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Complex Waveforms-Euler Identity

We can prove that eix = cos x + i sin x by finding the Taylor expansions for eix ,
sin x, and cos x.

1 2 1 3 1 4 1 n
Remember that : ex = 1 + x + x + x + x +.....+
2! 3! 4! n! x
1 1 1 1
or eix = 1 + ix + 2! (ix)2 + 3! (ix)3 + 4! (ix)4 +......+ n! (ix)n

Then expanding the trig functions:


1 1 5 1
sin x = x - 3! x 3 + x -......+ (-1) n 2n+1
5! (2n+1)! x
1 1 1
cos x = 1 - 2! x 2 + 4! x 4 -......+ (-1)n (2n)! x 2n

Multiplying the sin expansion by i gives:


1 1 5 1
i sin x = ix - 3! ix3 + ix -......+ (-1) n 2n+1
5! (2n+1)! ix

Now noting that i.i = -1 ,


1 1 1
i sin x = ix + 3! (ix)3 + (ix) 5 +......+ 2n+1
5! (2n+1)! (ix)
1 1 1
cos x = 1 + 2! (ix)2 + 4! (ix)4 +......+ (2n)! (ix)2n

Now combine the cos x and i sin x expansions:


1 1 3 + 1 (ix)4 + 1 (ix)5 + .....
cos x +i sin x = 1 + ix + 2! (ix)2 + (ix)
3! 4! 5!

and you see that the result is the same expansion as for eix.

From trigonometric identities remember that sin(-x) = - sin(x) and cos(-x) = cos(x).
This is handy for finding the real and imaginary parts of wavefunctions.
To find the real part of a wavefunction note that you can take for the real part:
1
cos x = 2 ( eix + e-ix )
and the imaginary part
1
sin x = 2i ( eix - e-ix )