 150mm or less, the soil cement may be
spread and compacted in one layer. Where the compacted thickness is more than 150mm the

159
soil cement shall be spread and compacted in 2 layers of approximately equal thickness and
the maximum compacted thickness of any one layer shall not exceed 150mm or as directed.

Work on each layer shall be performed in a similar manner and the surface of the
compacted material shall be kept moist or prevented from drying out by a method approved
by the Engineer until covered with the next layer, either by using damp sand or sacks.

Soil cement base course placed in inaccessible areas may be spread by approved
methods in one course. After spreading the material shall be thoroughly compacted to the
required lines and grades by means of pneumatic tampers or with other compacting
equipment which consistently obtains equal or better compaction than that specified. Soil-
cement shall not be mixed or placed during rain.

COMPACTION 6240. (A) All rolling equipment shall be self-propelled and reversible and shall
produce the required compaction within the operation time. e.g. from mixing, wetting,
spreading and compaction.

(B) Initial rolling may be performed with smooth wheel steel-tyred rollers
weighing not less than 10,886 kilograms with a compression on the rear wheels of not less
than 58 kilograms of the tyre width, or with other compacting equipment which consistently
obtain equal or better compaction than that specified. Pneumatic tyred rollers shall be the
oscillating type and having a width of not less than 1.2 metres and equipped with pneumatic
tyres of equal size and diameter. Wobble wheel rollers will not be permitted. The tyres shall
be inflated to 6.3 kg per sq. cm. or such lower pressure as the Engineer may direct and
maintained so that the air pressure will not vary more than 0.35 kg per sq. cm. from the
designated pressure. Pneumatic-tyred rollers shall be so constructed that the total weight of
the roller can be varied to produce an operating weight per tyre of not less than 907
kilograms. The total operation weight of the roller shall be varied as directed by the
Engineer.

(C) Rolling tests shall be carried out to establish the plant maximum dry density
(MDD) its optimum moisture content (OMC) and the number of economic passes to achieve
the MDD see Table I-4 for guidance on performance of different plants relating to MDD,
and OMC of different types of soil.

(D) Rolling shall be performed in such a manner that bumps and irregularities
are eliminated and the finished surface shall be true to the required grade and cross section
within the tolerances specified.

Rolling shall commence from the outer edge of the verge to the centre of
the roadway except on super-elevated curves where rolling shall begin on the low side and
progress to the high side.

(E) Areas inaccessible to rollers shall be compacted to the specified density by


other means, approved by the Engineer.

(F) All compaction planes shall be removed. The finished surface shall be
smooth, dense and free of ridges or cracks. The surface shall be kept moist at all times until
the curing seal is applied.

FINISHINGS 6241. The finished surface shall not deviate at any point in a longitudinal direction by more
than 5mm from 3 metre straight edge laid in any position on the finished surface parallel to

160
the centre line. The transverse profile shall conform to the same accuracy when tested using
a correctly shaped template. The thickness shall not vary more than ± 12mm from the design
thickness of base at any point.

If the finished surface exceeds the above tolerance, the excess material shall
be trimmed with the least possible disturbance of the material to remain in place. The excess
material shall be removed and disposed of immediately after trimming and no loose material
shall be left on the base and the area shall be rolled again. Filling low spots in the cement
treated base will not be permitted.

CONSTRUCTION 6242. (A) TRANSVERSE JOINTS


JOINTS At the end of each day's work or first thing in the morning a transverse vertical construction
joint shall be formed by cutting back 600mm into the compacted soil-cement, and disposing
of the material. Additional mixture shall not be placed until the construction joint is placed.
When starting the work the 900mm section adjacent to the joint shall be thoroughly hand
mixed.

(B) Longitudinal joints shall be constructed by cutting back vertically into the
existing stabilized material for approximately 75mm and the material cut away may be
disposed of in the adjacent lane to be constructed. The face of the cut joints shall be
moistened in advance of constructing the adjacent section.

CURING 6243. The completed soil-cement shall be cured by either damp sand cover or bituminous
curing seal as directed by the Engineer.

(A) DAMP SAND

Immediately after compaction the soil cement shall be cured for a period of 7 days by
a 50mm layer of damp sand spread evenly over the surface. The Contractor shall keep the
sand damp and shall close the stabilized soil to all traffic during the curing period.

(B) BITUMINOUS CURING SEAL

The curing seal shall consist of liquid bitumen MC-O, or MC-1 unless otherwise
specified. The curing seal shall be applied at a rate between 0.68 - 1.13 litres per square
meter of surface and shall provide a continuous membrane over the soil-cement pavement.
The curing seal shall be applied as soon as possible, but not later than 8 hours after the
completion of final rolling. The surface shall be kept moist until the seal is applied. No
traffic or equipment shall be permitted on the sealed base during the first 6 days after the
application of the curing seal, unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer.

FIELD CONTROL 6244. In order to ensure adequate cement content, proper moisture content, adequate
TESTS compaction, adequate pulverization, intimate mixing and adequate strength, the following
field quality control tests shall be carried out during construction.

(I) MOISTURE CONTROL TEST

In each stretch, the moisture content shall be checked and adjusted to


optimum moisture content of the plant in use before compaction commences. "Speedy"

161
moisture tester of any type may be approved by the Engineer for use, the speedy tester should
be calibrated first before being put into use (for calibrating procedure see clause 2003(6)).

(II) TEST FOR ADEQUATE PULVERIZATION

Before the addition of cement 80% pulverization shall be achieved and this
shall be checked for each stretch. For procedure see Clause 6231 (B).

(III ) TEST FOR INTIMATE MIXING

Intimate mixing shall be checked by examining the colour of exposed


material from a series of holes to the full depth of mixed soil-cement made at regular
intervals. Uniform colour of the exposed material indicates thorough mixing.

(IV) STRENGTH

Samples of mixed soil-cement shall be taken in the field prior to


compaction. The samples shall be compacted into CBR and/or UCS mould to B.S. or field
density and sealed with wax. In particular UCS specimens shall be statically compacted, to
the same densities as those of field compacted CBR specimens. The specimens shall be
cured in the laboratory and tested after 7 days ( 6 days curing and 24 hours soaking).

The frequency of these tests shall be one test for every 400 square metres
and part thereof of material laid in each layer.

(V) IN SITU DRY DENSITY TESTS

These tests shall be carried out immediately upon the completion of


compaction of each section. At lease one dry density test shall be carried out for each 350
square metres of material laid in each layer, using the sand bottle or other in-situ density
testing equipment or the nuclear gauge testing equipment approved by the Engineer. These
tests may be located where samples for CBR and/or UCS have been taken.

(VI) THICKNESS OF PROCESSED LAYER

The thickness of the Soil-cement layer shall be measured using the in-situ
dry density holes, the thickness of cored specimens from hardened soil-cement and any
additional holes at the discretion of the Engineer.

(VII) DETERMINATION OF CEMENT CONTENT

The Contractor shall provide the necessary equipment and reagents to


enable cement extraction tests to be carried out by the Engineer. For procedure refer to B.S
1924 (1975) test No 6.

(VIII) CBR & UCS TESTS ON CORED SPECIMENS

CBR and UCS tests shall be carried out on cored specimens taken from
hardened soil-cement. The frequency of these tests shall be at least one test for each 400
square metres and part thereof of material laid in each layer. Sampling shall be in staggered
pattern.

162
TEST RECORDS 6245. The results of all the tests mentioned in this section of the specification shall be
carefully recorded in a manner approved by the Engineer. The test results shall be recorded
in triplicate, one copy to be retained by the Contractor and the other two copies to be handed
to the Engineer's Representative.

ADDITIONAL 6246. In addition to these records required under the provision of clause 6245, above the
CONSTRUCTION Contractor shall keep a record for each individual section of soil-cement construction giving
RECORDS the following details:-

(I) Location, length and width of the section,

(II) In situ moisture content on scarification,

(III) Moisture content prior to addition of cement,

(IV) No. of bags of cement used.

(V) Time the cement was spread.

(VI) Complete mixing time.

(VII) Moisture content prior to compaction.

(VIII) Compaction and Grading time.

(IX) Total operation time from cement spreading to completion of compaction.

(X) Location of borrow pit used.

This record shall be prepared in triplicate, one copy to be retained by the Contractor
and two copies to be handed to the Engineer's Representative.

SUPERVISION 6247. The attention of the Contractor is drawn to the fact that he must provide adequate
experienced supervisory staff during all the stages of soil-cement construction.

(CLAUSE 6248 - 6249 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

(III) CRUSHED STONE

GENERAL 6250. In addition to any other clause of this specification the following shall be deemed to
apply in particular to crushed stoned base course, and shall be read in conjunction with all
other relevant clauses of the conditions of contract and this specification.

MATERIALS 6251. MATERIALS FOR CRUSHED STONE BASE COURSE

Base course aggregate shall consist of crushed Stone.

(A) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATE

Materials for use as Stone base shall be classified under two categories i.e. Coarse
aggregate and Fine aggregate.

1. COARSE AGGREGATE:

163
Coarse aggregate shall be granite crushed stone sourced from approved Quarry by
the Engineer's Representative and shall have sizes ranging from 50mm and retained on 5mm
sieve. The aggregate shall be free from clay or silty materials, and when subjected to 10%
fine test or aggregate crushing value, the value of the results shall range from 7.5% to
12.5% for 10% fine and not more than 35% for aggregate crushing value. It shall also
comply with other requirements under clause 2005 (1) and (2)

(2) FINE AGGREGATE

Fine aggregate known as binder materials shall be materials passing sieve 5mm and
retained on 75 m sieve. It may be sourced from river bed at location approved by the
Engineer's Representative or be fines from crushed stone. It shall be free from vegetation or
other objectionable matter. Fine aggregate shall be clean without any clay content, strong and
sharp. It shall be of such grading characteristic that when combined with coarse aggregate,
the composite material shall conform to the gradation and other requirements specified in
clause 2004 (1-3).

(3) Liquid limit and Plasticity Index requirements stated herein shall apply to
any aggregate component that is blended to meet the require gradation and also to the
aggregate in the compacted base course. The portion of fine aggregate passing the 75 m
sieve shall be either non-plastic or shall have a liquid Limit not greater than 30% and
Plasticity Index not greater than 6. This index test will only be applicable to materials for wet
laying.

(4) COMBINATION PROCEDURE.

It is easier to handle gradation size by use of two categories of materials:- Firstly,


grade the gradation aggregate and plot on the stone base design envelope, next, grade the fine
aggregate and plot in the design envelope. By simple proportion and physical examination of
the two graphs, guided by experience ,two to three combination trials may produce the
required satisfactory grading that will fall into the envelope, otherwise simple calculation
may be used to achieve the required combination proportion.

NOTE: Once an acceptable combination is produced, frequent grading checks on


both specimens must be carried out to insure that deviation in gradation is not allowed to
occur. The results of such grading test will enable adjustment to be made on the
combination proportion.

(5) COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT SIZES OF AGGREGATE.

Coarse aggregate of different sizes and the fine aggregate shall be placed in different
Bins. Each aggregate sizes and the fines shall be sieved and plotted on appropriate log chart.
Simple arithmetic calculation may be used to determine the combination proportion.
Alternatively, careful study of the graphs, coupled with experience will enable user to guess
the proportion by trial and error. Once a suitable mix proportion is established, the grading
of each size of aggregate shall be checked from time to time, to ensure that there is no
deviation or variation.

(6) ESTABLISHING MIX CONTROL CRITERIA.

164
When a mix proportion has been established, representative sample of each material
shall be combined and quartered to make six number of CBR mould specimens, moisturized
to 5% of dry weight of sample and kept in air tight* container for 18 hours. Before the
samples are compacted the moisture shall be checked using calibrated SPEEDY TESTER. If
the moisture is lower than 5% more water to attain this moisture shall be added. When the
material is mixed thoroughly it shall be compacted using Modified AASHO compactive
effort or using a vibrating kango hammer. Whichever compactive effort is used, (not B.S.) it
shall be in five layers and the thickness of compacted specimen shall not be less than 125mm
or more that 130mm, otherwise it shall be discarded. The loose material on the specimen
after compaction shall be removed carefully, and with a straight edge placed across the
mould, in a minimum of two directions, the depth of the compacted specimen surface from
the top shall be determined in three places along each direction of the straight edge. The
mean of six readings shall be used to determine the depth of the specimen and thereafter its
volume.

Unless directed to the contrary the six specimens will be tested for Dry Density only.
Alternatively 3 specimens may be soaked for 24 hours (complete immersion in water with
25mm water head above the specimen) tested for CBR after the specimen is allowed to drain
for 15 minutes. The remaining specimens shall be tested for CBR (strength) unsoaked. The
average of two close results shall be the CBR or Dry Density of the specimen. If CBR of
over 100% is obtained the dry density established with corresponding moisture content shall
be the design criteria and control for the works.

GRADING OF 6252. The grading of crushed stone for use in crushed stone base course shall be as
CRUSHED STONE follows:-

(I) DRY PROCESS

(A) 75mm to 12mm or 50mm - 12mm hereinafter referred to as coarse stone.

(B) 12mm to dust hereinafter referred to as


screening.

(II) WET PROCESS

Gradation: The composite mixture of coarse aggregate and binder material,


processed as hereinafter specified shall conform to one of the applicable gradations shown in
Table VI-7 and shall not vary from the low limit on one sieve to the high limit on adjacent
sieve or vice versa, but shall be uniformly graded from coarse to fine.

Gradation requirement specified herein shall apply to the completed base course after
undergoing the mixing, placing, compacting and other operations. The portion of the
aggregate passing No 75 m sieve shall not be greater than one-third of the portion passing
the No. 425 m sieve. The aggregates shall continuously be well graded within the limits of
Gradation A, B. C, D or E as specified below. The methods of test used will be ASTM
Standards C117, C127, C128, C136 and D422. Sieves shall conform to ASTM Standard
E.11 or B. S. sieve.

TABLE VI-7 GRADING ENVELOPE FOR STONE BASE COURSE WET METHOD

SIEVE PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT PASSING SQUARE MESH SIEVE


DESIGNA
TION

165
GRADING A GRADING B GRADING C GRADING D OPENING GRADING E

75mm 100 100 100 100 50mm 100

50mm 85 -100 85 -100 90 - 100 90 - 100 37.5mm 95 - 100

25mm 60 - 95 65 - 95 75 - 100 80 - 100 20mm 60 - 80

10mm 30 - 65 40 - 75 50 - 85 60 - 100 10mm 40 - 60

5mm 25 - 55 30 - 60 35 - 65 50 - 85 5mm 25 - 40

2mm 15 - 40 20 - 45 25 - 50 40 - 70 2.36mm 15 - 30

425m 8- 20 13 - 30 15 - 30 25 - 45 600m 8 - 22

75m 2-8 5 - 10 5 - 10 5 - 15 75m 6 - 12

Note:- The table is based on aggregate of uniform specific gravity, and the
percentages passing the various sieves may require appropriate correction by the Engineer
when aggregates of varying specific gravities are used.

WORKMANSHIP

PREPARATION OF 6253. The subgrade shall be prepared and compacted in accordance with terms as contained
SUBGRADE in Section VI Clause 6161 of this specification.

Note:- No subgrade shall be considered as a working platform for the stone base as
this will promote the early collapse of the pavement. This is due to the fact that the elastic
property of the subgrade (of which strain is a part) will not be able to sustain the wheel load
from the crushed stone base to the subgrade without any intermediate superior layer.

Where the subgrade or subbase is formed of material liable to be forced up into


the crushed stone during compacting operations, the Engineer's Representative may direct
that a 50mm thick blanket layer of approved material shall be superimposed upon the
subgrade prior to the laying of crushed stone. See clause 6133.

FORMS 6254 Where kerb or concrete haunches are not specified, the Contractor shall ensure that
the edges of crushed stone base course, laid by either the wet or dry process, are true to line
and level and properly compacted to the same standard as the test of the Base course by the
use of forms, hunching stones or other methods approved by the Engineer's Representative.

CRUSHED STONE TO 6255. Crushed stone Base course laid by either the wet or dry method shall be laid in layers
BE LAID AND of not less than 150mm compacted thickness to the satisfaction of the Engineer’s
COMPACTED IN Representative.
LAYERS
LAYING AND 6256. When crushed stone Base-course is to be laid by the dry process the method of laying
COMPACTING and compacting shall be as follows:-
CRUSHED STONE DRY
PROCESS
(I) The coarse stone 75mm to 12mm or 50mm to 12mm shall be spread in a
manner approved by the Engineer's Representative to an even depth which, after compaction
will produce the specified thickness of layer.

166
(II) The coarse stone shall then be regulated and compacted by not less than
three passes of an approved roller.

(III) Successive uniform layers of screening 12mm to dust shall then be applied
over the surface and shall be vibrated into the interstices of the coarse stone by means of an
approved vibrating plate compactor or other approved means. Screenings may be spread by
hand shovel using a sweeping motion or by approved tailboard spreaders attached to lorries.
In no case shall screenings be dumped on the surface in piles and spread therefrom. Great
care shall be taken to ensure that screenings are not applied either so quickly or so thickly as
to "CAKE" or bridge on the surface in a manner which prevents the filling of the interstices
or causes the vibrating or compacting equipment from bearing directly on the coarse stone.
The addition of screenings and vibrating into the interstices of the coarse stone shall
continue until all the voids are filled in.

(IV) The surface of the crushed stone shall then be checked transversely and
longitudinally for level and camber and any indicated variations adjusted.

The surface shall then be sprinkled with water from a water bowser and
rolled with a smooth wheel roller having a weight of roll of not less than 58 kilograms per
centimetre. Voids in the Base-course which occur during this process shall be filled by
sweeping screenings into them.

The sprinkling, sweeping and rolling shall continue until all voids are filled
with grout to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

(v) The final surface shall be smooth and even, free from irregularities or loose
material and true to line and level having regard to the tolerances for base course finish
specified elsewhere herein.

CRUSHED STONE 6257. When crushed stone Base course is to be laid by the dry or wet process the method of
BASE COURSE LAID laying and compaction shall be as follows:-
BY THE WET
PROCESS
(I) The approved crushed stoned, graded as specified shall be mixed with
between 3% and 5% of water as directed in a mixer of a type approved by the Engineer's
Representative.

(II) The mixed material shall be protected from the rays of the sun during transit
from the mixer to the site in order to prevent loss of moisture due to evaporation and shall
be laid by a self-propelled asphalt finisher or other approved plant in layers of not less than
75mm or more than 150mm thickness after compaction. During this operation care shall be
taken to avoid segregation.

(III) Water can only be added to any wet laid stone base if it
was discovered that evaporation had taken place during
rolling. The finished rolled stone base shall not have
moisture less than 3% or more than 5% by weight of
dry aggregate.

Should any patchiness appear during compaction, areas deficient in fines shall be
blinded with screenings watered and rolled and areas showing an excess of fines shall be
removed and reconstructed with graded material to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative.

167
(IV) The final surface shall be smooth and even free from irregularities or loose
material, and true to line and level having regard to the tolerances for Base-course finish
specified elsewhere herein.

PREPARATION OF 6258 Crushed stone Base course, laid by either the dry or wet process shall be prepared for
CRUSHED STONE the addition of bituminous surfacing as specified under the relevant parts of this section of
BASE COURSE TO the specification.
RECEIVE
BITUMINOUS
SURFACING

COMPACTION 6259. Compaction of crushed stone Base course shall be to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative.

(IV) CONCRETE CARRIAGEWAY CONSTRUCTION

GENERAL 6260. In addition to any other clauses of this specification the following shall be deemed to
apply in particular to concrete carriageway construction. And shall be read in conjunction
with all other relevant clauses of the conditions of contract and this specification.

MATERIALS

CEMENT 6261. Cement to be used in the construction of concrete carriageways shall comply in all
respects with the requirements of all relevant clauses of this specification regarding cement
for use in concrete work.

AGGREGATE 6262. Fine and course aggregate for use in the manufacture of concrete for construction of
concrete carriageways shall comply with the requirements of all relevant clauses of this
specification regarding aggregates for use in concrete work.

REINFORCING STEEL 6263. Steel reinforcement for use in the construction of concrete carriageways shall, where
used, comply with the requirement of all relevant clauses of this specification regarding M.S.
reinforced concrete work.

DOWEL BARS AND 6264. Dowel bars and tie bars shall consist of mild steel complying with the requirements
TIE BARS of British Standard 15, free from oil, paint, dirt and loose rust.

Dowel bars for transverse joints shall be straight, free from burred edges or other
irregularities and shall have their sliding ends sawn, not sheared, unless otherwise approved
by the Engineer.

The length and diameter of dowel bars and tie bars shall be as shown on the drawings
or directed by the Engineer.

SIDE FORMS 6265. Side Forms shall be of steel and of a design to be approved by the Engineer. Curved
forms of appropriate radius shall be used for all curves of 30 metres radius or less. The
width of the form shall be not less than the pavement thickness, up to a maximum of 250mm
and flange branches shall extend outward on the base not less than two-thirds the height of
the form. All forms shall be free from warp, twists and kinks, and where the top surface of
the forms determines the finished level of the concrete, it shall be accurate in manufacture to
within a tolerance of ± 2mm in 3 metres measured in a vertical plane. Repaired forms shall
not be used until inspected and approved by the Engineer's Representative.

Forms to support rails on which the machine is to run shall be sufficiently robust to
support the weight of all plant running on them without deformation.

168
RAILS FOR MACHINE 6266. Rails shall be of steel and of approved design enabling them to be properly
FINISHED CONCRETE supported on the side forms or on other approved
CARRIAGEWAYS mountings.

All rails shall be sufficiently robust to support the weight of all plant running on
them without deformation. They shall-be free from warp, twists and kinks and accurate in
manufacture to within a tolerance of ± 2mm in 3 metres measured in a vertical plane.

PREFORMED 6267. Preformed joint filler shall be of the thickness shown on the drawings or directed by
FILLER JOINT the Engineer within a tolerance of ± 2mm. It shall be 25mm less in depth than the thickness
of the slab, within a tolerance of ± 3mm and of the full width between road forms. Holes to
accommodate dowel bars shall be accurately bored or punched out.

The material comprising joint filler shall be of approved quality, such that the filler
can be satisfactorily installed in position at the joint.

JOINT PRIMER 6268. Joint priming compound shall consist of a suitable bitumen based compound
approved by the Engineer.

JOINT SEALING 6269. Poured joint sealing material shall consist of an approved rubber-bitumen
COMPOUND compound, complying with the requirements of British Standard 2499: test to assess the
properties of hot applied joint sealing compounds for concrete pavements, and shall be
grade-1. Class B or C. The joint sealing compound shall have the following qualities:

(a) Capable of adhering to concrete under all weather conditions.

(b) It should be ductile particularly in fairly cold weather as to cover the


widening of joint without cracking, and be able to withstand the continuous cycle of
expansion and contraction for a long time without a break up or disintegration.

(c) It must be durable etc.

WORKMANSHIP

GENERAL 6270. Concrete carriageways shall be constructed in one or more slab widths as indicated in
the drawings.

Where a concrete carriageway is constructed more than one slab wide, the first slab
or alternate slabs shall be constructed between two forms and the adjacent or intermediate
slabs shall be constructed by replacing the flanged wheels on one or both sides of the
machine with flangeless wheels, which can travel on the surface of the concrete already
completed, or on rails fixed to longitudinal timber laid on the completed concrete to support
the flanged wheels. Concrete slabs shall be at least ten days old before they are subjected to
the weight of the finishing machine, but, in suitable weather, the Engineer's Representative
may permit a shorter period provided that adequate provision is made for protecting the
surface of the slab on which the wheels of the finishing machine run and provided that the
wheels do not run nearer to the edge of the slab than 150mm and provided further that the
Contractor gives an undertaking in writing to be fully responsible for any damage that may
occur and to repair same at his own expense to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative.

THICKNESS OF SLAB 6271. The thickness at any point shall be not more than 6mm thinner nor more than 12mm
thicker than that shown on the drawings.

169
CONCRETE 6272. Unless hand spreading has been sanctioned in writing by the Engineer's
DISTRIBUTOR Representative, all concrete to be compacted by finishing machines shall be distributed with
a hopper type spreader of approved design. Where vibratory screeds instead of finishing
machines are used for compaction the arrangements for placing concrete shall be to the
approval of the Engineer. Spreaders shall be capable of striking off concrete at the correct
level for the placing of reinforcement and for producing a uniform surface.

To minimize pre-compaction, hand spreading will be permitted only where the


concrete is deposited in loads each not exceeding one cubic metre size, and from height not
exceeding 750mm.

COMPACTING AND 6273. Compacting and finishing machines shall be approved by the Engineer and shall
FINISHING MACHINE compact and finish the concrete either by the action of vibration or by mechanical tamping.
The machine shall in addition have a strike-off blade or paddle-roller to control the
surcharge and a rear transverse oscillating screed.

WATERPROOF 6274. Where shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer's Representative,
UNDERLAY waterproof paper as specified or other approved underlay, shall be used and where more
than one sheet is used for the construction of any one slab the overlaps shall be at least
150mm. The waterproof underlay must not be torn or damaged, and water shall not be
allowed to collect upon it before the concrete is laid.

SETTING, 6275. ALL SIDE FORMS SHALL:-


CHECKING AND
STRIKING OF SIDE
(I) Be so supported that they remain rigid at all times.
FORMS
They shall be set in position at least 20 hours before concrete is placed between them
unless the Engineer's Representative agrees to a shorter period. Forms shall be cleaned and
oiled each time before they are used.

(II) Be bedded on a layer, about 50mm thick and for only the width of the form
base, of cement mortar or concrete of the same grade as the slab on a firm foundation so as
to ensure the necessary complete rigidity and stability. The base on the line of the forms
shall be thoroughly compacted before the forms are set.

(III) Be as specified in Clause 6265 set to line and level and secured by using not
less than three pins for each 3 metres section, one pin being placed at each side of every joint
or as otherwise approved by the Engineer's Representative. Form sections shall be tightly
joined together by a locked joint free from play or movement in any direction, so as to
prevent the extrusion of concrete.

For machine laid concrete the form joints shall be made without any discontinuity in
the top surface of the forms and the levels at the joints between the forms shall, where form
and rail are not integral, be set within a tolerance of ± 3mm of the levels shown on the
drawings.

The wheels of finishing machines shall not be run directly on the top surface of the
side forms but on rails as indicated in clause 6266 or on the finished concrete as provided in
clause 6270.

For concrete to be compacted by vibrating screeds the setting of the forms


shall be such as to provide the accuracy of finish
specified in the relevant clauses of this specification.

170
If corrections are necessary as a result of checking for conformity with the
alignments and levels shown on the drawings such correction shall be made before any
concrete is placed between them. Where any form has been disturbed it shall be reset and
rechecked. Side forms shall be removed not less than 12 hours after completion of the
construction of the concrete road slabs. Care shall be taken that the concrete and any
projecting rods are not damaged in any way during the removal of the forms. The concrete
or mortar bed used at the longitudinal joint in partial-width construction shall be removed at
the same time if applicable and the subgrade and subbase made good to the satisfaction of
the Engineer's Representative.

SETTING CHECKING 6276. The Engineer's Representative may require any or all concreting operations to cease
AND STRIKING OF if at any time, the forms or rails are not set in position sufficiently far in advance of the
RAILS FOR MACHINE- concreting to enable him to be satisfied as to their compliance with the relevant requirements
LAID CONCRETE
of this-specification.

ALL RAILS SHALL:-

(A) Be integral with the forms so that they remain rigidly fixed at all times, or
where independent, be mounted so that they remain rigidly fixed to the approved mounting
during the passage of the spreading and finishing machines. The surface of rails shall be kept
clean at all times.

(B) Be firmly supported along the length in such a manner that the finishing
machine can travel along the line of the carriageway at the correct level.

(C) Where the width of slab is continuously varying, it shall be firmly


supported throughout its length on cement mortar or concrete as specified each about 50mm
thick so as to ensure the necessary rigidity and accuracy of levels. The subgrade or subbase
or base course beneath the rail shall be thoroughly compacted before any concrete or mortar
is laid.

(D) Be so set as to ensure accuracy of level of the surface of the concrete within
a tolerance of ± 3mm in 3 metres.

(E) Be so set that the screed of the finishing machine operates in relation to the
rail, not the form.

Where on checking it is found that any rail or the form on which it rests has been
disturbed or is incorrectly set, the rail shall be reset, and rechecked before placing of the
concrete between the forms is begun.

Rails may be removed in advance of removal of the forms on which they rest
provided that the latter are not disturbed by so doing.

QUANTITY AND 6277. The quantity and distribution of reinforcement shall be as shown on the drawings,
DISTRIBUTION OF with such modification as may be necessary and approved by the Engineer’s Representative
STEEL to suit manholes and surface boxes, junctions or slabs of different width or length; or as are
REINFORCEMENT
directed by the Engineer's Representative. No loose rods or small pieces of fabric other than
as provided for in the specification shall be permitted in any portion of the work.

PLACING OF STEEL 6278. Steel fabric reinforcement for carriageways shall be as pecified in B.S. 1221. All
REINFORCEMENT reinforcement shall be so placed that after compaction of the concrete it is in the positions
FOR CARRIAGEWAYS shown on the drawings and shall terminate 40mm from the Sedges of all joints in the
concrete unless otherwise specified.

171
TREATMENT AT 6279. Manholes shall be housed in separate small slabs, which shall be the size of the
MANHOLES exterior of the shaft and shall be formed by casting the main slab against boxes of this size,
made from formwork and accurately placed vertically above the exterior of the shaft. This
formwork shall be removed at the same time as the remainder of the formwork for the slab.
Expansion joint filler 10mm wide shall be placed against the exposed edges of the slab, and
reinforcing bars if shown on the drawings or specified shall be placed accurately in position
so as to give the required final cover, concrete being placed by hand in the space intervening
between the slab and the manhole frame. This concrete shall then be compacted to the same
density as that of the adjoining slab.

A sealing groove shall be formed and filled at the top of the joints with the
surrounding slab, in accordance with Clause 6283 the top arises of both slabs being rounded
to a radius of 6mm.

JOINTS IN CONCRETE 6280. All joints shall be constructed by methods to be approved by the Engineer, and with
CARRIAGEWAYS vertical faces. Grooves in the surface of the concrete over joints shall be sawn except that
GENERAL alternative methods of forming the grooves may be submitted and may be considered by the
REQUIREMENTS
Engineer in lieu of a sawn grooves, provided that the Contractor demonstrates to the
Engineer's satisfaction, that the surface finish so obtainable is within the appropriate
tolerance permitted.

TRANSVERSE 6281. Expansion joints shall comprise an approved performed joint filler as specified and
JOINTS dowel bars. The joint filler, together with the sawn groove, shall provide complete
separation of adjacent slabs. The dowel bars as specified shall be provided at mid depth of
the slab, parallel to the finished surface and to the centre line of the road within a tolerance
of ± 2mm in 300mm Provision shall be made for ensuring that the dowel bars and joint
filler are held securely in position during spreading and compacting of the concrete.

Dowel bars shall be provided at one end with a closely fitting sleeve 100mm long,
consisting of cardboard or other approved material. A loose plug equal in thickness to the
width of the expansion joint, and consisting of cotton waste or a disc of expansion joint
filler, shall be inserted within the sleeve at the end of the dowel bar. The free half of each
dowel shall be greased or painted with joint priming compound as specified or directed. The
method of assembling and securing joints shall be approved by the Engineer.

Where contraction joints are required, these shall be formed by a groove sawn in the
surface of the hardened concrete and a timber fillet cast into the base of the slab, all as shown
on the drawings. The sawn groove shall be located vertically above the timber fillet to
within a tolerance of ± 12mm. Dowel bars shall be provided as for expansion joints.
Construction joints shall be installed only under the conditions detailed in Clause 6287.
They shall be formed by means of a drilled and split cross-form which shall allow tie bars to
be inserted and which shall permit the reinforcement to project through the joint for a
distance of at least 400mm. On recommencing work the cross-form shall be removed and the
vertical face of the concrete roughened. The next reinforcing mat shall completely overlap
the projecting reinforcement.

Joints shall be formed in a straight line at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the
carriageway except where this cannot be achieved as at road junctions and roundabouts and
corresponding joints on either side of a longitudinal joint shall be in line with each other.
Where possible all transverse joints shall be staggered.

LONGITUDINAL 6282. When slabs are constructed to multi-lane widths, tie additional reinforcement as
JOINTS shown on the drawings shall be bars or provided as specified in clause 6264. The

172
longitudinal joints shall be placed symmetrically about the middle of the slab in the form of
a dummy joint, as shown on the drawings, or as directed.

For slabs of single lane width, tie bars shall be provided as above and as shown on
the drawings. Provision shall be made for maintaining the tie bars accurately in position
during spreading and compacting of the concrete. When the adjoining slab is constructed, a
groove shall be sawn or formed by other approved means to the requirements of clause
6283.

SAWING AT 6283. Except when an alternative method is approved by the the Engineer, a groove shall be
JOINTS sawn in the concrete immediately over the position of the joint. Sawing shall take place by a
method to be approved by the Engineer as soon as possible but not before the concrete has
hardened sufficiently to ensure clean faces to the groove. In considering the type of
construction joints to be adopted, causes precipitating the joint must be considered and the
instruments available. In addition to the above these other methods may be found useful:

(a) Stepping method (vertical)

(b) Tongue method

(c) Grooving method

The depth of grooves shall be 40mm. Groove over expansion joints shall be 6mm
wider than the width of the preformed joint filler, and shall be accurately located over the
joint filler. Grooves forming longitudinal or contraction joints shall be of the width shown
on the drawings, or as directed by the Engineer.

SEALING OF JOINTS 6284. All dust or grit shall he removed from the grooves which shall first be dried if
necessary for this purpose. Unless an alternative method of sealing is approved by the
Engineer, the dried joints shall then be coated with priming compound, complying with
clause 6268 and an approved sealing compound heated to a temperature not exceeding
180 C, shall be poured in so as to fill the groves completely. When filling grooves in
expansion joints, allowance shall be made for normal variations of ground temperature in
the locality, so as to avoid the extrusion of the sealing compound with an expected increase
in ground temperature.

COMPRESSIVE 6285. During the whole progress of concreting, test cubes shall be made in the manner
STRENGTH OF described for concrete work. Not more than 1 per cent of cubes tested at 28 days shall show
CONCRETE a strength of less than specified.

If rapid-hardening cement is used, reference in this clause to 28 days, which is the


period for ordinary portland cement, shall be the period between concreting and opening to
traffic.
Cubes shall be made each day in sets at intervals and locations as decided by the
Engineer's Representative. At the start of the work, and until such time as the Engineer's
Representative may order a reduction in the number of cubes required, six sets shall be made
during each day's work, half of each set for testing at 28 days for determination of the
minimum permissible crushing strength and the other half for testing at seven days for the
information of the Engineer's Representative as to quality of the mix. When the results of
the first thirty sets are available and for so long as the Engineer's Representative is satisfied
with the quality of the mix, he may reduce the number of cubes required to two sets per day.

If the minimum specified crushing strength is not so attained the Contractor may
without expense to the Employer, cut cores from locations selected by the Engineer's

173
Representative. Where this is done the strength of cores when tested in accordance with
British Standard 1881 methods of testing concrete will be accepted as taking precedence
over the cubes strengths in determining the strength of the concrete and a core strength of not
less than 75 per cent. of the specified crushing strength at 28 days (tested vertically) will be
accepted for a core having a height/diameter ratio of 2. The method which shall be adopted
for correcting the strength of cubes and cores for age shall be as directed by the Engineer. In
order to check the depth of concrete laid, the state of compaction and the position of the
reinforcement, the Engineer's Representative may order cores to be cut, and the Contractor
shall carry out same, and repair all holes so formed at his own expense, and to the
satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

The unit prices to be inserted by the Contractor in the bill of quantities shall include
for preparing, cutting, packing, any transporting and testing cubes and cores required by the
Engineer or his Representative. In addition, for cores the price shall include for all costs
incurred in connection with drilling and making good to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative.

TRIAL MIXES AND 6286. The Contractor shall make trial mixes using the aggregates proposed for the work to
TRIAL SLABS ensure that the concrete mix is sufficiently workable and that segregation of the mix during
transportation and placing does not occur. The composition of the trial mixes shall comply
with the requirements of the specification in all respects.

The Contractor shall construct a trial slab of the same thickness as that to be laid in
the work, to the full width of the finishing machine, and at least 30 metre long. The slab shall
be constructed with the approved mix to be used in the work, and in a position as shown on
the drawings or directed by the Engineer's Representative. Construction of the trial slab
shall be commenced sufficiently in advance of the main construction to enable cores to be
cut from the trial slab. Six cores shall be cut therefrom and shall be tested at 7 days, to
ensure that the mix as designed and the equipment proposed to be used are both suitable to
achieve a fully compacted concrete of the specified strength, workability and surface finish.

PLACING 6287. When concreting of a slab has commenced no cessation of the work will be allowed
CONCRETE until concreting of the slab is completed. In the event of mechanical break down or adverse
weather, however, the Engineer's Representative may permit the use of a construction joint
and the Contractor shall carry out any additional precautionary measures stipulated at his
own expense. Any of the following joints may be considered by the Contractor:

(i) Construction joint


(ii) Expansion joint
(iii) Warping joint
(iv) Contraction joint

The placing, compacting and finishing of the concrete shall be carried out as rapidly
as possible and operations shall be so arranged that in any vertical section the concrete shall
be fully compacted throughout the whole depth and finished within 1 hour from the time of
the completion of the mixing of the first batch of concrete in that section.

SPREADING AND 6288. For concrete slabs of 200mm, thickness or less the concrete may either:-
COMPACTION WITH
A FINISHING (a) be spread and compacted in one layer, or
MACHINE OF
REINFORCED
CONCRETE ROAD (b) be spread in two layers which shall be compacted as one
SLABS

174
When the concrete is spread in one layer a travelling jig or a type approved by the
Engineer's Representative shall be used to hold the reinforcement in position while the
concrete is being placed so after compaction the top cover to the reinforcement is as
specified. When the concrete is spread in two layers the first layer shall be spread to such a
level that after subsequent compaction it will support the reinforcement at a level which will
ensure the specified top cover. The layer of reinforcement shall then be placed in position
and covered with concrete.

Whichever method of spreading is adopted the concrete shall be struck off at the
appropriate surcharge and compacted true to line and level by one or more traverses of the
machine to give the slab the final thickness required. The compaction and surface finish
shall be to the satisfaction of the Engineer's Representative.

For concrete slabs exceeding 200mm. in thickness the concrete may either:

(a) be compacted in two layers or,

(b) be compacted in one layer, if it can be shown to the satisfaction of the


Engineer's Representative that, with the plant and methods to be used, full compaction can
be achieved through out the full depth of the slab.

If the concrete is to be compacted in two layers a layer of concrete shall be spread,


struck off at the appropriate surcharge and compacted to a level that will ensure the specified
top cover to the reinforcement. The layer of reinforcement shall then be placed in position
and covered with concrete, which shall be struck off at the appropriate surcharge and
compacted true to line and level by one or more traverses of the machine to give the slab the
final thickness required. The compaction and surface finish shall be to the satisfaction of
Engineer's Representative. If the concrete is to be compacted in one layer the concrete shall
be spread and the reinforcement placed in position by one of the methods specified for slabs
of 200mm thickness or less.

SPREADING AND 6289. A layer of concrete shall be spread, struck off at the appropriate surcharge and
COMPACTION WITH A compacted to a level that will ensure the specified top cover to the reinforcement. The layer
VIBRATING SCREED of reinforcement shall then be placed in position by hand, or by mechanical means approved
OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE ROAD by the Engineer’s Representative and shall be covered with concrete, which shall be struck
SLABS off at the appropriate surcharge and compacted true to line and level by means of a vibrating
steel or hardwood screed. The compaction and surface finish shall be to the satisfaction of
the Engineer's Representative.

SPREADING AND
6290. In exceptional circumstances where reinforced concrete slabs or haunches are used
COMPACTION WITH A
FINISHING MACHINE OR as road bases, the concrete shall be spread struck off at the appropriate surcharged and
VIBRATING SCREED ON compacted in a single layer by machine or by a vibratory steel or hardwood screed and
CONCRETE SLABS OR finished true to line, and level to the required thickness. The compaction and surface finish
HAUNCHES USED AS shall be to the satisfaction of the Engineer’s Representative.
ROAD BASES

CURING CONCRETE 6291. Immediately after completion of the finishing process, all exposed surfaces of the
concrete shall be protected from the sun and drying winds by frames covered by canvas or
other approved material until the concrete is sufficiently hard to bear the weight of other
protective material without the surface becoming marked. The sides and ends of the frames
shall be covered to exclude drying currents of air.

Thereafter all exposed surfaces of the concrete shall be protected and kept damp by
covering with suitable matting, sand or other approved material: if sand is to be laid a

175
minimum depth of 50mm, will be required. The curing material shall be kept wet for a
period of at least seven days or longer as directed by the Engineer's Representative.
Alternatively waterproof paper in accordance with the relevant clause of this specification,
or other approved sheeting may be used, and this shall be laid dry and kept in contact with the
surface of the concrete for at least seven days. The sheets shall be lapped by at least 230mm
and shall be weighted down and well fastened along the edges to prevent the wind blowing
beneath.

As an alternative method of curing the surfaces may be protected, where approved by


the Engineer by treating with an approved resinous curing compound, mechanically sprayed
on to the surface of the finished concrete at a rate of 4.5 - 6 litres/sq. m as soon as it is
possible to produce a membrane of uniform thickness. Unless otherwise directed by the
Engineer, the compound shall be applied as soon as practicable after completion of the
laying and finishing of the concrete. Any groove over a point shall be protected from the
entry of curing liquid.

ACCURACY OF 6292. The concrete surface shall not show a departure from the true surface greater than
CONCRETE SURFACE 3mm when tested with a 3 meter straight-edge or template in the manner described for
USING FINISHING OR checking Base course finish.
VIBRATING SCREED

If at any point tested the tolerance is outside these limits, the Contractor may make
not more than two additional passes of the vibrating beam of the finishing machine and one
further pass of the oscillating screed. The surface shall again be tested in the specified
manner whereupon if the irregularity so measured still exceeds 3mm in 3 meter, the
Engineer's Representative shall direct that the concrete be removed to the level of the top
surface of the reinforcement or for unreinforced concrete to a depth of 50mm.

The area to be removed shall be that represented by the length of the straight edge in
the position of measurement across the full width of the screed.

The concrete so removed, shall not be re-used. Where the point of measurement in
default is less than 5 metres from a transverse expansion joint, the whole area up to the joint
shall be removed to the required depth.

Fresh concrete of specified quality shall be placed to the appropriate surcharge. It


shall then be compacted and finished in the normal manner and shall again be subject to test
for accuracy of finish.

Although the concrete may be removed immediately following measurement of the


irregularity and while it is still wet, this shall not absolve the Contractor from complying
with the requirements of this clause if for any reason the concrete to be removed has
hardened.

The removal of concrete under this clause and its replacement shall be carried out as
directed by the Engineer's Representative to his approval and without extra charge.

The accuracy of surface required by this clause shall apply also to the surface across
any joint whether formed initially or as a result of replacement of concrete arising out of the
requirements of this clause.

In exceptional circumstances, where concrete road slabs are to be surfaced with


asphalt, coated macadam or dense tar surfacing, the requirements as to the finished surface
of the concrete shall be those in this clause except that the specified tolerance shall be 6mm
in 3 metres instead of 3mm in 3 metres.

176
TRAFFIC OVER 6293. No vehicular traffic shall be allowed on the finished surface within 20 days of its
FINISHED WORK completion where ordinary portland cement is used or 10 days where rapid-hardening cement
is used and until the joints have been sealed unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer.

TESTS

SELECTION AND 6294. The selection and control tests to be carried out under this section of this
CONTROL TESTS Specification shall be those specified to be carried out for concrete and reinforced concrete
work and shall be conducted in the manner stipulated in all relevant clauses of this
specification. In addition to the making, curing and testing of concrete test cubes as control
tests on concrete carriageways, the Engineer's Representative may order cores to be cut from
the finished work so as to check the state of compaction, the thickness of the concrete and
the position of the reinforcement. These cores shall be drilled and tested in accordance with
the provisions of B.S. 1881, or any amendment thereto as directed by the Engineer.

TRIAL SECTIONS 6295. The Contractor's attention is particularly drawn to the necessity for carrying out trial
sections with the proposed materials and plant prior to the start of the main construction to
determine the most efficient construction technique and the suitability of the proposed
materials and plant, as described by the relevant clause of this specification.

(CLAUSES 6296 - 6299 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

PART (D) - SURFACING

(I) TWO COAT BITUMINOUS SURFACE DRESSING

GENERAL 6300. In addition to all other relevant clauses of the conditions of contract and this
specification, the following shall be deemed to refer more particularly to two coat
bituminous surface dressing work, and shall be read in conjunction with same.

MATERIALS

MATERIALS FOR 6301. Materials used in surface dressing are to be:-


SURFACE
DRESSING
(i) CUT-BACK BITUMEN FOR PRIME COAT:-

Either a cut-back bitumen known as M.C-O, having a viscosity of 75/150 seconds at


25 C as measured by the furol viscosimeter, or a cut-back bitumen known as M.C-1 having
a viscosity of 75/100 seconds at 50 C as measured by the furol viscosimeter.

(ii) CUT-BACK BITUMEN FOR WEARING COAT:

(For first wearing coat: Either a cut-back bitumen having a viscosity of 100/150
seconds at 40 C as measured by the standard tar viscometer, or a cut-Back bitumen having a
viscosity of 300/400 seconds viscosity at 40oC as measured by the standard tar viscometer.

(III) STRAIGHT RUN BITUMEN FOR WEARING COAT:

Straight run bitumen for first wearing Coat shall have a penetration grade of 80/100
at 25 C and a flash point (open) of 107 C (Minimum).

177
(IV) BLINDING MATERIALS - Sand for blinding prime coat surface shall
consist of clean sharp sand of 6mm maximum size with
not more than 20% passing 600 m. sieve, and shall be
approved by the Engineer's Representative. Alternatively
grit arising from the crushing of the rock may be used
provided it is approved by the Engineer's Representative,
and the grading complies with the specification for sand
earlier discussed.

(V) MATERIALS FOR SURFACE DRESSING - Materials for blinding the


first wearing coat surface dressing on the carriageway, shall consist of clean crushed rock or
clean crushed or uncrushed gravel from an approved source, as specified, graded into single
sizes as defined in B.S. 63 latest edition or any amendment thereto; "Single Sized Road Stone
and chippings", or in B.S. 1984 latest edition -"Single Size Gravel Aggregate for Roads as
appropriate. Two single sizes l9mm and 12mm shall be used for blinding on the
carriageways, while 10mm single size material may be allowed for non-trafficked surfaces
(like verges) but only with the written approval of the Engineer's Representative.

The grading of the material shall be carried out by means of an approved


mechanically operated screening plant, fitted with screens having square perforations
corresponding to the B.S. sieve size of the material it is intended to produce. Screens with
circular perforations will be permitted, provided the diameter of the perforations is increased
so as to be equivalent to the corresponding B.S. sieve size.

The different sizes of materials shall be stored in separate stockpiles and shall not be
mixed. If the Engineer's Representative considers it necessary the blinding material shall be
washed before use. The aim of the Contractor shall be to obtain the maximum production of
19mm and 12mm single sized material from the plant and either size may be used in
blinding a continuous section of surface dressing of not less than 2 kilometres in length.

The crushing aggregate value of all material used for surface dressing shall not
exceed 30% and its abrasion test result not more than 25%. All samples shall be tested as
described in B.S. 882. Samples of all blinding materials to be used in the works shall be
submitted to the Engineer's Representative for approval prior to being used.

Prior to the commencement of surface treatment works the Contractor will


carry out tests under the direction of the Engineer for the purpose of assessing the adhesive
qualities of the materials which are to be used in the works. As a result of these tests the
Engineer may decide that it is necessary to use an additive to the bitumen for the prevention
of strippings of the stone surfacing, and the Contractor shall comply with the directions of
the Engineer in this respect. Strip test is recommended.

BITUMINOUS 6302. Bitumen emulsion shall contain 30% of bitumen and shall comply in all other
EMULSION respects with B.S. 434 (latest edition and amendment thereto) except that the basic bitumen
used in the manufacture may have a penetration of 80/100. Bitumen emulsion containing
30% of bitumen may be made by mixing thoroughly together in the correct proportions
emulsion complying with B.S. 434 (amendment thereto) with clean soft water.

(CLAUSES 6303 - 6309 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

WORKMANSHIP

178
HEATING OF CUT 6310. The cut-back bitumen shall be heated in a bitumen heater complying with B.S. 167,
BACK BITUMEN which shall have a capacity commensurate with the output required. The heater shall be so
operated that the temperature of the bitumen applied to the road shall be within the specified
range. Accurate thermometers shall be incorporated in the heater to give a clear indication of
the bitumen temperature. Should the temperature be in excess of that specified, the
Engineer's Representative may direct that this overheated bitumen be disposed off at the
Contractor's expense.

CUT-BACK BITUMEN 6311. The prime coat shall be of a medium curing cut-back bitumen of either M.C.O.
PRIME COAT Grade or M.C.1 Grade as specified. The actual grade to be used shall be determined by the
Engineer after carrying out site tests to determine the penetration of each grade.

The bitumen shall be applied strictly in accordance with the provisions of the
relevant clauses of this specification on an approved Base course free from all dust and
loose material and slightly damped prior to applying the bitumen.

After spraying the surface shall be left for a minimum of three hours before blinding
is applied, or longer if considered necessary by the Engineer's Representative to effect the
maximum penetration. Blinding consisting of sand or grit complying with the provisions of
the relevant clauses of this specification shall be applied so that a uniform covering of
sufficient thickness is obtained to ensure that no bare or fat patches of bitumen are showing.
The blinding shall then be rolled in with not more than two passes of a roller.

SPRAYING OF 6312. The prime coat as specified shall be evenly applied to the prepared Base course by
CUT-BACK means of an approved presuure feed mobile distributor and complying with the
BITUMEN PRIME
requirements of B.S. 1707: "Binder distributors". In addition to the special requirements
COAT
detailed in section three of B.S. 1707, the pressure feed mobile distributor shall be fitted
with a spray bar through which the hot bitumen can be circulated while the distributor is not
spraying. The jets shall be so arranged in the spray bar that they are effectively preheated to
the same temperature as the circulating bitumen.

The Contractor shall provide a set of 50mm wide troughs as described in Appendix
"A" of B.S. 1707 and shall carry out depot tray test A in the presence of the Engineer's
Representative to demonstrate that the lateral distribution is in accordance with B.S. 1707.
This test shall be carried out prior to using the spraying plant for the first time on the
contract, and subsequently at the discretion of the Engineer's Representative. In the event of
the quantity of bitumen in any trough or troughs being found to lie outside the prescribed
tolerance from the average, the faulty jet shall be located and cleaned or replaced.

The bitumen shall be applied at a temperature in accordance with the Table given
below, and at a rate of spray of between 0.8 and 1.2 litres per square metre depending on the
texture of the surface. From the calibration charts and tests made on the distributor, the
spraying speed shall be determined to give the required rate of spray.
OR
Alternatively rate of spray may be checked as follows:-

Check the initial and final quantity of cut back and record. The difference between
initial and final readings divided by the area sprayed can be used to check compliance with
approved rate of spraying.

Note:- Initial and final reading shall take place at same position.

179
TABLE VI-8 SEALING COATS TEMPERATURE OF APPLICATION

BITUMEN GRADE TEMPERATURE OF APPLICATION

MIN MAX
M.C.0 38 C 66 C
M.C.I 54 C 79 C

The Contractor shall carry out trial sections, as directed by the Engineer's
Representative to determine the most suitable grade and rate of application of bitumen.

Immediately before any spraying run is begun, the spray bar shall be tested by
allowing all the jet to discharge simultaneously for about half a minute with a slotted metal
tray placed beneath the spray bar whilst a visual inspection is made. Any jet which is seen
not delivering a uniform spray cone shall be cleaned or replaced. After testing the spray bar,
the distributor shall proceed with the spraying run without delay. No spraying shall be
carried out when rain appears imminent, during rain, or after rain, until the surface has dried.
The Contractor shall ensure that joints between spraying strips are straight and without
excess or deficiency of bitumen which would cause either fattening up or scabbing along the
joint.

The Contractor will be required to respray at his own expense any section which
show deficiency of binder, or to burn off and respray at his own expense any sections which
show an excess of binder and which subsequently fat up.

FIRST COAT 6313. The wearing course of the surface dressing shall not be laid until at least 10 days
SURFACE after the application of the prime coat. During this period additional blinding sand shall be
DRESSING
added if directed and brushed over the surface to prevent damage. After such period all
damaged or weak spots shall be cut out, refilled, recompacted flush with the existing surface,
sealed and blinded as specified and rerolled to the satisfaction of the Engineer's
Representative. After all repair work has been allowed sufficient time to harden, the surface
shall be swept clean of all loose material immediately prior to the application of the wearing
coat. Before spraying is begun the surface shall be dry.

Bitumen for the wearing coat of the surface dressing shall be an approved cutback
bitumen or straight run bitumen as specified in the relevant clauses of this specification. The
bitumen as specified shall be evenly sprayed on the surface by means of an approved
mechanical spraying machine as specified. The temperature of the bitumen at the time of
spraying shall be in accordance with the table given below. The grade of bitumen to de used
shall be determined by the Engineer.

TABLE VI-9 BITUMEN VISCOSITY AND TEMPERATURE OF APPLICATION

BITUMEN VISCOSITY TEMPERATURE OF APPLICATION

STV AT 40 C MIN MAX


100/150 SECS 132 C 160 C
300/400 SECS 149 C 177 C

180
The rate of spray of the bitumen shall be determined according to the type of base,
type and size of chippings which are to be used as detailed in the table given below, and the
Contractor shall carry out trial sections, as directed by the Engineer's Representative to
determine the most appropriate rate of application of bitumen.

TABLE VI-10 SIZE OF CHIPPING AND RATE OF SPRAY OF BITUMEN

NOMINAL SIZE OF RATE OF SPRAY OF BITUMEN


CHIPPINGS LITRE./SQ.M.

10mm 0.60 - 0.90


12mm 0.75 - 1.20
20mm 1.20 - 1.50

Immediately after spraying the surface shall be blinded with approved


single size chippings as specified. The chippings shall be
distributed on the sprayed surface by means of
mechanical spreaders or tailboard gritters so that a single
layer of closely packed chippings is obtained. Any bare
or lean areas shall be made good by a follow-on gang
using hand blinding.

Rolling shall be carried out immediately after the chippings have been spread with an
approved roller weighing not less than 3,629 kilograms or more than 5,443 kilograms. The
minimum number of passes of the roller shall be used to press the chippings into the film of
bitumen. Two passes of the roller should generally be sufficient. Pneumatic tyre rollers are
preferable to smooth wheeled rollers.

Prior to the commencement of spraying a section of the road for the first coat, a 2
metres wide paper strip shall be laid over the end of the previous section. The bitumen
sprayer shall then commence its run from over this paper strip.

FINAL SURFACE 6314. The finished surface of the carriageway shall be left as smooth as possible and the
OF accuracy of finish in the longitudinal direction shall not vary at any point by more than 6mm
CARRIAGEWAY
from a 3 metre straight edge, placed in any position on the finished surface parallel to the
centre line. The transverse profile shall conform to the same accuracy, using a correctly
shaped template instead of the straight edge.

The surface shall be evenly textured and show no lean or fat areas and shall not have
any low or flat spots where water will collect.

WET WEATHER 6315. No surfacing work shall be done in wet weather or when rain is imminent. Only dry
chippings shall be used.

REGULATION OF 6316. After laying the prime coat surfacing, barriers shall be erected to keep the area
TRAFFIC OVER surfaced free from traffic. It shall remain free from traffic for such a period as the
PRIME COAT AND Engineer’s Representative may direct after which it shall be opened to traffic for
SURFACE DRESSING
not less than 3 days and for not more than 7 days. During this period additional blinding

181
material shall be added and all damage by traffic made good. After the application of the
first coat surfacing, the area surfaced shall be kept free from traffic for at least 24 hours.

The section shall then be opened to traffic and suitable traffic notices and barriers
shall be erected for a period of one week restricting traffic speeds to 25 KPH During this
period empty bitumen drums or other obstacles, which shall be well lighted, or alternatively
removed during the hours of darkness, shall be placed on the newly surfaced areas for the
purpose of limiting the speed of traffic, and shall be moved to different positions from day to
day in such a way that the whole width of the surface receives equal wear and compaction
from the wheels of vehicles.

(CLAUSES 6317 - 6319 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

TESTS

TESTS FOR 6320. The Contractor shall produce manufacturer's test certificate if requested, otherwise
BITUMEN the Engineer may require the Contractor to carry out the following tests as described in
"standard methods for testing petroleum and its products" published by the Institute of
Petroleum, 26 Portland Place, London W.1.

Penetration of bitumen IP.49/56

Soluble bitumen content: bitumen and asphalt IP.47/55.

Flash-point by means of the cleveland apparatus IP.36/55

Specific gravity IP.59/57. Method C.

Specific gravity of liquids or solids - pycnometer method.

Specific gravity of liquids or solids - method F.

The determination of viscosity by the standard tar viscosimeter or the furol


viscosimeter may also be required by the Engineer.

The cost of carrying out these tests if required by the Engineer shall be deemed to be
included in the tendered rates and prices.

TESTS FOR 6321. In determining the suitability of aggregates for use as road surfacing material the
AGGREGATES Engineer may require the Contractor to carry out any of the test specified in B.S. 812-
ROADSTONE AND
Mineral aggregates sand and fillers, B.S. 882, 1201 - Concrete aggregates from natural
CHIPPINGS
sources B.S. 1881 - Methods of testing concrete, B.S. 1200 - building sands from natural
sources, B.S. 63 - Single-sized roadstones and chippings. The cost of carrying out these tests
if required by the Engineer shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices.

TESTS FOR BINDER 6322. The Contractor shall provide a set of 50mm wide trough as described in Appendix A
DISTRIBUTORS of B.S. 1707 and shall carry out depot tray test A in the presence of the Engineer's
Representative to demonstrate that the lateral distribution is in accordance with B.S. 1707.

This test shall be carried out prior to using the spraying plant for the first time on the
contract and subsequently at the discretion of the Engineer's Representative. In the event of
the quantity of bitumen in any trough or troughs being found to lie outside the prescribed

182
tolerance from the average, the faulty jet shall be located, cleaned or replaced and a further
test carried out if required by the Engineer's Representative.

TESTS FOR RATE OF 6323. The Contractor shall test the rate of application of bitumen at regular intervals, as
APPLICATION directed by the Engineer's Representative by means of the "tray test" as described in Road
Note No.11: "Binder distributors for surface dressing", issued by the Road Research
Laboratory, England.

(CLAUSES 6324 - 6329 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

(II) BITUMINOUS MACADAM SURFACINGS

GENERAL 6330. In addition to all other relevant clauses of the conditions of contract and this
specification, the following shall be deemed to refer more particularly to bituminous
macadam surfacing work and shall be read in conjunction with same.

MATERIALS

BITUMEN 6331. The manufacture and grading of the bitumen macadam shall be in accordance with
MACADAM B.S. 1621 "bitumen macadam with crushed rock or slag aggregate except where stated
GENERAL
otherwise in these specifications.

BITUMEN 6332. (A) AGGREGATE. Coarse aggregate shall be hard clean and durable crushed
MACADAM igneous rock from a source to be approved by the Engineer and in accordance with B.S. 812.
MATERIALS
Fine aggregate shall be quarry fines produced from the crushing of igneous rock in a
secondary plant. They are to consist of hard non-absorbent moderately sharp particles and to
be free from clay, loam, and other foreign matter.

If filler is used it shall consist of finely ground particles of hydrated lime, portland
cement or crushed rock and at least 75% of the filler shall pass 75 m sieve.

(B) Binder: The binder shall be a straight-run bitumen with a penetration ranging
from 40/50, 60/70, 80/100 at 25 C.

BITUMEN MACADAM 6333. Representative samples of all materials proposed for use under these specifications
APPROVAL shall be submitted to the Engineer by the Contractor at the Contractor's expense for test and
OFMATERIALS
for preparation of trial mixes to determine job-mix formula. The Engineer shall make tests
of the proposed materials and inform the Contractor if the tests indicate compliance with the
specifications.

BITUMEN 6334. The grading of the combined aggregate to be used in the respective mix for each
MACADAM course shall be within the limits stated below and when plotted graphically with the particle
COMPOSITION OF
size to a logarithmic scale shall lie on a smooth curve within the envelope of these limits.
MIXES

TABLE VI-11 GRADING ENVELOPE FOR BITUMINOUS BINDER COURSE

50MM BINDER COURSE

SIEVE SIZE % PASSING

183
38mm 100
25mm 50 - 100
12.5mm 26 - 50
6mm 18 - 30
2.8mm 12 - 22
1.25mm 8 - 17
600 m 7 - 14
300 m 4 - 11
150 m 2- 8
75 m 0- 5
BITUMEN 4 - 5.5%BY WT.
OF AGGREGATE OR AS PER DESIGN

TABLE VI-12 GRADING ENVELOPE FOR BITUMINOUS WEARING COURSE

40MM WEARING COURSE

SIEVE SIZE % PASSING

25mm 100
19mm 95 - 100
12.5mm 70 - 90
9.5 mm 55 - 75
6.4mm 40 - 60
3.2mm 25 - 40
1.25mm 15 - 30
600 m 12 - 24
300 m 8 - 18
150 m 5 - 12
75 m 3-6
BITUMEN 4 - 7% BY WT.OF AGGREGATE OR AS PER DESIGN

The exact job-mix formulae will depend on the nature and grading of the aggregate
and the type of bitumen. The exact job-mix formulae for the respective courses will be
determined by the Engineer.

CLAUSES 6335 - 6339 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

WORKMANSHIP

BITUMEN 6340. The materials shall be mixed in an approved mixer of batch or continuous type from
MACADAM which mixed materials can be delivered and laid hot.
MIXING PLANT

The mixing plant shall be maintained in good working condition and shall be subject
to inspection by the Engineer's Representative. The weighing, measuring and recording
apparatus shall be checked at frequent intervals and maintained in perfect adjustment
throughout the contract.

BITUMEN 6341. The aggregate and binder shall be heated separately, aggregate to a temperature range
MACADAM of 121°C -149°C and the binder to 135°C -163°C. The respective temperatures of the
MIXING
aggregate and the binder are to be within 14°C on each other at the time of mixing.

184
Prolonged and excessive heating of the materials is to be avoided and particular care
is to be taken with binders. A dry mixing period of at least 10 seconds - shall precede the
addition of bitumen to the mix. Wet mixing shall only continue as long as is necessary to
obtain a thorough blend.

Aggregates, including fillers, if any shall be thoroughly dry immediately before


mixing. When moisture is detected in the mixed materials all aggregates in the hot bins are
to be removed and replaced in their respective stock piles.

BITUMEN MACADAM 6342. The mixed materials shall be transported from mixing plant to site in clean metal
TRANSPORTING lined vehicles. Every precaution is to be taken to avoid segregation of mixed materials and
MIXED MATERIAL
to ensure that they do not become contaminated with dust or foreign matter.

Should any load be wetted excessively by rain, they will be rejected by the Engineer's
Representative.

BITUMEN MACADAM 6343. Before the macadam is laid on the newly constructed based course, the surface will
PREPARATION OF be inspected by the Engineer’s Representative and testing using an Engineer’s level 3 metre
SURFACE PRIOR TO straight edge or any other means to ensure that the surface conforms with the requirements
LAYING
of this specification. Any irregularities in the surface shall be corrected to the satisfaction of
the Engineer's Representative before surfacing work will be allowed to proceed.

BITUMEN 6344. After mixing the material must not be reheated other than by the means provided in
MACADAM LAYING or on the spreading machine.

Material must not be laid when the surface on which it is to be placed is wet or when
rain appears imminent.

Immediately prior to laying the bitumen macadam, the surface of the Base course
shall be swept clean of all loose and caked dirt. The macadam as specified shall be laid by
approved means to compacted thickness of 50mm binder course and 65mm wearing course,
subject to design.

It is essential that the material is laid at a temperature not less than 107°C and not
more than 149°C. The Contractor is to provide at each spreader and finisher a suitable
thermometer for testing the temperature of the material as it is being spread and is to take
such temperature reading continually and record them hourly throughout each day's laying.
This record shall be available for inspection by the Engineer or his Representative who will
himself make such additional temperature checks as he considers desirable.

BITUMEN 6345. The materials shall be laid by approved mechanical spreaders and finishers. The
MACADAM spreader and finisher shall be in in good mechanical condition and shall be capable of laying
SPREADER OR
to the required width and profile without causing segregation, dragging, burning,
FINISHER
irregularities or other surface defects and it shall be capable of being operated at a speed
consistent with the character of the mixture and the thickness of the course being laid, so as
to produce a surface having a uniform density and surface texture. When not operated-on
side forms the spreader will employ equalizing runner evener arms or other automatic
compensating devices to adjust the profile and confine the edges of the course to true lines.

185
The mixer capacity and the operating speed of the spreader shall be so adjusted as to
ensure continuous laying and to avoid intermittent stopping of the spread as far as is
practicable.

HAND SPREADING 6346. Hand spreading will not be permitted for general work, but will only be allowed for
NOT ALLOWED filling localized depressions, or as directed by the Engineer or his Representative.

Where hand spreading and tamping is permitted the mixed material is to be dumped
on delivery upon an existing hard clean surface or an approved metal sheets outside the area
where it is to be spread and shall be distributed in to place immediately by hot shovels. It
shall be spread with hot rakes in a uniformly loose layer to the full depth required.

BITUMEN 6347. As soon after laying as conditions permit and when the material is still at a
MACADAM temperature of not less than 95°C the materials will be uniformly compacted with 3 wheeled
ROLLING
smooth rollers by rolling in a longitudinal direction, progressing gradually from side to
centre of work and so lapping the rolling as to obliterate all roller marks on completion. A
sufficient number of rollers shall be employed to ensure that the entire surfacing as laid is
compacted at the correct temperature.

At least two rollers are to be provided, one is to be three-wheeled and is to have a


weight per centimetre width of rear wheel of between 44 and 63 kilograms. The second
roller shall preferably be a pneumatic-typed roller and shall be of multiple-axle,
multiple-wheel type with smooth-tread pneumatic tyres of equal size staggered on the axles
at such spacings and overlaps as will provide uniform compactive pressure for the full
compacting width of the roller when operating. Oscillation of the wheels, if provided, shall
be in vertical plane only. The pneumatic tyre roller shall be capable (A) of being ballasted
sufficiently to bring its loaded weight to at least 2½ times its own weight. Gross weight to
be preferably 18 - 21 Tonne and (B) of-exerting compactive ground pressures of at least 5.6
kilograms per square centimetre (5.6 - 8.4 Kg/sq.cm). For the pneumatic rollers compaction
should be done within 65°C - 80°C range.

All roller wheels are to be kept slightly moist by the use of water tanks and spray bars
attached to the machines to prevent the material being picked up or disturbed.

Rollers must not be left standing on the new surface while there is any risk of it
being damaged thereby.

The sequence of rolling operation shall be:

(a) breakdown rolling with the-3-wheeled smooth roller;

(b) intermediate rolling with the high pressure tyre pneumatic roller; and

(c) the final rolling with a steel wheeled tandem roller.

Rolling will continue until the specified density is obtained. This can be checked by
using non-destructive method i.e. Nuclear gauge apparatus.

FIELD DENSITY OF 6348. Density tests of the bitumen macadam surfacing after compaction shall be taken from
COMPACTED the trial area and later at intervals throughout the course of the work and compared with the
BITUMEN
density of control specimens taken from the same material before laying, all in accordance
MACADAM
with the following procedure:-

186
(A) A sample of mixed material will be taken from a lorry before the material is
delivered to the spreader, and three control specimens shall be made and their density
measured by the Engineer's Representative by the marshall method.

The average of two close results from the specimens taken as the control density of
that particular batch.

(B) The pavement will be marked with the batch numbers to show where the
lorry load of material (from which the sample was taken) is laid, so that field density samples
can be taken for comparison with the control specimens.

(C) After completion of rolling, two samples are to be cut from each area so
marked in positions indicated by the Engineer's Representative.

(D) The samples shall be taken in accordance with part 1 section 3 of B.S. 598
and the density calculated by weighing in air and weighing in water in accordance with part 6
of B.S. 598. The average of two close results will be taken as the density of the compacted
material in that area.

(E) The field density will not be less than 100% of the control density
determined as above.

When an approved rolling procedure has been established, each course will be
sampled in accordance with the above at the rate of one sample area for each 1670 sq.m or
one sample area every four hours (whichever is the more frequent). Material which does not
achieve the required density will either be cut out and replaced or be further compacted until
the require density is obtained.

TRIAL AREAS 6349. The first 30 metres of the approved bituminous macadam which is laid by the
spreader shall be regarded as a trial area in order to establish a rolling procedure which will
produce the required field density.

At least four samples of the material after rolling will be taken in accordance with
part 1 section 3 of B.S. 598 (1958) When the work is at least 12 hours old in order to
determine the degree of compaction.

If the required specified density determined in accordance with the foregoing clause
is not obtained, the field rolling procedure will be changed so as to achieve the desired field
density and the trial area will be cut out and replaced to the satisfaction of the Engineer or
his Representative.

BITUMEN MACADAM 6350. (A) The surfacing will be finished to the required levels shown on the drawings.
FINISHED LEVELS The finished surface shall be of such smoothness that when tested with a 3 metre straight
edge placed anywhere in a longitudinal direction on the surface, there shall not be a gap
greater than 5mm between the bottom of the straight edge and the surface of the pavement
anywhere along the pavement. Any deviation exceeding 5mm will be corrected at the
Contractor's expense by scarifying, cutting out and removing all loosened materials, adding
new materials as required, re-shaping and rolling. No materials loosened by scarifying and
cutting out, will be left in position or otherwise reused. The surface shall be similarly tested,
and corrected if necessary in a transverse direction using a correctly shaped template instead
of a straight edge.

187
(B) It is essential that the surface of the road is free from waves, any depression
which retain water on the surface are immediately to be corrected as described above to the
satisfaction of The Engineer's Representative.

BITUMEN MACADAM 6351. All joints shall be vertical, properly formed to the correct line and level; if necessary,
JOINTS they shall be cut back to achieve this. The exposed edges of the bitumen macadam already
laid shall be coated thinly with bitumen emulsion containing 30% to 50% bitumen before
laying adjoining work. All joints on completion shall present the same texture, density and
smoothness as other sections of the surface.

Surfaces and projections which the new paving will abut shall be thoroughly cleaned
and coated with bitumen emulsion containing 30% - 50% bitumen. The new paving shall
then be tamped around and against the projection to such a depth that, on completion of
compaction the finished surface of the wearing course is level with the top of the projection.

BITUMEN 6352. Should the new bitumen macadam be dragged, churned up, become soft, show signs
MACADAM of segregation, show that stripping of the binder from the aggregate has occurred, or suffer
DAMAGED WORK
other damage during or after being laid, the Contractor will remove the damaged or faulty
work at his own expense and replace with fresh material, laid and compacted to the correct
level to the approval of the Engineer's Representative.

(CLAUSES 6353 - 6359 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

TESTS

BITUMEN MACADAM 6360. The Contractor shall provide equipment, labour and such trained staff as may be
TESTS required by the Engineer's Representative for carrying out the following tests on materials to
be used in the manufacture of bitumen macadam in accordance with the following standards:

(A) Grading tests on aggregates in accordance with B.S. 812: "sampling and
testing of mineral - aggregates and fillers".

(B) Determination of binder content of mixed materials in accordance with hot


extraction method BT 1 described in B.S. 598: - "Sampling and Examination of Bituminous
Road Mixtures". The Contractor is required to comply to the requirements of B.S. 598.

FREQUENCY OF 6361. Aggregates shall be sampled and tested at source, on delivery to the mixing plant and
TESTS: BITUMEN after each extraction test and the result of each test shall be submitted to the Engineer's
MACADAM
Representative within 24 hours of the sample being taken. The number of such tests shall
be adequate for proper control of the materials and shall not be limited to those made on
specific instructions of the Engineer's Representative. Samples of mixed materials shall be
taken and tested during the first day's mixing and throughout the work to confirm that the
grading and binder contents are as specified.

Such samples shall be taken either at the place and time of mixing or at the place of
laying both may be necessary as the results will complement one another as directed by the
Engineer's Representative. Samples for testing shall also be cut from the surfacing as laid
when directed by the Engineer's Representative.

The frequency of sampling mixed materials shall be at least once per day or once for
each 90 tonne of material mixed whichever is the more frequent. The result of each test on

188
mixed materials shall be submitted to the Engineer's Representative within 24 hours of the
sampling and any adjustments shown to be necessary shall be made immediately. Until such
adjustments have been made and until a certificate to the effect has been forwarded to the
Engineer's Representative no further batches of mixed material shall be made.

INDEPENDENT 6362. Independent sampling and testing may be carried out by the Engineer's Representative
TESTS: BITUMEN throughout the contract period and for this purpose the Contractor shall grant free access to
MACADAM
the mixing plant and storage depots, supply materials and provide every facility for the
Engineer's Representative to take samples whenever required.

In particular, throughout the contract, the Engineer's Representative will carry out
control tests on the plant mix as he requires.

The Engineer's Representative shall be supplied with all necessary equipment, labour
and materials to perform any additional tests he may wish to carry out.

MANUFACTURER'S 6363. A certificate is to be obtained from the suppliers with each consignment of bitumen
CERTIFICATE FOR delivered, stating the grade of material being supplied, and these certificates are to be handed
BITUMEN to the Engineer's Representative.

CONTRACTOR TO 6364. Notwithstanding the production of any manufacturer’s test certificates if the
TEST MATERIALS: Engineer so requires, the Contractor shall arrange for the testing in an approved manner of
BITUMEN all materials used throughout the contract to ensure that they are up to the standard specified,
MACADAM
i.e. Aggregates, bitumen and such other materials as specified or decided by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall arrange for the testing of materials incorporated in the works to ensure
that they have been manufactured or supplied as specified, or as ordered by the Engineer.

NOTICE OF TESTS: 6365. Whenever the Contractor intends to carry out any of the above tests, he shall give the
BITUMEN Engineer's Representative sufficient notice to enable him, should he so wish, to be present
MACADAM during the test. The Engineer's Representative shall be given the results in writing of all
tests, as soon as they are available, and in any case not later than 24 hours after samples have
been taken.

SAMPLES TO BE IN 6366. Whenever the Contractor takes samples for testing, and where so directed he is to
DUPLICATE take duplicate samples and hand them to the Engineer's Representative. Such samples are to
be properly packed and labelled as directed.

COST OF TESTS 6367. The cost of these tests including the provision of samples, will be deemed to have
BITUMEN been included in unit price for bitumen macadam.
MACADAM
(CLAUSES 6368 - 6369 INCLUSIVE NOT USED)

(III) HOT ASPHALTIC CONCRETE

GENERAL 6370. This item consists of hot mixed, hot laid asphaltic concrete composed of mineral
aggregate and asphalt cement thoroughly mixed in an approved plant until all aggregate
particles are uniformly coated with asphalt.

The asphaltic concrete shall be laid in two courses - surface and binder courses, with
or without wedge or levelling course or any combination of these as shown on the drawings.
Unless specified in Volume III or on the drawings, the compacted thickness of each course
shall not be less than 60mm for the binder and 40mm for the surface course. The compacted

189
thickness of any single constructed course shall not exceed 75mm for binder or levelling
course or 60mm for surface course.

Priming of untreated base and application of tack coat to existing paved surfaces
shall be done as follows:

For Priming Base:


MC-O or MC-l shall be used at the rate of 1.0 - 2.0 Litres/ sq.m

For Applying Bitumen emulsion,


Tack Coat: quick breaking type applied at the rate of 0.25 - 0.70
Litres/sq.m

Tack coat shall be applied in all areas to take the binder course if warranted by
surface conditions and directed by the Engineer's Representative.

All materials and method of preparation and construction shall conform with the
requirements of these specifications. The finished pavement shall conform in all respects
with the lines, grades, dimensions and cross sections shown on the drawings or as may be
otherwise specified or directed by the Engineer.

MATERIAL 6371. The materials used shall be those prescribed for the several parts which constitute the
finished work and shall conform with all the requirements for such materials as set out
herein.

(A) AGGREGATE

(I) Coarse aggregate shall be the portion of the aggregate retained on the No.
5mm opening sieve and shall be hard, clean and durable crushed igneous rock from a source
to be approved by the Engineer. The crushed stone shall be free from dirt or other
objectionable matter.

The coarse aggregate when tested by the methods described in B.S 812 shall have
properties not exceeding the following values:-

190
TABLE VI-13 AGGREGATE SPECIFICATION FOR DENSE BITUMEN MACADAM,
ASPHALTIC BASE AND WEARING COURSES

Aggregate Absorption
Pavement Crushing Flakiness Factor
Course Value Index

Dense Bitumen Macadam


Base
30 35 1.5

Dense Bitumen Macadam


Base-course
30 35 0.5

Asphaltic Concrete Base-


course
30 35 0.5

Asphaltic Concrete Wearing


Course
30 35 0.5

(II) Fine aggregate shall be the portion of the aggregate passing the No. 5mm
opening sieve and shall be quarry fines produced from the crushing of igneous rock. They
shall be composed of clean, tough, rough surfaced and angular particles, free from lumps, or
ball of clay, loam and other deleterious substances.

(III) Mineral filler shall consist of finely ground particles of hydrated lime,
Portland cement or other non-plastic mineral matter approved by the Engineer. It shall be
free from foreign or other objectionable material, and shall meet the following grading
requirements:

TABLE VI-14 SPECIFICATION FOR MINERAL FILLER

SIEVE %BY WEIGHT PASSING

300 m 100
200 m 95 - 100
75 m 85 - 100

(B) BITUMINOUS MATERIAL

191
TABLE VI-15 QUALITY OF ASPHALTIC CEMENT
PROPERTY ASPHALT CEMENT

80 - 100 PEN 60 - 70 PEN

SPECIFIC GRAVITY @ 25C 1.00 - 1.05 1.01 - 1.06

SOFTENING POINT R AND B (C) 45 - 52 48 - 56

PENETRATION @ 25C---0.1 mm 80 - 100 60 - 70

DUCTILITY @ 25C---CM MINIMUM 100 100

LOSS ON HEATING FOR 5 HOURS 0.5 0.2


AT 163C % BY WEIGHT----- MAX

SOLUBILITY IN CS2, 99 99
% BY WT... MIN

DROP IN PENETRATION AFTER 20 20


HEATING % ORIGINAL ----- MAX.

FLASH POINT (OPEN CUP) C MIN. 225 250

ASH. % BY WT. MAX. 0.5 0.5

(II) Bitumen emulsion for tack coat shall be emulsion -


quick breaking type containing 30% - 50% bitumen.

(III) Cutback bitumen for priming shall be MC-O or MC-1.

APPROVAL OF 6372. Representative samples of all materials proposed for use under these specifications
MATERIALS shall be submitted to the Engineer by the Contractor at the Contractor's expense for test and
for the preparation of trial mixes to determine the job mix formula. The Engineer shall make
tests of the proposed materials and inform the Contractor if the tests indicate compliance
with the specifications.

Suitable sizes of aggregate shall be stored in bins at each point where bituminous
materials are mixed. The bins shall be in such numbers and of such capacities as to ensure
that an uninterrupted supply of all the necessary sizes of aggregates is available at the mixer.

If aggregates are stockpiled prior to their transference to the bins, the stockpiles shall
be formed on concrete floors laid to falls sufficient to permit drainage at the base of the
stockpiles. Aggregates shall be handled to and from the stockpiles in a manner such that they
are not contaminated by the ground or by extraneous matter and also in a manner such that
segregation is prevented. In as much as possible the bins shall be covered to prevent
dampness of aggregate by rain.

Coarse and fine aggregates and aggregates from different sources shall be stockpiled
separately and if aggregates of different gradings or from different sources are stockpiled in
close proximity, the stockpiles shall be separated by partitioning.

All aggregates produced or handled by hydraulic methods and all washed aggregates
shall be stockpiled under cover for draining for at least 24 hours before use.

192
Material used as filler shall be stored in dry conditions to the satisfaction of the
Engineer's Representative.

No material shall be used until it has been approved by the Engineer. Permission to
use material shall not be construed as an approval of its source nor any acceptance as
continued acceptance.

SAMPLING 6373. (1) The Contractor shall provide equipment, labour and such trained staff as
may be required by the Engineer for carrying out the following tests on materials to be used
in the manufacture of hot asphaltic concrete in accordance with the following standards:

(A) Grading tests on aggregates in accordance with the latest B.S. 812 -
"Sampling and testing of mineral aggregate and fillers."

(B) Determination of binder content of mixed materials in accordance with


either

(I) Hot extraction method BT1 described in B.S.


598 (1974) - "Sampling and examination of bituminous
road mixtures." The Contractor is to comply with the
requirements of B.S. 598: and to the need of providing
results in duplicate.
or
(II) By reflux extractor method.

(2) Aggregates shall be sampled and tested on delivery to the mixing plant and
after each extraction test and the result of each test shall be submitted to the Engineer or his
Representative within 24 hours of the sample being taken.

The number of such tests shall be adequate for proper control of the materials and
shall not be limited to those made on specific instructions of the Engineer or his
Representative. Samples of mixed materials shall be taken and tested during the first day's
mixing and throughout the work to confirm that the gradings and binder contents are as
specified. Such samples shall be taken either at the place and time of mixing or at the place
of laying as directed by the Engineer or his Representative. Samples for testing shall also be
cut from the surfacing as laid when directed by the Engineer or his Representative.

The frequency of sampling mixed materials shall be at least once per day or once for
each 90 tonne of material mixed whichever is the more frequent. The result of each test on
mixed materials shall be submitted to the Engineer or his Representative within 24 hours of
the sampling and any adjustments shown to be necessary shall be made immediately. Until
such adjustments have been made and until a certificate to the effect has been forwarded to
the Engineer or his Representative no further batches or mixed material shall be made.

(3) Independent sampling and testing may be carried out by the Engineer
throughout the contractor period and for this purpose the Contractor shall grant free access
to the mixing plant and storage depots, supply materials and provide every facility for the
Engineer or his Representative to take samples whenever required.

In p