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Shear and Moment in Beams

Definition of a Beam
A beam is a bar subject to forces or couples that lie in a plane
containing the longitudinal section of the bar. According to
determinacy, a beam may be determinate or indeterminate.

Statically Determinate Beams


Statically determinate beams are those beams in which the
reactions of the supports may be determined by the use of the
equations of static equilibrium. The beams shown below are
examples of statically determinate beams.

Types of Loading
Loads applied to the beam may consist of a concentrated load
(load applied at a point), uniform load, uniformly varying load, or an
applied couple or moment. These loads are shown in the following
figures.

Statically Indeterminate Beams


If the number of reactions exerted upon a beam exceeds the
number of equations in static equilibrium, the beam is said to be
statically indeterminate. In order to solve the reactions of the
beam, the static equations must be supplemented by equations
based upon the elastic deformations of the beam.

The degree of indeterminacy is taken as the difference between


the umber of reactions to the number of equations in static
equilibrium that can be applied. In the case of the propped beam
shown, there are three reactions R1, R2, and M and only two
equations (ΣM = 0 and ΣFv = 0) can be applied, thus the beam is
indeterminate to the first degree (3 – 2 = 1).
Problem 403
Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-403. See the instruction.

To draw the Moment Diagram:

1. The equation MAB = –30x is linear, at x = 0, MAB = 0 and


at x = 1 m, MAB = –30 kN·m.
2. MBC = 26x – 56 is also linear. At x = 1 m, MBC = –30
kN·m; at x = 4 m, MBC = 48 kN·m. When MBC = 0, x =
2.154 m, thus the moment is zero at 1.154 m from B.
3. MCD = –24x + 144 is again linear. At x = 4 m, MCD = 48
kN·m; at x = 6 m, MCD = 0.

Problem 404
Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-404. See the instruction.
Problem 410
Cantilever beam carrying the uniformly varying load shown in Fig.
P-410. See the instruction.

To draw the Shear Diagram:

1. At segment AB, the shear is uniformly distributed at 1900


lb.
2. A shear of –100 lb is uniformly distributed over segments
BC and CD.

To draw the Moment Diagram:

1. MAB = 1900x is linear; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 3 ft, MAB =


5700 lb·ft.
2. For segment BC, MBC = –100x + 6000 is linear; at x = 3
ft, MBC = 5700 lb·ft; at x = 9 ft, MBC = 5100 lb·ft.
3. MCD = –100x + 1200 is again linear; at x = 9 ft, MCD = 300
lb·ft; at x = 12 ft, MCD = 0.
Problem 411
Cantilever beam carrying a distributed load with intensity varying
from wo at the free end to zero at the wall, as shown in Fig. P-411.
See the instruction.

Problem 414
Cantilever beam carrying the load shown in Fig. P-414. See
the instruction.

Problem 413
Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-413. See the instruction.
Problem 418
Cantilever beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-418. See
the instruction.

For θ that is less than 90°

Problem 422
Write the shear and moment equations for the semicircular arch as
shown in Fig. P-422 if (a) the load P is vertical as shown, and (b)
the load is applied horizontally to the left at the top of the arch.
Problem 440
A frame ABCD, with rigid corners at B and C, supports the
concentrated load as shown in Fig. P-440. (Draw shear and
moment diagrams for each of the three parts of the frame.) See
the instruction.

Problem 441
A beam ABCD is supported by a roller at A and a hinge at D. It is
subjected to the loads shown in Fig. P-441, which act at the ends
of the vertical members BE and CF. These vertical members are
rigidly attached to the beam at B and C. (Draw shear and moment
diagrams for the beam ABCD only.) See theinstruction.
To draw the Shear Diagram

1. Shear in segments AB and BC is zero.


2. VC = 8
3. VD = VC + Area in load diagram
VD = 8 + 0 = 8 kN
VD2 = VD – RDV
VD2 = 8 – 8 = 0

To draw the Moment Diagram

1. Moment in segment AB is zero


2. MB = –28 kN·m
3. MC = MB + Area in shear diagram
MC = –28 + 0 = –28 kN·m
MC2 = MC + 12 = –28 + 12
MC2 = –16 kN·m
4. MD = MC2 + Area in shear diagram
MD = –16 + 8(2)
MD = 0
Load and moment diagrams for a
given shear diagram
Instruction:
In the following problems, draw moment and load diagrams
corresponding to the given shear diagrams. Specify values at all
change of load positions and at all points of zero shear.

Problem 447
Shear diagram as shown in Fig. P-447. See the instruction.

To draw the Load Diagram

1. A 2400 lb upward force is acting at point A. No load in


segment AB. To draw the Load Diagram
2. A point force of 2400 – 400 = 2000 lb is acting downward
at point B. No load in segment BC.
1. A uniformly distributed load in AB is acting downward at
3. Another downward force of magnitude 400 + 4000 =
a magnitude of 40/2 = 20 kN/m.
4400 lb at point C. No load in segment CD.
2. Upward concentrated force of 40 + 36 = 76 kN acts at B.
4. Upward point force of 4000 + 1000 = 5000 lb is acting at
No load in segment BC.
D. No load in segment DE.
3. A downward point force acts at C at a magnitude of 36 –
5. A downward force of 1000 lb is concentrated at point E.
16 = 20 kN.
4. Downward uniformly distributed load in CD has a
To draw the Moment Diagram magnitude of (16 + 24)/4 = 10 kN/m & causes zero shear
at point F, 1.6 m from C.
1. MA = 0 5. Another upward concentrated force acts at D at a
2. MB = MA + Area in shear diagram magnitude of 20 + 24 = 44 kN.
MB = 0 + 2400(2) = 4800 lb·ft 6. The load in segment DE is uniform and downward at
MAB is linear and upward 20/2 = 10 kN/m.
3. MC = MB + Area in shear diagram
MC = 4800 + 400(3) = 6000 lb·ft To draw the Moment Diagram
MBC is linear and upward
4. MD = MC + Area in shear diagram
1. MA = 0
MD = 6000 – 4000(2) = –2000 lb·ft
2. MB = MA + Area in shear diagram
MCD is linear and downward
MB = 0 – ½ (40)(2) = –40 kN·m
5. ME = MD + Area in shear diagram
MAB is downward parabola with vertex at A.
ME = –2000 + 1000(2) = 0
3. MC = MB + Area in shear diagram
MDE is linear and upward
MC = –40 + 36(1) = –4 kN·m
MBC is linear and upward
4. MF = MC + Area in shear diagram
MF = –4 + ½ (16)(1.6) = 8.8 kN·m
5. MD = MF + Area in shear diagram
MD = 8.8 – ½ (24)(2.4) = –20 kN·m
MCD is downward parabola with vertex at F.
6. ME = MD + Area in shear diagram
ME = –20 + ½ (20)(2) = 0
MDE is downward parabola with vertex at E.
To draw the Moment Diagram

1. The locations of zero shear


ar (points G and H) can be
easily determined by ratio and proportion of triangle.
2. MA = 0; MB = MA + Area in shear diagram
MB = 0 – 4000(3) = –12,000
12,000 lb·ft
3. MG = MB + Area in shear diagram
MG = –12,000 – ½ (80/77)(4000)
MG = –14,077.92 lb·ft
4. MC = MG + Area in shear diagram
MC = –14,077.92
14,077.92 + ½ (74/77)(3700)
MC = –12,300 lb·ft
5. MD = MC + Area in shear diagram
MD = –12,300
12,300 + 3700(3) = –1200 lb·ft
6. ME = MD + Area in shear diagram
ME = –1200
1200 + 1700(4) = 5600 lb·ft
7. MH = ME + Area in shear diagram
MH = 5600 + ½ (17/6)(1700)
)(1700)
MH = 8,008.33 lb·ft
8. MF = MH + Area in shear diagram
MF = 8,008.33 – ½ (31/6)(3100) = 0

Problem 449
Shear diagram as shown in Fig. P-449. See the instruction
instruction.

Solution 449

To draw the Load Diagram

1. Downward 4000 lb force is concentrated at A and no load


in segment AB.
2. The shear in BC is uniformly increasing, thus a uniform
upward force is acting at a magnitude of (3700 + 4000)/2
= 3850 lb/ft. No load in segment CD.
3. Another point force acting downward with 3700 – 1700 =
1200 lb at D and no load in segment DE.
4. The shear in EF is uniformly decreasing, thus a uniform
downward force is acting with magnitude of (1700 +
3100)/8 = 600 lb/ft.
5. Upward force of 3100 lb is concentrated at end of span
F.
Problem 450
Shear diagram as shown in Fig. P-450. See the instruction
instruction.

Solution 450

To draw the Load Diagram

1. The shear diagram in AB is uniformly upward, ard, thus the


load is uniformly distributed upward at a magnitude of
900/4 = 225 lb/ft. No load in segment BC.
2. A downward point force acts at point C with magnitude of
900 lb. No load in segment CD.
3. Another concentrated force is acting downward at D with
a magnitude of 900 lb.
4. The load in DE is uniformly distributed downward at a
magnitude of (1380 – 900)/4 = 120 lb/ft.
5. An upward load is concentrated at E with magnitude of
480 + 1380 = 1860 lb. Problem 451
6. 480/4 = 120 lb/ft is distributed uniformly over the span
EF. Shear diagram as shown in Fig. P-451
451. See the instruction.

To draw the Moment Diagram

1. MA = 0
2. MB = MA + Area in shear diagram
MB = 0 + ½ (4)(900) = 1800 lb·ft
3. MC = MB + Area in shear diagram
MC = 1800 + 900(2) = 3600 lb·ft
4. MD = MC + Area in shear diagram
MD = 3600 + 0 = 3600 lb·ft
5. ME = MD + Area in shear diagram
ME = 3600 – ½ (900 + 1380)(4)
ME = –960 lb·ft
6. MF = ME + Area in shear diagram
MF = –960 + ½ (480)(4) = 0
7. The shape of moment diagram in AB is upward parabola
with vertex at A, while linear in BC and horizontal in CD.
For segment DE, the diagram is downward par parabola with
vertex at G. G is the point where the extended shear in
DE intersects the line of zero shear. To draw the Load Diagram
8. The moment diagram in EF is a downward parabola with
vertex at F.
1. Upward concentrated load at A is 10 kN.
2. The shear in AB is a 2nd-degree
degree curve, thus the load in
AB is uniformly varying. In this case, it is zero at A to
2(10 + 2)/3 = 8 kN at B. No load in segment BC.
3. A downward point force is acting at C in a magnitude of 8
– 2 = 6 kN.
4. The shear in DE is uniformly increasing, thus the load in
DE is uniformly distributed and upward. This load is
Flexure Formula
spread over DE at a magnitude of 8/2 = 4 kN/m.

To draw the Moment Diagram

1. To find the location of zero shear, F:


x2/10 = 32/(10 + 2)
x = 2.74 m
2. MA = 0
The bending stress due to beams curvature is
3. MF = MA + Area in shear diagram
MF = 0 + 2/3 (2.74)(10) = 18.26 kN·m
4. MB = MF + Area in shear diagram
MB = 18.26 – [1/3 (10 + 2)(3) – 1/3 (2.74)(10) – 10(3 –
2.74)]
MB = 18 kN·m The beam curvature is:
5. MC = MB + Area in shear diagram
MC = 18 – 2(1) = 16 kN·m
6. MD = MC + Area in shear diagram
MD = 16 – 8(1) = 8 kN·m
7. ME = MD + Area in shear diagram
ME = 8 – ½ (2)(8) = 0 where is the radius of curvature of the beam in mm (in), M is
8. The moment diagram in AB is a second degree curve, at
BC and CD are linear and downward. For segment DE, the bending moment in N·mm (lb·in), fb is the flexural stress in
the moment diagram is parabola open upward with
MPa (psi), I is the centroidal moment of inertia in mm4 (in4),
vertex at E.
and c is the distance from the neutral axis to the outermost fiber in
mm (in).

Problem 503
A cantilever beam, 50 mm wide by 150 1 mm high and 6 m long,
carries a load that varies uniformly from zero at the free end to
1000 N/m at the wall. (a) Compute the magnitude and location of
the maximum flexural stress. (b) Determine the type and
magnitude of the stress in a fiber 20 mm from the top of the beam
at a section 2 m from the free end.
(a) The maximum moment occurs at the support (the wall)
or at x = 6 m.

(b) At a section 2 m from the free end or at x = 2 m at fiber


20 mm from the top of the beam:

Problem 504
A simply supported beam, 2 in wide by 4 in high and 12 ft long is
subjected to a concentrated load of 2000 lb at a point 3 ft from one
of the supports. Determine the maximum fiber stress and the
stress in a fiber located 0.5 in from the top of the beam at midspan.
Stress in a fiber located 0.5 in from the top of the beam at Problem 506
midspan:
A flat steel bar, 1 inch wide by ¼ inch thick and 40 inches long, is
bent by couples applied at the ends so that the midpoint deflection
is 1.0 inch. Compute the stress in the bar and the magnitude of the
couples. Use E = 29 × 106 psi.

Problem 505
A high strength steel band saw, 20 mm wide by 0.80 mm thick,
runs over pulleys 600 mm in diameter. What maximum flexural
stress is developed? What minimum diameter pulleys can be used
without exceeding a flexural stress of 400 MPa? Assume E = 200
GPa.

Problem 508
Determine the minimum height h of the beam shown in Fig. P-
508 if the flexural stress is not to exceed 20 MPa.
Problem 510 Problem 511
A 50-mm diameter bar is used as a simply supported beam 3 m
A simply supported rectangular beam, 2 in wide by 4 in deep,
long. Determine the largest uniformly distributed load that can be
carries a uniformly distributed load of 80 lb/ft over its entire length.
applied over the right two-thirds of the beam if the flexural stress is
What is the maximum length of the beam if the flexural stress is
limited to 50 MPa.
limited to 3000 psi?
Solution 512
MB=0
4RA=2(400sin60 )+2(200sin30
30 )
RA=223 2lb

Problem 513
A rectangular steel beam, 2 in wide by 3 in deep, is loaded as
shown in Fig. P-513.. Determine the magnitude and the location of
the maximum flexural stress.

Problem 512
The circular bar 1 inch in diameter shown in Fig. P-512
512 is bent into
a semicircle with a mean radius of 2 ft. If P = 400 lb and F = 200 lb,
compute the maximum flexural stress developed in section a a-a.
Neglect the deformation of the bar.
Solution 514
By symmetry
RA=500N
RB=500N

Problem 515
Repeat Prob. 524 to find the maximum flexural stress at section b-
Problem 514 b.

The right-angled frame shown in Fig. P-514 carries a uniformly


distributed loading equivalent to 200 N for each horizontal
projected meter of the frame; that is, the total load is 1000 N. Solution 515
Compute the maximum flexural stress at section a-a if the cross-
section is 50 mm square.
Problem 516
A timber beam AB, 6 in wide by 10 in deep and 10 ft long, is
Problem 517
supported by a guy wire AC in the position shown in Fig. P-516. A rectangular steel bar, 15 mm wide by 30 mm high and 6 m long,
The beam carries a load, including its own weight, of 500 lb for is simply supported at its ends. If the density of steel is 7850
each foot of its length. Compute the maximum flexural stress at the kg/m3, determine the maximum bending stress caused by the
middle of the beam. weight of the bar.

For simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load,


the maximum moment will occur at the midspan. At midspan:
Problem 518
A cantilever beam 4 m long is composed of two C200 × 28
channels riveted back to back. What uniformly distributed load can
be carried, in addition to the weight of the beam, without exceeding
a flexural stress of 120 MPa if (a) the webs are vertical and (b) the
webs are horizontal? Refer to Appendix B of text bookfor channel
properties.

Solution 518
Relevant data from Appendix B, Table B-4 Properties of Channel
Sections: SI Units, of text book.

Problem 520
A beam with an S310 × 74 section (see Appendix B of textbook) is
used as a simply supported beam 6 m long. Find the maximum
uniformly distributed load that can be applied over the entire length
of the beam, in addition to the weight of the beam, if the flexural
stress is not to exceed 120 MPa.

Solution 520
Relevant data from Appendix B, Table B-4 Properties of I-Beam
Sections (S-Shapes): SI Units, of text book.
Problem 522
A box beam is composed of four planks, each 2 inches by 8
inches, securely spiked together to form the section shown in Fig.
P-522. Show that INA = 981.3 in4. If wo = 300 lb/ft, find P to cause a
maximum flexural stress of 1400 psi.

Problem 521
A beam made by bolting two C10 × 30 channels back to back, is
simply supported at its ends. The beam supports a central
concentrated load of 12 kips and a uniformly distributed load of
1200 lb/ft, including the weight of the beam. Compute the
maximum length of the beam if the flexural stress is not to exceed
20 ksi.

Solution 521
Relevant data from Appendix B, Table B-9 Properties of Channel
Sections: US Customary Units, of text book.
Problem 525 Problem 526
A square timber beam used as a railroad tie is supported by a A wood beam 6 in wide by 12 in deep is loaded as shown in Fig.
uniformly distributed loads and carries two uniformly distributed P-526. If the maximum flexural stress is 1200 psi, find the
loads each totaling 48 kN as shown in Fig. P-525. Determine the maximum values of wo and P which can be applied
size of the section if the maximum stress is limited to 8 MPa. simultaneously?
beam section for long beams, the
When using a wide flange or I-beam
compression flanges tend to buckle horizontally sidewise.
si This
buckling is a column effect, which may be prevented by providing
lateral support such as a floor system so that the full allowable
stresses may be used, otherwise the stress should be reduced.
The reduction of stresses for these beams will be discussed in
steel design.

In selecting a structural section to be used as a beam, the resisting


moment must be equal or greater than the applied bending
moment. Note: (fb)max=M S.

Srequired Slive−loadorSrequired (fb)maxMlive−load

The equation above indicates that the required section modulus of


the beam must be equal or greater than the ratio of bending
moment to the maximum allowable stress.

A check that includes the weight of the selected beam is


necessary to complete the calculation. In checking, the beams
resisting moment must be equal or greater than the sum of the
live-load
load moment caused by the applied loads and the dead-load
dead
moment caused by dead weight of the beam.

load+Mdead−load
Mresisting Mlive−load

Dividing both sides of the above equation by (fb)max, we obtain the


checking equation

load+Sdead−load
Sresisting Slive−load
Economic Sections
From the flexure formula fb=My I , it can be seen that the General instruction
bending stress at the neutral axis, wherey=0, is zero and Assume that the beam in the problem is properly braced against
increases linearly outwards. This means that for a rectangular or lateral deflection. Be sure to include the weight of the beam itself.
circular section a large portion of the cross section near the middle
section is understressed. Problem 529
A 10-mm beam simply supported at the ends carries a uniformly
distributed load of 16 kN/m over its entire length. What is the
For steel beams or composite beams, instead of adopting the lightest W shape beam that will not exceed a flexural stress of 120
rectangular shape, the area may be arranged so as to give more MPa? What is the actual maximum stress in the beam selected?
area on the outer fiber and maintaining the same overall depth,
and saving a lot of weight.

Starting at the bottom of Appendix B, Table B-2


B Properties of
Wide-Flange
Flange Sections (W Shapes): SI Units, of text book, the
following are the first to exceed the S above:
The resisting S of W610 × 82 is 1,870 × 103 mm3, the S due to
live-load and dead-load is only 1,750.46 × 103 mm3, therefore, the
chosen section is sufficient to resist the combined dead-load
and live-load.

Problem 530
Repeat Prob. 529 if the distributed load is 12 kN/m and the length
of the beam is 8 m.

From Appendix B, Table B-2 Properties of Wide-Flange Sections


(W Shapes): SI Units, of text book:

Use the lightest section W460 × 60 answer


Problem 532
A beam simply supported at the ends of a 25-ft span carries a
uniformly distributed load of 1000 lb/ft over its entire length. Select
the lightest S section that can be used if the allowable stress is 20 Problem 533
ksi. What is the actual maximum stress in the beam selected?
A beam simply supported on a 36-ft span carries a uniformly
distributed load of 2000 lb/ft over the middle 18 ft. Using an
allowable stress of 20 ksi, determine the lightest suitable W shape
beam. What is the actual maximum stress in the selected beam?
Problem 536

A simply supported beam 10 m long carries a uniformly distributed


load of 20 kN/m over its entire length and a concentrated load of
40 kN at midspan. If the allowable stress is 120 MPa, determine
the lightest
test W shape beam that can be used.

From Appendix B, Table B-7 Properties of Wide-Flange


Flange Sections
(W Shapes): US Customary Units, of text book:

W610 × 125 has a theoretical mass of 125.1 kg/m while W690 ×


125 has a theoretical mass of 125.6 kg/m. Thus, use W610 ×
125 with S = 3 220 × 103 mm3. Answer

Checking:
Sresisting Slive−load+Sdead−load
The section is stronger in tension and weaker in compression, so
compression governs in selecting the maximum moment.

UNSYMMETRYCAL BEAMS

Problem 548

The inverted T section of a 4-m simply supported beam has the


properties shown in Fig. P-548. The beam carries a uniformly Problem 551
distributed load of intensity wo over its entire length. Determine
wo if fbt ≤ 40 MPa and fbc ≤ 80 MPa. Find the maximum tensile and compressive flexure stresses for the
cantilever beam shown in Fig. P-551.
Problem 552

A cantilever beam carries the force and couple shown in Fig. P-


552. Determine the maximum tensile and compressive bending
stresses developed in the beam.
Problem 553

Determine the maximum tensile and compressive bending


stresses developed in the beam as shown inFig. P-553.

Problem 555

A beam carries a concentrated load W and a total uniformly


distributed load of 4W as shown in Fig. P-555. What safe value of
W can be applied if fbc ≤ 100 MPa and fbt ≤ 60 MPa? Can a greater
load be applied if the section is inverted? Explain.
For safe load W, use W = 9600 N answer

Discussion:
At W = 9600 N, the allowable fb in tension and compression are
reached simultaneously when M = −2W. This is the same even if
the section is inverted. Therefore, no load can be applied greater
than W = 9600 N.

Problem 557

A cast-iron beam 10 m long and supported as shown in Fig. P-


557 carries a uniformly distributed load of intensity wo (including its
own weight). The allowable stresses are fbt ≤ 20 MPa and fbc ≤ 80
MPa. Determine the maximum safe value of wo if x = 1.0 m.

At M = −0.5wo x2 + 0.5wo(5 − x)2 N·m when x = 1 m ,


M = 7.5wo N·m
Superimposed or Built-up Beams
Neglecting friction between any two adjacent layers, the following
relationships may be used:

M=M1+M2+M3

I=I1+I2+I3

Curvature, M / EI = constant

Problem 559

A beam is composed of 6 planks, each 100 mm wide and 20 mm


thick, piled loosely on each other to an overall dimension of 100
Problem 560
mm wide by 120 mm high. (a) Compare the strength of such a
beam with that of a solid beam of equal overall dimensions. (b) The wide-flange beam shown in Fig. P-560 is strengthened by
What would be the ratio if the built-up beam consisted of a 12 bolting two cover plates 160 mm by 20 mm to the top and bottom
planks each 100 mm wide by 10 mm thick? flanges. If the maximum flexure stress is 140 MPa, compute the
total force (a) in each cover plate and (b) in each flange. Neglect
the weakening effect of the bolt holes.
Solution 560.

Superimposed or Built-up Beams


Unsymmetrical Beams

Problem 563
Horizontal Shearing Stress
A box beam is made from 2-in. by 6-in. pieces screwed together as
shown in Fig. P-563. If the maximum flexure stress is 1200 psi,
compute the force acting on the shaded portion and the moment of
this force about the NA. Hint: Use the results of Prob. 562.
Shear Flow
If the shearing stress fv is multiplied by the width b, we obtain a
quantity q, known as the shear flow, which represents the
longitudinal force per unit length transmitted across a section at a
level y1 from the neutral axis.
Application of Flexural and Shearing Stresses to
Rectangular Section

Problem 567

A timber beam 80 mm wide by 160 mm high is subjected to a


vertical shear V = 40 kN. Determine the shearing stress developed
at layers 20 mm apart from the top to bottom of the section.

Problem 568

Show that the shearing stress developed at the neutral axis of a


beam with circular cross section is τ = (4/3)(V / π r2). Assume that
the shearing stress is uniformly distributed across the neutral axis.
Problem 571

For a beam with the same cross section as that in Prob. 570, plot
the shearing stress distribution across the section at a section
where the shearing force is V = 1800 lb.

The plot of the shear stress distribution is as shown in the


above figure. Problem 575

Determine the maximum and minimum shearing stress in the web


of the wide flange section in Fig. P-575if V = 100 kN. Also,
compute the percentage of vertical shear carried only by the web
of the beam.
Design for Flexure and Shear
To determine the load capacity or the size of beam section, it must
satisfy the allowable stresses in both flexure (bending) and shear.
Shearing stress usually governs in the design of short beams that
are heavily loaded, while flexure is usually the governing stress for
long beams. In material comparison, timber is low in shear
strength than that of steel.

For any cross-sectional shape, flexure and shear are given in


the following formulas:
Flexure Formula

Horizontal Shear Stress

For rectangular beam, the following defines for flexure and


shear:
Flexure formula for rectangular beam

Horizontal shear stress for rectangular beam

Where
fb = flexure stress
fv = bending stress
The horizontal shearing stresses vary parabolically from the top to M = maximum moment applied to the beam
the bottom of the web. Recall that the average height of parabolic V = maximum shear applied to the beam
segment is 2/3 of its altitude measured from its base. Thus, I = moment of inertia about the neutral axis
Q = moment of area
b = breadth
d = depth

Problem 581

A laminated beam is composed of five planks, each 6 in. by 2 in.,


glued together to form a section 6 in. wide by 10 in. high. The
allowable shear stress in the glue is 90 psi, the allowable shear
stress in the wood is 120 psi, and the allowable flexural stress in
the wood is 1200 psi. Determine the maximum uniformly
distributed load that can be carried by the beam on a 6-ft simple
span.
Use wo = 1250 lb/ft for safe value of uniformly distributed load.
Answer

Problem 582

Find the cross-sectional dimensions of the smallest square beam


that can be loaded as shown in Fig. P-582 if fv ≤ 1.0 MPa and fb ≤
8 MPa.

Use 145 mm × 145 mm square beam answer


Problem 585

A simply supported beam of length L carries a uniformly distributed


load of 6000 N/m and has the cross section shown in Fig. P-585.
Find L to cause a maximum flexural stress of 16 MPa. What
maximum shearing stress is then developed?

Problem 587

A beam carries two concentrated loads P and triangular load of 3P


as shown in Fig. P-587. The beam section is the same as that
in Fig. P-577 on this page. Determine the safe value of P if fb ≤
1200 psi and fv≤ 200 psi.
Problem 589

A channel section carries a concentrated loads W and a total


distributed load of 4W as shown in Fig. P-589. Verify that the NA is
2.17 in. above the bottom and that INA = 62 in4. Use these values to
determine the maximum value of W that will not exceed allowable
stresses in tension of 6,000 psi, in compression of 10,000 psi, or in
shear of 8,000 psi.
Spacing of Rivets or Bolts in Built-Up
Beams
Problem 592

A wide flange section is formed by bolting together three planks,


each 80 mm by 200 mm, arranged as shown in Fig. P-592. If each
bolt can withstand a shearing force of 8 kN, determine the pitch if
the beam is loaded so as to cause a maximum shearing stress of
1.4 MPa.
Problem 593

A box beam, built up as shown in Fig. P-593, is secured by screws


spaced 5 in. apart. The beam supports a concentrated load P at
the third point of a simply supported span 12 ft long. Determine the
maximum value of P that will not exceed fv = 120 psi in the beam
or a shearing force of 300 lb in the screws. What is the maximum
flexural stress in the beam?
Problem 594

A distributed load of wo lb/ft is applied over a middle 6 ft of a simply


supported span 12 ft long. The beam section is that in Prob. 593,
but used here so that the 8-in dimension is vertical. Determine the
maximum value of wo if fb ≤ 1200 psi, fv ≤ 120 psi, and the screws
have a shear strength of 200 lb and a pitch of 2 in.