Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 416

Jlenaarpan «Tlpocaenreaae» JIeHHHrpagcHoe OTAeneHHe 1983

1O.M. JIOTMAH

POMAH

A.c.nyrnlillHA

. ,J

"e'BTeHJ1~ OHeT HII

u

KOMMEHTAPHH

nOCo6He .o;mI ytrnTeJUI

H3,[lafme aropoe

Jleaaarpan

« Ilpocsemeaae» JIeHliHrpa.D:CKOe OT.D:eneHHe 1983

I

EBl{ 74.261.8 JI80

2 r'CYUpCT.~HHal 6Mum eGGP Mil. B. H. hd"HIIl

1983 r.

JIoTMaH 10. M.

JI80 POMaH A. C. TIYllIKHHa «Earerrnn OHerHH». KOM-

MeHTapHH: Ilocotiae rom Yl.J:HTeJUL - JI.: TlpocaeuteHHe, 1983. - 416 c.

Kaara, HaITHCaHHaR BH~HbUil COBeTCKHM yt.{eHbIM, conepacar noacaenna K TCI<CTy pOMaHa A. C. Flynnoma, xcropsre nOMorYT r-nyfixce nOHRTb npOH3BC,4CHUe, n03HaKOM1IT 4Hri.TeJIR c :mOXOH, H306pa>HCHHOii B pcaaae, ,ttCTanJIMH ee 6bIT3. HCTopJ.Il.feCHHMU JlHu,aMM', C06bITHRMH, JIHTcparypHbIMH npOH3Be~eHHRMH H T • n,

KOMMeHTapIDi nOMQ>f<CT yvarernc npa H3YQeIUUi nYWI<HHCKOro poaaaa, )l3CT CMY B03MO»<HOCTb HCTOpJflleCKH KOHHPeTHO 11 urapoxo HCTOJU<OB3n. npOH3Be~eHHe.

JI 4306010300 - 022 KE - 50 - 8 - 82 103(03)-83

BBK 74.261.8 8P1

© I13,n;aTeJIbCTBO «Tlpocaeureaae», 1980 r.

Ilaunmu rpU<OpUH A/leKCaHOp06Utta rYK06CKOW

Ilpeanaraexoe BHHMamnO 4HTaTeJ1eH H3,lJ;aHHe 5IBJ151eTCl'I KOMMeHTapHeM K pOMaHY B CTHXaX A. C. TIYWKHHa «EareHHH OHerHH». ,UmI TOrO 4T06bI Me>K)W 'IHTaTeJ1eM H aBTOPOM KOMMeHTapH5I B03HHKJ10 ,n:OJ1>I<HOe B3aI1MOrrOHHMaHHe, He06xo,n:HMO cnenars HeCKOJ1bKO npermaparensnsrx 3aMe'IaHI1H. OCHOBHbIe oco6eHHOCTH nay-raoro »caapa I{OMMeHTapl15I C¢OPMYJIl1pOBaHbI B KHEre C. A. Peticepa «ITaJIeorparpna 11 TeKCTOJIOrI15I noaoro BpeMeHH» (M., 1970): «H e 3 a B H C 11 MOO T Tor 0, ,lJ; J1 51 K a H 0 H 'I H T aTeJIbCKOH KaTerOpl1H HOMMeHTapHH npe~ H a 3 H a 4 e H, 0 H Hen p e ,n: C TaB J1 l'I eTC 0 6 0 H 'I e r 0 - T 0 a B T 0 H 0 1\1 H 0 roo T T e H C T a, a IT o n 4 H H e H eMY - OH ,n;OJI>I<eH nOMO'Ib 4HTaTeJIlO ITOH l'I T b T e K CT. K 0 M M e H Tap 11 H - c a r e JI J111 T T e I{C T a» (c.293). Te3Hc 3TOT cnenyer nOHI1MaTb B ,lJ;BYX ITJ1aaax. TIepBbIH - npaKTH'IeCHHH: "LITeHHe npenrraraeaoir KHHrH He MO>I<eT 5IBJI5ITbC5I caMOCT05ITeJ1bHbIM - H nocrpoeHHe, 11 anna par ee paCC'II1TaI-IbI na napaJ1JIeJIbHOe 'ITeHHe C nYllIHHHCKHM TeKCTOM. BTOPOH HMeeT 60JIee 06I.I..J;nl1: CMbICJ1: pafiora nart I{OMMeHTapHel\1 HeOT,[(eJIHl\1a OT onaoapexeaaoa pa60TbI aar; nYWKHHCKHl\1 pOMaHOM. KOMMeHTapl1H:, xax 11 BC5IKHH HaY"LIHbIH TeI{CT, rroxoraer pa3MbIllIJ1eHH5IM "LII1TaTeJI5I, HO He l\10>KeT 3aMeHHTh HX. Be3 "LIHTaTeJ1bCKOrO HHTepeca K npOH3Be,lleHHIO, JII06mI K n033H11 11 KyJIhTYPhI BOCnpl1HTHH n03TU'IeCI{Oro TeKCTa, 6e3 onpeneneaaoro

5

ypOBHH 3HaHHH 11 3CTenrQeCNOH HHTYH~HH, 6e3 Ny.'1hTYPhl MhICJIH 11 3MO~HI1 l.JHTaTeJIH NOMMeHTapHH MepTB-

.upyraH oco6eHHOCTb NOMMeHTapHH, raroxe nO~tIepNHYTaH C. A Pencepow, - o6H3aTeJIbHaH HanpaR'1eHHOCTb NOMMeHTap11H: «TIIn KOMMeHTapHH onpene.naerca npexcrte acero tI11TaTeJIbCK11M Ha3Hal.JeHIIeM H3Aam-IH» (c. 292). <PaKT HanpaBJIeHHOCT11 UMeeT pernaioniee 3Hal.JeHlle AJIH orfiopa KOMMeHTHpyeMhlx MeCT TeKCTa. H11KaKoH KOMMeHTapUH He MO)f(eT, na 11 He AOJI)f(eH, 06bHCH>1Tb ace. 06bHCH>1Tb TO, l.JTO l.JHTaTemo 11 TaN rrOHHTHO, 03Hal.JaeT, ao-nepasrx, 6ecrrOJIe3HO YBeJIHl.J11BaTb o6beM KHl1:rH, a BO-BTOPhIX, OCKop6JIHTb l.JHTaTeJI>1 YHHl.J11)f(HTeJfbHbIM npezrcrannemrea o ero JI11TepaTypHoM xpyrosope. B3pOC.TIOMY l.Je.TIOBeNY H crrennarnrcry LUITaTb 06bHCHeHlfR, paccmrramn.re na Ulh:O.TIhI-l:HKa 5-ro NJ'IaCCa, 6eCrrOJIe3HO Ii 06HAHO.

Hacroamee H3AaHHe HBJIHeTCH nocofiaexi AJI>1 V'{HTeJIH-C.TIOBeCHHNa. 3TO 03Hal.JaeT, l.JTO OHO paCCl.JHTaHO na tIHTaTeJIH, KOTOPbIH, C OAHOH CTOPOHbI, He >1R'IHeTCH Cne~HaJIHCTOM-nYIlIKHHOBeAOM, a C npyroii - l:!MeeT npocpeCCHOHaJIbHOe CPHJIOJIOrHl.JeCKOe 06pa30BaHHe. COOTBeTCTBeHHO npezmonaraerca, l.JTO cneQlIaJIbH0I1 nynnomoaenl.JeCKOH rmreparypsr B nocryrnrsrx l.JHTaTe;II-O 6H6JIlJOTeKaX MO)f(eT He OKa3aTbC>1, HO TaKHe llIHPONO pacnpocrpaaennsre CnpaBOl.JHHKH, KaK «BOJIbUla>1 COBeTCNaH 3H~HKJIOneAH'H)}, «KpaTKa>1 rmreparypaaa 3H~HKJIOIle~HH» HJIH «TOJINOBhIll CJ'IOBapb pyccxoro sasrxa» IlOA pen. ,U. H. Ynraxoaa, HaXOA>1TCH B rrpenenax ero AOC>1raeMOCTH. ,Uy6JIHpOBaTb H3AaHHH raxoro rnna 6bIJIO 6bI 6eccMbICneHHO. OAHaKO HenpaBHJIbHO 6bIJIO 6bI H )f(eCTKO HCKJIlOl.JHTb ace ynoxaHaI-O~eeC>1 B 3THX CrrpaBOl.JHHKaX, no-nepasrx, nOCKOJIbK:y <nrraremo YA06Hee HMeTb AeJIO C OAHOll KHHrOll, a He C AeCHTKal\1H TOMOB, a BO-BTOPbIX rrOTOMY, l.JTO ne.ns HaCTOHutero CrrpaBOl.JHHKa He COBnaAaeT C Ha3BaHHbIMH asnne H OH He npOCTO naer CBeAeHHH .0 TOM IIJIH HHOM HMeHH, HO H CB>13bIBaeT HX C TeKCTOM poxana.

UeJIb acex IlO>1CHeHHll, xoropsre MO)f(eT C~eJIaTb no rrOBOAY xYAO)f(eCTBeHHoro rrpOH3BeAeHHH JII-060H cneunaJIIlCT, - 06bHCHHTb l.JHTaTeJII-O ero CMbICJI H aaavenne, CAeJIaTb IlOHHTHbIM. I10>1CHeHHH 3TH .'VlOrYT ll.~eTh ABOHKlrH xapaxrep. OHH MorYT 6bITb T e x c T Y a "'1 b H bI M H, TO ecrs 06bHCHHTb TeI{CT KaK TaKOBoH. Taxoe 06b>1CHeHHe >1B.TI>1eTCH Heo6xOAHMbIM YCJIOBHeM JII-06oro l.JHTaTe.;'1bCKOrO nOHHMaHIlH rrpOH3BeAeHH>1. HHKTO - He TOJIbKO HCC"'1eAOBaTeJIb lUIIl

.6

npenonasarens. HO II npocroa qlfTaTeITb - He IIMeeT npaaa rrperennoaars aa CKOITb-ITH60 rrOITHOe rrOHHMaHIie nponaae,UeHIIH, eCITH OrpaHHqIIITCH TOM CTerreHhlO rrpOHI1KHOBeHI1H B TeKcT, KOTopaH o6eCneqIIBaeTCH 3HaHl1eM pyccxoro H3hIKa H anpaasrx ClVlhICITOM, II npeneoper pacI1lH<PPOBKOM navreKOB, o6HapyweHIIeM CKpbITbIX U:IITaT II peMIIHHcu:eHU;HH, eCITH He 3HaeT peamni 6bITa, He qYBCTByeT CTMITHCTHqeCKOH IIrpbI aBTopa •

.1lpyrolI BH.D; rtoacneaaa - K 0 H u: e H U; Ii 0 H H hI H.

3,n;eCh, ormpaacs aa rrOHIiMaHHe TeKCTa, nccnenoaarem, naer paanoro pona IIHTeprrpeTaU;IIH: HCTOPIIKO-JIIITepaTypHble, CTHITHCTHQeCKl1e, qmJIOcO<pCKl1e H ,Up.

Flepasni BHD; nOHCHeHIIM ,UaeTCH B KOMMeHTapMII, BTOpOM - B TeOpenr'IeCKIIX Hccne,UOBaHMHX: CTaThHX I1 MOHOrpadiaax .

.1lnH roro qTo6bI nars nYIlIKHHcKOMY pOMaHY B CTIIxax m06YID ,UOCTaTOqHO conepxcarensrryro IIHTeprrpeTau;rno, npo-rreana KOMMeHTapIIH (noaropaex, rraparmern.ao C TeKCTOM) He,n;OCTaTOqHO - Heo6xo,UIIMO 3HaKOMCTBO C accrrezroBaTenhCKOM rmreparypoa. Dpe,UbHBITHTh K KOMMeHTapHIO Tpe60BaHHe penrars crrenarpavecxae 3a,UaQM IICTOPHKO-JIIIreparypaori H TeOpeTlIqeCKOM anrepnperanan TeI<CTa aerrpaBOMepHO. He cnenyer oxcuna'rs, 'ITO -rerroaerc, KOTOPbrll B03bMeT aa ce6H rpyn 03HaKOMHThCH C npennaraewsra KOMMeHTapnelVI, OKOHqaTeJIhHO H 6ecnOBopOTHO rroMMeT poaan ITYWKlrna. IToHIfMaHHe raxoro npoasseneaaa, KaK «EBreHHH OHerHHH, - aanana, rpefiyromaa rpyzra, JIro6BH II xynsrypsr. C uerrsro 06ITer'IeHHH qHTaTerrro :37011: 3a,n;a'C.J:H ,UaeM KpaTKHH rrepexeas OCHOBHblX pa60T 0 poaane

(CM. c. 31-33). _

TIIn KOMMeHTapIIH 3aBHCHT OT THrra KOMMeHTHpyeMoro i TeKCTa, a nYllIKIIHCKHM pOMaH OTrrH'C.J:aeTCH IiCKJlro'IHTeJlhHOM CITO}f{HOCThlO CTPYKTYPHOM opraHH3aU:HII. 3TO 3aKOHOMepHo npHBO,UHT K Heo6xo,UHMOCTH COBMeru:eHHH HeCKOJIhKHX BH,UOB KOMMeHTaplffi H K HeH36ewHoH HenOJIHOTe Ka}f{,Uoro H3 HIIX B oT,UenhHocTH.

BOIThI1laH rpyrma neKCHQeCKH HerrOHHTHbIX cospeaeaHOMY qHTaTeJIro cnoa B «EBreHI1H OHerIIHe» OTHOCIITCH K npenxeraa H HBJIeHIiHM 6bITa KaK aeurecrseanoro (6hITOasre npezraersr, o,Ue}f{,Ua, ezta, BHHO H rrp.), TaK II apaacraeaaoro (rrOHHTIIH qeCTH, cneundraxa 3THKeTa, npaaarra H HOPMbI nOBe,UeHHH) H COu:HaIThHOrO (crryxcetiaaa nepapXHH, crpytcrypa 06ru:eCTBeHHbIX OTHoweHHH H rrp.). ITPH

7

3TOM He,n:OCTaTOqHO 06bHCHHTb, qTO oaaavaer TO HJIH HHOe Ha3BaHHe, CYIJ.:(eCTBeHHO YKa3aTb, HBJIHJIaCb JIH ra HJIH HHaH BeIJ.:(b MO,n:HOH HOBHHKOH HJIH 06JIOMKOM CTapHHb1, l<aKYW xy,n:OmeCTBeHHYW uerrs npecnenosan fIYIllKHH, BBO,n:H ee B CBOH pOMaH, H T. ,n:.

OTHOIlleHHe TeKCTa peaJIHCTHQeCKOrO nponsaenenna l{ MHpy BeIJ.:(eH 11 npenxeroa B oxpyxcaroureit ,n:eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH CTPOHTCH rro COBepIlleHHO HHOMY ITJJaHY, qeM B ClICTeMe pOMaHTH3Ma. fI03THqeCKHH MHp pOMaHTHqeCKOrO npoaasenenaa 6b1JI aficrparnpoaan OT peansnoro 6b1Ta, orcpyxcaroIJ.:(erO anropa HerO qHTaTeJIeH. ECJ1l1 HBJIeHHH 6b1Ta If BBo,n:HnHCb B TeKCT, TO 3TO 6bIJI t{Y)JCOU 6b1T: 3K30THqecKHI-i 6bIT npyrnx naponoa HJIH CTapHHHb1II 6b1T csoero MOrJIH BocrrpHHHMaTbCH rr03THqeCKH, COBpelVicHHbII;'r rrpocroaapozrHbIH, qHHOBHHqHH HJIH CBCTCl{HH - .nmns carnprorecxa. Ho B JIW60M cnysae aro 6bIJI He «CBOH», a «HX» 6b1T, C KOTOPbIM t.IHTaTeJIb COrrpHl{aCaJICH HMeHHO xarc qHTaTe.'lh, T. e. rorrsrco B rmreparype. I'v1HP rr033HH B03BbIIlleHHOH H firraropozraoii, CJIHBaHCh C MHpOM JIHpUqeCKHX nepexcnsaHHH aaropa u q:vITaTeJIH, 6bIJI OqHIJ.:(eH OT aCCOL\Hal~HH C HH3111eHHbIMH peaJIHHMH OKpY)-l{aWIJ.:(e:n )f{H3HH, a MHp rr033HH CaTHpHqeCKOH, rrorpY)-KeHIIOH B 6bIT, 6bIJI yrranen OT HHTHMHO-nHpHqeCKHX nepexctaaaaa aaropa. B pesyrrsrare Me)f{,n:y rr03THqeCKHM TeKCTOM H JIemaIJ.:(eH sa npezreJIaMH rexcra mH3HhW C03HaTeJIhHO C03,n:aBaJIaCb rrponacrs 1. C TOqKH 3peHHH KOMMeHTapHH 3Tb npnaonar K TO My , qTO rr03THqeCKOe BocrrpHHTHe pOMaHTHqeCKOrO rrpOH3Be,n:eHHH B03MO)f{HO H 6e3 ,n:eTaJIhHb1X CBe,n:eHHH 0 6bITe 3rrOXH, B KOTOPYW OHO nanncano.

IIYIllKHHCKHH TeKCT B «EBreHHH OHerHHe» nocrpoen no HHOMY npnmiarry: TeKCT H BHeTeKCTOBb1H MHp oprannqeCKH CBH3aHbI, mHByT B rrOCTOHHHOM B3aHMHOM orpaxceHHH, lIepeKJIHKaWTCH HaMeKaMH, OTCbIJIKaMH, TO asyva B YHHCOH, TO 6pocaH rrpyr aa npyra HpOHHqeCKHH OTCBeT, TO acrynas B CTOJIKHOBeHHe. fIOHHTh «EBreHHH Onernna», He 3HaH oxpyxcarouieii fIYIllKI1Ha mH3HH - OT rJIy60l{HX J(BHmeHHH H,n:eH 3rrOXH no «MeJIOqeH» 6bITa, - HeB03MomHO. 3,n:eCh BamHO BCe, BlIJIOTh no MeJIbqaHIllHX qepTOqeI<.

Becsxa CYIJ.:(eCTBeHHO OT,n:eJIHTh Te CJIOBa, xoropsre cneJIaJIHCh HerrOHHTHbIMH COBpeMeHHOMY QHTaTeJIW, OT TaKHX,

1 Ca.: TYI<OeCKUU T. A. TIYWKHH If npo6:1eMbI pearnrcrnvecxoro CTIfJIH. M., 1957, c. 144-149.

8

HerrOHHTHOCTh KOTOPh1X BXO.o;HJIa B aBTOpCKHH pac-rer H KOTOph1e H B nyllIKHHcKyIO srroxy .o;OJI)f{HhI 6bIJIH corrpoBO)f{.o;aThCH KOMMeHTapHHMH (3TO OT"<IaCTH H BhI3BaJIO HaJIH"<IHe aBTOpCKHX rrpHMe"<IaHHH K pOMaHY). ITYllIKHH, caM OTMel.IaBllIHH, "<ITO ero

... cnor

Flecrpers rOpa3.!10 6 MeHbllle wor HHOTIneMeHHbIMII cnoaaxn (1, XXVI, 10- 12)',

KOHe"<IHO, Mor 6h1 3aMeHHTh He3HaK01'l1h1e I1JIH MaJIOH3BeCTm.re "<IHTaTemo CJlOBa 06bI.o;eHHbIMI1 H "<IaCTO BCTpe"<IaIOIL(HMHCH. BH.o;I1MO, raxoe peIIIeHHe rrpOTl1BOpe"<II1J10 6bI ero xy,n:O)f{eCTBeHH8MY 3a.o;aHHIO. IT03TOMY COBpeMeHHbIH "<IHTaTeJIh .o;OJImeH 3HaTh, KaKHe CJIOBa 6hIJlH Heo6h1QHhIMH B OHerHHCKYIO anoxy, a KaKI1e npaooperra 3TO Ka"<IeCTBO noaxce.

OHerHHCKHH TeKCT H306HJlyeT I.J;HTaTaMH H peMYIHHCI.J;eHI.J;HHMH; nnorrra HCTO"<IHHK HX rrpavro 0603Ha"<IeH, naor-na aBTOp He Ha3BaH no HMeHH, HO YKa3aH COBepweHHO He.o;BYCMh1CJleHHO:

... Ha.!lTIIICb a.!la:

Ocma6b Haoe:J1{;oy I-ta6cezoa (II I, XXII, 9 -10).

I1TaJIhHHCKHH TeKCT no.o;JIHHHHKa, .o;aHHhIH ITYWKHHbIM B KOMMeHTapHH, pacceasan na 3TOT cxer rnofisre COMHeHIUl.

B crnxax :

C)IOBa~m seurero TIona CKa3aTb II MHe n03BoneHO:

Teuupa, JI.arfiHa II Jlunema -

KaK COli, sasumu !.tHOU oaeuo (VI, 647).

BemHH rr03T - A. A. ,UeJIhBHr snecs He HU3BaH, HO rrpOUHTHpOBaHh1 CTPOKH H3 ero CTHXOTBopeHHH «<PaHH», xoropsre, Ka3aJIOCh 6b1, nenana HaMeK .o;OCTaTOqHO npospa=rHh1M. Cp. y ,UeJIhBHra:

Tesurpa, JlaqlHa II Jlanera JlaBHo, KaH COH 3a6blTbI MHoiL.

O.o;HaKO 3TH CTHXH 6hIJIH ony6JIHKOBaHhI JIHllIh B 1922 r.

C,UeJIhBHr. HeH3.o;aHHh1e CTHXOTBopeHHH. TIon pert, M. JI. fo<pMaHa. IT6., 1922, C. 50). OHH nanncansr B JIHI.:(ee H, BepOHTHO, 6hIJIH XOPOlliO H3BeCTHhI B Y3KOM xpyry

, CTIIICOK COKpal.l.\eHIIH CM. xa c. 12 - 14.

9

JIH~eHCTOB. TaKHM 06pa30M, ,[(JIH qaCTH qHTaTe.'1eM HaMel< 6bIJI rrpHH~mIHa.'1bHO nertocrynen paCIIIH<pPOBKe, a .n;JIH ,[(PYrOM - ysxoro xpyra JTH~eMCKHX .n;PY3eM C.UeJIbBllT KaK aBTOp OTJIfItlaJICH OC060M CTbI.n;JTHBOCTbIO, H CTHXH, xoropsre OH CtJHTa.1: He.n;OCToMHbP,lH nexara, sa npezrerraznr ovens ysxoro xpyra ocrasanacs HeH3BeCTHblMH\ - rrOHHTeH no csreBH.n;HOCTH.

B CTHxe:

Tax OH nacan menno Ii 6R/lO VI, XXIII, II -

CJTOBa, xoropsre ITyUlKHH BbI,[(eJIHJI KypCHBOM, npenCTaBJTHIOT~HTary. I1CTOqHHK ee He Ha3BaH, HO .n;JIH lJHTaTeJIeM, CJIe,[(HBUlHX sa JIHTepaTYPHOM rrOJIeMHKOM, OH He 6bIJI cercperox: OHH JIerKO rrpHrrOMHHaJIH HaIIIYMeBUlYIO B 1824 r. CTaTbIO Kroxerrsfiexepa «0 HarrpaBJIeHHH naureii rr033HH, ocofiemro JIHpHqeCKOM, B nocnerraee necarnnerne».

~OrKHO rrpHBecTH H .n;PyroM THIT HaMeKa:

30BYT cocena I< camoaapy,

A .IlYIHI paarmaaer tmiL. (II, XII, 9-]0).

CMbICJI conepxcauieiica anecs peMHHHc~eH~HH pacxpstBaeTCH H3 corrOCTaBJTeHHH C ~HTaTOM H3 HeOKOHlJeHHOrO «POMaHa B rracsxax» ITYUlKHHa: « ... rKHBY B rJTYXOM rtepesHe H pa3JIHBaIO qaM xax KJIapHCCa fapJIOB» (VIII, I, 47). Knapncca fapJTOB (Taprroy) - repOHH5I H3BeCTHOrO O,[(HOHMeHHoro ceHTHMeHTaJIbHOrO poxaaa Pasrapncona. ITo,[(o6- Ha5I zrerarn, aoofinie COCTaBJTHJIa ofiutee MeCTO ceHTHMeHTaJTbHbIX pOMaHoB «na crapsm JIa,[(» (cp. lIIapJToTTY sa 3aBTpal<OM B «Crpananaax ronoro Beprepa» Tere). Co-reTaHHe nonnepxayro aernrreparypacro HMeHH «,UYHH», caMoro ofipasa arparomea Ha rurape npoaaanaarrsaoa 6apbIIIIHH C ceHTHMeHTaJThHOM neTaJlbIO - «pa3JIHBaeT qaM» - cosnaer HpOHHt.IeCKHH 3cpcpeKT. OH ente 60JTee nonsrepxayr JIHpHqeCKOH ,[(JT5I Jlencrcoro napanrrerrsro :

Pa3JIliTblH Onsranoii PYI<OlO, ITo qaUmaM TeMHOIO CTPyelO

Y>Ke .o:YlliliCTbIH qaH 6e>Kan ... (III, XXXVII, 5 - 7).

I1poHHtJeCKHH xaparcrep nepasrx CruXOB H JIHpHt.Iecrmif Bl'OpEIX6oJTee HJTH MeHee rrOHHTeH BCHKOMY t.IHTaTeJTIO, B TOM lJHCJTe H He qyBCTBYIOmeMY snecs JIHTepa-

10

TypHbIX peMHHMCQeHI..V1H:. O,n;HaKO nOHIiMaHl1e HaMeKa Ii OI..QYI..QeHI1e rrapaJIJIeJIIi3Ma 3TIiX CQeH npnnaer rerccry rrry- 6IiHY, CMbICnOBYro eMKOCTb. «EBreHlIH: OHerIiH}) nOCTpOeH TaK, 'ITO ero MomHO nocnpanaaars na pa3HbIX ypOBHRX npOHIiKHOBeHMR B CMbICJI.

I1pMHRTOe f1YlliKIiHbIM nocrpoeane TeKCTa C03AaeT oco- 6bIH: 06pa3 ay,n;IITOpHH. I1YIDKHHCKHI1 qlfTaTeJIb acerzra aeorraoponen: 3TO Ii HHTliMHbIe ,a:PY3bR, H OT,a:aJIeHHbIe nOTO.'\lKH. TIpIiqeM B O,a:HHX CJIyqaHX TeKCT rrpenensno nOHRTeH JIIIIDb TOMY, KTO JIHqHO 3HaeT aeropa 11 ace ocotienaocra ero cy,a:b6bI,a B ,n;PYrI1X - JIIIIllb TOMY, KTO CMOTPIIT aa npOH3Be,n;eHIIe H3 r'rryfiaa 6y,n;yI..QIiX BeKOB. TaK, q11TaTeJIb, yxce 3HaKOMbIH: C «ARHOM: KapeHI1H:OM», pOMaHaMH Typreaesa H Fon-rapoaa, «B03Me3,n;11eM}} EJIORa H «I103MOH: 6e3 repoa: AXMaTOBOH:, BH,n;IIT B «EBreHIIH OHerHHe» nOTeHIIHaJIbHO CKpbITbIe CMbICJIbI, YCKOJIb3aBume OT BH11MaH11R COBpeMeHHHKOB. CaMbIH: MaCliITa6 C03AaHHR He 6bIJI nOHRTeH ztaxce caMbIM np030pJIHBbIM <nrraTeJ1HM 1820 - 1830-x rr. TOJIbKO EeJIMHCKHH: B aasane 1840-x rr. cmor onpenennrs HCTOpHqeCKOe MeCTO «EareHHH OHerHHa», H C rex nop xaaoroe HOBoe AOCTH)J{eHHe PYCCKOH: JIHTepaTYpbI BHOC11T 'ITO-TO HOBoe B TPaKTOBKY rrynrxancrcoro poaaaa.

Henocpencrneanoe nOHHMaHHe TeKCTa «EBreH11H OHernaa» 6bIJIO YTPaqeHO yme BO BTOPOH nOJIOB11He XIX aexa,

eTO rrer TOMY aaaan aarop nepaoa nonsmcn npoxowMeHTHpoBaTb pOMaH nHCaJI: «B EBreHHH OHerHHe 6oJIee, qeM B KaKOM npyrox npOH3Be,n;eHHH, MbI acrpe=raea Macey HenOHHTHbIX .D;JIH Hac BbIpameHHH, HaMeKOB ... » (BOJIbCKHH A. 06bRcHeHHH H npHMeqaHHH K pOMaHY A. C. TlymKHHa «EBreH11H: OHerHH». M., 1877, c. III).

Y me noperpopaeaaaa >I<113Hb nJIOXO nOMHHJIa 6bIT OHerMHCKOH 3nOXH. qTO me roaopars 0 COBpeMeHHOM HaM qHTaTeJIe?

Flpezinaraexaa qUTaTemo KHHra OTHfO)J;b He nepasra orrsrr KOMMeHTHpOBaHHH rryuncnacxoro poaana: nOMHMO yxasaaaoro KOMMeHTapWI A. BOJIbCKOrO 1 QeHHbIe, XOTa Ii KpaTKHe llpHMeqaHHH coztepacarca B pane Hay'IHhIX H naysno-norrynapasrx H3.D;aHHH: «EBreHHR OHerHHa». 3,a:eCb B nepBYIO oxeperu, cnezryer Ha3BaTb TOM V B 113,a:aHHH:

1 B HaCTOJUl..\ee BpeMJI 3TO asnanae, oxaarsrsarouiee I - VI r-naasr, npericraanaer JIUIIIb acropasecxaa HHTepec.

11

ITYUIImH A. C. ITOJIHOe cofipamre COqMHemIl1. B 9-TM T. M., 1935 (KoMMeHTapHM- c. 267-390 - I. O. Baaoxypa); TOM 5-M B M3,[(aHHH: ITYlllKMH A. C. ITOJIHOe C06paHHe coqMHeHHM. B 10-TH T. 113'[(. 2-e. M., 1957 (KoMll'leHTapMM B. B. Toaemeacxoro): ITYlllKHH A. C. Earermji OHerrra. M.-JI., 1936; M., 1957; M., 1964 (KoMMeHTapHM

C. M. BOH,[(H).

3aCJIY)f{eHHOM rronynapaocrsro y yqVITeJIeM rrOJIb3yeTc51 KHHra: BPO,[(CKHM H. JI. «EBreHHM OHerMH)}. POMaH A. C. ITYlllKMHa. Ilococae ,[(JIH yqHTeJIH (rrepnoe H3,[(. - B 1932, naroe - B 1964 r .). KHMra H. JI. Bponcxoro, asurepxcaamaa 5 M3,[(aHHM, csrrparra 3HaqMTeJIbHYIO pOJIb B rrorrYJIHpM3aU;HH HTorOB KOMMeHTaTopcKoM pa60TbI rrYlllKMHMCTOB cpemr y-ntTeJIeM-CJIOBeCHHKoB. O,[(HaKo B rrOCJIe,[(HMe ,[(eCHTMJIeTHH rrOHBHJICH PH,[( KaK 06ru;MX, TaK M qaCTHb1X MCCJIe,[(oBaHHM, rrOCBHIIJ;eHHb1X TBOpqeCTBY ITYlllKMHa M I<YJIbTYpe ero 3rrOXM, 6bIJIH orry6JIMI<OBaHb1 ueaasre CrrpaBOqHHI<M H CJIOBapH, B CBeTe I<OTOPbIX pafiora Bponcxoro BblrJIH,[(HT HerrOJIHOM, a qaCTMqHO H ycrapesurea.

CYIIJ;eCTBYIOT ratoxe ,[(BYXTOMHh1e npHMeqaHHH K nyruKHHCI<OMY pOMaHY, aanacanasre B. Ha6oKOBhIM (CM. c.31). B npaae-raaaax cortepxerrca PH,[( napaJIJIeJIeM C sanarmoeBpOneMCI<HMH JIMTepaTypHbIMH TeKCTaMH, CTMJIHCTHqeCKH(; 3aMeTKH, aanpaxep YKa3aHHH aa raJIJIHHM3MbI H HeI<OTOpbIe 6bIToBhIe KOMMeHTapMH. O,[(HaKo B u;eJIOM pafiora BKJIIOqaeT H PH,[( Heo6H3aTeJIbHbIX cBe,[(eHMM, ro-msre Ha6JIIO,[(emuI nepewexcarorca rropoii C cy6beI<THBHh1MM M rrpM6JIH3HTeJIbHh1MM.

HacTOHIIJ;MM KOMMeHTapHM orpaaaxea KaK u;eJ1eBOM ycraHOBKOM, TaK M o6beMoM. IT03TOMY OT onpenerreansrx CTOPOH rrOHCHeHHH TeI<CTa npmunocs OTKa3aTbCH. TaK, rrOJ1- HOCThIO MCI<J1IOqeH cTHxoBe,[(qeCKMM I<OMMeHTapHM : qI-ITaTeJIb He HaM,[(eT 06bHCHeHHM, I<aCaIOIIJ;MXC51 npnpom.r CTHxa 11 <;:TPOCPb1, PMCPMb1, MeTpa, pHTMa M 3BYKOBOM CTPYKTypbI «EBreHHH Oaernaa». ,UeJIaTb ornerrsm.re «aaoerrc B 3TY 06JIaCTb aBTOp He CqHTaJ1 u;eJIeC006pa3HbIM, a HCqepnhIBaIOIIJ;HM HJ1M XOTH 6b1 ,[(OCTaTOqHO rrOJ1HbIM KOMMeHTapHM :nOM CTOPOHhI TeKCTa H3MeHMJI 6h1 aecs nrraa H3,[(aHHH H YBeJIHqHJI 6hI 3HaqHTeJ1bHO ero 06beM. Be'[(YIIJ;aHCH B HaCTOHIIJ;ee BpeMH HHTeHCHBHaH paspafiorxa CTMXOBe,[(qeCKHX aCrreI<TOB n033MM ITYlllKHHa, B03MO)f{HO, BOCrrOJIHMT 3TOT npofierr.

12

YCA06HbLe cOKpaUfeHUR) npuueuneuue e oaasueiaueu metccme :

n -'- A. C. ITyrnI<HH

EO - «EBreHHH: OHerHH}}

CJIOBapb assnca Ilynnoraa - CJIOBapb aasnca ITyrnI<HHa.

B 4-x T. M., 1956-1961.

AJleI<CeeB - AJleI<CeeB M. IT. ITyrnKHH. CpaBHHTeJIbHOHCTOpHqeCI<He HCCJle,[lOBaHHR. JI., 1972.

EapaTbIHCI<HH: - EapaTbIHCI<HH: E. A. ITOJlHOe coopaane CTHxoTBOpeHVIH:. T. I - II. JI., 1936.

EPO,[lCKHH: - EPO,[lCI<HH: H. ]1. «EBreHHM Onerna». POMaH A. C. ITyrnKHHa. Flocofine ,[IJIH yqHTeJIR. H3,[1. 5-e. M., 1964.

EYJlbBep-]1HTToH - EYJlbBep-]1HTToH 3. TIeJl3M, HJIH ITPHI<JIlOqeHHH ,[I}l{eHTJlbMeHa. M., 1958.

EYTYPJIHH - 3armCI<H rpadia M. ,U. EYTypJlHHa. - «PycCKHH: apXHB)}, 1897, NQ 5 - 8.

BHreJIb - BHreJIb <P. <P. 3arrHCI<H. T. I - II. M., 1928.

ITyrnHHH, BpeMeHHHI< - BpeMeHHHI< ITyrnI<HHCI<OH: I<OMHCCHH. M. - JI., 1-1936, 2 - 1936, 3 - 1937, 4 - 5 - 1939, 6-1941; 1962; 1973, 1975.

BR3eMCI<HH: - BR3eMCKHH: IT. A. CTHxoTBOpeHHR. ]1. 1958. BH3eMCI<HH:, Crapaa 3arrHCHaR KHH}KI<a - BR3eMCI<HH IT.

Crapaa sanacaaa I<HH}l{I<a. ]1., 1929.

,UaBbl,[lOB - ,UeHHc ,UaBbl,[lOB. CoqHHeHHR. M., 1962. ,UeI<a6pHCT M. C. JIYHHH - ,UeI<a6pHCT M. C. JIYHHH.

COqHHeHHR H IlHCbMa. M., 1923.

,UMHTpHeB - ,UMHTpHeB H. H. ITOJlHOe ccopanne CTHXOTBOpeHHH:. ]1., 1967.

,UMHTpHeB, T. 2 - .llMHTpHeB H. H. COqHHeHHR. T. 2.

CIT6., 1893.

)KYI<OBCKHH - )KYI<OBCI<IDi: B. A. Cocpanae cOLIHHeHI1H.

B 4-x T. M. - II., 1959 - 1960. ~.

KapaM3HH - Kapal\13HH H. M. ITOJIHOe coopanae CTHXOTBopeHHH. M., 1966.

KapaM3HH, T. 1,2 - KapaM3HH H. M. H36paHHble COqHHeHHR. B 2-x T. M. - ]1., 1964.

KlOXeJIb6eI<ep - KIOXeJIb6eI<ep B. K TIYTernecTBHe, ,[IHeBHHI<, CTaTbH. JI., 1979.

KIOXeJIb6eI<ep, T. 1, 2 - KIOXeJIb6eI<ep B. K. H36paHHble rrpOH3Be,[leHHH. B 2-x T. M. - JI., 1967.

13

'Iepnep - Jlepnep H. O. ITYlllKHHO."lOrHqeCIH'Ie 3TIOAhI.«3BeHb5I», V. M. - .rr., 1935.

'1oTMaH, ,UeKa6pHcT B noacermesnoa )l{I'I3HH - JIOTMaH 10. M. )leKa6pHcT B rroacezmeaaoa )l{H3HH (Bsrrosoe nosenemre KaK HCTOPHKO-IICHXOJIOrI-IqeCK.a5I KaTerOpH5I). - B co.: Jlnreparypnoe nacnezme rrexafipnCTOB. JI., 1975.

"lorvan, IToCB5Irn;eHHe «ITOJITaBhI» - JIoTMaH 10. M.

IToCB5Irn;eHHe «ITOJITaBhI» (rexcr, <PYHKL(H5I). - ITpo6- ."leMhI nYlllKHHOBe.n;eHH5I. C60PHHK HaYQHbIX rpyzron.

JI., 1975. .

JloTMaH, Tessa rcapr ... - JIoTMaH 10. M. Texa xapr H xapro-raoa nrpsr B PYCCKOH rmreparype naQaJIa XIX aerca. - «Vxen. aan. Taprycxoro ymraepCHTeTan, 1975, asm. 365. Tpyzrsr no 3HaKOBhIM CHCTeMaM, VII.

MHPKOBHq - <f>eAop 5IKOBJIeBHQ MHPKOBHQ. 1789 - 1866.

Ero )l{H3HeOnHcaHHe, COCTaBJIeHHOe no coficraeam.ra ero aamrcxaa, BocnOMHHaHH5IM 6JIH3KHX JIIOAeH H no.n;JIHHHhIM .n;OKYMeHTaM. CIT6., 1889.

ITHcbMa KapaM3IIHa ... - ITHcbMa H. M. KapaM3HHa K 11. 11. )lMHTpHeBY. CIl6., 1866.

IToMern;HQb5I POCCH5I ... - IloMern;HQb5I POCCH5I no 3anHCKaM COBpeMeHHHKOB. M., 1911.

IT03ThI 1790-1810-x rOAOB - IT03ThI 1790-1810-x rOAOB.

JI., 1971.

Il03ThI 1820 -1830-x rOAOB - IT03ThI 1820 -1830-x rorroa T. I. JI., 1972.

ITYWKHH B BocnOMHHaHH5IX COBpeMeHHHKOB - A. C. IlyurKHH B BocnOMlfHaHH5IX COBpeMeHHHKOB. B 2-x T. M., 1974.

PYKOIO Ilyurxaaa - PYKOIO Hyurrcaaa. Hecoopaaasre H Heony6JIHKOBaHHhle TeKCTbI. M. - JI., 1935.

PhIJIeeB - PhIJIeeB K. <f>. Ilormoe cofipaane CTIIxoTBopeHHH. JI., 1971.

CeJIHBaHOB - IlpeAaHH5I H BocnOMHHaHHH B.. B. CeJIHBaHOBa. CIl6., 1881.

TOMallleBcKHH, IlymKHH - TOMaweBcKHH B. B. IlYIIIKHH.

KH. I-II. M.- JI., 1956, 1961.

ThIHHHOB, ITYlllKHH II ero COBpeMeHHHKH - ThIH5I-

HOB 10. H. ITYWKIIH II ero COBpeMeHHID<H. M., 196~

14

B UHTaTaX H3 H3BeCTHbIX rtpaaarrraecxax npoasaezreHHH YKa3bIBaeTCJI .n;eHCTBHe II HBneHHe, H3 I13BeCTHbIX pOl)JaHOB - TOM, -racrs, r-naaa,

Bee CCbIJ1KH aa nYIllKHHCKHe TeKCTbI .n;aIOTCH no nsnaHHIO: ITYIIIKHH A. C. ITOJ1Hoe cofipanae CO'I}u-IeHI-IH. T. I -XVI. M., 113.n;. AH CCCP, 1937 -1949 (rcpowe cneuHaJ1bHO oroaopenasrx crryuaea), CCbIJ1KH na 3TO (<<60JIbIiiOe aKa.n;eMHqeCKoe») nanaaae .n;aIOTCJI CJIe,a;YIOlll;I1M 05pa30M:

TOM - PlIMCKOH UlI<ppoi:\:, xanra (B CJ1YQae, eCJIH TOM COCTOlIT lI3 ,a;ByX KHlIr) - apaocxofi, CTpamrU;bI - apaecxon. TaKHM me 06pa30M ocyw:eCTBJIHIOTCH CCbIJIKlI H na aapnaarsr K «EBreHHIO OHerHHY». O.IT,HaKO aa OCHOBHOH TeKCT postaaa CChIJ1KH (xyw:eCTBJ1JIlOTCH ylHaqe: ;a;aeTCJI HOMep rJ1aBhI (pHMCK.), crporpsr (pHMCK.) H CTHxa (apaficx.). CChIJ1KH na OCHOBHOH TeKCT povaaa BbI.n;eJ1JIIOTCH KYPCHBOM. HeorOBOpeHHhIH KypCHB B UHTaTax IIpHHa.n;ne}f{IIT HCTOlIHHKaM.

B COOTBeTCTBHH C IIpHHHTbIMH rpacpH'IeCKHMH HOpMaMH JIOMaHble CKo6KH 03.HaqaIOT pezraxropcxae KOHbeKTyphI, a xsanparasre - TeKCT, 3aQepKHYTbIH n. ITOCKOJIbKY KOMMeHTHpyeMbIe CTpOKH H3 EO .n;aIOTCJI HaMH aesne KYPCHBOM, TO B rex CJ1YQaHX, xorna B HHX BCTpeQaeTCH aBTOpCKHH KypCHB, OH nepenaerca pa3pHAKoH.

ABTOP CQHTaeT npHHTHOH 06H3aHHOCThIO BbIpa3HTh HCKpeHHIOIO 6J1aro,a;apHOCTh B. M. Fzraaxe, H. H. rpoMOBY, IT. A. 3aHOHqKOBCKOMY, r. IT. Maxoronenxo, 3. r. MHHU, B. B. ITo3HaHcKoMY H B. A. Ycrreacxoay, t.IhH COBeThI OKa3aJIlI cyw:eCTBeHHYIO rroxoun, B pafiore Ha,a; :nOH KHHroH, a raiorce JI. A. A6oJ1.n;yeBoH, JI. H. KneeJ1eBOH, M. C. JIeBHHoH H JI. H. ITenIHoH, noxor-aannor rrpa IIOWOTOBKe PYKOITHCH. "

XpOHOJIOrUS paOOTbl nYWKUHa nan «EBreHHeM OHerUHbIM»·26 cearatipa 1830 r., saaepnras pa60TY nan EO, n03T aafipocan 06~lli1: nJIaH H3.uaHllH, nosierrra OCHOBasre narr.r pafiorsr:

OHe2U1-t

'Lacms nepeast Ilpenacnoane

I necns Xauopa Knnraaea, Orrecca II - Flosm Ozrecca 1824

III - Bapuuaoi Onecca. Max <ai1:JIOBC}{Oe > 1824

IV necas Ilepeenn Maxaanos ccxoe ). 1825 V - [Ilpo] l1MJ'lHU1;lbl Mllx<ai1:noBC}{Oe) 1825. 1826

VI - ilOeOUHOl( Mllx(ai1:JIOBCcwe). 1826

VII necas MOCI<Ba Mllx(ai1:JIOBC}{Oe). Il(eTep). B(ypr). MaJ1I1HH<I1KI1). 1827.,8

VIII Cmpaucmeue MOCl{<Ba)

IlaBJI(oBc}{). 1829 bon.u<llHo).

IX - EO/lbUlOU ceem bOJI.u<llHO).

Flpuueuauun

1823 ron 9 MaH KUUluHeB - 1830 25 ceHT<H6pfl). Bonouuo 26 ceHT<fl6pH). AIl<:YlllKI1H) II )l{llTh TOPOTII1TCfl I1 qYBCTBOBaTh cnennrr

K <HH3h). B<fl3eMC}{lli1:).

7 JIe<T) 4 Me<cflu;a) 17 .u<Hei1:) (VI, 532).

16

x o n P a 6 0 T bI H a n T e K C TOM:

1823 9 MaH/28 MaH - HaT.IaJIO pa60TbI aan pOMaHOM 22 OKTJI6pH - OKOHT.IeHa IIepBaH rnaaa.

3 HOH6pH - IIOMeTbI B T.IepHOBl'IKe 06 OKOHT.IamfH nepBbIX ceanazntara CTPOcP BTOPO:ti rJIaBbI:

8 ziexaopa - OKOHT.IeHa nropaa r'naaa (HO crporpa XXXIX; CTPOcPbI XL H XXXV HaIIHcaHbI nosace).

1824 8 cPeBpaJIH - HaT.IaTa rpersa rnaaa (K HIOHIO 1824 r r.naaa .n;OIIHcaHa no IIHCbMa TaTbHHbI BKJIIOT.IHTeJIbHo) 5 ceHTH6pH - IIOMen IIO.n; CTPOcPO:ti XXXII.

2 OKTH6pH - 3aKOHT.IeHa rpersa r.naaa.

31 rrexafipa 1824/1 HHBapH 1825 - IIOMeTa IIO.n; T.IepHOBHKOM XXIII CTPOcPbI T.IeTBepTOM rJIaBbI.

1824 - 1825 - pafiora nan qeTBepTo:ti rJIaBoM. 1826 6 HHBapH - 3aKOHT.IeHa T.IeTBepTaH r.naaa. 4 HHBapH - HaT.IaTa IIHTaH rJIaBa.

22 HOH6pH - OKOHT.IeHa IIHTaH r.naaa.

1826 - paeora nan llIeCTOM rnaaoii (KaK TIOJIaraeT B. B. ToMallIeBcKH:ti, pafiora nan nrecroii rJIaBOM lima TIapaJIJIeJIbHO C IIHTO:ti H no ee OKOHT.IaHHH).

10 aarycra - IIOMeTa IIO,lJ; T.IepHOBHKOM XLV CTPOcPbI 1827 18 MapTa - HaT.IaTa censwaa r.rraaa.

1828 19 cPeBpaJIH - IIOMen IIO.n; XII crporpoir C e.n;b MOt'! rJIaBbl.

5 aIIpeJIH - IIOMeTa B PYKOTIHCH «AJIb6oMa Oneraaa» 4 HOH6pH - OKOHT.IeHa ce.n;bMaH rJIaBa.

1829 2 OKTH6pH - HaTIHCaHbI nepnsre TIHTb CTPOcP «ITYTellIeCTBHH OHerHHa» (OTIHCaHHe Oneccsr C03,lJ;aHO eure B 1825 r.).

24 .n;eKa6pH - HaT.IaTa BOCbMaH (TIepBOHaT.IaJIbHO - .n;eBHTaH) rnaaa.

1830 18 ceHTH5pH - 3aKOHT.IeHO «TIYTellIecTBHe OHerHHa» 25 ceHTH6pH - 3aKOHT.IeHa BOCbMaH (IIepBOHaT.IaJIbHO - ,lJ;eBHTaH) rnaaa.

19 OKTH6pH - coxoxena .n;eCHTaH r JIaBa.

1831 5 OKTH6pH - aarmcaao «TIHCbMO OHerHHa TaTbHHe»

17

BHYTPeHHHJI XpOHOJIOrUH «EBreHllJI OUerUHa» • B npM1\ieqamm K EO aBTOp nMCaJI: «CMeeM yaeprrrs, qTO B aamex poxane speaa paCqMC.TleHO no xanenrrapro» (VI, 193). He npnnaaaa 3TOMY BbICKa3hIBamllO CJIHIllKOM 6YKBaJIbHOrO 3HaqeHMH, cnezryer ace n<e nO;J;t.IepKHyTb ero npMH~MnMaJIbHylO Ban<HOCTb: TOqHOCTb COOTHeceHHOCTII C06hITMH poxaaa C XpOHOJIOrMeH 6hIJIa C03HaTeJIbHO npoTMBonOCTaBJIeHa II n03TMKe TaKMX npOH3- ae;J;eHHH, KaK «BaXt.IMCapa:i1:cKHH ¢OHTaH», B KOTOPhIX TPY,ll;HO nbITaTbCH rrpaypo-nrrr, ,ll;eHCTBMe (a BepOHTHO, II He HY»<HO) naxce B nperterrax CTOJIeTH5I. EO, eCJIH He CqMTaTb ;a:eCHTOH rnaasr, He aarparnaaer HCTop:W·leCKHX C06hITHH, O,ll;HaKO aBTOp HBHO paCCt.IHTbIBaeT na TO, '-ITO t.IHTaTe.Jlb HerrOCpe,L(CTBeHHO 3HaHOM C arxocdiepon 3rrOXM, 6e3 noacaeaan t.IYBCTByeT ee 1\ieHHBIlleeCH He rro ronaa, a rro MeCfH:(aM M aenenasi nsrxaane. 3TO npnrraer BHyTpeHHell XPOHOJIOrIm poxana HCKJIlOt.IHTeJIbHO 60JIbIllOe sna-reHHe, TeM 60JIee t.ITO II noztaer t.IHTaTeJIlO 0 HeH He Ha30HJIMBhle, HO BeCbMa orrperteneansre CHrHaJ1hI.

Onopaoii TO'-IKOH HBJIHeTCH YKa3aHHe II B rrpe,L(HC.TIOBMM K OT,ll;eJIbHOMY H3,ll;aHMlO nepaoir r.TIaBhI na TO, '-ITO aasrano C06hITHH powana coananaer CKOH~OM 1819 r. (VI, 638). COrrOCTaBJIHH C 3TOH ,L(aToii pan YKa3aHHH B TeKCTe, 1\ihI norrysaea uens OCHOBHhIX ,L(aT.

1795 - 200 pO'J1COe1tUR Oueeuua.

B «I'nase OCb1\iOH» CKa3aHO, '-ITO, xorrta Onernn rrocne ,L(Y3_1IH OCTaBMJI CBOlO nepeamo, eMY 6hIJIO 26 JIeT:

.IlOn{liB 6e3 ne.na, 6e3 Tpy,!:!OB

.Ilo AB3AI.\3TH urecru rO,!:!OB (VIII, XII, 10-11).

,UepeBHIO OH noxaayrr B ¢eBpaJle - MapTe 1821 r. (CM. HMn<e), CJIe,ll;OBaTenbHO, PO,L(HJICH B 1795 r.; Bponcxaa (c. 38) H BOHAM rrpHBO,L(HT 1796 r., Ct.IHTaH, '-ITO nynrxaaCKHH TeKCT norrxcen HCTOJIKOBhIBaTbCH KaK YKa3aHMe aa TO, t.ITO reporo uien ,L(Ba,L(~aTb urecroa ron), TeKcT He rtaer OCHOBaHMH ,ll;JI5I onnoanasnroro penreaaa, XOTH nara «1795» rrpe,L(CTaBJIHeTCH 60JIee 06ocHoBaHHoH. TaKHM oGpa30M, Oaerna 6hIJI pOBeCHHKOM A. C. I'patioenoaa H zrexaopacros K <P. PhIJIeeBa, B. <P. Paeacxoro, H. M. JIopepa (ace - 1795), HHKHThI Mypaasena, Ceprea MypaasesaArrOCTOJIa (oGa - 1796). OH GhIJI MOJIOme A. H. Mypasseaa

1.8

M IT. A. Kareasraa (o6a - 1792), IT. IT. Kaaepana If IT . .H. LIaa,1J;aeBa (o6a - 1794), HO crapnre B. K. KlOXeJIbfiexepa (1797), A. A . .IJ:eJIbBHra (1798) M caxoro ITYIIII<HHa (1799).

1803 - lOO PO~)#COeHU8 JIeHcKOlO.

B anaape 1821 1., xorna JIeHCKIDl: nornfi, eMY 6bIJIO 18 ner. 3TO BbITeKaeT M.3 paavn.nuneaaii Oaernna :

nycxaa n03T

Ilypaxarcs ; B OCbMHa.IJ;lIaTb rrer

OHO npOCTI:!TeJIbHO (VI, X, 7-9).

1803 - eeponmuuii coo PO;)fCOeHUfl Tam bJil-l bl.

, JIeToM 1820 r. Tarssne 6bIno 17 rrer. Cv; aospaace-

HMH Il BH3eMCKoMY 29 HOH6pH 1824 r. B OTBeT aa 3aMeqaHHH OTHOCMTenbHO IIpOTllBOpeqMH: B IIMCbMe TaTbHHbI OHerMHY: «. .. IIHCbMO meHll(MHbl, K TOMY me 17-JIeTHeM, K TOMY me BJI!06JIeHHoM!» (XIII, 125).

Orrsra, MJIa,1J;IIIaH cecrpa TaTbHHbI, B 1820 r. 6bIJIa

HeBeCTOH: Jleacxoro. .

ITo HopMaM TOM 3IIOXM OHa, BepOHTHee ncero, 6blJIa HeCKOJIbKO MOJIOme ero H O,1J;HOBpeMeHHo eM He MOrJIO 6blTb MeHblile 15 rter. BepOHTHee ncero, eM 6bIITO 16 rrer. TaTbHHa, BH,1J;HMO, 6blJIa crapure OJIbrH aa rozt.

1811-/812 - otconuauue «yuensn: Oueeuua U 6blXO() ((6 ceem» .

OTCqHTbIBaH BpeMH OT 3HMbI 1819 - BeCHhI 1820 rr. (BpeMeHM,LI;eMCTBHH IIepBoM rrraasr), Il nmner:

BOT, KaK y6l!JI OH eocexs JIeT,

YTpaTH }J{l!3Hl! JIYllwIDi lIBeT (IV, IX, 13-14).

16 - 17 rrer ,1J;BOP.ffiICKMH !OHOma aaxaamrsan y-renne, qT06bI BCTyrrHTb B cJIym6y HJIM IIYCTHTbCH B CBeT. B aarmcxe «0 HapO,1J;HOM BOCIIHTaHMH)} Tl IIHCaJI, qTO B POCCHIf o6pa- 30BaHHe ,1J;BOpHHHHa «KOHqaeTCH na 16-JIeTHeM B03paCTe BOCIIHTaHHMKa» (XI, 44). O,1J;HaKO rO)J:-,1J;Ba, yxce Bble3maH B CBeTi MOJIO,1J;OH: qeJIOBeK nee eure BeJI )f(H3Hb norrypefiearca, mMBH B pO,Ll;MTeJIbCKOM ,1J;OMe H He paCIIOJIaraH co6CTBeHHbIMM ,1J;eHemHblMH cpe,1J;CTBaMH. OKOJIO 18 JIeT OH IIOJIHOCTblO rrepeXO,1J;HJI na IIOJIOmeHHe caMoCTOHTeJIbHOrO qeJIOBeKa, norryvaa OT pO,1J;HTeJIeH: Bbr.n;eJIeHHYlO eMY CyMMY

19

c06CTBeHHoro rOAOBOrO 6IOAmeTa. BI1AHMO, OKOJIO 1813 r., xorrta OHerHHY HCrrOJIHHJIOCh 18 JIeT, OH 3amHJI caxoCTOHTeJIhHO. Ha 31'0 YKa3bIBaeT TO, 'liTO, OrrHCbIBaH «yernrHeHHbIM Ka6HHeT» (I, XXIII, 2) repoa, aarop YKa3bIaaer HMeHHO TOT B03paCT OHerHHa, KOrAa OH rrOKHHY JI pO.n;IITeJIhCKI1H KPOB, rne B ero pacrropaxcemm MormI 6bITh JIHUIh AeTcKaH H yqe6HaH KOMHaTbI, H 3aBeJI ce6e MOAHbiM

... I{a6uHeT

~PI1JIoco¢a B OCbMHaAQaTb JIeT (L, XXIII, 13-14).

C 1817 (unu 1818) c. no eecuy 1820 c. - npetiueauue JIeHcl<02o e Femmuueene.

JIeHcKHM oTrrpaBHJICH B YHHBepOITeT, nepoarno, 15 rrer.

Cp. B «PYCCKOM ITeJIaMe» CJIOBa repoa 0 TOM, 'liTO ero peUIHJIH OTOCJIaTh «B OAHH 113 HeMeU:KHX YHIIBepCHTeTOB ... MHe rorna 6bIJIO 15 JIeT» (VIII, I, 417). B03BpaTHJICH JIeHcKHM «B CBOlO AepeBHIO B TY me rropy» (II, V I, 1), srro H OHerHH, T. e. BeCHOM 1820 r. TaKHM o6pa30M, ero nperisrsaaae B Fepwaaan COBrraJIO C asrcrynJIeHUeM A. C. CTYPA3bI rrpOTUB BOJIhHOAYMCTBa B HeMeu:KHX YHHBepcHTeTax (CTYPA3a HarrHCaJI B 1818 r. rro nopyqeHHIO AJIeKCaHApa I AJIH qJIeHOB Aaxencxoro rcoarpecca 6pOUIlOPY - AOHOC na HeMeU:KHe YHIIBepCHTeTbI, qeM BbI3BaJI artarpaxay II «Xenon BeHqaHHOrO COJIAan ... ») H C TeppOpHCTHqeCKHM aKTOM CTYAeHTa Kaprta 3aH,lJ;a, 3aKOJIOBUIerO 23 MapTa 1819 r. areara PYCCKoro rrpaarrre.nsCTBa Kouefiy (CM. CTHXOTBopeHHe II «Knroxarr»).

3UAta 1819 - eecua 1820 ee. - epeun oeucmeun nepeoii ULQ6bl.

Ha'lJaJIhHaH nara orrpenenaerca YKa3aHHeM II B npenncnoBHU K OT.n;eJIhHOMY H3AaHUIO rJIaBbI (VI, 638), KOHe'lJHaH - YKa3aHueM aa TO, 'lJTO ncrpeva repoa H aaropa rrpOH30UIJIa B Flerepcypre B 1820 r., B nepnon «fiensrx ao-rerr»,

KorAa 'rrp03pa4HO II CBeTJIO

H04Hoe He60 HaA HeBOIO (I, XLVII, 2-3).

B crporpax L H LI cOAepmHTCH HaMeK aa TO, 'lJTO OTbe3A repoa B nepeamo 6bIJI rro BpeMeHH 6JIH30K K

20

HaCI1JIbCTBeHHOMY ynaneamo Il 113 Flerepfiypra. Il BbleXaJ1 B CCbIJIKY 6 MaH 1820 r.

Jlemo 18202. - 8peMH oeucmeun emopou U mpemseu enae. B rrepsoa crpodie BTOPOH rJIaBbI ynoaarryrsr ({HI1Bhl 30JIOThle» KaK rrerarrs neiisaxca nepnsrx ,n:HeH npetisraaans OHerI-IRa B nepeaae. 03HMble xrrefia meJITeIOr B ceaepoaanamrsrx ryoepnaax POCCI1H B KOHu:e I1IOHH - navarre I1IOJ1§I. B crporpe XVI rpersea rJIaBbI ynoximaerca rrenne COJIOBbH, B KOHu:e rJIaBbI BO BpeMH 06"hHCHeHI1H Oaernaa C TaTbHHoH zraopoasre neaynnca cofinpasor arom.r,

Jlemo - oceus 18202. - epeso: oeucmeun uemeepmou 2.fla6bl. Friaaa HaqI-maeTCH TOH }l{e cneaoii B carry. B crporpe XL rOBopHTCH 0 navarre OCeHI1 (<<y}l{ He60 ocensto rrsrurarro»), a B crporpe XLII - 0 HaC1}IIJ1emm MOP030B (<<H BOT yace rpeuiar MOp03bI»). 3ro, KOHe'tIHO, paaane MOP03bI. «Tlepasre MOP03bI Ha3bIBaJIl1Cb MUXaUJl06CKUe, rrOTOM 6bIJIH Beeoeucxue» (Aaneesa K. A. Barracior 0 CTaPOM Ii HOBOM PYCCKOM 6bITe. CI16., 1842, c. 124), rro ,n:HHM apxacrparnra MI1XaHJ1a (8 HOH6pH CT. CT.) Ii BBe,n:eHHH BO xpaa I1pecBHToH Boroponmrst (21 HOH6pH CT. CT.) 1.

H Ott b CO 2 ua 3 HH8apH - 12 FlH6apH 1821 - 6peMH, ['leUC7n6U.R. nnmoic enaeu.

HaqaJIbI-IaH ztara YKa3aHa aBTopOM B nepaoa crporpe r JIaBbI (<<Ha rperse B no-rs»), KOHeqHaH orrperrenena IiMeHl1HaMl1 TaTbHHbI - p;HeM BeJIIiK01\lYQeHHU:bI Tarsaasr.

25 oeKa6p.R. 1820 - 5 .R.H6ap.R. 1821 - cenmouuue npasoHUKU U 2aOaHU.R. 6 OOMe Jlapuuux.

Tanaaaa, onncaansre B WITOH r.naae, rrpOl1CXOJJ;HT Mem,D;y HO'tIaMH na 4 HHBapH (yrroMHHYT caer - «LIy ... caer xpyCTnT» - V, IX, 9, a caer asmari JInWb «na .rperse B HO'tIb» - V, J,5) Ii aa 6 HHBapH 1821 r., T. e. B T. H. «crpaurmsre aenepa» (Me}l{P;Y BaCIiJ1beBbIM p;HeM Ii Kpemeaaex).

Hous C 5 ua 6 .R.H8ap.R. - COH Tamssuu.

COH He Mor 6bITb paaee 4 HHBapH (CM. asnne) 11 rroaxce 6: OH CBH3aH C rap;aHHHMl1 CBHTO'tIHOrO U:MI<J1a (CM. c. 262 - 269), xcropsre npexpantamrcs B p;eHb Kpeurenna.

1 CJleP;YH npmiHTOll Tpap;I1UHH, ace narsr BO «BHYTpeHHeii XpOHO-

.normt «EBreHHH Osernaa» p;aIOTCR no CTapOMY CTI!JlIO,

21

12 nueap» - oeu» UMeHUJ-l T amsnuu.

13 nueapn - eecua 1821 1. - epeun oeucmeus tuecmoii enaeu.

14 sueap» - Oy::>.1b U euoen» JIeHcKo2o.

Becua 1821 -r/Jeepa.J1b 1822 e, - epeu» oeucmeun ceosuoi; enaeu.

HaqaJIbHaJI ,J:\aTa Ol1pe,J:\eJIJIeTCJI nepasrwa CTHxaMM r.TIaBbI:

F OHIlMbI BeIIlHIlMIl JIY'Ia.'IIll,

C OHpeCTHblX rop yace caera

C6eJt{aJUI MyTHbIMll py'-lhl'IMll Ha ncrorr.remrsre rryra

TaJIHbe CHerOB B cpenaeii II ceaepnoii nOJIOCe POCCHM npOHCXO,J:\MT Mem,J:\Y HaqaJIOM MapTa (1 ."vlapTa - ,J:\eHb npaBe,J:\HM~bI EB,J:\Ol<MM, B HapO,J:\HOM xaneanape - «AB,uOTbHnJIIOIT(Mxa»; 9 MapTa, aa «COpOK MyqeHlIKOB», npaanaoBaJIM HaqaJIO BeCHbI) M cepe,J:\MHOH arrpena, xorna paCTaHBumH caer BbI3bIBaeT pa3JIMBbI pex (16 anperra - neas Ara<pMM, XMOHMM, liPMHbI, B HapO,[lHOM I<aJIeH,J:\ape - «APUH3 - ypan 6epera»). KOHet.:fHaJI nara MO}KeT 6bITb asraeneaa M3 roro, qTO B crporpe XLI l<HH)f{Ha Arnraa c006IT(aeT I<aK o He,J:\aBHeM C06bITHM, qTO «rpaH,J:\HcOH» ee «B COqenbHMI< aasecran», Coverrsaax (6bIBaJI «pO)f{,J:\ecTBeHCI<MH» M «xpeIT(eHcKMtb») - KaHYH 3HMHMX npa3,J:\HMKOB PO)f{,J:\ecTBa Mc'IM KpeIT(eHHH, T. e. pens Mp:eT 0 rrpennpaanaaxaoa BH3MTe KOH~a 1821 HmI aasana 1822 r. Me)f{P:Y TeM J1apHHbI npH6bIJIH B MocKBY erne rro 3MMHeMY, npanna, rro3,J:\HeMY (<<I1pOXO,J:\HT II rroCJ:[e,J:\HHH CPOI<» - VIl, XXXI, 2) rryrn, T. e. B <peBpa.TIe 1822 r.

CPeepa.1b - uapm 1821 e. - omseso Oueeuna e Tlemeptiype. Y CTaHaBmmaeTCH na OCHOBaHMH roro, qTO BO BpeMH nepeeana «,J:\epeBeHCI<HX DpHaMOB» II «qVBCTBHTeJIbHbIX p:aM» (V I I, IV, 5 - 6) B nepesmo Onertma TaM «y»c Hen) II «rpYCTHbIH OH OCTaBHn CJIeLJ;» (VI J, TJ', 13 - 14) .

Jlemo 1821 e. -3a.tty:>tcecmeo O.'lb2U U ee 011Z"be30 [V'I}, VIlI-XJI).

Jlemo 1821 c. - nocetueuue Tamsnuoii oepeeeucxoeo «aiiuuema OHecUHa U umeuue KHUC 6 eeo 6u6.1uomeKe.

3 W{HR 1821 c. - omseso Oueeuna U3 Ilemepbypea (nauano nymeiuecmeun ) :

I11O.'1l'I 3 '1HC.'Ia

KOJIl'ICHa BeHCKal'I B nopory

Ero no nO'ITe - nOHeC.'1a (VI, 476).

22

Koueu nueap» - ¢e6pa/lfi 1822 z, - noesosa Tamssuu C uamepuo 6 MOCKSY. ,

1822 e. (eeponmuo, ocens ) - 3aMY:>ICeCmeo Tamsnuu, Y CTaHaBJIIiBaeTCH aa OCHOBamu-r CJIOB KHH3H N, KOTOPbrH B 1824 r. rosopar Oaernay, qTO xceaar «OKOJIO )l;BYX JIeT» (VIII, XVIII, 2).

Aezycm - cenmniip» 1823 e. - npetiueauue OHe<?UHa S Kpuuy :

TPH rona no cc.re ) BCJ1e;:( aa MH(o!O> Cf(1IT3HCb B TOl! l-Ke CTopOHe

Onermr BCnOM(HHJ1 060 ~lHe) (VI, 489),

n 6bIJI B KpbIMY C 15 aBrYCTa rro cepezmay cenTH6pH 1820 r.

OCeHb 1823 2. - ecmpeua OHe2Wia u aemopa 6 Ooecce. Aezycm 1824 e - ccuntca n 6 Muxaunoectcoe U 603Spa-

tueuue OHe<?UHa 6 Tlemepbype. '

(Heno.JIro BMeCTe Mbl 6PO,[lHJ1H) (TIo 6eperaM 3BKCHHCKHX BO,[l) CY));b6bl Hac CHOBa pa3JIy'lHJ1H H HaM Ha3Ha'<HJ1H nOXO)); Oaerna osreas OXJ1al-K,[leHHbIH

H TeM qTO BH,[leJ1 aacsnnennsm TIYCTIUleH f{ HeBeKI1M 6eperaM

A R: OT MHJIbIX fOmH(bIX) ));aM OT (l-KHpHbIX > ycrpau

qepHOMOpeKMx

OT orrepsr OT TeMHblX J10l-K

H CJ1aBa 60ry OT BeJIbMO}f{

Yexan B reas JIeeoB'T (pl1rOpcKHx) B naJ1eKI1M ceaepa (bIll> yean

11 6blJ1 nexanea MOl! npaeaa

(VI, 505)

n asrexan H3 O)l;eCCbI 31 IUOJIH 1824 r.

Oceus 1824 - eecua 1825 2<. - epeu» oeUC1neUR SOCbMoU enaeu.

Mapm 1825 2. - «oueu pouaua.

XXXIX crporpa BOCbMOH rJIaBhI pacyer MapTOBCI<HH rreH3a)f{ Ilerepfiypra (CM. c. 368).

Hpofinesaa npOTOTHnOB' Orrpenenemre rrpOTOTHrrOB rex HJIH llHbIX nepcoaaaceii EO 3aHllMaJIO KaK quTaTeJIeH-COBpe1l-1eHHHKOB, TaK H llCCJIe,IJ.OBaTeJIeH. B MeMyapHoH H nayxHOH rnrreparype HaKOrrllJICH',IJ.OBOJIbHO 06IllHPHbIH MaTepHaJI, rrOCBHliIeHHbIH nonsrrxaa CBH3aTb repoea rrYWKHHCKoro poaaaa C TeMll llJIH llHbIMll pearrsrro CYliIeCTBOBaBWHMH JIHuaMll. KpllTHqeCKllH rrpOCMOTp 3THX MaTepHaJIOB 3aCTaB-

23

JUleT xpaane CKerrTHqeCKH OTHeCTHCb H K crenenn HX ,nOCTOBepHOCTH, H K CaMOH rrJIO,nOTBOPHOCTI1 rrO,n06HbIX rrOHCKOB.

O,nHO ,neJIO, xorna xy,nO)f(eCTBeHHbIH 06pa3 coziepxorr HaMeK na HeKOTOpOe peansaoe JIHU;O H aBTOp paCCqHTbIaaer na TO, qTO HaMeK 3TOT 6y,neT rrOHHT qHTaTeJIeM. B 3TOM crryxae TaKaH OTCbIJIKa COCTaBJIHeT rrpenxer H3yqeHHH HCTOPHH rrareparypsr. Ilpyrce AeJIO, KOrAa pens nner 0 6ecC03HaTeJIbHOM HMrryJIbCe HJIH CKPbITOM TBOpqeCKOM rrpouecce, He aApeCOBaHHOM qIITaTemo. 3,neCb MhI acryrraex B 06JIaCTb rrCHXOJIonUI TBOpqeCTBa. Ilpnpona 3THX HBJIeHrrn: pa3JIHqHa, OAHaKO o6a OHH CBH3aHbI CO crreU;HcP1IKOH TBOpqeCKOrO MbIlIIJIeHHH roro HJIH naoro rrHCaTeJIH. I103TOMY, rrpexcne qeM HCKaTb npororansr, crrerryer BbIHCHHTb, so-nepasrx, BXOAHJIO JIH B xYAO)f(eCTBeHHbIH nJIaH rrHCaTeJIH CBH3bIBaTb csoero repoa B C03HaHHH qHTaTeJIbCKOH aYAHTopHH C KaKHMH-JIH60 peaJIbHhIMH JIHu;aMH, XOTeJI JIH OH, qTo6bI B ero repoe Y3HaBaJIH roro HJIH mror-o qCJIOBeKa. BO-BTOPbIX, Heo6xOAHMO YCTaHOBHTb, B I(aKOH Mepe ,[(JIH rtanaoro IIHCaTeJIH xapaxrepao HCXO,[(HTb B caoesi TBOpqeCTBe H3 KOHKpeTHbIX JIIIU;. TaKHM 06pa30M, aHaJIH3 rrpHHU;HrrOB rrOCTPoeHHH xynoacecraeaaoro TeKCTa ,[(OJI)f(eH AOMHHHpOBaTb Ha,[( rrp06JIeMOH rrpOTOTMrrOB.

3TO pelllHTeJIbHO rrpOTHBOpeqHT HaHBHOMY (a HHor,[(a H MeIIJ;aHCKOMY) rrpe,[(CTaB.TIeHHIO ° nncarerre KaK COrJIH,[(arae, KOTOPbIH «rrpone-rarsraaer» CBOHX 3HaKOMbIX. K CO)f(aJIeHHIO, HMeHHO TaKOH B3rJIHA aa TBOpqeC!<HH nponecc crpaxcaerca B orpOMHOM KOJIHqeCTBe MeMyapHbIx CBH,[(eTeJIbCTB. I1pIIBeAeM THrrHqHbIH rrpnaep - OTPbIBOK H3 BOCrrOl\UIHaHHH M. 11. OCHrrOBOH: «KaK BbI ,[(YMaeTe, qeM MbI nepeznco ero yrOIIJ;aJIII? MOqeHbIMH H6JIOKaMH, ,[(a OHH Be,[(b H nenana B «OHerHHa»; )f(HJIa Y Hac B TO BpeMH KJIlOqHHu;eH Axyrraaa I1aMcPHJIOBHa - BOpqYHbH Y)f(aCHaH. EbIBaJIo, 6eceAyeM MbI see ,AO rr03,AHeH HOqH - I1YlllKHHY 11 3aXOqeTCH H6JIOK; BOT H rrOH,[(eM MbI npocnrs AKYJIHHY I1aMcPHJIOBHY: «rrpI1HeCI1, ,[(a npnaeca MOqeHbIX H6JIOK»,a Ta II pa3BOpqHTCH. BOT I1YUIKHH pas 11 rOBopIIT eH WyTH: «AKY JII1Ha I1aMcPI1JIOBHa, rrOJIHOTe, He Cep,AI1TeCb! aaarpa »ce sac rrpOH3Be,AY B nonansn», 11 TO~O, non HMeHeM ee - qyTb JIH He B «KarrHTaHCKOH ,[(OqKe» - U BbIBeJI nonazn.ro ; a B MOIO qeCTb, eCJIH XOTHTe 3HaTb, Ha3BaHa cawa repOIIHH 3TOH rrOBeCTI1... EbIJI Y Hac 6ycpeTqUK I1uMeH I1JIbHq - H TOT nonarr B noaecrs» (I1YWI<HH

24

B-BocnOMIIHaHIIHX COBpeMeHHIIl<OB, T. 1, c. 424). A. H. BYJIbCP 3anIICaJI B ~HeBHHl<e B 1833 r.: « ... H naxce 6bIJI ~eikTBYIOI.UIIM JIH~OM B onHcaHHHX nepeaeacxca mII3HII OHerHHa, H60 OHa BCH B3HTa H3 npe6bIBaHHH I1YlIll<HHa y Hac, «B ryfiepana I1Cl<OBCl<OH:»: Tax H, nepnrcxaa cryrrear, HBHJICR B BII~e reTTHHreHCl<OrO non Ha3BaHHeM Jleacxoro ; JIlO6e3Hble MOH ceCTPH~bI CYTb ofipaausr ero nepeaencxax 6apbIlIleHb, H 'IYTb He TaTbHHa JIH omra H3 HIIX» (TaM »ce, c. 421). lib BocnOMIIHaHHH: E. E. CIIHII~HHOH: «"Y:pe3 HeCl<OJIbKO JIeT BCTpeTHJIa H B Topxcxe y Jlsaoaa .A. H. Kepn, yxce IIOmHJIOIO meHlI(HHOIO. Torna MHe H Cl<a3am'I, 'ITO 3TO repOHHH ITYIIll<lIHa - TaTbHHa .

. .. Ii Bcex BbIllie 11 HOC, H nJ1e'IH nO,!J;bIMaJ1 BOllIe,!J;llIHH C Hero rerrepan

3TH CTHXH, rOBOpHJIH MHe npa 3TOM, aarmcaasr npo ee Myma, Kepn, l<OTOPbIH 6bIJI IIOmHJIOH:, xorna meHIIJICH na HeH» (TaM me, T. 2, c. 83).

BbICl<a3bIBaHHH 3TH CTOJIb me rrerxo YMHomIITb, xax H IIOKa3aTb HX Heo6oCHOBaHHOCTb, npeYBeJIHqeHHOCTb IIJIII XpOHOJIOrII'IeCKYIO HeB03MomHOCTb. O~Hal<O CYI.UHOCTb sonpoca He B onpoeepxceana TOH IIJIH IIHOH: II3 MHOrO'IHCJIeHHbIX BepCIIH, nOTOM MHOrOl<paTHO YMHomaBlIllIXCH B Ol<OJIOHayqI-iOH: rnrreparype, a B CaMOH: nOTpe6HOCTH nars ofipasaa EO nrrocrco-Saorpadiavecxoe IICTOJIl<OBaI-IHe; 06bHCHHB HX xax npocrsre noprpersr peansasrx 3Hal<OMbIX aaropa. ITPH 3TOM BOIIPOC 0 raop-recxori nCHXOJIOrHH Il, o xynoxcecrnemrsrx 3al<OHaX ero rexcra H nYTHX CPOPMHpOBaHHH o6pa30B nOJIHOCTbIO arnopapyerca. Taxoe aexaaJIHCPH~HpoBaHHoe, HO BeCbMa YCTOH:'IIIBOe npe~CTaBJIeHHe, IIIITaWlI(ee MelI(aHCKHH arrrepec x p;eTaJIHM 6HorpacP1IH II 3aCTaBJIHIOI.Uee BII~eTb B TBOp'IeCTBe JIlIII1b nens He JIHIIleHHbIX IIHl<aHTHOCTII HHTHMHbIX IIop;po6HOCTeH:, 3aCTaBJI5IeT BCIIOMHIITb CJIOBa caxoro Tl, nacaanrero BH3eMCKOMY B CBH3H C YTpaTOH 3anIICOK BaH:pOHa: «MbI 3HaeM BaH:pOHa P;OBOJIbHO. BIIp;eJIli ero na TpOHe CJIaBbI, BHp;emI B MY'Ie~ HHHX BeJIHl<OH P;YUIH, BII~eJIH B rpo6e nocpena socxpeCaIOlI(eH: Tpeiraa. - OXOTa Te6e BH~eTb ero aa cyrme. TOJITIa map;HO 'IliTaeT IIcnOBe,n;H, 3aIIIICl<H etc., nOTOMY 'ITO B IIOP;JIOCTH CBOeH: panyercs YHHmeHHIO BbICOl<OrO, CJIa60CTRM Morymero. ITPII OTl<PbITIIH BCHl<OH: Mep30CTII, OHa B BOCXHmeHHH. OT-/, uan, «ax uu, OT-/, Mep30}{, tease Mbl!

25

Bpere, nonrreusr: OH H MaJI H Mep30K - He TaK, KaK BbI - aaasre» (XIII, 243 - 244).

00 3TOM MomHO ObIJIO ObI He roaoptrrs, eCJIH ObI pearrsasra H HMeIOIliHll HayqHO-6Horpaq:Hl:qeCKHll mrrepec sonpoc 0 nporornnax nYlllKHHCKHX 06pa30B crmuncoa QaCTO He nOp;MeHHJICH P;Ol'llbICJIaMH 0 TOM, xoro H3 CBOHX 3HaKOMQeB IT ({BKJIeHJI» B pOMaH 1.

OT3BYKH H3JIHlllHerO «0I10rpacPH3Ma» B nOHHMamm TBOpqeCKHX nponeccos qYBCTBYIOTCH naace BO BnOJIHe cepsesnsrx H I1HTepeCHbIX I1CCJIep;OBaHI1HX, TaKI1X, KaK PHP; pa3bICKaHHH B crreQI1aJIbHOM rrYlllKI1HCHOM nowepe arrsvianaxa «Tlpoaerea» (T. 10, M., 1974). TIpOOJIeMa nporonmOB rrYlllKI1HCKOrO poxana aepernco paccaarpnsaerca C neonpaenaaasrx BHHMaHHeM B rrOJIe3HbIX nonyrrapasrx H3p;aHHHX.

B CBH3I1 C 3THM MomHO OCTaBHTb 6e3 BHHMaHHH paccymp;eHI1H apone : «BbIJI JIH Y TaTbHHhI Jlapaaoit peansnsni nporornn? Ha npOTHmeHHH MHorHX JIeT yneasre-nyunorHHCTbI He rrpmnrra K ep;UHOMY penrenmo. B ofipaae TaTbHHbI aanrrm BOrrJIOIlieHHe -reprsr He OP;HOll, a MHorHX COBpeMeHHHQ ITYlllKHHa. Moxcer ObITb, MbI o6H3aHbI poxoreuaea aroro ofipasa U qepHOOKOM: xpacasnne MapHH BOJIKOHCKOM:, H 3aP;YMQUBOM: Esrrpaxcaa ByJIbcP ...

Ho B OP;HOM CXOP;HTCH MHorHe HCCJIep;OBaTeJIH: B ofirmxe TaTbHHhI-KHHrI1HH ecrs xeprsr rparpnna, KOTOpyIO acrroMHHaeT ITYlllKI1H B «,UoMHKe B KOJIOMHe». IOHbIM: Ilynrxaa, mHBH B KOJIOMHe, BCTpeqaJI MOOIOP;YIO xpacasmry rpaCfJHHIO B QepKBH na TIOKPOBCKOM: nnomamr» ... (PaKoB IO. ITo CJIep;aM JIHTepaTypHbIX repoen. M., 1974, c. 32). XOTeJIOCb 6bI JIHlllb OTMeTHTb, qTO na OCHOBaHHH rroJJ:06HbIX U;UTaT Y HeOCBeJJ:OMJIeHHOrO qHTaTeJIH MomeT C03JJ:aTbCH coaepureaao rrpeaparnoe anevarrreaue OTHOCHTeJIbHO 3a6oT H 3aHHTHM: «yqeHbIX - rrYllll-(I1HHCTOB».

fOBOPH 0 npofirrexe npororanos repoea nynncaacxoro poxaaa, npeaore acero crrezryer OTMeTHTb CyrQeCTBeHHoe pa3JIHQHe C 3TOM: TOQKH 3peHI1H B npamranax rrocrpoenaa u;eHTpaJIbHhIX H rreparpepaaasrx nepcoaaacea. UeHTpaJIbnsre ofipasar poxana, HeCYIliHe OCHOBHYIO xYJJ:omecTBeHHYIO HarpY3KY, - C03JJ:aHHe TBOpQeCKOM: cpaHTa3HH aaropa, Ko-

1 CBoeo6pa3HbIM rrpene.rox raxoro rronxona HBHnCH pOMaH E. HaaHOBa «,UaJIb CBo6o,[lHOrO posiaaa» (M., 1959), B KOTOPOM IT rrpencraarrea B 06mrKe aecxpoxnoro raaeraoro perroprepa, BbIHOCHmero aa o603peHHe rry6nuKu HHTHMHei1:ume CTOPOHbI }!{H3HII pearrsasrx JIlO"eii

26

He'tIHO, sooopaaceane n03Ta onnpaerca na peaJIbHOCTh BneT.IaTneHlIH. O,D,HaI<O npn 3TOM OHO JIenHT HOBbIM: MHP, nepenJIaB.TIHH, C,D,BHraH H nepexpanaaa )KH3HeHHhle aneuarnenna, CTaBH B CBOeM aooopaxceaaa monea B cHTyaQHH, B I<OTOPhIX peansnaa m113Hb OTI<a3aJIa HM, H CBo6o~HO I<OM6HHHPY.R T.IepThI, pasopocaaasre B .n;eM:CTBHTenbHOCTH no pa3nHT.IHbIM, BeCbMa OT.n;aneHHbIM nopon xapaxrepax, n03T MomeT yaaners B aecsxa pa3JIHT.IHbIX JIlO,D,.RX (naace JIlO.n;.RX pasaoro nOJIa) 1 ornroro T.IeJIOBeI<a HJIH B O.n;HOM T.IenOBeI<e HeCKOJIbI<HX pa3JIHT.IHbIX JIlO,D,eM:. Oc06eHHo 3TO cYIQeCTBeHHO ,D,.TIR THnH3aIUiH B EO, rrte aBTOp C03HaTeJIbHO CTpOHT xapaxrepsr QeHTpaJIbHbIX nepconaacea I<a1< cnozcnsre H nanenennsre npOTHBOpe'-IHBbIMH T.IepTaMH. B 3TOM crrysae rOBOpHTh 0 npOTOTHnaX MomHO JIHIllb C 60JIblllOH OCTopOmHOCThIO, nOCTORHHO HMe.R B BH,D;y npH6JIH3HTeJIbHOCTh TaI<HX YTBepm,D,eHHH. Ta1<, caa II, BCTpeTHB B Ozrecce .n;o6poro, CBeTC1<OrO, HO nycroro Manoro, csoero nansaero po.n;CTBeHHH1<a M. ,U. BYTYPJIHHa, I<OTOpOro pozraTeJIH ofieper-ana OT «onacaoro» 3HaI<OMCTBa C OnaJIbHbIM n03TOM, rOBapHBaJI eMY: «MoM: Oaeran (OH TOJIbI<O T.Iro naxan ero rorna rracars), 3TO ThI, cousin» (BYTYPmm, c. 15). TeM He MeHee CJIOBa 3TH HHT.IerO HJIH MaJIO T.ITO 03HaT.IaIOT, a B otipase OHerHHa MomHO HaRTH ,D,eCHTI<H c6JIHmeHHR C pa3.TIHT.IHbIMH cOBpeMeHHH1<aMH n03Ta - OT nyCThIX CBeTCI<HX 3Ha1<OMueB rto TaI<HX 3HaT.IlIMbIX ,D,nH JI JIHI:(, 1<aH 'tlaa.n;aeB lIJIH Anexcanrrp PaeBCI<HH. To )f{e cneziyer CHasars H 0 TaTh.RHe.

06pa3 Jleacxoro pacnorroxcea HeCI<OJIb1<O 6JIJI)I<e H nepa¢eplIH poxana, H B 3TOM CMbICJIe MomeT nOI<a3aTbC.R, T.ITO nOI1CI<H onpenerrennsrx npOTOTHnOB 3,D,eCb 60JIee 060CHOsansr. O.n;Ha1<O 3Heprwmoe C6JIHmeHHe JIeHC1<OrO C KlOXeJIb- 6eI<epOM, rrpoaaaeneaaoe 10. H. TbIH.RHOBbIM (I1YlllI{HH

1 B 3TOM CMbICJIe 6oJThII!e, 'IeM ~OMhICJIbI 0 TOM, HaHYIO H3 3Hal<0- MbIX eMY 6apbIlIIeHh (<H306pa3HJI)) Tl B TaThRHe, MOryT ~aTb napanoxcansnsre, HO rJIy60HHe CJ10Ba Kroxensfiexepa: «I103T B CBoeR 8-R rrraae noxoxc caa na TaTbHHY_ nJIH .TU!lIeHCKOro ero roaapmna, ~JJH qeJIOBeHa, HOTOPbIH CHUM asrpoc H 3HaeT ero HaH3YCTh, HaK R, aesne 3aMeTHO qYBCTBO, KOUhi I1YIIIKHH nepenorraea, XOTR OH, nonoeao csoea TaThRHe, H He XOqeT, qT06 06 3TOM qYBCTBe 3HaJI CBeT» (Ktoxens- 6eKep, c. 99-100). TIpoo6pa30M TaTbHHbI BOChMOR rJIaBhI TOHI<I1R, XOTH H CI<J10HHbIH K napanoxcax, 6JJH3KO 3HaIOll\I1H aaropa Kroxerrsfiexep C'IHTaJ1... caxoro I1YIIIKHHa! Ha llpOHHl.\aTeJIbHOCTb aroro BbICKa3bIBaHID! Yl<a3aJI H. 11. MOpP;OBqeHHO (CM.: MOpiJ06tle1iKO H. H. «EBreHI1H OHerHH}) - 3HlIHKJ10ne~HR pyccxoii il<H3HH. TIpecc-6ropo T ACC, 1949, NQ 59).

27

II ero COBpeMeHHM:KM:, c. 233 - 294), rry-nue ncero y6e)f{,lJ;aeT B TOM, l.JTO nOnbITKM: nars n03Ty-pOMaHTIIKY B EO aexoropsni e,lJ;lIHbIH II 0,lJ;H03Hal.JHbIH npOTOTIIn K yfiertuTeJIbHbIM pe3YJIbTaTaM He rrpHBO,lJ;HT.

Haa-re CTPOHTCH B poxaae (oc06eHHO B na-rarre ero) rnrreparypnsni cj;>OH: CTpeMHCb OKPY)f{HTb CBOUX repoea HeKHM pearrsnsrx, a He YCJIOBHO-JIHTepaTypHhIM npocrpaHCTBOM, Tl BBO,lJ;M:T HX B MHP, HanOJIHeHHhIll JIHI.(aMH, nepCOHaJIbHO H3BeCTHhIMH H eMY, M: QHTaTeJIHM. 3TO 6bIJI TOT )f{e nyrs, no KOTOPOMY urerr I'pneoenoa, OKpY)l{HBIllHll CBOHX repoen TOJInoM nepcoaaxceri C np03pal.JHbIMH npoTOTM:rraMH.

TIpHpO,lJ;a xynoxcecraeam.rx nepeacaaanaa l.JHTaTeJIH, cneztautero aa cY,[(b6oH BhIMhIIllJIeHHOrO repos HJIH y3HaIOutero B rrepcoaaace CJIerKa sarpaxapoaaanoro caoero 3HaKOMn:a, BeCbMa pa3JIM:l.JHa. ABToPY EO, KaK H aaropy ({fOPH OT YMa», 6bIJIO Ba)l{HbIM cmerrrerme :3THX ,lJ;BYX THnOB l.JHTaTeJIbCKOrO BOCnpM:HTHH. HMeHHO OHO COCTaBJIHJIO TY ,lJ;Bye,lJ;HHYIO CPOPMYJIY UJIJII03UM: ,lJ;ellCTBlfTeJIbHOCTH, KOTopaH 06YCJIOBJIImaJIa O,[(HOBpeMeHHO H C03HaHHe roro, l.JTO repoa - rrJIO,[(hI TBOpl.JeCKOll cj;>aHTa3M:H aaropa, H sepy B ax peaJIbHOCTb. TaKaH n03TM:Ka n03BOJIHJIa B O,[(HUX MeCTax poxaaa norrsepxasars, l.JTO cY,[(b6a repoea, HX 6Y,lJ;ymee n:eJIUKOM 3aBUCHT OT npOU3BOJIa anropa ({H ,[(YMaJI Y)f{ o rpopae nnana» I, LX, 1), a B npyrnx - npe,lJ;CTaBJIHTb HX KaK CBOUX 3HaKOMbIX, l.JbH cY,[(b6a eMY If3BeCTHa M:3 6ece,[( BO BpeMH JIHl.JHbIX BCTpel.J If l.JbM: nHCbMa CJIYl.JallHO nOnaJIH eMY B PYKM: (<<nHcbMo TaTbHHhI npeno MHOIO» - III, XXXI, 1). Ho ,lJ;JIH roro l.JT06hI TaKaH nrpa Me)l{,lJ;Y YCJIOBHOCTbIO M: peaJIbHOCTbIO cnerranacs B03MO)f{HOll, aaropy 6hIJIO He06xo,lJ;M:MO l.JeTKO pasrpana-nrrs npnexsr THnH3an:UH repoea, HBJIHIOmM:XCH C03,lJ;aHHeM TBOpt.IeCKOrO noofipaxceHM:H anropa, H repoes - YCJIOBHhIX MaCOK pearrsm.rx JIun:. Peansm.m t.IeJIOBeK KaK HCXO,lJ;HbIll HMny JIbC aBTopcKOH MhICJIH Mor cyurecrnoaars B 060HX crryvaax. Ho B O,lJ;HOM - l.JHTaTeJIIO ,[(0 Hero HeT arrxaxoro nerra, a B npyrow > t.IHTaTenb ,[(OJI)f{eH 6hIJI ero Y3HaBaTb H nOCTOHHHO HMeTb nepen r naaaxn.

B CBeTe cxasannoro cnenyer nOHUMaTb H 3aKJlIOl.JI1TeJlbasre CTnXM: poaana:

A Ta, C KOTOpoi1 o6pa30BaH Tarsxnsr Ml1nbI}r I1.1"1ean ...

o JllHOrO, MEoro pOJ-( OTbflfl! (V I I I, LI, 6 - 8).

28

HY)f(HO J1H snecs rro.narars, 1.!TO aBTOp npOrOBOpI1J1C5I npOTI1B CBOerO meJ1aHI15I, H, YXBaTHBlIII1Cb sa ary YJII1l<:Y, Ha1.!I1HaTb CJ1e)J;CTBI1e no nerry 00 YTaeHHOR mOOBI1 HJIH me npezrrronarars, 1.!TO OOM0J113l<:a BXO,ll:HT B C03HaTeJ1bHbIH aBTOpCl<:HH pacsrer, 1.!TO aBTOp He OOMOJ1BIIJIC5I, a «KaH ObI OOMOJ1BIIJ1C5I», meJIa5I B030Y,ll:IITb B 1.!HTaTeJIe onpeztenennsre aCCOI.:(IIaI.l;I1I1? 5IBJ15IIOTCH J1H 3TH CTHXH <racrsro 6Horpa<PHH noara HJ1H, L£aCTbIO xynoxcecraeaaoro nenoro EO?

Oopsraas pOMaH HaH ObI na rrOJIYCJ10Be, Il nCHXOJIOrH1.!eCHH 3aBeplIlHJ1 ero oopanteaaea HO BpeMeHII HaL£aJIa paOOTbI HaJJ: rrepaoit r JIaBOR, BOCHpelIlaH arxocrpepy rex J1eT. Taxoe oopanreane nepeHJ1Hl<:aJ10Cb He TOJIbHO C TBOpL£eCTBOM Tl lOmHoro nepnona, HO II 6bIJ10 HOHTpaCTHO COOTHeceHO C Ha1.!aJ10M BOCbMOI1: rJ1aBbI, rrre pacxpsrsanacs rewa 3BOJIlOI.l;HII asropa Hero rr033HH. Pa3BHTHe STOM MbICJ1H - rrpHMoe npOTIIBOnOCTaBJ1eHIIe «BblcoKorrapHblx 1I1eL£TaHHR» pOMaHTHqeCHOrO nepaona H «nposaasecxax 6pe,ll:HeR» 3peJ10rO TBOpqeCTBa - 1.!I1TaTeJ1b HaXO,ll:IIJ1 B «I1YTelIleCTBIIII OHerIIHa», HOMII03III.l;IIOHHO pacno.noaceaHOM yxce rrOCJ1e HOHeqHbIX CTPO<p BocbMOM rJIaBbI II HaK 6bI BHOCHru;eM B HIIX I{OppeHTHBbI. LIHTaTeJIb ncrryvan xax 6bI ,ll:Ba BapIIaHTa nrora aBTopCKOR MbICJ1II: 3aI{JIlOL£eHIIe BOChMOR rJIaBbI (H poraaaa B I.:(eJIOM) YTBepmJJ:aJIO HerrpOX0JJ:Hru;yIO uennocrs )tG13HeHHoro orn.rra H TBOpqeCTBa pamrea M0J10JJ:OCTH - «I1YTernecTBHe» rOBOpIIJIO npcrnaon0J10mHOe :

Kam-ITl<Y, C.J10MaHHhIH: aafiop, Ha nefie cepeasxne ryqH:, Ilepen rYMHOlll C0.J10MhI l<yqJ1 ...

(VI, 200).

3TH n0J10meHH5I He OTMeHHJ1H OJJ:HO npyroe II He 6bIJIH B3aHMHbIM onpoaepxcenaex, a 6pOCaJ1II B3aHMHbIH ,ll:OnOJ1HIITeJ1bHbIH CMbICJ10BOH OTCBeT. TaHaH ,ll:HaJ10rHQeCKaH COOTHeceHHOCTb xacaercs H UHTepeCYIOI.IJ;erO Hac sonpoca: B l<:OHI.l;OBHe BOChMOH rJ1aBbI BOCCTaHaBJ1HBaJ1C5I CTOJ1b BamHbIH ,ll:J1H «roxcnoro» TBopL£eCTBa MH<P 06 YTaeHHoM mooBH - OJJ:HH 113 OCHOBHbIX COCTaBmilOII.l;HX 3J1eMeHTOB )f{U3HeHHOH n03bI pOMaHTIIQeCHOrO n03Ta (<<A ra, C HOTOPOH 06pa30- BaH ... » ).

LIUTaTeJ1lO He nazio 6bmo JJ:eJIaTb YCIIJ1HH, QTo6bI npnrrOMHUTb HaMeKU na «6e3bIMRHHYlO J1lO00Bb», pasopocaansre B rrYlIlKUHCHOM TBOpQeCTBe pOMaHTUL£eCKoro nepnozra.

29

Hm.re HY}!{HhI MHe xapraasr:

JIIo6mo rreCqaHhIH xocorop, TIepe.JJ, 1136YlllKOH .JJ,Be pa6nHhI,

Ilpaapax :nOM mo6BH, BOCKpeweHHbIH B KOHQe poxaaa co scea CHJIOH JIHpH3Ma, CTaJIKI1BaJICH B «Ilyremecrena» C HpOHWIeCKHMH CTpOKa1l'lH 0 «6e3bIMHHHbIX CTpa,n;aHHHX», OQeHeHHbIX KaK «Bsrcoxonapnsre Me'UaHhH». (VI, 200)

MbI He 3HaeM, HMeJI JIM B BH,[(Y II B nocnezmea crporpe poxaaa peaJIhHYlO,>HeHIUMHY MJUl 3TO noarn-recxaa ¢HKQHH: ,[(JIH nOHHMaHHH ofipasa TaThHHbI 3TO a6coJllOTHO 6e3pa3JIHqHO, a ,[(JIH OCMbICJIeHH.H 3TOI1 CTPOcPbI ,n;oCTaTOqHO 3HaTh, qTO aBTOp c-rerr Heo6xo,[(HMbIM HarrOMHHTh o pOMaHTHqeCKOM KYJIhTe YTaeHHOH mo6BH.

I1MeHHo rrOTOMY, qTO r.naansre repon EO He HMeJIM I1pHlVlbIX rrpoofipasoa B >HH3HH, OHM HCKJIlOqrITeJIhHO JIerKO c,n;eJIaJIMCh ,n;.rm COBpeMeHHMKOB rrCHXOJIOrHqeCKHMU :naJIOHaMU: conOCTaBJIeHl,Ie cefia HJIH CBOHX 6JIH3KHX C repOHMM poaaaa CTaHOBUJIOCh cpe,n;CTBOM 06bHCHeHUH caoero U HX xapaxrepoa. Ilpnxep B 3TOM OTHorrreHHH nonarr caM aBTOp:

B YCJIOBHOM H3bIKe pasroaopoa H nepemrcxe C A. H. PaeaCKHM II, BU,[(HMO, HMeHOBan «TaThHHOH» KaKYIO-TO 6JIH3l{YlO eMY meIiIUHHY (BbICKa3bIBaJIOCh npenncnoxceaae, qTO BOPOHQOBY; crrpaaenrraasre COMHeHUH B 3TOM ClH.: MaKOrOHeHKO 1. I1. TBOpqeCTBO A. C. Tlynncraa B 1830-e rorrsr (1830-1833). JI., 1974, c. 74). CJIenYH 3TOMY YCJIOBHOMY ynorpefineamo, A. PaeBCHIDl: mICaJI II: « ... Cei:tqac pacCHa>HY BaM 0 TaTbHHe. OHa rrpHHHJIa >HUBeH:rrree ysacrae B BaIlIeM HeCqaCTIfH; OHa rropy-mna MHe CHa3aTb BaM 06 3TOM, H mIIlIY BaM C ee COrJlacHH. Ee rrexcaaa rI ztofipaa zryrna BH,[(HT JIHIlIb HecnpaBe,[(JIHBOCTb, >HepTBOlO l{OTOpO}r BbI CTaJIH; OHa asrpasnna MHe 3TO co seen qYBCTBUTeJIhHOCThlO H rparnreii, CBOHCTBeHHbIMU xapaxrepy TaTbHHbI» (XIII, 106 U 530). OqeBH,[(Ho, qTO pe-n, H..IJ:eT He 0 rrporornne TaThHHbI Jlapmrori, a 0 nepeaecenna otipasa poxaaa B HUI3Hh. AHaJIOrMqHbIH npnaep - UMH TaHM, non HOTOpbIM qmrypHpyeT H. ,U. <POHBH3HHa B rmcsnax 11. II. I1yIUHHa H HeH U B ee coocraeaasrx I1I1Cbt'llax H HeMy. H. I1. t.IYJIHOB rrHCaJI: «TaHeH <POHBu3HHa ce6H Ha3bIBaeT noroay, qTO, rro ee lVlHeHI1l0, Tlyunora C nee aanncan CBOlO TaThHHY JIapHHY. ,UeHCTBHTeJIhHO, B ee >HH3HH 6bIJIO MHoro cxoncraa C repoaaen I1YIlIHHHa: B IOHOCTH Y nee 6bIJI pOMaH C MOJIOnbIM qeJIOBeHOM, HOTOPbrH OT nee OTHa3aJICH (npasrra, rro npyruM rrpHqUHaM, qeM OHerHH), 3aTeM OHa BbIlIlJIa 3aMY>H sa rroxcnrroro reaepana, CTpaCTHO B nee Bmo6JIeHaoro, rI acxope BCTpeTHJlaCh C npexomx nperraerox CBoeH JII06BU, HOTOPbIH B nee BJI106rIJICH, HO 6bIJI ere OTBeprHYTH

30

crocy,n:apCTBeHHbIH .nareparypasra MY3eiL 11eTOlmCn, KH. III. ,UeKa6pHCTbI. M., 1938, c. 364).

06HJIB:e «IIpHMeHeHHH» o6pa30B TaTb5:lHhI H Onernna K peansnsra JIIO,n:HM IIOKa3bIBaeT, qTO CJIO>KHble TOKH CBH3H WJIH He TOJIbKO OT peansasrx qeJIOBeqeCKHX cy,n:e6 K pOMaHY, HO II OT poaana K >KH3HII.

OCHOBHaJl JIDTepaTYpa DO «Euremuo OHerHHy» HaYQHhle H3,n:aHHH p o a a n a

Hymxnn. ITOJIHOe coopanne COqHHeHHH. T. VI. M.

I13,n:. AH CCCP, 1937. (EOJIbllIOe aKa,n:eMHqeCKOe nanaHue).

llYIIIKHH A. C. ITOJIHOe cofipaane COQHHeHMH B ):leCHTM TOMax. I13,n:. 4-e. T. 5. JI., 1978.

C II P aBO q H hI e H 3 .:J, a H H a

llyIIIKBH A. C. I1oJIHoe cofipanae COqHHeHHH B 6-TH T.

TIpHJIO>KeHHe K »cypaarry «Kpacaaa HHBa». T. VI. ITYTeBo,n:HTeJIb no I1YllIKHHY. M. - 11., 1931.

:QJlBJIOBCKHii: M. A. 11eToIIHcb >KH3HH H TBOpqeCTBa

A. C. I1ywKlIHa, T. I. M., 1951.

CJIOBapL H3bIKa TIywKMHa. B 4-x T. M., 1956-1961. liPO,IJ;CKHii: H. JI. «EBreHHH OHerHH». POMaH A. C. Tlyurxnna. IToco6ue ,[VHf yxarena. M., 1964.

Nabokov Vladimir. Eugene Onegin. A Novel in Verse by Aleksander Pushkin, V. 1-4. N. Y., 1964.

Me:U:JIax ,6. C. «EBreHHH OHerHH». - B KH.: ITyrnKHH.

Hrorn u IIpo6JIeMbI M3yqeHHH. M.-11., 1966.

J. Thomas Shaw. Pushkin's Rhymes. A Dictionary.

The University of Wisconsin Press, 1974.

qepe:u:cKHii: JI. A. I1ymKHH Hero OKpY>KeHHe. J1, 1975. JIoTMaH M. 10., Illaxnepnoa C. A. MeTPHKa M CTPo<pHKa A. C. Flyuncnra. - B KH.: Pyccxoe CTlIXOCJIO>KeHHe, XIX B. M., 1979.

Jl a r e p a r y p a 0 «EBreHHH Orr e r a n e » AxMaToBa A. A. «Anonsdi» BeH>KaMeHa KOHcTaHa B TBOpqeCTBe I1YllIKHHa. BpeMeHHHK, I. M. - 11., 1936. lieJIBHcKHii: B. r. COqHHeHHH Anexcaanpa I1yrnKHHa.

CTaTbH BOCbMaH H ,n:eBHTaH. - TIOJIH. co6p. COq., T. VII. M., 1955.

31

lirrarOH ,lJ;. ,lJ;. «EBremIM Oaernn». - B xa.: HyurKUH A. C. C06p. cox. B 10-TH T. T. IV. M., 1960. bJIarOH ,lJ;. ,lJ;. Macrepcrso Ilynncnaa. M., 1955. liOH)J;H C. M. rIpuMe'llaHUH H 06bHcHHTenbHble CTaThU B KH. : rIYllIKHH A. C. «EBreHHM OHenIH». M. - Jl., JJ:eTrH3, 1936; M., Ilerrns, 1957; M., JJ:eTrH3, 1964.

liOHAH C. ·M. 0 Ilyrnxane. CTaTbH II HccnenOBaHHH M., 1978.

Boxapoa C. <popMa nrtana. - «Borrpocsr rnrreparypsr»,

1967, N2 12.

Boxapon C. r. IT03THKa ITYllIKHHa. Osrepxa. M" 1974 Barrorpanoa B. B. CTUJIb rIYllII{HHa. M., 1941. BHHOI<YP r. O. CJlOBO H CTHX B «EBreHuH OHerHHe».-

B KH.: ITYllIKHH. C6. crarefi, M., 1941.

BHHOI<YP r. O. HaCJlenCTBO XVIII B. B CTUXOTBOPHOM H3bIKe rIYllIKUHa. - B KH.: BUHOKYP F. O. 1i36p. pa60TbI rro PYCCKOMY H3bIKY. M., 1959.

Teccen C. H. liCTO'llHHKH X rrraasr «EBreHuH OHernaa». - B KH.: JJ:el<a6pucTbI U HX BpeMH, T. II. M .. 1932.

Tpoccssan Jl, n. OHerUHCI{aH crporpa. - B KH.: lPOCCMaH Jl. CO'llImeHHH, T. I. «Cospexeaasre rrpofnewsr». M., 1928.

rYI<OBCI<HH r. A. ITYllIKUH U npofirrewsr pearrucrn=recrcoro CTHJlH. M., 1957.

- ,lJ;OJIHHHHa H. Ilpo-mraea «OHerUHa» BMeCTe. H3A. 2-e. Jl., 1971.

_JIoTMaH 10. M. POMaH B crrrxax Ilyunoma «Esr-emni OHerHH»; TapTY, 1975 .

..... ·MaKoroHeHKo r. n. «EBreHHM OHerHH» A. C. TlyurKHHa. - B KH.: Mezrseneaa H. H. «lope o:r YMa» A. C. lPH- 6oe,n:oBa, Maxoronenxo F. Tl. «Earemci OHerHH»

A. C. I1YllIKHHa. M., 1971.

nOCneJIOB r. «EBreHHM Orrerna» KaK peamICTH'lleCKHII pOMaH. - B KH.: rIYllIKHH. C6. CTaTeM. M., 1941. n03THqeCKaH cppa3eOJlOrHH HYllIKHHa. M., 1969. nYMnHHcKHH n. «EBreHHM OHerHH» (K rrOCTaHOBKe onepsr B Jlemnrrp. roc. axazr. MaJIoM orrepHOM rearpe). n., 1937.

CeMeHKo H. M. 0 POJII1 oopasa asropa B «Ear-erma Oaernae». «Tpyrrsr Jlenaarp. roc. 6H6JI. HH-Ta liM.

H. K. Kpyncxoii», T. 2, 1957.

CHp;HKOB Jl. C. «EBreHHM Onernn» H nesaaepureaHaH rrposa I1YllIKI-IHa 1828 - 1830-x rOnOB. (Xapaxrepsr

32

11 GITyaL\11H). - B c6.: ITp06JIeMbI rrYWI<HHOBegeHIUI. fl., 1975.

CHARKOB JI. C. K HCTOPHH pa60ThI Hag BTOPOH r JIaBOH «EBreH¥IH OHerHHa». BpeMeHHHK, 1975.

CJlOHHMCKHH A. «EBreHHH OHerHH». - B KH. : CJIOmIMCKIIH A. Macrepcrao ITywKIIHa. M., 1963.

CTaHQeK H. A. BOCbMHI{JlaCCHHKH tJ:HTalOT «EBreHHH OHerI1Ha». M., 1968.

Tapxon A. BCTymITeJIbHaH CTaTbH H KOMMeHTapHH B KH.: ITYWKHH A. C. «EBreHIIH OHerHH». M., 1978.

TOMaweBcKHH E. B. X· r-naaa «EBreHHR: OHenIHa» (I1CTOPHH pasranxa). - B KH.: TOMailIeBcKHH B. ITYIllKHH, KHHra aropaa. MaTepHaJIbI K MOHorpacjmH (1824 - 1837).

M. - ]1., 1961.

ThIHRHOB 10 .. H. 0 KOMrr03HL\HH «EBreHHH OHernaa». - B KH. : TbIHHHoB 10. H. TIo3THKa, HCTOPHH JIHTeparypsr, KHHO. M., 1977.

IIIKJIOBCKHH B. «Esreaaa OHenIH» (ITYlliKHH 11 CTepH). - B KH.: OtJ:epKH rro rr03THKe TIYilIKHHa. BepJIHH, 1923.

Roman Jakobson. Puskin and His Sculptural Myth.

The Hague - Paris, Mouton, 1975.

Jan M. Me;er. The Digressions in Evgenij Onegin.

Dutch Contributions to the Sixth International Congress of Slavicists. The Hague - Paris, Mouton, 1968.

Hc-repnars OHerHHCKHH TeKCT HeB03MO)f{HO. CKOJIb nonP06HO HH OCTaHaBJIHBaJIHCb 6hI MhI aa rrOJIHTHtIeCKHX nawexax, MHor03HatJ:HTeJIbHhIX YMOJItJ:aHHR:X, 6hITOBhIX -peaJIHHX HJIH JIHTepaTypHhIX aCCOL\HaL\HHX, KOMMeHTHpoBaHHe KOTOPhIX rrpOHCHHeT paann-msre CTOPOHhI CMhICJIa rrymxanCKHX CTPOK, scerna OCTaeTCH MeCTO ,[(JIH HOBbIX BorrpOCOB H ,[(JIH rrOHCKOB OTBeTOB Ha HHX. lleJIo 3,[(eCbHe TOJIbKO B HerrOJIHOTe HailIHX 3HaHHH, XOTH tJ:eM 60JIee rpY,[(HilIbCfI aan rrpH6JIH)l{eHHeM TeKCTa K COBpeMeHHOMY <nrraremo, TeM B 60JIbilIeH Mepe C rpycrsro y6e)f{,[(aellibcfI B TOM, CKOJIb MHoroe 3a6hITO H tJ:aCTHtJ:HO 3a6hITO 6ecrrOBopOTHO. .D:eJIO B TOM, tJ:TO rnrreparypaoe npoaaaenenae, noxa OHO Henocpencraeano BOJIHyeT tJ:HTaTeJIH, )f{HBO, TO ecrs H3MeH'W:BO. Ero ,[(HHaMHtIeCKOe pa3BHTHe He npexparanocs, H K Ka)f{,[(OMY rrOKOJIeHHlO tJ:HTaTeJIeH OHO 060patJ:HBaeTCH KaKOHTO HOBOH rpaasro. I13 aroro crrezryer, tITO xaxcnoe HOBoe rrOKOJIeHHe 06paIL\aeTCH K rrpOH3Be,[(eHHIO C HOBhIMH aonpo-

2 10. M. JIoTMaH

33

cawa, OTKphIBaH 3araAKH TaM, r.ne npeacne ace xasanocs HCHhIM. B 3TOM npouecce rrae CTOPOHhI. C onnoa - 'lunaTeJ1H HOBhIX nOKOJleHHll 60J1bIIIe 3a6hIBalOT, II n03TOMV npezcne nOHHTHoe .ueJ1aeTCH .uJIH HI1X TeMHhIM. Ho, C .upyrof1 CTOPOHhI, HOB sre nOKOJIeHHH, 060raI..I(eHHble IICTOpHqeCKH!I1, nopon I<YTIJIeHHhIM THmeJIOM: ~eHoll OTIhITOM, r.;Iy6me TIOHHMalOT npaasrsm.te CTPOKH. Ka3aJ10Cb 6hI, 3aQI1TaHHhle 11 say-remn.re CTHXH .uJ1H HI1X neoacanaano oTKphIBalOTcH HenOHHTHhIMH npexcne rJIy6HHaMH. IToHHTHoe npeapaniaerCH B sarazncy nOToMY, QTO QHTalOI..I(Hll o6peJI HOBhIM: H 60JIee rny60KHll B3rJIH.u na MHp H rmreparypy. A noasre aonpocsr ~yT noaoro KOMMeHTaTopa. IT03TOMY mHBoe nponsaeneHHe HCKYCCTBa HeJIb3H npOKOMMeHTHpOBaTb «no KOH~a)}, KaK HeJ1b3H· ero «no KOH~a» 06b5!CHHTh HH B KaKO,\l nareparypoaezrsecxow rpyrre.

B pOMaHe]1. H. TOJICTOrO «,UeKa6pHCThI» BepHYBIIIaHC5!

H3 CH6HPH nexaopncrxa, cpaBHHBaH craporo MY)Ka C ChIHOM, rOBopHT: «Cepexca MOJIO)Ke QYBCTBal'v1H, HO .uYiliOll ThI MOJIO)Ke ero. LITO OH cne.naer, 51 Mory npensnners, HO Th! erne MO)Kellib YAHBHTb MeHH». 3TO MO)f{HO npnMeHHTb KO MHorHM pOMaHaM, HaIm:caHHbIM nOC.1Ie «EBreHHH OHerHHa». LITO OHH «cnenaior», MhI QaCTO MomeM rrpenBH.ueTb, HO nYIIIKHHCKHll pOMaH B CTHXax «eme MO)KeT Hac y.uHBHTb». H rorna nOTPe6YlOTCH aoasre KOMMeHTapHH.

OTIEPK ,l{BOPHHCKOrO BhITA OHErHHCKOii noeu

II3BecTHoe onpenenenae BeJlHHCKOrO, naaaasnrero EO «3HI.J;HKJlOrre,Ll;UeH PYCCKOH mH3HUH, IIO,Ll;qepKHYJlO COBepweHHO ocofiyro pOJlI, 6bITOBbIX npeztcraarreanfi B crpyxrype IIYWKHHCKoro pomana. KOHKpeTH3upYH 3TOT Te3HC, f. A. TyKOBCKHH IIHCaJl: ... «yxce caxoe K 0 Jl H q e C T B 0 6bITOBbIX Tel\1 H MaTepHaJlOB rrpIIHI.J;HIIHaJlI,HO OTJlHqaeT IIyrnKHHCKHH pOMaH OT IIpegWeCTBYlOIIJ;eH rmreparypsr. B «EBreHHH OHerHHe» nepen qHTaTeJleM rrpoxozrar cepas 6bITOBbIX HBJleHHH, HpaBOOIIHcaTenhHbIX neranea, BeIIJ;eH, o.n;emg, I.J;BeTOB, 6JllO,Ll;, 06hlqaeB}). 11 nanee : «He B TOM 3aKJIlOqeHO' peaJlHCTHqeCKOe HOBaTopCTBO «EBreHHH OHerHHa», 'ITO B HeM OIIHcaH 6bIT, HeO,Ll;HOKpaTHO 11306pameHHbIH go Hero PYCCKl1MH noaraan, KOTOPhIX MbI He 3aXOTHM H He CMOllieM OTHeCTl1 K peanncraa, a B TOM, qTO 6bITOBOH MaTepHaJI l1CTOJlKOBaH I1YWKHHbIM HHaqe, qeM ero npernnecraeaHHKaMH, rrO-HOBOMY, peaJlHCTHqeCKH, TO eCTI, B xavrecrae Tl1IIHqeCKOrO, H,Ll;eHHO 060CHOBbIBaIOIIJ;ero qeJlOBeKa II ero cyrrsfiy» CfYKOBCKHH r. A. I1yrnKHH M rrp06JIeMbI pearracrnqeCKOrO CTl1JlH. M., 1957, c. 140 M 146).

OgHOH M3 ocooemrocrea 6bIToIIMcaHHH BED, BeCI,Ma cYIIJ;ecTBeHHoH rrpn KOMMeHTl1pOBamlH powana, HBJIHeTCH ,TO, qTO 3HaHMe 6bITOBbIX peannit aeofixoznrao gJlH rrOHHMaHMH TeKCTa game rorna, xorrta OHH nenocpencraeaao He ynOl\lHHaKlTCH HJUI JlMWb MenbKalOT B BH,o;e KpaTKMX OTCbIJlOK, HaMeKOB na TO,' qTO 6bIJlO C IIonYCJlOBa IIOHHTHO H anropy, H COBpeMeHHOMY eMY qMTaTeJlIO. B 3THX crry=raax Heo6xogHMble IIOHCHeHl1H rpyzrao rrpnypo-nrrs K KaKOMY,JIH60 OIIpe,Ll;eJIeHHOMY CJlOBY l1JIH CTHXY, He C03,o;aBaH BIIeqaTJleHIDI HCKyccTBeHHocTM. A Me)f{,Ll;Y TeM OTKa3aTbCH OT 6bITOBblX IIoHcHeHHH 6e3 yuiepfia gJIH qHTaTeJIH

2*

35

HeJIb35I. 3TO 3aCTaBJI5IeT HaC BbIHeCTH xapaKTepHCTHKY HeKOTophIX 'lepT ,o;BOp5IHCKOrO 6hITa OHerHHCKO:H 3nOXH B OT,o;eJIbHhI:H oxepx, naaaa B nOCTpO'lHOM KOMMeHTapHH OTChIJIKH na COOTBeTCTBYIOIIIHe CTpaHHIIhI. ITPH 3TOM MbI, pa3YMeeTC5I, He CTaBHM nepen C060:H IIeJIH xapaxrepaaoaars 6bIT 3nOXH KaK TaKOBofI - BHHMaI-me 6y,o;eT npHBJIeKaTbC5I rranrs K TeM ero CTopOHaM, xoropsre np5IMO HJIH KOCBeHHO OTpa3HJIHCb B TeKCTe nYIllKHHCKoro poaana. B Tex CJIY'la5IX, xorna B TeKCTe EO ynoMHHaIOTC5I KOHKpeTHbIe ¢aKTbI 6bITa H paCCKa3 0 HHX He paccpenorouea no pa3HhIM MeCTaM poxana, a CKoHIIeHTpHpoBaH B onpeneneaaoa l"\1eCTe, n05ICHeHH5I ,o;alOTC5I B paanene nOCTpO'lHOrO KOMMeHTapU5I.

X03sdIcTBO H HMYlll;ecTBeHHoe nOJIO)KeHHe • PYCCKoe gBOP5IHCTBO 6hIJIO COCJIOBHeM nynre- H 3eMJIeBJIageJIblieB. BJIa,o;eHHe nOMeCTb5IMH H xpenocrnsran KpeCTb5IHaMH coCTaBJI5IJIO onaoapexeano COCJIOBHYlO npaaanernro gBOP5IH H 6bIJIO MepHJIOM 60raTcTBa, o6IIIecTBeHHoro nOJIOmeHH5I H rrpecrrorca. 3TO, B lIacTHocTH, npHBo,o;lIJIO K TO My , lITO crpeaneane YBeJIH"HIBaTb lIHCJIO nynr gOMHHl1pOBaJIO Hag norn.rrxaan nOBhICHTb gOXO,o;HOCTb nOMeCTb5I nYTeM paIIHOHaJIbHOrO 3eMJIenOJIb30BaHH5I.

Tepcn EO ,o;OBOJIbHO qeTKO oxapaxrepaaonansr B OHIOuieana HX HMYIIIeCTBeHHOrO nOJIOmeHH5I. Oren 0HerHHa «npOMOTaJIC5I» (/, II I, 4), caa repon powana, nOCJIe nOJIYlIeHlI5I HaCJIe,lJ;CTBa OT ,lJ;5I,lJ;H, BH,lJ;HMO, cgeJIaJIC5I 60- rarsr« nOMeIIIHKOM. OH

3aBO,I:lOB, BO].l, JIeCOB, 3eMeJIb X03!U!H 1I0JIHblI1...(l, LIlI, 10-11).

Xapaxrepacrnxa Jlencxoro Ha'lHHaeTC5I C YKa3aHH5I, lITO OH «fiorar» (1I, XIl, 1). Jlapam.r me He 6bIJIH 60raThI. B nepaoaaaansnsrx aafipocxax Orrsra XapaI<TeplI30BaJIaCb KaK «Measnraa ,o;OlIb - cocenea 6e,o;HhIX» HJIH «Pe6eHOK, gO'lb cocezrea 6e,o;HhIx» (VI, 287). B ,u:aJIbHe:HrueM 3Ta xapaxrepacraxa 6hIJIa CH5ITa, HO OCTamICb maJI06hI TlpacKOBbH JlapHHO:H aa TO, 'lTO ,o;JI5I nOe3,lJ;KH B MOCKBY «noxorry MaJIO» (VII, XXVI, 12). 3aTo BhI:H,lJ;5I aa KH5I35I N, TaTb5IHa cnenanacs «fiorara H 3HaTHa» (VIII, XLIV, 8). Crapuraa Jlapana, BgoBa exarepnamrcxoro 6pnragupa, cxopee scero, 6hIJIa nOMeIIIHI.~e:H cpeznrero ,o;OCTaTI<a. 'tJTO 3TO 03HaQaJIo?

36

no HMymecTBeHHONlY nOJIO}l{eHIHO paann-rarracs MeJII{()noxecrasre (.[(0 80 - 100 zryui) , cpeznrenoaecmsre (t.fHCJIO nynr KOTOPbIX HCt.fHCJIHJIOCh COTHHMH) H xpynaonowecrasre (OKOJIO TbICHt.fH nynr) naopane. Kpoxe roro, llMeJIaCb KOJIHt.feCTBeHHO He6oJIbWaH, HO CTOHmaH aa neprrnmax BJIaCTH H }l{H3HH rpyrrrra rrOMemHKOB, HMymecTBo KOTOPbIX HaCt.fHTbIBaJIO .n;eCHTKH HJIH .n;a}l{e COTHH TbICH'l nyur. Hepapxna .n;yweBJIa,ZJ;eHHH, B 3Hat.fHTeJIhHOM Mepe, orrpe.n;eJIHJIa 06meCTBeHHoe rrOJIO}l{eHHe. TaK, H. MaKapOB B CBOHX BocrrOMHHaHHHX 0 na-rarre XIX B. npI1Bo.n;HT J(OJIOPHTHbIM npnaep - KOCTpOMCKoro norsentaxa, BJIaCTHOro SeJIbMO}l{Y n. A. lliHIIOBa, nepxcaarnero B pyxax aero ry6epHHIO H npoaaaaaoro aa 3TO «COJIHraJIHt.feCKHM llMrrepaTOPOM»: «Y Hero 6bIJIO TpH <P0PMYJIbI 06pameHI1H C pasnsrMH JIH1~aMH. ,UBopHHaM, BJIa,ZJ;eromHM He MeHee ,ZJ;ByXCOT ,ZJ;YIll 11 60JIee, OH npoTHrHBaJI CBOro PYKy H rOBOpHJI CJIa.n;'laMWHM rOJIOCOM: «KaK BbI noxcraaere, notueHHeMwIDI MapThHH flpoxodiseanv?» ,UBopHHaM C BOChMH.n;eCHThlO H .n;o ,ZJ;ByXCOT rrynr OH .n;eJIaJI TOJIhKO JIerKHM rrOKJIOH, H roBOPHJI rOJIOCOM CJIa,ZJ;KllM, HO He CJIa.n;t.faMlllHM: «3.n;OPOBbI JIH BbI, MOM rrOt.fTeHHeMwHM HBaH HBaHblt.f?» Bcev OCTaJIbHbIM, HMeBWHM MeHee BocbMH,ZJ;ecHTH nyur, OH TOJIbKO KHBaJI rOJIOBoro H rOBOpHJI npocro rOJIOCOM rrpHHTHbIM: «3,ZJ;paBCTBYMTe, MOM JII06e3HeMIllHM ... » (Maxapos H. MOH ceMH.o;ecHTHJIeTHHe BoCrrOMHHaI-IHH .. , 'l. 1. CIT6., 1881,

c. 23-24).

TC'Vla 60raTcTBa OKa3bIBaeTCH cBH3aHfIOM C MOTllBOM pa30peHH5I. CJIOBa «,ZJ;OJIrI1», «3aJIOr», ({3aHMo.n;aBU;bI» scrpenarorca yxce B nepasrx crpoxax poaana,

,UOJIrH, nponenrsr rro 3aJIOraM, nepesaxrraztsrsaaae yxce 3aJIO}l{eHHbIX HMeHHM 6bIJIO y,ZJ;eJIOM OTHro,ZJ;b He TOJIbKO 5e.o;HhIX HJIll CTOH~HX na rparrn xpaxa noxenraxon. BOJIee roro, HMeHHO MeJIKHe n cpernnre npoaaannansnsre nove~HKn, MeHee HY}l{,ZJ;aromlleCH B nensrax na noxynxy npenxeTOB POCKOiliH H ,ZJ;oporOCTOH~HX HMrropTHbIX TOBapOB H ,ZJ;OBOJIhCTByromllecH «.n;OMaIllHllM npnnacox», peace BXO,lJ;HJIll B zionra H npafierana K pa30pHTeJIhHhIM <pI1HaHCOBbIM onepauaaw. Mexcny TeM CTOJIllt.fHOe ,ZJ;BOPHHCTBO, Ha'lHHaH C eKaTepHHHHCKHX apemen, rrOrOJIOBHO 6bIJIO B ,ZJ;OJIrax. <POHBH3HH BO «Bceofinrea npnzraoprroii rpaxaaraxe» rnrcan : «KaK y naopa, TaK II B CTOJIllu;e HHKTO 6e3 norrry He }l{HBeT, ,ZJ;JIH roro 'lame ncex cnparaerca rJIarOJI: 6bl711b OO,'lJ1CHblM ... » OH »ce cnpanraaarr EKaTepHHY II: «OT-

37

l.Jero ace B norrrax?» - H rrOJ1Yl.JIL"I OTBeT: «Orroro B .:1:0.1- rax, l.JTO rrpO:>I<HBaIDT 60JIee, He~emI ,IJ,OXO,IJ,a HMelOT}) (<POHBH3HH .It 11. Co6p. C04. B 2-x T. T. II. M. - Jl., 1959, c. 51, 272). )J{aJ106bI na ,IJ,OJ1HI COCTaB)UIIDT nocToHHHbIH MOTHB B MHorO'-IHC.TIeHHbIX ,IJ,OKYMeHTax XVIII - naxana XIX BB .

.I!:eJIo 6bLTIO He TOJ1bKO B ,IJ,OpOrOBH3He rrpenaeros POCKOlllH H OTHOCHTeJ1hHOH nemeansae np0,IJ,YKTOB noMe~H'IherO X03HHCTBa: CTpa,IJ,amI OT ,IJ,OJ1rOB 60raTei1111He BeJIhMQ)KH, n0J1Y4aBlllHe OT rrpaBHTeJ1hCTBa orpoansre rro,IJ,apKH 3eMJ1HMH, ,IJ,eHhraMH H KpenOCTHbIMH ,IJ,Yll1aMH. TaK, KaHI.~J1ep rparp M. BOpOH~OB rr0J1Y4aJ1 orpoxasre nO,IJ,apKH OT npaBHTeJIhCTBa. B 1763 r. EKaTepHHa asmnarana aa cj:lHKTHBHO KyrrJ1eHHbIll Y Hero ,IJ,OM - ,IJ,OM OCTaJICR aa rpadiox - 217000 py6JIeH, eMY 6hIJIO «ycrynneao» 190000 rYJIh,IJ,eHOB ,IJ,OJ1ry rOJIJIaH,IJ,CKOH pecny5JIHKH POCCHH, npn YBOJ1hHeHHH OT ,IJ,OJI)f{HOCTH OH nOJIY4HJI 50000 py6neH H nO)f{H3HeHHoH neHCHH - 7000 py6nell B ron. O,IJ,HaKO, no asrpaaceamo HCC-TIe,IJ,OBaTeJIH, OH H3-3a ,IJ,o.TIrOB 6mlcH «BCID )f{H3Hh KaK pbI6a 06 .TIe,IJ,n (KapHoBH4 E. n. 3aMe4aTeJIhHble 60raTcTBa 4aCTHblX J1H~ B POCCHH. Cn6., 1874, c. 263). Orpcxasre ,IJ,OJ1rH 06HapY)f{H.TIHCh nOC-TIe caeprn nOTeMKHHa, XOTH COCTOHHHe ero 6bIJ10 HeHCl.JHCnHMO. no ,IJ,aHHbIM aHrJIHllCKOrO nOCJIaHHHKa Tappaca, noTeMl<HH JIHll1h aa ,IJ,Ba rO,IJ,!l nOJlY4HJ1 37 TbIC. nyur H 9 MnH. py6neH, a cj:lpaH~Y3 Kacrepa C4HTaJ1, 'ITO OH noJIy4HJ1 rrO,IJ,apKOB na 50 MJIH. py6JIell He C'IHTaR 6e3- 3acTeH4HBbIX xpaxc 11 anoyrrorpefirreaaa (cw.: «Pyccxnn HCTopH4eCKHI1 »cypaan», 1918, KH. 5, c. 240).

O,IJ,HOll H3 rrpU4HH nceofiuien 3a,IJ,OJIH<eHHOCTH 6bL'10 CnO)f{HBll1eeCH B ~apCTBOBaHHe EKaTepHHbI II npe,IJ,CTaB."IeHHe 0 TOM, 4TO «I1CTl1HHO )lBOpHHCl-We}) nOBe,IJ,eHlIe 3aKnID4aeTCH He npOCTO B 60)!hillIIX rparax, a H rparax He no Cpe,lJ;CTBaM. CTpeMJIeHHe noaoro rrOXO.1eHllH 1830-x rr. HC pacxonow CBeCTh npaxon» (1 II, 1, 219) ziaace Il Bocnpl1HHMaJI C aaaecraoii rpycrsro xax yrpary n033lfH naopancxoro aexa. B aanncxax 11. <P. Tnxxoacxoro 3acj:lHxcHpoBaH pasronop 6oraTet'Ill1HX PYCCXHX MarHaTOB: rparpa <P. B. Pacron-maa, anue-xanunepa XHH3H Il. A. ToJ111~bIHa H rpadia H. H. rOJIOBHHa: «npOH30ll1eJI 60JIhll10H pasronop (. .. ) 0 6aJIaHCe ,a:OXO,nOB 11 pacxonoa, CY,IJ,HMbIX KaTerOpH4eCl<I1, OT MaJIa ,IJ,O BeJII1l<a. )J{HTh, rOBOpHJ1H, no ,IJ,OXO,IJ,aM HeB03MO)f{HO Ilonpazcaaae 11 ypaaneane rOHRT

38

snepen. BhI YBHp;HTe rrortne ce65! qeJIOBeKa C MaJIeHbKHM COCT05!HHeM, B TaKOM }Ke CYKHe, KaKOe aa nac. He nee xce HMelOT P;OXOP;hI, CKOJIhKO HM Hap;06Ho. He BC5!KHH nonsrxaer HX no pacxortaa <noKa3aTeJIhHO B nCHXOJIOrHqeCKOM OTHoweHIIH, 'ITO He pacxonsr rrOp;rOH5!IOTC5! K zroxonass, a P;OXOP;hI CTpeM5!TC5! norraepcrars non pacxozn.r! - 10. 1I.). MHe Ka>KeTC5!, orrnaxo, CKa3aJI npyroit, BOJI5! KaK BOJI5!; see TO nenaer CBOH HCB03p;ep>KHMa5! OXOTa. - ITo:nOMY rparp AJIeKCaHp;p Cepreeaa-r CTpOraHOB TOJIbKO CqaCTJIHaeu, xorna rocynapsraa, rrpep;CTaBJI5!5! l!?viI1epaTOpy I10CHCPY CB0I1X BeJIbMO>K, MOrJIa CKa3aTh 06 HeM: «3TO Y MeH5I MarHaT, KOTOPbIH crapaerca aecr, BeK pa30pHTbC5!, HO He MO>KeT». - L(a, CKa3aJI erne npyroa, XOPOlllO eMY, rrcrry-raa MHJIJIHOH P;OXOP;Y (rorna KYPCOM na cepe6po) t, a H rrorrynaro acero 100 ThIC5!q, qeM ~1He >KHTh!» ((PYCCKHH apXHB», 1874, KH. I, cT6. 1463). Cp. B «PYCCKOJlI. I1eJIaMe» Il : «OTe~ HMeJI 5000 rryur. CJIep;CTBeHHo 6hIJI H3 Tex P;BOP5!H, KOTOPbIX rroKoHHhIH rp. Ill. < epexersen) Ha3hIBaJI MeJIKOnOMeCTHhIMH, yP;lIBJIH.5!Ch OT qnCTOrO cepzma, KaKHM 06pa30M OHH MorYT >K11Tb! - L(eJIo B TOM, 'ITO OTe~ MOH >KHJI He xyxce rparpa Ill. < epeaersesa ), XOT5I 6hIJI POBHO B 20 pas 6e,n;Hee. MOCKB11q11 nOMHHT eure ero o6e,n;hI, ,n;oMawHHH rearp, H poroayto My3bIKY» (VIII, I, 416).

Tloasmreaue ,n;OXO,n;HOCTI1 X03HHcTBa nYTeM YBeJ1I1qemi5I ero rrpOH3BOp;I1TeJIbHOCTI1 nporaaope-mno KaK npnpozie xpenocrnoro rpyrta, TaK H nCHXOJIOrHH ,n;BOp5IHHHa-noMern;HKa, KOTOPhIH npenno-nrran H,n;TH no 60JIee JIerKoMY rryrn pOCTa KpeCTb5!HCKHX nOBHHHOCTeH II 06pOKOB. ,UaBaH e,n;HHOBpeMeHHbIH 3cPcPeI<T rrOBbIllIeH115! noxona, 3Ta Mepa B KOHeqHOM nrore pa30p5IJIa KpeCTb5IH H caaoro noweumxa, XOTH YMCHHe BhI>KHMaTb H3 KpeCTb5!H nensrn CqHTaJIOCb cperm cpemnrx II MeJIKHX rrOMern;HKOB OCHOBOH X03HHCT.aernroro HCKYCCTBa. B EO yrroMHHYT

fB03P;HH, Y.03HlIH npesocxcnasra,

BJIa;:<eJIel.{ HHll.{HX MY)f{HKOB (V, XXVI, 3-4).

Pa~110HamI3a~II5I X035IHCTBa He B5!3a.'IaCb C npaponoii xpenocraoro rpyrra H qarn;e acero OCTaBaJIaCb 6apcKoH npaxyrtca. TaK, PaCTOrrqHH BbIIIHCaJI 113 AHrJI11H cneunaJI11CTa-cPepMepa, rrpHMeH5IJI yp;o6peHM H 3aBeJI BCJIep; aa

1 ITo MaHH<PecTY 20 IilOHH 1810 r. cepe6pflHhlupy6J1b paBHfL'ICH 4 py6. aCCHI"Hal.{HflMH, T. e. peqb tuna 0 4000 000 py6. accaraauaaaa.

39

H3BeCTHhIM aHrnOMaHOM .IX. M. Ilonropauxaa BMeCTO COXH aHrnHHCKHH nrryr. O,r(HaKO TOT »ce PaCTOnqHH B 1806 r. BhITIYCTHn B Mocxse 6pOUIlOPY «Flrryr H Coxa», B KOTOPOH OTCTaHBan OTeqeCTBeHHYIO coxy nepen HHOCTpaHHhIM nrryrOM. Epounopa HMena zraa annrpadia. ITepBhIH: (,OTIIhI naunr He rrrynee Hac 6hInH» - H BTOpot'I - B crnxax, KOTOPhIH KOHqanC5J TaK:

CJIY}!{llJI B BOrJHe, nenax, renepe CJIY}!{Y C COXOll . .sI rrOJIb3bI 06ll1eCTBa acerna 6bIJI BepHbIll npyr, XO'llY yaepnrs B TOM II BOCCTalO aa nrryr.

(CM.: Byrran H. H. Ovepxn no HCTOPHH PYCCKOH rnrreparypsr II npocseutenaa C nanana XIX aexa. H3,r(. 2-e. CIT6., 1912, c. 184-185).

Eo.nee BepHhIMII cnOC()6aMH «nO,r(hIMaTh ,r(OXO,r(hI no pacxcziaa» 6hInH paanaxasre CPOPMhI no>'.{a.'1c·:OaInn1 OT npaanrenscraa. OHH 6hIBanH ocofienno 3Haql1TenhHhI B XVIII B. M. BOPOHIIOB nacan EnH3aBeTe: «MhI ace aepm.re aaum pafisr 6e3 MHnOCTH H aarpaacrenaa aanrero HlvmepaTopCKoro nerm-recraa npoxorrs He MO)t(eM. 11 51 He ennaoro ,r(OMa cpaMHnHII B rOCY,r(apCTBe He 3HaIO, KOTOPhrH 6bI co6CTBeHHO 6e3 narpaxcztenas MOHapllIeCKHX menpor cefia conepscan» (KapHOBHq E. IT. IIHT. COq., c. 259). Orpoxnsre noxcanoaanaa npcnasorranacs npn EKaTepHHe II H Tlaane I, O,r(HaKO Anexcannp I 6hIn cxyn na ,r(eHemHhle H seaensnsre narparrsr.

ITPHqHHOi1 o6pa30BaHHH nonros 6hInO He ronsxo CTpeMrrenae «xorrs nO-,r(BOp5JHCKH», T. e. He no cpezicraaw, HO H nOTpe6HOCTb HMeTb B CBoeM pacnopaaceaan caotionasre l(eHbrH. Kpenocrnoe X03HHCTBO - B 3HaqHTenhHoii Mepe 6apllIHHHoe - nasano ,r(OXO,r(hI B anne npO,r(YKTOB KpeCTh5JHcxoro rpyna (enpocmou npooyxm» I, VII, 12), a CTOnHqHaH mH3Hb rpeoosana neaer. C6bIBaTb cerrscxoxoaakcraeaasre nponyxrsr H norryaars aa HHX neasrn 6hInO ,r(nH 06hlqHOrO nOMeIlIHKa, ocofieano 60raToro CTOnHqHOrO )t(HTeJI5J, Berrynrero 6apCKHH 06pa3 )t(H3HH, nenpaasrxao H XJIonOTHo .

.IXOJIrH MOrJIH o6pa30BaTbCH OT qaCTHhIX 3aHMOB H saxnana nOMeCTnH B 6aHK (cp.: (c..ocBo6o,r(HnCH OT qaCTHhLX H npyrnx rronroa» - VIII, X, 9-10). Tlepasre ofipaaoBhIBaJIHCh npa O,r(aJI)t(HBaHHH rreaer (MHorHe rmopane He CTeCHHnHCh ccyxcars .neHhrH non npOIIeHThI; PaCTOnqHH B nacsaax ynoxaaarr «HemHbIX npysea», nasaamax eMY rteasra B3aHMhI H3 12 % ronoasrx), aropsre - OT 3aKJIa-

40

AbIBaHIUI UMeHIrH. OAaJImHBafI me nOA 3aJIOr KpenOCTHbIX zrynr U 3eMe.TIbHOH co6CTBeHHOCTH 60JIbllIYIO CyMMy, noMelQHK cpasy C06JIa3HHTeJIbHO npOCTO nOJIyqaJI B CBOH PYl<H nyxcaoe eMY KOJIHqeCTBO nener. IIMeHHo no STOMY, npnBblqHOMY, HO BeAYlQeMY I< pa30peHHIO nYTU H IIIeJI OTeQ EBreHHfI. B 1754 r. 6bIJI y-rpeacnea )lBOPfIHCKHH 6aHK, I<OTOPbIH B 1786 r. 6hlJI no YI<a3Y EKaTepHHbI II rrepeHMeHOBaH B Focynapcraeansra 3aeMHbIH 6aHl< ,!J;JIR ,!J;BOpfIH H roponoa. B YI<a3e rOBOpI1JIOCh: «OT ,!J;BOpRH npHHHMaTh nOA 3aJIOr ,!J;epeBHH, no.naraa 40 p. aa AYllIY (. .. ) .uBop~IHe 3aKJIa,!J;bIBalOT HMeHUfI aa 20 JIeT no 5 npOIIeHTOB, a 3 npoQeHTa l1,!J;eT aa ynJIaTY xamrrana, aroro 8 npoIIeHTOB» (5I6JIOqKOB M. IIcTopHR ,!J;BOpRHCKoro COCJIOBUfI B POCCHI1. CI16., 1876, c. 565 - 566). )KHTh na cpezrcraa, rronysenrrsre npn 3aI<JIaAe HMeHHfI, Ha3bIBaJIOCb «mHTh ,o:OJIraMI1>}. Tal<OM cnoco6 6bIJI rrpRMb[[vl nYTeM I< pa30peHI1IO. IlpennorraraJIOCh, LITO ,!J;BOPRHHH aa rrorry-reaasre npn saxnane ,!J;eHbr¥r npnofiperer aoasre nOMeCThR I1JII1 YJIyqIIIHT COCTORHIre CTapbIX 11, nOBbICHB TaKHM 06pa30M CBOH ,o:OXO,!J;, rrOJIyqHT cpezrcraa na ynJIaTY nponearoa H nsrxyrr noMeCTbR 113 saxrrana. O,!J;HaKO B 60JIhllIHHCTBe cnyxaea ,!J;BopRHe npOmHBaJIH nonynennsre B 6aHI<e CYMMbI, TpaTR HX aa nOI<ynI<Y HJIH CTpOHTeJIhCTBO ,!J;OMOB B CTOJIHu:e, TyaJIeThI, 6aJIbI ({{,!J;aBaJI TpH 6aJIa exceromro» - I, I I I, 3 - P;JIR He CJIHIllI<OM 60raToro ,!J;BOp5IHHHa, He HMelOlQerO B AOMe AOqepeH-HeBeCT, TpH 6aJIa B ron - aeonpaananaaa POCl<OIllh). 3TO npHBo,!J;HJIO K nepe3aKJIaAbIBaHHlO yxce 3aJIOmeHHhIX HMeHHH, 'ITO BJIeKJIO sa C060H yrraoeaae nponearoa, I<OTOpsre HaqHHaJIH nor-nourars 3HaqHTeJIbHYlO qaCTb eaceroztasrx P;OXOP;OB OT nepeaens. I1PHXO,!J;HJlOCh zrenars ,!J;OJIrH, BhIPy- 6aTh neca, nponasars erne He sarroaceaasre zrepeaaa H T. p;.

He yp;HBHTeJIbHO, 'ITO, xorna oren OHerHHa, xoropsra BeJI X03fIHCTBO HMeHHO TaKHM o6pa30M, Cl<OHqaJlCfI, BbIRCHHJIOCb, 'ITO HaCJIe,o:CTBO 06peMeHeHO 60JIhllIHMH ,o:OJIraMI1 :

Flepen OHerHHbIM cofipanca

3aHMOAaBl\eB )i{aAHbIll IIOnI{ (I, LI, 6 - 7).

B STOM cnysae HaCJIep;HHI< Mor npnnars Hac re,!J;CTBO H BMeeTe c HHM B3fITb na ce6H ,!J;OJIrH orua HmI OTKasarsca OT Hero, npe,!J;OCTaBHB xpenaropax caMHM YJramHBaTh csrersr Me mAY C060H. Ilepaoe peIIIeHHe AHl<TOBaJIOCb =ryaCTBOM qeCTH, meJIaHHeM He 3an5ITHaTh ,!J;o6poe lIMfI OTIIa HnH coxpaHHTb pOAOBoe HMeHHe (nOCJIe,!J;Hee 06CTOflTe~-

2 r'Cy"pCT"P.i!a~

6II6J~e~~~~ CGC~ I

41

CTBO Hrpa310 3Haql'ITe31hHYlO P031h: He C31yqaHHO 3aI<OH npe.D:YCMaTpHBa31 31hrOThI no asncyrry P0.D:OBhIX 11MYll.l;eCTB, TaI<OH nsrxyn BX0.D:H31 B rcpyr .D:BOPHHCI<HX npan ; C31e.D:YH :nOH Tpa.D:HQHH, nanpnwep, onexa BhII<ynHJIa npO.D:aHHOe sa .D:031rH B 1837 r. MHXaH310BCI<Oe H B03BpaTH31a ero BO B31a.D:eHHe .D:eTeH yxce noraornero I< 3TOMY BpeMeHH n03Ta). HMeHHo TaI< nOCTYIIH31 IIOC31e CMepTH orua HHI<OJ1aH POCTOB, .D:B11}}{HMhIH qyBcTBal\1H PO.D:OBOH qeCTH. J1erI<OMbIC31eHHhIlI }}{e OHerHH nOIIleJI no BTOPOMY nynr.

I1031yqeHHe HaCJIe.D:CTBa 6hI310 He nOC31e.D:HHM Cpe.D:CTBOM ncnpaears paccrpoeansre .D:e31a. M0310.D:bIM 31lO.D:HM OXOTHO BepHJIH B .D:OJIr pecroparopsr, rroprasre, B31a.D:e31hQbI Mara3HHOB B pac-rere na HX «rpazryume .D:OX0.D:hI» 0/, 6). IIo3ToMY M0310,n:OH qe310BeI< H3 60raToH ceMhH Mor 6e3 6031hIIl11X neaer BeCTH B flerepoypre 6e36e.D:HOe CYll.l;eCTBOBaHHe npH HaJIHqHH Ha.D:e}}{.D: Ha HaC31e.D:CTBO H H3BeCTHOH 6e33aCTeHQHBOcTH. TaI<, Jlen Cepreeaan, 6paT nosra, mH31 B Flerepfiypre 6e3 I<OneHI<H neaer, HO 3a.D:031}}{a31 B peCTOpaasr 260 py6., HaHHMa31 B .D:031r xsaprapy B .D:OMe 3Hrerrsraprrra aa 1330 py6. B rort, .D:e31a31 nO.D:apI<H, Be31 I<apTOqHYlO nrpy (,n:031r11 OnJIaTH31 noaxce A. C. IIYIIlI<HH). M0310.D:-OCTh - BpeMH Ha.D:e}}{,lJ; Ha HaC31e,n:CTBO - 6hI31a I<aI< 6hI Y3aXOHeHHhIM nepaonox .D:031rOB, OT I<OTOPhIX BO BTOpyro rr0310Bl'IHY }}{H3HH cnenonarro oCBo6o}}{,lJ;aThCH, CTaB «HaC31e.D:HHI<OM ... CBOHX PO,n:HhIX» (I, II, 4) HJIH BblrO.D:HO meHHBIIl11Ch. PHCYH pyTHHHYlO CMeHY B03paCTHbIX HOpM noaeneaaa, IT nHCaJI: .

EJIa}KeH < ... > .

Kro B rrsanuars JIeT 6bIJl cPpaHT HJIb XBaT, A B TPH,[(uaTb BbIrO,[lHO meHaT;

KTO B nHTb,[leCHT oCBo6o,[(lIJlCH

OT qaCTHbIX H npyrax ,[(OJIrOB (VIII, X, 1-10).

06pa30BaHHe H CJIY)Koa nBOpHH· B 3anHCKe «0 aapoziHOM BOCnHTaHHH», COCTaB31eHHOH B 1826 L, IT nHCa31: «B POCCHH .D:OMaIIlHee aocnnraaae ecrs caaoe He.D:OCTaTOqHoe, caxoe 6e3HpaBCTBeHHoe; pe6eHOI< oxpyxcea O.D:HHMH XOJIOnHMH, BH,n:HT O.D:HH raycasre rrpnaepsr, CBOeB031hHH<raer H3111 paficrayer, He norrysaer HHI<aKHX nOHHTHH 0 cnpaBe,n:31HBOCTH,O B3aHMHbIX OTHOIIleHHHX 31lO.D:eH, 06 HCTHHHOH QeCTH. BOCm'ITaHI1e ero OrpaHHqHBaeTCH H3yqeHHeM ,n:BYX H31H rpex HHOCTpaHHbIX H3bIKOB H Haqa31hHbIM OCHOBaHHeM acex aayx, rrpenonasaexsrx }{aI<HM-HH6Y.D:h HaHHTbIM yxnrre- 31eM}) (XI, 44).

42

XapaHTepHOM cPHI'YPOH ,L\OMall1HerO BOCnMTaHlliI 6hVl <ppaHQY3-ryBepHep. B aafipocrce «PYCCI<Mll Tlenaa» Fl ,L\M HapTMHY TaI<OrO 05pa30BaHMH: «OTeQ HOHe'IHO MeHH mo6lln, HO BOBce 060 MHe He 5eCnOI<OMJICH M OCTaBIDI MeHH H3 noneneaae <pPaHI:(y30B, HOTOPhIX 6eCnpeCTaHHO npanaaana H orrrycxann. ITepBhIH MOH ryaepaep OKa33nCJ'I IlbHHMr(eH; BTOPO:U, qenOBeI< He rnynhIH H He 6e3 CBe,L\eHHH, lIMeJI T3I<OM 5eIlleHhIH npaa, qTO O,L\Ha)f{,L\hl qyTh He y5MJI MeHH no.neaox aa TO, qTO nponan H -repnana aa ero ml,meT; TpeTHH, npO)f{HBIllMH Y Hac uenhm rozi, 6hVl cyxacnrenllIMH, H B ,L\OMe rorna ronsreo rrorananacs 0 TOM, l<or,qa npamen OH maJIOBaTbCH AHHe Tlerpoaae na MeHH H na MHIIIeHbHY sa TO, 'ITO Mhl nO,L\rOBOpMJIH I<J10IIOB CO acero ,n:OMy He naaars eMY norcoro, H 'ITO caepxs roro qepTeHOH nOBa,n:HnCJ'I BHTh raeana B ero HOJIIIaHe» (VIII, I, 416).

PYCCHHH H3hIK, cnOBeCHOCTb H HCTOPmo, a Tal{)!{e TaHUhI, BepXOBYIO esny H cPexToBaHHe nperronasana cnenaansasre y~TeJIH,I<OTOPhIX nparvramana «no 6MJIeTaM}} (Cp.: «Bepezi xce n05pO,L\Hr, M B ,n:OM H no 6HneTaM» - «rope OT YMa», 1, 4): YqllTenh CMeHHJ1 ryaepaepa. TaH, ,L\J1H npOIICXO,L\HBIllerO H3 ,L\BOPHHCHOH ceMhM cpezmero ,L\OCT3TK3 <P. 5.[. MMpKOBHqa, xorna eMY HCnOnHMJIOCb 5 rrer, pO,L\MTeJIH B3HnH <ppaHQY3a-rYBepHepa BWh30. «baJIh30 CMOTpen norre-nrrerrsao H CTapaTeJIbHO sa MHOro H 6paTOM, Y'IHJI Hac cPpaHUY3CI<OMY H3hIHY, HOTOPhIH rorna H snan raepxce pO,L\HOrO». O,L\HaI<O, xorzta MMPKOBMqy HCrrOJIHHJIOCI> 13 rrer, eMY B3HJIH nporpeccaoaarrsaoro yqnTeJHI: «bY,lJ;PH 6hIJ1 PO,L\OM maeanapen, BhIIIHcaHHhIH B uapCTBOBaHHe EHaTepMHbI I<HH3eM CaJIThIKOBhIM AmI BOCITHTaHIDI ero CbIHa. OHOHqMB oaoe, bY,lJ;PII )f{eHMJICH aa PYCCKOM II OCTanCH. B POCCHH. OH 6hIJI PO,lJ;HOH 6paT I<pOBOmaAaoro Mapara ... » (MHpKOBMq. c. 9 M 14). 3TOT ,!l;e EY,[(PM nosrraee 6hIJI npenonaaare.nea Y Il B JIHlJ;ee.

<PpaHUY3-rYBepHep M <ppaHUY3-yqMTe_'Ih peAKO cepseano OTHOCMJ1HCh K CBOlIM ne,L\arOrM4eCKHM 06H3aHHOCTHM. Taxae JIIO,L\M, KaK )KI1Jlb6ep POMM (M3BeCTHbIH MaTeMaTMK, fIKO- 6UHeu., socnararern n. A. CTpOraHOBa), ne Bynpa, JIHHrBMCT MO,lJ;PIO (HeCMOTpH Ha pesxyro M cnpaaennaayro I<pHTMKY ero PYCCHOH rpaMMaTMI<H KapaM3MHbIM), 6bInH pe,!l;HOCThIO. He TOJ1hKO PYCCKaH carapaxecxaa .nareparypa, HO M CBH,!l;eTeJIbCTBa caMMX <ppaHUY30B, rrOCeII:(aBIIIMX PoeCIllO B KOHue XVIII - aanazre XIX BB., M306MJlYlOT aaex-

43

p;OTHqeCKHMH C006lI."(eHHHMH. TYT paCCKa3bI H 0 rppaauyae, KOTOPbIM npenonasan <ppaHUY3CKYIO rpaMMaTHKY, HO, 6yp;yqH rro,n:BeprHYT CaM rrpO<peCCHOHaJIhHOMY 3K3aMeHY, Ha sorrpoc 0 HaKJIOHeHHHX (rro-rppamryacror «xode») <ppaHUY3- CKHX rJIarOJIOB, OTBeqaJI, "ITO p;aBHO rrOKHHYJI Tlapro«, a MOP;bI TaM rrOCTOHHHO MeHHIOTCH, H 0 TOM, KaK <ppaHUY3CKHH rrOCOJI B 1770 r. Y3HaJI B Tlerepfiypre B OP;HOM y-rarerre caoero 6bIBllIero xyxepa, a HaqaJIhHHK xazrercxoro xopnyca AHraJIbT - 6bIBllIero fiapatiannmxa caoero rrOJIKa, xoroporo OH JIHqHO rrpHrOBOpHJI K TeJIeCHOMY HaMa3aHHIO .

ECJIH B XVIII B. (no <ppaHUY3cKOH peBOJIIOUHH 1789 r.) npereanearaan na yqHTeJIbCKHe MeCTa B POCCHH 6bIJIH, rJIaBHbIM o6pa30M, MeJIKHe myJIHKH H aBaHTlOpHCTbI, aKTepbI, napmesaxepsr, 6erJIble COJI,n:aTbI H rrpOCTO JIIOP;I1 neonpene.neam.tx 3aHHTI1M, TO rrOCJIe peBOJIIOUI1I1 sa rpaanuaMH <t>paHUHI1 OKa3aJII1Cb TbICHqH apI1CTOKpaTOB-3MI1rpaHTOB H B POCCHH B03HHK HOBbIH TI1rr yqHTeJIH-<ppaHUY3a. Xapaxrepm.ni ero noprper pncyer B CBOHX MeMyapax <t>. <t>. BHreJIb: « ... nain ryaepaep, ureaanse p;e-POJIeHzre- EeJIbBI1JIb, <ppaHIJ;Y3CKI1H rro,n:rrOJIKOBHI1K, qeJIOBeK JIeT copoxa, He CJII111IKOM MOJIOP;OH, YMHbIH H BeCbMa OCTOpomHbIH, ceH noaeca CTapaJICH co BceMH 6bITb JIlO6e3eH H YMeJI acex HpaBI1TbCH, CTapbIM H MOJIO,n:bIM,' rocrronax 11 ,n:ame CJIyraM. Ofixoacnenae ero co MHOIO C caMOH nepBOH MHHyTbI MeH5I rrJIeHHJIO < ... > 06 OTeqeCTBe CBoeM rOBOpHJI KaK ace <ppaHIJ;Y3bI, 6e3 qYBCTBa, HO C XBaCTOBCTBOM, 11 C cocrpananaex, 60JIee qeM C npeapeaaers, o aaurex aapsapcrae. MaJIO-rrOMaJIY npny-ran OH MeH5I BHp;eTb BO <t>paHIJ;HH npexpacnemnyro H3 3eMeJIb, BeqHO 03apeHHYlO 6JIeCKOM COJIHIJ;a H YMa, a B ee mHTeJI5IX I136paHHbIH aapozr, Hap; BceMH p;pynIMI1 rrOCTaBJIeHHbli1. PeBOJIIOIJ;HOHepbI, HOBbIe THTaHbI, rro CJIOBaM ero, TOJIhKO BpeMeHHO OBJIap;eJIH CHM OJIHMrrOM, HO norroono HM, 6y,n:YT HH3BeprHYTbI B 6e3P;HY. ITPH CJIOBe peJIB:rH5I OH C YJIbI6KOH rroTyrrJI5IJI r-naaa, He rr03BOJI5I5I ce6e orraaxo me HHqerO rrpOTI1B nee ronoprrrs ; KaK cpep;CTBOM, BH,D;HO, rro MHeHIIlO ero, rrpenefiperars eto 6bIJIO HeJIh35I (. .. > Ilocperm CHX paaronopoa anpyr na-ran OH aaaonars CO MHOIO HeCKpOMasre pexa H paCCKa3bIBaTh caasre nenpacronm,re, ztaxce OTBpaTHTeJIhHble aHeKp;OTbI (. .. > OH 6bIJI BbICOK H CYXOlI."(aB, I1MeJI caxsre MaJIeHhKHe cepsre csepxaiomae rnasa H or·POMHbIH HOC, KOTOPbIH, orrHCbIBa5I npaaarrsnyro p;yry,

44

COCTaBJUlJI -reraeprs xpyra, OH 6bIJI xpesasrxaaao OnpRTeH H HH:KOr,1J;a He nOKH,1J;aJI KpeCTH:Ka CBRToro JIa3apR, KOTOPbIH ,1J;OCTaBJIRJIH He 3aCJIyrH, a ,1J;O:Ka3aTeJIbCTBa CTapIIHHoro ,1J;BOpRHCTBa» (BHreJIb, T. I, c. 81- 82). ECJIH npH6aBHTb, qTO HMeHHO 3TOT IIIeBaJIbe pa3BHJI B BHreJIe npOTHBOeCTeCTBeHHble HaKJIOHHOCTH, KapTHHa nOJIyqHTCH ,1J;OCTaTOqHO Bblpa3HTeJIbHaR. I-!3BecTeH CJIyqaH, KOr,1J;a rrOHBHBIIIHHCR B POCCHH 6erJIbIH :KaTOp)f(HHK-cPpaHI..IY3, ,1J;eMOHCTpHpya 6yp6oHCKHH rep6 Ha CBoeM nrresre (yrOJIOBHbIM npecTynHHKaM B ,1J;OpeBOJIIO~HOHHOH <f>paH~HH nanax BbI)J{IIraJI rra nnexe KJIeHMO - KOpOJIeBCKYro JIHJIHro), yBepRJI PYCCKHX nOMe~HKOB, qTO 3THM 3HaKOM OTMeTHJIH ce6H npmnrsr KpOBH, qT06bI Y3HaBaTb npyr zrpyra B 3MH:rpa~HH. MHHMOMY rrpnany B03,1J;aBaJIHCb ,1J;OBepqHBbIMH npOBHHI1IIaJIaMIi KOpOJIeBCKlie nOqeCTH, H OH qyTb 6bIJIO He )f(eHHJICR na ,1J;OqepH caoero rocrenpaaxaoro X03RHHa (Leonce Pingaud, Les francais en Russie et les russes en France. Paris, 1886,

p. 89).

AJIbTepHaTHBoH ,1J;OMaIIIHeMY BOCmITaHHIO, ,1J;OpOrOMY H MaJIOY,1J;OBJIeTBOpIITeJIbHOMY, 6bIJIH -racrnsre naHCHOHbI H rOCY,1J;apCTBeHHble y-mnaura. l.lacTHble naHCIIOHbI, KaK II YPOKH ,1J;OMaIIIHIIX yqHTeJIeH, He HMeJIH HH 06~eH nporpaaMbI, HHKaKHX-JIH6o e,1J;HHbIX Tpe6oBaHHH. Ha O,1J;HOM nOJIIOCe 3,1J;eCb CTORJIH ,1J;OpOrOCToR~He H npHBHJIenrpOBaHHble crorraaasre naacaoasr, orxpsrrsre ,1J;JIR nocryna JIHllIb ,1J;eTRM H3 apHcTOKpaTHqeCKOrO icpyra. TaKoB 6hIJI, aanpaMep, II3BecTHbIH rraHCIiOH a66aTa HIIKOJIH. Barens ncnoMHHaJI: «TaHHbIH He3YHT, a66aT HHKOJIb, 3aBeJI B Tlerepoypre apHcTOKpaTHqeCKHH naHCHOH. OH OObRBM, "<ITO ChIHOBbR BeJIbMO)J{ O,1J;HH TOJIbKO B HeM 6Y,1J;YT aocrnrrsrBaTbCR; II CKCJJIbKO C aaxepeaaea 3arpy,1J;HHTb acrynrreaae B Hero ,1J;eTHM He60raThIX COCTOHHHH, CTOJIbKO H3 BIIAOB KOPhICTH nOJIO)J{HJI HeHMOBepHYro nrrary , e)f(erO,1J;HO no 1500 py6JIeH, HhIHeIIIHHX IIIeCTb TbICRq» (BHreJIb, T. 1., c. 91 - 92). B 3TOM yqe6HOM 3aBe,1J;eHIIH BOCnIITbIBaJIHCb 6y,1J;y~IIe ,1J;eKa6pIIcTbI M. OPJIOB H C. BOJIKOHCKHH, nera H3 apncroxparnaecxax ¢aMHJIHH: rOJIlli.J;hIHhI, HapbIIIIKHHhI, MeHIIIHKoBbI, CIO,1J;a »ce 6bIJIH OT,1J;aHbI AJIeKCaH,1J;p H KOHCTaHTHH EeHKeH,1J;OPcPhI, ChIHOBbR nOAPyrH HMrrepaTpausr MapHH <f>e,n;opoBHhI, nesnrae H3 KO)f(H, "<ITo6hI nonacrs B apncroxpararo. Hs naHCHOHa HIIKOJIH BhIIIlJII1 He TOJIbKO 6Y,1J;y~He ,1J;eKa6pHCThI, HO II 6YAY~HH IIlecp xopnyca )J{aH,1J;apMOB. HapHAY C 3<jlcpeKTHO COCTaBJIeHHOH: yqeoHoii

45

nporpaMMoil, l1e3YHTbI YMeJlO 3aHl1MaJlHCb nponaraanoa l<aTOJlI1~113Ma - MHOrHe H3 BOCnI1TaHHHl<OB B 6Y,lJ;YIII;eM cnerranacs l<aTOJlHKaMU. HUKOJlb, KOTOPbIM, «BOCnI1TbIBaH PYCCKYIO MOJlO,lJ;e>Kb, aepnrr, t.ITO TPY,lJ;HTCH TaK)Ke ,lJ;JlH <f>paHl.\HH» (Leonce Pingaud, op cit., p. 234), CYMeJI rrpunrre-rs na CBOIO CTOPOHY H PYCCKYIO apI1CTOl<paTlfIO, HaXO,lJ;I1BWYIOCH B 3Hat.IlneJlhHOM Mepe rrort BJlHHHHeM 3MHrpaHTOB - CTOPOHHHKOB «craporo pe)KHMa» (TaKHx, KaK rparpnaa rOJlOBHHa), 11 MOJlO,lJ;bIX JlH6epaJlOB H3 6J1Ii>KaMWerO OKpY>KeHHH Anexcannpa I, H TaKI1X 3aB3HTbIX aparoa raJIJlOMaHlIH, KaK PaCTOnt.IHH, nl1CaBlIIHM ewy: «Korna pens H,lJ;eT 0 rep6ax HJlH Kat.IeCTBe amra, H OXOTHO COBeTYIOCh C r~** H r. ***. Ho, xorrta zterro xacaerca BocnHTaHHH, H ofipautatocs K BaM, r. a66aT. Ha,lJ;eIOCb, t.ITO 3THM H ,lJ;OKa3aJl BaM, HaCKOJlbl<O H JlI06JlIO Moe ,lJ;HTH» (Leonce Pingaud, op cit, p. 235). Tl MHoroe 3HaJl 0 naHCHOHe HHl<OJlH. 11 He TOJlbKO no pasroaopax COBpeMeHHHKOB - ero caaoro B 1811 r. C06HpaJlHCb noMeCTHTb B «l1e3YHTCKHM xorrner-nya B Tlerepoypre». B < Ilporpaxae aBT06Horpa<pHI1) Il sanncan: «Mena Be3YT B I1.<eTep)B.<ypr) E3YHTbI. Typreaes. Jlauen» (XII, 308).

Ha npyroa nOJIIOCe HaXO,lJ;HJlHCb nJlOXO opranasoaaansre npOBUH~HaJIbHble naHCHOHbl. I1pe,lJ;CTaBJleHHe 0 HHX ,lJ;aIOT BOCnOMHHaHHH B. H. Kapnona 0 xapbKOBCKHX naHCHOHax aanana XIX B.: «I1aHcHoH 5.[l<HMOBa nrerr B napanne.ns C naHCHOHOM ,lJ;JIH ,lJ;eBHU. B 3TOM naHCHOHe yt.IHJIUCb THXOHbKO, He enema, a Me)K,lJ;y TeM C ycnexox nepexo,lJ;HJlH H3 xrracca B KJlaCC na panocrs pO,lJ;I1TeJlHM H na nOJlb3Y OTet.IeCTBY. Ho 3TOT naHCl10H He,lJ;OJIrO CYIII;eCTBOBaJl H 6bIJI saxpsrr BCJIe,lJ;CTBl1e rrpoacnrernnea B OCHOBHHCKOM fiopy ,lJ;Y3JlH Ha,lJ;3HpaTeJlH <f>eMep3eHa C yt.IHTeJIeM reorparpna <PI1JlaTKHHbIM aa xpacaamry >KeHY 5.[l<HMOBa < ... > I1aHcHoH «Heana» fionee ztpyrax rpefiyer, t.ITo6bI na HeM OCTaHOBHTbCH. 0 «Hexne» XO,lJ;HJlH rorna nereazrsr, 6Y,lJ;TO OH 6blJl rrpasesea CTapHl{OM KY3HHblM B POCCHIO B rcat.IeCTBe KaMep,lJ;HHepa. I10 XO,lJ;aTaMCTBY KY3HHa OH 6bIJI sanacaa na pyCCKyIO cnY>K6y H, norrycmanra nepBblM t.IHH, IIOJlyt.IHJl npaao na OTKpblTHe naHCHOHa < ... > 3TO 6bIJI <renoaex BbICOl<OrO pOCTa, XY,lJ;OM, C >KeJITbIM n~OM, paanpaxcrrensasra, CYPOBblM na BH,lJ;, C Ce,lJ;bIMH, HaBHClllHMH na rrraaa 6pOBHMH 11 C aecsaa nJIOXl1M MHeHl1eM o PYCCKHX ,lJ;eTHX. OH HX OTKpblTO Ha3bIBaJl aar.nenaaa H 6e3,lJ;apHbIMH >KHBOTHbIMH. «Die russischen Kinder das

46

ist etwas unmogliches, datum sie sind alle dummkopfig l» (<<pyccK11e ,neT11 - STO He~ITO HeB03MO}l{HOe, . ace ·OHH rynorOJIOBhIe») - 6hIJI ero rrOCTORHHhll: H 06hll{HOBeHHhrn OT3bIB o acex PYCCKHX nerax. I1 BOT 3TOMY JIHll:Y 11 6hIJIO apy-reao socnaraane pyccxoro IOHOllIeCTBa. Benaoe pyccxoe roaourecrac!» (Kapnoa B. H. BocnoMHHaHHR; Illarroa HHK. HCTOPHR Moeii mH3HH. M. - JI., 1933, c. 148 -149).

B 3HaqHTeJIhHO 60JThilleM rroparuce HaXO)J.HJIHCh rocynapCTBeHHhIe YQe6HhIe 3aBe,neHHR.

BOJIhllIlIHCTBO PYCCl{IIX ,nBOPRH no Tpa.nHUII11 rOTOBHJIH CBOHX .neTeH: l{ BoeHHOMY nonpanty. ITo YKa3Y 21 MapTa 1805 r. B ofieax CTOJI~aX 11 pazte rrpOBHHU11aJIbHhIX roponos (CMOJIeHCKe, K11eBe, Bopoaexce II np.) 6hIJIH OTKphIThI HaqaJIhHhle aoeaasre yqHJUll:Qa B KOJI11qeCTBe «IS POT». B HHX 3aqIICJIRJI11Ch .neT11 «OT 7 no 9-JIeTHero B03paCTa, xoropsre, npofisns B yxaname 7 JIeT, nepeaonarca . ,IJ;JIH nosepnreaaa BOCmlTaHHR B BhICllI11e Ka,IJ;eTCKHe KOpnyca. ,L(JIH OKOHQaHHH soeaaoro BOCnHTaHIDI firraroponaoe lOHOllIeCTBO nocrynaer B ,IJ;Ba BhICllI11e xanercxae xopnyca B Flerepoypre» (fI6JIoqKOB M., UIIT. COq., c. 603). Kpoae ,IJ;ByX - Ilepaoro H Broporo - nerepoyprcxnx Ka,IJ;eTCHHX KOpnyCOB, cperraee aoeanoe o6pa30BaHIIe MOJIO,IJ;bIe JIlO,IJ;H MOrJI11 ncnyxars B naacecxoxi xoprryce, B T. H. «)l,BOPRHCKOM nOJIKY» (B 6Y,IJ;ylll,eM KOHcTaHTHHoBcKoe aoennoe YQHJI11I.U;e), B MOPCKOM Ka.neTCKOM xopnyce IIJI11 B WKOJIe KOJIOHHOBOmaThIX - YQe6HOM aaaeneaan )J.JUI nO.r\rOTOBKH KBaJImp11U11pOBaHHhlx urratiasrx odmuepoa. I101{a3aTeJIhHO, QTO 113 456 JI~, BHeceHHbIX B «AJIcPaBIIT .neKa6pHCTOB» - cnHCOK JI~, xoropsre np11BJIeHaJIHCb K CJIe.nCTBllO no ,neny .neKa6pIICTOB, COCTaBJIeHHhIH: .nJIR HHHOJIaR I no HHIIU11aTlIBe BeHKeH.r\0PcPa, - 125 OKOHQHJI11 aoeansre saae,neH11R: 30 QeJI. - MOPCKOH: xopnyc, 28 - naxcecxan (cpenn HHX - ITecTeJIb), 24 - IlIKOny KOJIOHHOBOmaTblX (cpena H11X - H. Bacaprna, ApTaMoH Mypassea, H. RPIOKOB, IT. Myxanoa H np ). PbIJIeeB 3aKOHQIUI fIepBbll: KaAeTCKHM xopnyc,

,UJIH I10JlYQeHHH nepsorc ocPHI.J;epCKOro QHHa He 06H- -. 3aTeJIhHO 6bIJIO Hl,leTb soeaaoe 06pa30BaH11e. soeaasie HayKH npenO,IJ;aBaJIIICb B pane rpaacnaacxax YQe6HbIX 3aBe.neHHM, a nexoropsre 113 .nBOpRH 6paJI11 ,IJ;OMaIlImIe YPOKH HJIH CJIYWaJI11 -racmsre JIeKUH11 no BoeHHbIM npenxeran CZY.neHT 113 ,nBOpHH no YKa3Y 3 HOR6pH 1806 r. JIHIllb IpH MeCHI.J;a CJIymHJI PH.r\OBhIM II IpH MeCRua nozmpa-

49

rropW;HKOM, rrOCJIe LIerO rrOJIYLIaJI o<j:muepCKHH LIHH. Tlpaana, B O,o:HOM H3 CaMbIX nepasrx CBOUX YKa30B (8 arrpena 1801 r.!) AJIeKcaH'[(p I rrOBeJIeJI <<HerpaMOTHbIX (,o:BOp51H./0. lI.) npmmaars P51,[(OBbIMH».

Boeaaoe norrpmne rrpe,[(cTaBJI51JIOCb HaCTOJIbKO eCTeCTBeHHbIM .[(JI51 ,[(BOp51HHHa, LITO OTCYTCTBHe ::ITOH LIepTbI B 6HOrpa<j:mH ,[(OJI)f{HO 6bIJIO UMeTb KaKOe-JIu60 CrrCUHaJIbHOe 06b51CHeHUe: 60JIe3Hb UJIH cPU3HLIeCKHH He,[(OCTaTOK, CKYnocrs pO,[(HTeJIeH, He ,[(aBaBIlIYlO onpenenars CbIHa B r"Bap,[(HIO (B coe,[(UHeHHU C cPaMUJIbHbIM LIBaHCTBOM, OTBepraBIlIHM CJIHIlIKOM {(HH3KYlO» xapsepy apxeacxoro OcPUuepa), cPaMHJIbHble CB513H B ,o:HIIJIOMaTHLIeCKOM MHpe. EOJIbIlIHHCTBO IIITaTCKHX LIHHOBHHKOB HJIH HCCJIY)f{aW;HX ,o:BOp51H HMCJIH B caoeit 6HorpacPHH XOTH 6bI KpaTKHH nepnon, rcorna OHU HOCHJIU BoeHHbIH MYH,[(Hp . .uOCTaTOLIHO rrpoCMOTPCTb crrHCOK 3HaKOMbIX Tl, LIT06bI y6e,[(UTbC51, LITO OH 6bIJI H B Flerepfiypre rrOCJIe JIHIJ;e51, U B KHIlIHHCBe, H B Onecce OKpY)f{eH BoeHHbIMH - cperm ero 3HaKOMbIX JIUllib e,o:HHHIJ;bI aaxorna He HOCHJIH MYH,[(Hpa.

Ha TaKOM cPoHe 6HorpacPHH OHerHHa npnofiperana neMOHCTpaTHBHbIH OTTeHOK, YCKOJlb3alOW;HH OT BHHMaHHH coepexeaaoro LIuTateJIH. IIoKa3aTeJIbHo, LITO B ofipase XpOHOJIOrHLIeCKH U THrrOJIOrHLIeCKH 6JIH3KOrO K OHenIHY LJaIJ;KOrO yrarrsrsanocs nenaaaee BOCHHOC nponinoe (<<Hc B rrpOIIIJIOM JIU rony, B KOHIJ;C, B rrOJIKY Tc6H 51 3HaJI?» - III, 6). IlHcbMo Il A. A. EecTY)f{eBY, B KOTOPOM 0 MOJILIaJIUHe CKa3aHO: «IIlTaTcKHll: TPYC B 60JIbIlIOM CBCTe MC)f{,o:y LJaIJ;KUM U CKaJI03y6oM Mor 6hITb OLIeHb 3a6aBCH»,rroxaasrsaer, LITO rrOHHTUC «IlITaTCKUH» coe,[(HH51JIOCb ,o:JIH aaropa EO C MOJILIaJIHHbIM, HO He C LJaUKuM (CM. XIII, 138).

Xapaxrep o6pa30BaHH51 6bIJI, KaK npanano, CB513aH C TeJl.l pO,o:OM CJIY)f{6hI, ,[(JI51 KOTOPOH po,o:HTeJIH IIpc,o:Ha3Hat.J:aJIIr csoero CbIHa. lliTaTCKa51 cJIY)f{6a B rrpCCTH)f{HOM OTHOIIICHHH CT051JIa 3HaLIHTeJIhHO HH}f{C BoeHHoH. Oznrarco B ee npenerrax HMCJIHCb cyrnecrsemnae OTJIHLIH51 C TOLIKH 3PCHHH ueHHOCTH B rJIa3aX COBpeMeHHHKOB.· K HaH60JIce «6JIaroponasra» OTHOCUJIU ,o:HrrJIOMaTHLICCKYJ:O CJIY}f{6y. rOrOJIb B «HeBcKoM npocnexre» HPOHULICCKH IIHCaJ1, LITO LIUHOBHHKH UHOCTpaHl-IOHKOJIJIerHH «OTJIHLIaJ:OTCH "6JIaropO,[(CTBOM CBOHX 3aH51THH H IIPHBhILICK», H BOCKJIHuaJI: «Boxce, KaKHe ecrt, rrpexpacnsre ,[(OJI}f{HOCTH H CJIY)f{6bI! KaK OHH B03BhIIlIalOT H YCJIa)f{,o:aJ:OT' ,o:YIIIY!»

48

lllTaTcI<MMM BbICIlIMMM Ytfe6HbIMM 3aBe,o:eHMJIMM 6blJ1H YHMBepCMTeTbI. B na-rane XIX B. HX 6bIJlO B POCCMH nJITh: MOCKOBC!nrH, ,UepnTCI<MH, BMJIeHCKHH, Ka3aHcI-{MH l!I XaphKOBCKMH. ITPM YHHBepCHTeTaX HMeJIMCh ncnroroBMTeJIhHble ytfHJIMI~a - naHCMOHbI. HaM60JIee M3BeCTHbiM 6bIJI naHCHOH npa MOCKOBCKOM YHHBepCHTeTe, B KOTOPOM ytfMJIHCh 6paThJI Typreaeasr, >KYKOBCKHH, I'paooenoa H MHorMe npyrne 3HaKOMble Il. Brraropozmsre naHCMOHhI (naacaoasr ,o:JIJI ,o:BOPJIHCKMX neren) HMeJIHCh H npn npyrnx ytfe6HhIX 3aBe,o:eHMJIX asrcnrero rnrra : npn UapCKOeeJIbeKOM rmuee, fJIaBHOM nenaror-axecxoa MHCTMTYTe B ITerepfiypre.

ITPM BCTynJIeHMH B cJIym6y TaI<He me rrpasa, I<aK H YHHBepCI1TeTbI, ,o:aBaJIM JIM[(eH: neMH,o:oBCI<HH B 5.[pOCJIaBJIe (KaH,o:H,o:aTbI - TaK HMeHOBaJIMCh OKOHtfMBiliHe JIHu:eII e OTJIHqHeM - BCTyrraJIH B cJIym6y tfHHOBHMI<aMH 12-ro KJIaCCa, a OCTaJIhHble crynenrsr - 14-ro), UapCKOCeJIbCI<MH (OKOHtfHBIIIHe BCTyrraJIM B cnyxcoy C tfHHaMH «or 14-ro KJIaCCa no 9-ro», «CMOTPJI rro ycnexasi»), a noaxce >HemMHCKHH l:'I PHilleJIheBCKHH (B Onecce), ITo YKa3Y 1817 r. YtfeHHKH Flerepfiyprcxoji rHMHa3MH nOJIYtfHJIH npaao acrynars B cnym6y B tfHHe 14-ro xrracca.

Tepoii rrYIIIKMHCKoro poxaaa rrOJIytfMJI TOJIhKO noxanmee 06pa30BaHMe. CJIe).:(yeT rrorraepsoryrs, <ITO OTHOIIIeHHe II K TaKOMY BocrrHTaHHIO 6blJ10 pe3I<0 oTpHu;aTeJIhHbIM. B 3anacxe ,o:JIJI HHKOJIaH I B· 1826 r. rr03T rrHCaJI xareropavecror: «Hexero KOJIe6aThCJI: BO qTO 6hI TO HB CTaJIO nOJImHO rrcnaaars aocmrraaae xacraoe» (XI, 44).

OHerMH, KaK yxce 6bIJIO CKa3aHO, nnxorna He HOCMJI soeaaoro MYH,[(Hpa, qTO BbI,o:eJIfIJIO ero H3 tfHCJIa CBepCTHHKOB, BCTpeTHBIIIMx 1812 r. B aospacre 16-17 JIeT. Ho TO, <ITO OH Bo06I.I(e aaxorzra narne He CJIymMJI, He MMeJI mncaxoro, name caaoro HH3IIIero qHHa, peIIIHTeJIhHO neJIaJIO Oaernaa 6eJIoii: B0POHOH B xpyry COBpeMeHHHKOB 1.

1 JI. H. KHCeJIeBa, rrpoaepasmaa 6Horpaqnm scex COBpeAleHHIU(OB IT, pOgHBllIllXCR B HHTepBaJIe Me)!(gy 1794 H 1798 rr., no CrrpaBO'lHIlKY 11. A. tIepeil:cKoro «ITYlllKHH Hero oxpyxceaae» (acero 137 611orpaq:mM, OXBaTblBaIOllIllX rcpyr pearrsasrx )!(H3HeHHblX Ha6JIIOgeHllH aaropa EO), YCTaHOBllJIa, 'ITO cpezm HllX HeT Hll onsoro LfeJIOBeKa, KOTOPbrM 6bl aaxorna He CJIY)!(IlJI H He HMeJI aaxaxoro LfHHa. ITOgaBJIRIOllIee 60JIbUlHHCTBO H3 HllX YLfllJIllCb B paarnmasrx YLfe6HblX aaaezreaasx, a He orpaaa-raaanacs TOJIbKO gOMaUlHIlM 06pa30BaHlleM. ITOJIb3YIOCb CJlYLfaeM rroforarozrapars JI. H. KHCeJIeBY, JII06e3HO lIogeJIHBUlYIOClI CO MHOM pe3YJIbTaTaMH CBOHX passrcxanaa.

49

Maaacpecroe Ilerpa III OT 18 cPeBpaJUI 1762 r . .u.BOPHHCTBO 6hIJ10 oCB060)f{.u.eHo OT o6H3aTeJIbHOH CJIY)f{6hI I1paBMTeJIbCTBO EKaTepMHhI II nhITaJIOCh YKa30M OT 11 cpeBpaJIH 1763 r. npnocraaoaars neacrane MaHMcpecTa M cnenars CJIY)f{6y BHOBh o6H3aTeJIhHoH. YKa3 1774 rona nonraepnnn o6H3aTeJIbHOCTb BoeHHoH CJIY)f{6hI .u.JIH .u.BOPHHCKHX aenopocrreit. O,lJ;HaKO )l(aJIO-BaHHaH ,lJ;BOPHHCTBY rpaxora 1785 r. BHOBb aepayrra ,lJ;BOpHHaM ((BOJIhHOCTb» CJIY)f{HTh M OCTaBJIHTh CJIY)f{6y - KaK rpa)f{,lJ;aHCKYlO, Tal< M BoeHHYlO - no CBoeMY npOM3BOJIy.

TaKHM 06pa30M, HeCJIY)f{arn;MH ,lJ;BOPHHMH <popMaJIbHO He napyuran 3aKOHOB MMnepHM. O,lJ;Hal<O ero nOJIO)f{eHMe B 06rn;eCTBe 6hIJ10 COBeplIIeHHO OC06hIM. CaTHpMqeCKaH .nnreparypa M ny6JIM[(HCTHKa XVIII B. C03.u.aJIH rpananaso OTO)f{,lJ;eCTBJIeHMH rocynapcraeaaoa CJIY)f{6hI M oomecraeanoro CJIY)f{eHMH. I10HBMJIaCb YCJIOBHaH MaCKa necnyxcaurero nernaerpa, TYHeH,lJ;[(a H 3rOHCTa. Erne I10COIIIl<OB HPOHM3HpOBaJI no noaony ,lJ;BOPHH, xoropsre «B CJIY)f{6y aarmcaasr H HH na l<aKOH cJIY)f{6e He 6hlBamm, «.u.OMO cocezrax CBOHM CTpalIIeH HKO JIeB, a na cny)f{6e xyxce K03h!» CI10COIIIKOB II. T. KHMra 0 CKY,lJ;OCTH H 60raTCTBe H npyrae COqlmeHMH. M., 1951, c. 98 H 94-95).

I1paBHTeJIbCTBO raroxe aecsxa OTpH[(aTeJIbHO CMOTpeJIO aa YKJIOHHlOrn;erOCH OT CJIY)f{6hI H He HMelOrn;ero aaxaxoro qHHa .u.BopHHMHa. II B CTOJIH[(e, H na nOqTOBOM rpaxre OH ,lJ;OJI)f{eH 6hIJI rrponycxars anepen JIH[(, OTMeqeHHhIX qHHaMH. ECJIH OH BhmY)f{.u.eH 6hIJ1 ace »ce BCTynHTb B CJIY)f{6y, TO paCCqHThIBaTb na xopouree MeCTO eMY He npnXO.u.HJIOCb. Tare, nanpnaep, M. C. BOPOH[(OB C HBHhIM npeaecpexceaaea npmcassrsan 1 HlOHH 1822 r. «narne He CJ1Y)f{HBlIIerO ,lJ;BOpHHHHa BaC<HJIHH) TYMaHCKoro» onpeneJIMTb B xaanenaparo 6e3 )f{aJIOBaHMH CI1yrnl<MH. CTaThM H MaTepMaJIhI, asm. III. Onecca, 1927, c. 90), XOTH TyMaHCKHH 3aKOHqHJI yqHJIHrn;e B Flerepfiypre H College de France B Tlapaxce M 6hIJ1 3aMeTHhIM .JIHTepaTopOM. Exarepnna II, npo-nrraa B nOl<a3aHHHX apecroaaaaoro HoBHKOBa, qTO, npOCJIY)f{MB scero lIIeCTh JIeT, OH BhIlIIeJI B OTCTaBl<Y 24 rrer OT pony nopynaxoa, pasnpaaceano nncana: «Mo)f{HO CKa3aTh, qTOHHr,lJ;e He crryxcan, H B OTCTaBKY nOlIIeJI MOJIO.u.OH xenoaex < ... ), CJIe.u.OBaTeJIbHO, He MCnOJIHHJI nonry crryxeeaaex HH rocynapio, HH rocynapcray» (HoBMKOB HvH, 1l36p. cox. M. - JI., 1951, c. 606).

50

HaKOHeQ, crryssfia OpraHHqeCKH BXO,n;Hna B ,n;BOpfIHCKOe nOHfITHe qeCTH, CTaHOBHCb QeHHOCTbIO ::nMqeCKOrO nopanxa M CBfI3bIBaflCb C naTpMOTH3MOM. Flpeztcraaneaae 0 crryxcfie KaK BbICOKOM cnyxceaan 06ru;eCTBeHHOMY 6JIary H npOTHBOrrOCTaBJIeHHe ee npHCJIymHBaHHIO «nHQaM)} (aro =raute BceI'O asrpaxcanocs B npOTHBonOCTaBJIeHHH rrarpaoTHqeCKOM CJIym6bI OTeqeCTBY aa norrax cpaxceaaa rrpnCJIY}l{HBamnO «CHJIbHbIM» B 3aJ1aX ,n:BOPIIa) C03,n:aBaJIO nepexo,n; OT ,n;BOpHHCKoro rraTpHOTH3Ma K ,n;eKa6pHCTCKOU ¢opMyne qaIIKoI'o «CJ1ymHTb 6bl pan, npacrryxcaaarsca romHO» (II, 2).

11. 11. ITyru;MH, rosopa aaropy EO 0 CBoeM BCTYTIJIeHMH B raaaoe .ofitnecrao CJ10BaMIi: « ... He 51 o,n;MH nocrynan B 3TO HOBoe CJrymeHHeOTeqeCTBY» (ITYIIIKMH B BocnOMMHaHHflX COBpeMeHHHKOB, T. 1, c. 108), norrrepxaaan rrpeeMCTBeHHOCTb Mem,n;y «crapstx», 6oeBbIM, Ii «HOBhIM», peBOJ1IOIIHOHHbIM, cnyxceanea OTeqeCTBY. 11TaK, CKJIa,n;bIBaJ1aCb MOIIIHafl, HO CJIO}f{Hafl Ii BHyTpeHHe rrpornaopeqHBafl rpananaa oTPMIIaTeJIbHOrO OTHOIIIeHHfl K «aecrryxcanreay ,n;BOpflHHHY».

Onaaxo 6bIJIa Ii npoTHBOII0J10mHafl (X0T51 H 3HaqHTeJ1bHO MeHee CHJ1bHaH) rpannnaa. Erne HOBI1KOB npOTMBOnOCTaBI1J1 narpocy rocynapcrseaaoa cJrym6bI I1,n;eIO opraHI130BaHHblX YCHmm: «npI1BaTHbIXH rnorrea. B n033HI1 ,UepmaBMHa CTaJ1KI1BaJIllCb narpoc rocyrtapcraeaaoro CJIy»cenaa H n033I1fl qaCTHOro cyrnecrsosaaaa. O,lJ;HaI<O, nomaJ1YM, I1MeHHO KapaM3I1H cnerran anepnsre OTI<a3 OT rocynapcraeaaoa CJIym6hI npenxeroa rr03TH3aIII1I1 B crnxax, 3ByqaBIIII1X ,n;JIfl csoero BpeMeHH ,n;OCTaTOqHO ,n;ep3KO:

... B BOHHe ,£Io6pa He BM,£III,

B 'IlIHOBHbIX ropneuax 'lMHbI B03HeHaBM,£III, BJlO)f{MJI CBOH Met{ B· HO)f{HbI

(<<POCCMII, TOp)f{eCTBYH, - CKa3aJl II, - 6e3 MeHII!» ) ... (KapaM3MH, c. 170).

To, qTO Tpa,n;Ml.(I10HHO 6hIJIO rrpe,lJ;MeTOM aananox C CaMhIX pa3HhIX n03MIIMM, CaTHpHqeCKH 06JII1qaJIOCb KaI< 3rOM3M H OTCYTCTBne J1I06BH K 06rn;ecTBY, aeoxcanaaao npaooperaJIO I<OHryPhI 60Pb6hI sa JII1qHYIO HesaBI1CI1MOCTb, OTCTaI1BaHMfl npasa qeJ10BeKa caMOMY onpenenars POA CBOI1X saaaTI1M, CTPOMTb CBOIO mH3Hb He3aBI1CMMO OT rocynapcrneaaoro nansopa I1JIH pyTI1HhI npOTOnTaHHhIX rryrea, Ilpaao He

51

CJIyml1Tb, 6bITb {(CaM 60JIbIIIOM» (VI, 201) 11 OCTaBaTbCH BepHbIM <<HaYKe nepsoa» - umums caMO,O ceii« (III, 1, 193) CTaJIO sanoaensro 3peJIOrO [J. 113BeCTHo, KaK ynopao 3aCTaBJIHJI Hl1KoJIaM I CJIyml1Tb BH3eMC}WrO B MHHHCTepCTBe cpHHaHCOB, Tepueaa - B npOBl1H~HaJIbHOM KaH~eJIHpHH, TIOJ1emaeBa - B COJIp;aTaX, 11 K KaKHM rparaaecxaa nOCJIeACTBHHM rrpnaerra caxoro [J npansopaaa cJIym6a.

B CBeTe cxaaaaaoro BHP;HO, ao-nepnsrx, qTO TO, qTO OHerHH anxorna He CJIymHJI, He HMeJI qHHa, He 6bIJIO HeBamHbIM H CJ1yqaMHbIM rrpH3HaKOM - 3TO saxoraa H 3aMeTHaH COBpeMeHHHKaM qepTa. BO-BTOPbIX, qepTa 3Ta no-paaaouy rrpOCMaTpHBaJIaCb B CBeTe pa3JIHqHbIX xyrisrypHbIX nepcnexrna, 6pocaH aa repoa TO CaTHpHqeCKHM, TO rrryfoxo HHTHMHbIM P;JIH aaropa OTCBeT.

He MeHee 6eCCHCTeMHbIM xapaxrep HOCHJIO o5pa30BaHHe M0J10,r:(OM P;BOPHHKl1. Cxeva noxanrnero BocrrHTaHHH 6bIJIa ra me, qTO H rrpn HaqaJ1bHOM o5yqeHHH MaJ1bqHKa-,r:(BOpHHHHa: H3 pyx xperrocraoa HHHlOIIIKH, aaxeaasmea B 3TOM cnysae xpenocrnoro P;H,D;bKY, neaomca nocrynana nort Ha,D;30p rYBepHaHTKH - qa~e scero ¢paH~ymeHKH, nnorna aHrJIHqaHKH. B cexsax, rzre HaHHTb xoponryro rYBepHaHTxy He 6bIJ10 Cpe,D;CTB, a nars neaymxe 06pa30BaHHe ace me CqHTaJIH Heo6xop;HMbIM (HeMaJIO 6blflO H P;BOPHHOK, nOJIyqMBIIIHX JIHIUb caMoe HaqaJIbHOe 06pa30BaHHe OT KaKoro}IH5Y,D;b CeJIbCKOrO p;bHqKa H ensa yMelO~Hx qHTaTb H nacars), npafierana K rrOMoIIJ;H rraHCHOHOB.

HaH60JIee M3BeCTHbIMH rocynapcrseaasrxa yqe6HbIMH 3aBep;eHHHMH aroro rana 6bIJIH CMOJIbHbIM HHCTHTYT 6JIaroPO,D;HhIX neann H aHaJIOrHqHbIM eMY EKaTepHHHHCKHM

._HHCTHTYT. 3TH npaaanerapoaaam.re saxpsrrsre yqe6Hble 3aBep;eHHH HMeJIH crre~HcpHqeCKHM xapaxrep. C O,r:(HOM CTOPOHbI, COCTaB HX B 3HaqHTeJIbHOM Mepe nOrrOJIHHJIH neaynnca H3 MaJIoo6ecrreqeHHhIX ,D;BOPHHCKHX ceMeM, pop;HTeJIH KOTOPbIX CMOrJ1H HaMTH 3acTYrrHHKoB npn nsope. C p;pyrOM - orrpezteneaaoa qaCTH BbIIIyCKH~ 6bIJ1H o6ecnexeasr npanaopnsre p;OJImHOCTH cppeMJIHH HJ1H asrronsr, CBH3aHHhle C JIHqHbIM rroKpOBHTeJIbCTBOM HMnepaTpHJ.U>I MapHH cPep;opOBHbI. Cp;eJIaBIIIHCb nOCJIe cMepru EKaTepHHhI I I nOKpOBHTeJIbHH~eM 3Tl1X yqe6HhIX 3aBep;eHHM, MapHH cPep;opoBHa BHeCJIa B HX mH3Hb MeJIOqHYlO onexy. OHa {(OCMaTpHBaJIa C nor no rOJIOBhI, eM nOKa3hIBaJIHCb PYI(l1, 3y6hI, YIIIH» (Csrapaoaa-Poccer A. O. ABT06HorpacpHH. M., 1931, c. 82).

S2

.upyrylO B03MO)f{HOCTb rrpegcTaBJUIJIM xacrasze naHCHOHhI. I1MeHHo raxoe BOCnHTaHMe Il nan reponne rr03MhI «Tpadi HYJIlIH}):

... K HeCLIaCTblO,

HaTaJIbH ITaBJIOBHa COBceM Caoeti X03Hii:cTBeHHOlO LIaCTblO He 3aHHManaCH; 3aTeM,

LJ: TO He B OTeLIeCKOM 3aKOHe OHa socnaraaa 6blJla,

A B 6JIarOpO,D;HOM rraHCHOHe

Y 3MHrpaHTKI'! ¢anb6ana (V, 4) ..

B MeMyapax TOH nopsr MhI HaxogIIM nnrepecasre ormcaana TaKHX IIaHCHOHOB. B KaT.IeCTBe oco6oro nperixera TaM IIpeIIogaBaJIMCb CBeTCKMe MaHephI, IIpMT.IeM rpeaapoaxa CTpOllJIaCb rro BceM npaanrraa TeaTpaJIbHhIX penernI..(MH : nocnaramransr B YT.Ie6HbIX CI..(eHKaX paay=raaana TIIIIllqHhle cMTyaI..(MM CBeTCKoro noaezrenaa.

«Ha-ransnaua acrpexana MX B 60JIbillOM percpeamroaHOM 3aJIe M 3aCTaBJUlJIa nponensnsars paanasmsre nplleMhI M3 CBeTCKOH )f{M3HM.

- Hy, MMJ1aH, - rOBOpMJ1a HaqaJ1bHMI..(a, ofipautaacs K BOCIIllTaHHllI..(e, - B BailleM gOMe CMgMT rOCTb - MOJIOgOH qeJ10BeK. BhI gOJI)f{HhI BbIHTM K HeMY, QTo6hI IIpOBeCTII C HMM BpeMH. KaK BhI ::lTO gOJ1)f{HhI cnenars? < ... )

3aTeM geBllI..(hI TO 6ygTO npOBO)f{aJ1II rOCTH, TO 6ygTO gaBaJ1ll COrJIaCMe aa Ma3ypKY, TO carmrracs nrpars, no npocsfie xananepa, TO BCTpeQaJ1II H BIIgaJIHCh C 6a6YllIKOH IIJIH C gegYIIlKOH» (Kapnos B. H. YK. COQ., c. 142 - 143).

TaKHM o6pa30M Bhlpa6aThIBaJ1CH rnn ABoHHoro noaegeHllH - TeaTpaJ1H30BaHHoro B «rrapannsrx» cirryanaax II «ncaeuraxsero» B o6hIgeHHblx, npUL!e."¥1 nepaoe gOMHHHpOBaJ10 go 3aMY)f{eCTBa, aropoe - rrocrre.

Il K0J1e6aJ1CH B TOM, KaKOH THII BOCITHTaHllH rtars gOQepHM Ilpacxoasn JIapHHoH. I1poHHQeCKlle CTPOKll «Tpa¢a HYJIllHa» 6hIJ1H aarmcaasr B CPOKH, 6J1H3KHe K pafiore nan I..(eHTpaJ1bHhIMII rJ1aBaMll poxaaa, B KOTOPhIX sarpar-aBaJ1aCb rewa 06pa30BaHllH TaTbHHhI II Orrsra. Ormaxo rJIy60KaH pa3HHI..(a B OTHOIIleHHII aaropa K reponaaa 3TllX ,[(ByX IIpoII3BegeHHH acxmo-rarra B03MO}f{HOCTb O,[(IIHaKOaoro BOCIIIITaHHH. ITepBOHaQaJ1bHO II gYMaJI sootinte nars CBOH)1 repOHHHM '-IllCTO OTeQeCTBeHHoe ofipasoaaaae :

HH nypa AHrmmCr.:OlI noportsr HH caoeapasaaa Maasens

(B POCCHI'! rro YCTaBa.\\ [MO,!lblj Heoexonasisre AOCeJIb)

He 6anOBanH Orrsra MHJIOii: ¢a,n:eeBHa PYKOlO - xanoa

Ee xa LIana KonbI6enb Crnana eii: ,!leTCKYlO IIOCTenb ITOMl'IJIyil MH qHTaTb YLIHna Fynarra C nero, cpens HO'leii:

Eo By paccxassraana eii:

(VI, 287 - 288).

53

O,n:HaKO B nansaeaurev (O,n:HOBpeMeHHO C nepeaeceaaea CIO)l{eTHOrO axnerrra c OJIbrl1 aa TaTMlHY) xaparcrep aocmrraana H3J11eHI1JICH. KYJIbTYPHbIH o6JII1l< TaTbHHbI 6bIJI npl16JII1)l{eH x xpyroaopy cocenox aaropa no Ml1XaHJIOBCl<OMY - TpnrOpCl<I1X 6apbIIlleHb. XOTH Il H czte.nan crapuryro J1apI1HY Te3l<OH Ilpacxoasa OCHnOBOH, 3TO 6blJIH, xonesmo, »ceantaasr COBeprneHHO pa3JIHqHOrO KYJIhTYpHorO cxnana . .uOqh BbIH,n:OMCKoro, COTPy,n:HHKa «Beceztyrouiero rpaaoraaaaa», yneaaxa H. 11. HOBHKOBa H 3HaKOMoro A. H. Parraniesa, OCHnOBa He TOJIbKO CMOrJIa .n;06HThCH, 'lTo6bI ee no-repa B I1CKOBCKOH rytiepaaa BblPOCJIH JIHTepaTYPHO 06pa30BaHHbIMH, BJIa.n;elOI..QH1I1H <pPaHIzy3CKI1JI1 H aHrJIHHCKHM H3bIKaMH, HO H caaa, 3peJIOH )l{eHI..QHHOH, tTIpo.n;OJI)l{aJIa caoe 06pa30BaHHe. 3THM OHa HapYIllHJIa rnepnoe y6e)l{,n:emre CBoeH cpezrsr, 'ITO CaMOn;eJIbHbIH HHrepec K HaYKe ,n:OCTOHH JIHIIIb pasao-raana, naopaaaa )l{e yqHTCH no ncnyxeaaa nepaoro qHHa, a nsopaarca - JIl1IIIb no 3aMY)l{eCTBa(BepHee, no aanana asresnon {(B CBeT»). Hapyureane aroro npasana n03BOJIaJIOCh JIHIlIb B OT.n;eJIbHbIX cnyxaax KaK qy.n;aqeCTBO 60JIbIllOrO BeJIbMO)l{H HJIH «axazteaaxa B xerme».

I1oKa3aTeJIbHO, onaaxc: 3aCBI1.n;eTeJIbCTBOBaB, 'ITO

TaTbHHa B COBepIIIeHCTBe 3HaJIa <ppaHn;Y3CKHH a3bIK, 11, CJIe.n;OBaTeJIbHO, 3aCTaBHB Hac npennonarars HaJIH'lHe B ee )l{H3HH ryaepaaa'nca-rppaauyaceaxa, aBTOp npermonen npaxo He ynoMHHYTb 06 3TOM HH pasy.

Ilozrsepxaaaa B nOBe.n;eHHH Tarsaasr eCTeCTBeHHOCTb, npOCTOTY, BepHOCTb ce6e BO scex CHTYan;HHX H rryureanyro nerrocpencraenaocrs, Il He Mor BKJII04HTb B aocmrraHue repOHHI1 ynoaananae 0 naHCHOHe.

HHTepeCbI H 3aHHTHJI ABOPJlHCKOii :a<.e~HhI • Ha 06I..QeM cpOHe 6hITa PYCCKoro .n;BOpHHCTBa aaxana XIX aexa «MHP )l{eHI..QHHhI» asrcrynan KaK HeKOTopaH o6oco6JIeHHaH cdiepa, ofinanaauraa qepTaMH H3BeCTHOrO caoeofipasna 06pa30BaHHe MOJIO,n:OH ,n:BopaHKI1 6bIJIO, KaK npaBHJIO, 60JIee nOBepXHOCTHhIM H 3HaQHTeJIhHO Qaru;e, qeM .n;JIa IOHoIIIeH, AOlVlaIllHHM. OHO 06hlqHO OrpaHHqHBaJIOCb HaBhIKOM 6hIToBoro pasronopa na O,n:HOM- zrsyx l-IHOCTpaHHhIX H3hIKax (xame acero 3TO 6hIBaJIH <ppaHn;Y3CKHH H HeM enI<HH, 3HaHHe aar JIHHCKOrO H3bIKa yace CBH,ll;eTeJIbCTBOBaJIO o 60JIee 'leM 06bIqHOM ypoane 06pa30BaHHa), YMeHHeM

54

TaHlJ;eBaTb H nepxcars cefia B 06m;eCTBe, 3JIeMeHTapHhIMl1 HaBhIHaMH pHCOBaHHH, neaaa H nrpsr aa KaHoM-JIH60 MY3hII{aJIbHOM HHCTpYMeHTe H CaMbIMH HaqaTKaMI1 HCTOPl'IH, r-eorpaqnra H CJIOBeCHOCTH. KOHeqHO, 6hIBaJIH H HCHJIlOqeHl'IH. TaH, T. C. BHHCKUH B Y<pe B nepnsre rOJJ:hI XIX aexa ofiy-rarr 15-JIeTHlOIO AOqh C. H. Jlesanroaa: «CKa)f(Y, He XBaCTaHCh, qTO HaTaJIbH Cepreenaa qepe3 ABa rona rrOHI1:MaJIa CTOJIbKO <ppaHIJ;Y3CHHli H3hIH, qTO TpYAHeHllIHX aBTopOB, KaKOBhI: reJIbBeIJ;HH, Mepcse, Pycco, Ma6mI - nepeaozmrra 6e3 CJIOBapH; nncana rrHCbMa co BceIO ncnpaaaocrtno npaaonacaaaa ; HCTOPHIO ApeBHlOIO H HOBYIO, reorparparo H MH<p0J10rHIO 3HaJIa raroxe JJ:oCTaTOqHO» (BHHCKHH F. C. Moe BpeMH. CII6., (1914), c. 139).

3HaqHTeJIbHYIO qaCTb YMCTBeHHoro rcpyrosopa JJ:BOPHHCHOH neaynnca Ha1IaJIa XIX B. onpenenann HHHrH. B 3TOM OTHOllIeHHH B rrOCJIe,n:HeH TpeTH XVIII B. - B 3HaqHTeJIhHOH:

Mepe YCHJIHHMH H. H. HOBHHoBa H H. M. KapaM3HHarrpOH3011IeJI rrOHCTHHe nopaaarensnsra cnaar : eCJIH B cepeJJ:HHe XVIII CTOJIeTHH qHTaIOm;aH ABopHHHa - HBJIeHHe peJJ:HOCTHoe, TO rrOKOJIeHHe TaTbHHhI MomHO 6hIJIO rrpeztCTaBHTb

... fiapt.ruraeti ye3;J;Holi, C nevansnofi AYMOIO B ouax,

C <ppaH! . .(Y3C!{OH !{H!!;.J{!{OlO B PYKax (V II I, V, 12 -14).

Euie B 1770-e rr. aa <{TeHHe KHHr, B oco6eHHOCTH pOMaHoB, qaCTO CMOTpeJIH xax na 3aHHTHe onacnoe H ,n:JIH »ceannrasr He COBceM rrpHJIHt.IHOe. A. E. J1a63HHY - yxce 3aMymHlOIO )f(eHm;HHY (eli, npaana, 6hIJIO HerrOJIHhIX 15 JIeT!), OTrrpaBJIHH )f(HTb B qY)f(YlO cemsro, HaCTaBJIHJIH: «EmeJIH retie 6y,n;YT npeztnarars HHHrH HaHHe-HH6y,n:b ,n:JIH rrpo=rreHHH, TO He qHTali, noxa He rrpOCMOTPHT MaTh TBOH <HMeeTCH B BH,n:y CBeKpOBh. - 10. ll.). H xorna ym OHa Te6e nocoaeryer, rorna 6e30rracHO Momellih rrOJIh30BaTbCH» (JIa63HHa A. E. BocrrOMHHaHHH. CII6., 1914, c. 34). B JJ:aJIhHeH:llIeM JIa63HHa nponena aexoropoe BpeMH B ,n:OMe Xepacxoasrx, rne ee «npay-rana pano BCTaBaTb, MOJIHTbCH 6ory, yrpo 3aHHMaTbCH xoponrea HHHroli, rcoropsre MHe ,n:aBaJIH, a He caaa BhI6HpaJIa. K csacrsro, H erne He HMeJIa CJIY'laH qHTaTb pOMaHOB, na H He CJIhIXaJIa HMeHH cero. CJIY'laJIOCb paa Ha'laJIH ronopars 0 asnnennrax BHOBb HHHraX H rrOMHHYJIH POMaH, H 51 ym HeCHOJIbKO pas CJIbIllIaJIa. HaHOHeIJ; CrrpOCHJIa y EJIH3aBeThI BaCHJIb-

S5

eBHbI (E. B. Xepacxosoa, »censr noara. - 10. fl.) 0 KaKOM OHa nee rOBopHT POMaHe, a Hero Y HHX nnxorna He BH)f{Y» (TaM Jt<e, c. 47 - 48). B nansaeaurea Xepacxonsr, BH,n;H «,n;eTCKYIO HeBHHHOCTb H BO scex 60JIbrnOe He3HaHHe» .Tla63HHoH, OTCbIJIamI ee H3 KOMHaTbI, xorna pexs saxozmna o cOBpeMeHHoH rmreparype. CYIT(eCTBOBaJIH, KOHel.JHO, H npornaononoaorsre rrpH~epbI:' MaTb Jleona B «Psniape namero spexeaa» KapaM3HHa OCTaBJIHeT reporo B HaCJIe,n;CTBO 6H6JIHOTeKY, «rne na ,n;BYX norncax CTOHJIH pOMaHbI» (KapaM3HH, 1, 764). MOJIo,n;aH ABOpHHI<a na-rana XIX B.ysce, I<aK rrpaBHJIO, l.JHTaTeJIbHHu;a pOMaHOB. B rrOBeCTH aexoero B. 3. (aepoarno, B. <P. BeJIbHMHHOBa-3epHoBa) «KHH3b B-CI<HH H I<H5lTHHH IU-Ba, HJIH YMepeTb aa OTel.JeCTBO CJIaBHO, nonettnree npoacruecraae BO speaena I<aMrraHHH <ppaHIW30B C HeMu;aMH H pOCCHaHaJlI.H 1806 rona, POCCHH:CKOe COl.JHHeHHe» OrrHCb.IBaeTCH rrpOBHHU;HaJIbHaH 6apbIIllHH, Jt<HBYIT(aH B XapbKOBCI<OM r-yfiepaan (noaecrs HMeeT <paI<THl.JecKYIO OCHOBY). Bo BpeMH cexeaaoro ropa - 6paT rrorH6 non AycTepJIHI~eM - 3Ta npnrrexcnaa l.JHTaTeJIbHHI~a «nponaaenenafi YMa PaAKJIH<p, ,UIOKpe,n;IOMeHHJIH H )KaHJIHC 1, CJIaBHbIX pOMaHHCTOB aarnero BpeMeHH» (U;HT. COl.J. l.J. I, c. 58), npenaerca JII06HMOMY 3aHHTHIO: «B3HB HaCI<OpO «Y,n;OJIb<pcKHe TaHHCTBa», 3a6bIBaeT OHa Henocpencrseaao BH,n;eHHble cuem,r, xoropsre paazmpann rryury ee cecrpsr H MaTepH (. .. ) 3a Kam,n;bIM xymaasex l.JI1TaeT rro OAHOH crpaamre, aa xaaororo JIOmI<OIO CMOTpHT B pasrnyryro nepen C060IO KHHry. Flepeoapaa TaI<HM o6pa30M JIHCTbI, rrOCTOHHHO ,n;OXO,n;HT OHa no roro MeCTa, rne BO BceH Jt<HBOCTH poaaaasecxoro sooopaaceaaa ripenCTaBJIHIOTCH MepTBe~bI-npHBH,n;eHHH; OHa 6pocaeT H3 pyx HomHK H, rrpHHHB aa ce6H ncnyraaasra BH,n;, aenensre CTpOlIT Jt<eCTbI» (TaM me, c. 60 - 61). 0 pacnpocrpanenaa l.JTeHHH pOMaHOB cpena 6apbIIlleHb nanarra XIX B. CM. TaI<me: CHrrOBCI<HH: B. B. Ol.JepI<H H3 HCTOPHH pyccxoro pozaaa, T. I, BbIII. 1. CIT6., 1909, c. 11 - 13.

1 Pa.r(}<Jllf<p (P3~KJm<p<p) AHHa (1764 - 1823), aar mrnCKaH pOMaHlfCTKa, O~Ha lf3 OCHOBaTeJIbHlfI:( «rcraaecxoro» poxaaa raan, aBTOp norryrrapaoro posiaaa «Y~OJIb<pcKlfe TanHb!» (1794). B «.uy6pOBCKOM» Tl, Ha3BaJI repomno (<ITbIJlKM MetlTaTeJIbHlfI:(a, aanaraaaaa TalfHCTBeHHbIMlf yxcacaan Panxnndi», ~VIII, 1, 195) . .QIOKpe-.QIOMeHllJlb mpaaansno: .QIOMlfHlfJlb) <t>paHcya (1761-1819) - <ppaHI:(Y3cKlfH ceHTlfMeHTaJIbHbIH nacarens ; )KaHJIlfC <t>eJllfCI1T3 (1746 - 1830) - <ppaHI:(yacKaH nIlCaTeJIbHHI:(a, aarop HpaB0- yqHTeJIbHbIX pOMaHOB. TBOpqeCTBO ~Byx nOCJle~HHX aKTHBHO nponaraa-

):(HPOBaJIOCb B aavane XIX B. KapaM3HlfbIM. .

56

06pa30BaHlIe MOJIOgOR gBOPHHKH HMeJIO rJ1aBHORl\eJIhlO cnerrars H3 neayurxa npHBJIeKaTeJ1bHYIO neaecry. XapaxrepHhI CJIOBa <PaMYCOBa, OTKpOBeHHO CBH3hIBaIOI..QerO o6YlleHHe gOllepH C 6ygYI..QHM ee 6paKOM:

.IJ:aJIHCb HaM 3TIi R3bII<Ii!

Bepex »ce nosponar-, H B .n;OM, Ii IIO 6HJIeTaM, '(!To6 HallIHX noxeperi BceMY Y'-IHTb, BceMY-

If TaHl.\aM! H nensro l n He>KHOCTRM! H ssnoxax! KaK 6y.n;TO B }f{eHbI HX rOTOBHM crcosscpoxaa (I, 4).

ECTeCTBeHHO, CITO co BCTyrrJIeHHeM B 6paK 06YLIeHl'[e npexpamanocs.

B 6paK MOJIoghIe gBOpHHKH B aanane XIX B. acrynamr pane. Tlpaana, CIaCThIe B XVIII B. 3aMY)f{eCTBa 14- H 15-JIeTHHX rrenovex HaCIamI BhIXOgHTb H3 06hI1lHOM rrpaxTHKH, H HOpMaJIbHhIM B03pacToM gJIH 6paKa cgeJIaJIHCh 17 - 19 JIeT 1. Ozmaxo cepnexnaa )f{H3Hh, BpeMH nepBhIX YBJIeqeHHH MOJIOgOM qHTaTeJIhHHl\hI pOMaHOB, HaCIHHaJIHCb 3HaCIHTeJIbHO paasme. H OHpY)f{aIOI..QHe MY)f{qHHhI CMOTpeJIH aa MOJIOgyIO gBOpHHKY KaH aa )f{eHI..QHHY yxce B TOM B03paCTe, B HOTOPOM nOCJIe,lJ;YIOID;He nOKOJ1eHIDI yBH,lJ;aJIH 6hI B HeM JIHIlIh pefieaxa. )KYHOBCHHH BJIIO- 6HJ1CH B Maury I1poTaCOBY, xorna eM 6hIJIO 12 .ner (eMY IlIeJI 23-ti ron). B ,lJ;HeBHHKe, B 3arrHCH 9 HIOJ1H 1805 r., OH cnpaunraaer caa cefia : « ... MO)f{HO J1H 6hITh BJ1I06JIeHHhIM B pefiemca?» (CM.: BeCeJIOBCHHH A. H. B. A. )Ky-

1 Paaaae 6palG!, 6bIBllm:e B KpeCTbRHCKOM 6bIZY HopMon, B KOHl1e XVIII aexa aepernca 6bIJIH H AJIR He 3aTpOHyTorO eaponeaaanaea npoBHHl.\HaJIbHOrO ABOpRHCKoro 6bITa. A. E. J1a63HHa 6bIJIa BbI.n;aHa 3aMym, enaa eil MHHYJIO 13 JIeT (Cx.: BocrrOMHHaHHR A. E. J1a63HHoii. eTI6., 1914, c. X, 20); MaTh rOrOJIR, Mapsa I1BaHoBHa, nmner B CBOHX 3aIlHCKax: «Korna MHe MHHYJIO qeTbIpHa.n:uaTb ner, Hac nepeaeaxarm B Mecre'lKe ~peCKax; rrOTOM Mym Moil yexan, a $I ocranacs Y TeTlG!, orroro, qTO eII.1e 6bIJIa CJIHIIIKOM MOJIOAa. < ... ) Ho B aaxane HOH6pH OH cran npocars ponarenea OTAaTh MeHH eMY, roaopa, qTO He MO»cer 60JIee }f{HTb 6e3 MeHH» tllleupox B. H. MaTepHaJIbI 11.= 6Horpa¢HH I'orona, T. 1. M., 1892, c. 43); oren «B 1781 r. BCryIIHJI B 6paK» C «Mapaero raBpHJIOBHoro, «oropca TorAa 6bIno ezrsa 15 rrer OT POAY» (MUpK06U'I, c. 2)

TIPOHHI<HOBeHHe POMaHTH'IeCKHX npencraaneaaa B 6bIT H eaponeasaI..II1R mH3HH npoBHHlIHaJIbHOrO ABOpRHcTBa CABHHYJIH B03pacT HeBeCTbI ,IlO 17 - 19 JIeT. Korrta xpacaaaue A.JIeKCaH,IlPHHe Kopcaxosoa nepeaanaJIO aa nsannars, CTapHK H. BR3eMCI<HH, orroaapaaaa OT H<eHHTh6bl BJIFo6HBIIIerocH B nee CbIHa, A. H. Basexcxoro, Ha3bIBaJI ee «crapoa AeBKon; npasepenaanea, Kal<HX MaJIO» (Paccxassr Ea6YIIIJ<H. 113 BOCIIOMHHaHHH IIRTH nO!{OJIeHHn, san, H coop. ee BHyI<OM .IJ:. MarOBO. eTI6., 1885, c. 439).

57

KOBCKI1H. II033I1H qYBCTBa I1 «cepne-moro aoofipaacemra». CII6., 1904, c. 111). Corpse B MOMeHT p;eHCTBI1H «Topa OT YMa» 17 JIeT, qaQKHH OTCYTcTBOBaJI TpI1 rona, crrenoBaTeJIhHO, BJIlo6ffJICH B nee, xorna eH 6bIJIO 14 JIeT, a MO)f{eT 6bITb, H panee, nOCKOJIbKY H3 TeKCTa BHP;HO, qTO P;O OTCTaBKH If or-sesna aa rpaHUQY OH nexoropoe BpeMH CJIY)f{UJI B apMUH II orrpertenemn.m nepnon )f{HJI B IIerepfiypre (<<TaTbHHa Krpseaaa paCCKa3bIBaJIa tITO-TO. I13 Il erepfiypra BOPOTHCb, C MHHUCTpaMH npo aanry CBH3b ... » - III, 3). CJIep;OBaTeJIbHO, Corpse 6bIJIO 12 - 14 JIeT, xorna P;JIH aee II qaQKoro nacrynana nopa

Tex qYBCTB, B 060= Hac ,I.lBH»<eHllM cepnna rex, Koropsre BO MHe HH ,I.laJIb He OXJIa,I.lHJIa,

HH pa3BJIeQeHHJ1, HH nepexena MeCT.

llblr.ua.rr, If llMIf )KUJI, 6bIJI 3aWIT 6ecrrpepbIBHo! (IV, 14).

Haranre POCTOBOH 13 JIeT, xorna OHa BJIlo6mleTCH B Bopnca ,Upy6eQKoro H CJIbIIllUT OT nero, qTO <repea l.{eTblpe rona OH 6yp;eT npOCUTb ee PYKH, a P;O aroro BpeMeHH UM He crrenyer QeJIOBaTbCH. OHa CqHTaeT no nansnaa: «TpI1Hap;QaTb, qeTblpHap;u:aTb, narnarmars, nrecraarniarr,» (<<BoliHa H limp», T. I, q. 1, rJI. X). 3nH30p;, onacanHblH 11. ,U. 5IKyrnKHHbIM (CM.: IIYIllKHH B BocnOMHHaHI1HX cOBpeMeHHHKoB, 1,363), BblrJIHp;eJI B 3TOM KOHTeKCTe BnOJIHe 06bIl.IHO. llieCTHap;QaTlIJIeTHHH zreayunca - yxce HeBeCTa, H K HeH MO)l{HO CBaTaTbCH. B 3TOH cHTyaQHH onperteneaae p;eBYIllKH KaK «pefiemca» OTHIOP;b He OTp;eJIHeT ee OT «B03paCTa JIIo6BH». CJIOBa «pe6eHOK», «P;MTH» BXOP;MJIH B 6bITOBOH H rr03THl.{eCKHH JIl060BHhIH JIeKCUKOH aaxarra XIX B. 3TO cnerryer UMeTb B BMP;y, qUTaH CTPOKU aporre :«KoKeTKa, BeTpeHbIH pefieaox» (V, XLV, 6).

BbIHp;H 3aMY)l{, IOHaH MeqTaTeJIbHHQa qaCTO npenpaIQaJIaCb Bi:l:OMOBHTYIO rrOMeIQHQY-KperrocTHIIQY, KaH TlpacKOBbH JIapHHa, B CTOJIHqHYIO cBeTcKYIO p;aMY HJIH rrpOBMHQuaJIbHYIO CIIJIeTHuIzy. BOT KaK nsrr JIHp;eJIH npOBHHJ~HaJIhasre p;aMbI B 1812 r., yaazteaasre rJIa3aMH YMHOll If o6pa30BaHHoH MOCKBMl.{KH M. A. BOJIl<OBoll, 06CTOHTeJIbCTBaMU BOeHI-IOrO BpeMeHH aafiponrenaoii B TaM6oB: «Bee C npereaaaaxa, KpaHHe CMeIllHhIMIL Y HHX H3h1CKaHHble, HO nenensre ryanersr, crpaansra pasroaop, MaHepbI KaK Y xyxapox ; rrprrrov OHM Y)f{aCHO )fCeMaHHTCH, H HH Y OAHOH HeY rropanosnroro JIuQa. BOT KaKOB npexpacasni rrOJI B TaM- 60Be I». (,UBeHap;QaThIH ron B BocrrOMMHaHHHX 11 rrepenacxe

58

COBpeMeHffi1:KOB. COCT. B. B. Kannaur. M., 1912, c. 275). Cp. C orracaaaew ofiurecraa npOBI1HqHaJIhHhIX ,rU30pHHOK B EO:

Ho Tbl - rytiepaaa I1cKoBcKaH Tenrmna lOHblX AHell Monx

'-ITo MO)f{eT 6bITb, crpana rJlYXM HeCHOCHell 6apblllleHb TBOHX? Me:« IiMH HeT - 3aMeqy KCTaTff Ha TOHKOll Be)f{JIHBOCTlf 3HaTI1 HI1 [aerpeaocra] MI1JlblX WJIlOX- 5I yaaacaa PYCCKHH ,LIYX,

I1pOCTIL'l 6hI 11M lIX cnrrermr,

tlBaHCTBO <:PaMmlbHbIX mYTOK ocrpory I10POI{) 3y6 aevmcrory

[H HenpnCTOllHOCTb If] )!{eMaHCTBO Ho KaK npOCTIITb 11M [MO;:tHbIH]

6pe~ 11 HeYKJllO)f{lm 3TllKeT (VI, 351).

B zrpyrox MeCTe aBTOp nOAqepKHYJI YMCTBeHHYro OTCTaJIOCTh npOBHH~HaJIbHbIX AaM, naxce no cpaBHeHIDO C OTHlOAb He BbICOKHMH KpHTepHRMll 06pa30BaHllR II rJIY- 60KOMbICJIHR npOBHH~llaJIbHbIX nOMemHKOB:

... pasroaop MX MHJIbIX )!{eH

rOpa3,L10 MeHbille 6bIJI YMeH (II, XI, 13-14).

11 ace me B AYXOBHOM 06JIllKe »ceanraasr 6hIJIll qepTbI, asrronao OTJIHqaBIllHe ee OT oxpyacasomero ABOpancxoro Mllpa. ,UBOPHHCTBO 6bIJIO C.TIY)f{HJIbIM COCJIOBHeM, H OTHOllieHIU! c.rrym6bI, qlIHOnOqHTaHHfI, AOJImHOCTHbIX 06f13aHHOCTeM: HaK.rraAbIBaJIH r.TIy6oKYlO nevars na rrCHXO.'10- rHlO .TI1060ro MymqHHbI H3 ::lTOM: CO~HaJIbHOM: rpynnsr. ,UBopRHCKaH »cemnnaa na=rana XIX B. 3HaqHTeJIhHO MeHbrue 6blJIa BTJ'mYTa B CHCTeMY crryacefiao-rocynapcraeaaoa nepapxaa, II 3TO AaBaJIO eM: 60JIbllIYlO CBo6o,lJ;Y MHeHHII II 66nbllIYlO mrrayio He3aBHCHMOCTb. 3amIImeHHaH K TOMY me, KOHeqHO, }IHllIb AO H3BeCTHbIX npenenos, KYJIhTOM yaaacemra K ,lJ;aMe, COCTaBJIRBllIIIM cyrnecrsenayro qaCTb rrOHHTHH ,lJ;BOPHHCKOM: qeCTH, OHa JllOrJIa B ropasno 60.'1bllIeM:

Mepe, qeM MymqHHa, npenefiperars pa3H1IIJ,eM: B qI·max, oopamaacs K caHOBHHKaM H.TIH ,lJ;ame K HMilepaTopy. 3TO B COe,lJ;IIHemIH C 06mHM pOCTO!'~ HaUHOHa.1IbHOrO caMOC03HaHHH B cpene ,n,BOpHHcTBa IIOC:Ie 1812 r. II03BO}IiUIO MHorHM ,n,BopHHKaNi B03BbICHTbCfI no nO,lJ;JIHHHOrO rpaacnancxoro narpoca. Flncsxa yxce yrroMHHYTOM: M. A .. BOJIlwBOM: K ee nerepfiyprcxoa nonpyre B. 11. JIaHcKoM: B 1812 r. CBH,lJ;eTeJIbCTByIOT, qTO II, C03,lJ;aBaH B «POC'1aBneae» o6pa3 ITOJIHHbI - 3K3aJIbTHpOBaHHo naTpHOmqeCKOM:

H MeqTalOmeM: a repoaaxe AeBYllIKH, nOJlHoM: ropnocra

S9

Ii r-rryfiorcoro LIYBCTBa He3aBHCHMOCTH, CMeJ10 H,Il;yru;eH Harrepexop BCeM nperrpaccyrncaa otiurecrna, - MOr orraparsca na pearrsasre mH3HeHHhle Ha6mo,Il;eHHH. Cx., aanpaaep, nacsMO BOJ1l{OBOH OT 27 HOH6pH 1812 r.: « ... H He lVlory y,Il;epmaTb CBoero HerO,Il;OBaHHH l{aCaTeJ1bHO Crrel{Tal{J1eH H J1HU, HX rrocenrarourax. LITO )f{e raxoe Herepfiypr? PYCCl{IIH JIII 3TO ropozr, IIJIII HH03eMHhIH? Ka:K 3TO nonnxars, excernr BhI pYCCl{He? Kax MomeTe BhI noceuiars rearp, xorrta POCCHH B rpaype, rope, pa3BaJ1IIHaX II HaXO,Il;HJIaCb aa urar OT rH6eJIII? 11 aa xoro CMOTpHTe BhI? Ha <ppaHIJ;Y30B, H3 l{OTOPhIX Ka)f{,Il;hIH panyerca HaIIlHM HeCLIaCTbHM? ! 5I 3HaIO, LITO B MOCl{Be ,Il;0 31 aBrYCTa OTl{PhIThI 6hIJIH rearpsr, HO C nepnsrx LIHCeJI HIOHH, T. e. co BpeMeHH

. 06bHBJIeHHH BOHHhI, y norrsesncs IIX BII,Il;HeJIHCb nae l{apersr, He 6oJIee. nHpel{IJ;HH 6hIJIa B OTLIaHHHH, OHa pasopHJIaCb H HHLIero He BhlpYLIaJIa < ... ) LIeM 60JIee H ,Il;YMalO, TeM 60JIee y6e)f{,Il;alOCb, LITO Tlerepfiypr anpaae HeHaBH,Il;eTb MOCl{BY H He repners scero B HeH rrponcxonanrero. 3TH naa ropona CJIHIIll{OM pa3JIHLIHhI no xyacraaa, ITO YMY, no rrpe,Il;aHHOCTH o6ru;eMY 6JIary, ,Il;JIH roro, LIT06bI CHOCHTb ,Il;pyr rrpyra. Korna HaLIaJIaCb BOHHa, MHOrHe OC06bI, 6Y,Il;YLIH He xyxce BaIIlHX xpacassrx ,Il;aM, HaLIaJIIi LIaCTO rrocenrars nepxsa H nOCBHTIIJIIi ce6H ,Il;eJIaM MIIJIOCep,Il;HH ... » (IJ;HT. COLI., c. 273-274).

ITOl{a3aTeJIbHO, LITO npezraeroa l{PHTHl{H CTaHOBHTCH He BCHl{aH <popMa YBeCeJ1eHHH, a IIMeHHO rearp. 3,Il;eCb Cl{a3hIBaeTCH Tpa,Il;HIJ;HOHHOe OTHOIIleHIIe rc TeaTpaJIbHhIM apemnnax, KaK 'Bper.1HrrpOBO)f{,Il;eHHIO, HeCOBMeCTHMOMY C nopoa nOl{aHHHH, a rO,Il;HHa HaIJ;HOHaJIbHhIX IIcrrhITaHHH H HecLIacTHH aocnpnaaaaerca xax BpeMH ofipautenaa l{ CBoeH COBeCTH H rrOl{aHHHH1•

IToCJIe,Il;CTBHH rreTpOBCKOH perpopasr He B O,Il;HHal{OBOH Mepe pacnpocrpaaarracs aa MHP MymCl{Oro H xceacxoro 6hITa, H)J;eH H rrpe,Il;CTaBJIeHHH - xceacxaa )f{H3Hb H B ,Il;BOPHHCKOH cpene COXpaHHJIa 60JIbIIle Tpa,Il;HIJ;IIOHHbIX LIepT,

1 MbICJIb 06 Orevecrseanoa soaae 1812 r. If CBfl3aHHblX C aero 6egcTBHflx, KaK 0 BpeMeHH MopanbHoro otjHlIleHHJl:, coennaaerca gJIJl:

M. A. BOJIKOBOrr C npencraarreaaea 0 HeH36e)i{HOCTH «opermsrx nepesiea B )i{H3HH rrOCJIe BorrHbI: « ... 60JIbHO aanen., srro 3JIo,geH spone BaJIaUlOBa H Apaxsreeaa npozrator raxoti npexpacasni aapon l Ho yseparo Te6fl, tjTO excerra ClfX rrOCJIegHHx aeaaaanar B Flerepfiypre rax xce, KaK H B Mocxse, TO HM He C,g06pOBaTb BIIOCJIegcTBlfH» (IIHCbMO OT 15 aBrYCTa 1812 r. - !.IHT. cox., c. 253 - 254).

60

nOCKOJIhKY 60JIee 6hIJIa CBR3aHa C CeMbeH, 3a60TaMI1 0 ~eTHX, 4eM C rocyztapcraoa H CJIym60H. 3TO BJIeKJIO aa C060H TO, 4TO mE3Hh P;BOPRHKH EMeJIa 60JIhille T04.eK COnpI1I<OCHOBeH).HI c H8P0P;EC\11, qeM CYlll.CCTBOBaHUe ee orira, MY)f<a UJIM CbIHa; IT03TOMY rJ1y60Ko He CJIY4aHHO TO, 4TO nOCJIe 14 AeKa6pH 1825 r., xorrta MhICJIHlll.aR 4.aCTb P;BOPRHCKOH M0J10p;emH 6hIJIa paarponnena, a HOBoe nOKOJ1eHI1e I1HTeJIJIllreHTOB-pa3H04.I1Hu;eB enre He rrORBI1JIOCh na HCTopH4ecKOH apene, I1MeHHO meHll(HHbI-AeKa6pHCTI<H BhIcTynHJIH B POJ1H XpaHI1TeJIhHI1U; BhICOKI1X MAeaJIOB He3aBI1CMMOCTM, BepHOCTH M 4.eCTM.

~BOpRHCKoe '-KHITH~e Hero OKpY'-KeHHe B ropo~e Ii nossecrr,e- Mecro AenCTBMH arpaer B rrYIIlKI1HCKOM pOMaHe 60JIhIIlYlO M COBepIIleHHO cneu;mpI14.eCKYIO pOJIh. C06hITHH ace BpeMR pa3BMBalOTCR B KaKOM-JIH60 KOHKpeTHOM rrpOCTpaHCTBe: B Flerepfiypre, B Mocxae, B rrepeane, aa rr04.TOBOM rpaxre. ITPM 3TOM xapaxrep C06hITHH OKa- 3hIBaeTCR TeCHO CBH3aHHhIM C MeCTOM, B KOTOPOM OHM pa3BepTbIBaIOTCR. EOJIee roro, B TaKOH me Mepe, B HaKOH Flerepfiypr HBJIReTCH «CBOHM» rrpOCTpaHCTBOM P;JIR Oaernna, zrepeaaa - opraHWIHhIH MHp TaThHHbI, H, xax Oner-nn B ztepersne OCTaeTCR BpeMeHHhINl rOCTeM, 3ae3mH1Ir1 ncccraTeJIeM, npoaaxaysuraa B 4ymoe npOCTpaHCTBO, TaH TaThHaa 4ymaH B MOCHBe - B p;OMe TeTKl1 M B 3aJ1e EJIarOpOAaoro cocpaaaa - H B Flerepcypre B c06CTBeHHOM AOMe. BCJIH B p;epeBeHCKOM MHpe TaTbHHhI repofi OCTaJICH pasHO.n;YlllHhIM H TporaTeJIbHOMY rrpM3HaHMlO repOMHM, TO B «OHerHHCKOM» rrpOCTpaHCTBe ero c06CTBeHHoe 06bRCHeHMe He BCTpeTHJIO C04.YBCTBMR. KOHe4.HO, OTHOllleHHe repoen H TOMY THIIH4.HOMY P;1IH HHX oxpyxcenaro, xoropoe rrano ,!1;1IH OHerMHa B nepaoii rnaae, a .n;JIR TaThRHhI BO BTOPOHnRTOH, He CTaTH4HO. TaThHHa B Tlerepfiypre rocxyer no «6eAHOMY mMJ1Hll(Y», HO Tlereptiypr 3TO He TOJIbKO «aeronn, MaCKapa.n;a», cBeTcHHH H npnnaopasra «OMYT». CaJIOH TarsHHbI - oa3MC BhICOKOH KYJIhTYPhI, zryxoanoro apncroxpaTH3Ma, 3TO ({rrYlllKHHcHHH Ml'Ip». Tlpocrora M eCTeCTBeHHOCTb noaeneaaa J1IOAeH 3AeCh rrepeKJIHHaIOTCR C rrpocroroa MCTMHHOH HapO,lJ;HOCTM, M 3TO nenaer nepexort TaThHHhI B CTOJIH4.HhIH MHP, B O,lJ;HOM OTHOllIeHMH, 6e3YCJIOBHO, HaCHJIhCTBeHHhIM, B npyrox - eCTeCTBeHHhIM l1 OpraHM4.HhIM.

61

O,[(HOBpeMeHHO n OHerHH B KOHI.J;e poxaaa He TaK COOTHOCHTCH C nerepcyprcxaa MHPOM, xax B aaxane: H3 «nerepfiyprcxoro» repoa OH rrpeBpaTIIJICH B Cf{HTaJlbI.J;a, ,[(JIH rcoroporo «csoero» rrpOCTpaHCTBa HeT Bo06lI.'(e.- 11 B PO,[(HOM ,[(JIH Hero Ilerepfiypre

.D:JUI acex OH xaxcerca tIy)f(HM." (VIII, VII, 7),

ECJIH ({CBOH:»- MHp TaTbHHbI - 3TO MHP, K f{OTOPOMY repOHHH npanannexcar ,ll;YXOBHO H KYAa OHa XOTeJ1a 6h1 BepHYTbCH, TO «CBOH» MHp OHerHHa - MHP, H3 f{OTOPOro OH XOtIeT 6emaTb.

,Uame H3 aroro 0630pa BH,[(HO, Cf{OJ1h 3HatIHTeJIbHOe MeCTO B poxaae 3aHI1JVIaeT oxpyxcarontee repoea npocrpaaCTBO, xoropoe HBJIHeTCH O,[(HOBpeMeHHO H reorparpa-recxa TOt!Hh1M H necer MeTacpopHtIeCf{He rrpH3HaKH HX f{YJIbTYPHOH, H,[(eOJIOrHtIeCKOH, 3THtIeCKOH xapaKTepHCTHKH. RCHo, xarcoe aaaseaae norryxaer nOHHMaHHe acex neranea npocrpaaCTBeHHoro MHpa poxana.

11 B nOM OTHOllleHHH, reate If B npyrux, pOMaH Tl He HBJIHeTCH orrHCaTeJIbHbIM. ABTOP rrOtITH narne He naer ,n:eTaJIbHbIX xapran MeCTa ,n:eHCTBHH, He OIIHChIBaeT aarepsepa ,n:OMOB. Tnepno 3HaH, tITO tIHTaTeJIb ero 3Haf{OM If C BIf,n:OM, If C BHYTpeHHHM y6paHcTBOM 06hltIHOrO IIOMeIT(IftIhero ,ll;OMa B nepeaae, H C aarepsepox nerepfiyprcxoro apacroxparaaecxoro OC06HHf{a aa Ha6epemHOH HeBhI, OH nenaer rrams cxynsre yxasaaaa:

B nepenaea TOJIKOTHR, rpeaora;

B rocraaoa acrpexa HOSbIX JlI!I:( •.• (V, XXV, 9-10);

• ,.,!lIIR rocrea

HO'UIer OTSO,L{RT OT ceaea

.Ilo caMoH ,L{eSM<!bM (VI, I, 10-12);

HeT HM O,L{HOH .a;YUll1 S npaxoxcea. OH B aarry ; ztansrne: HMKoro, .uBepb OTSOPMJI OH

(VIII, XL, 6 -8),

... JIerqe TeHM

TaTbRHa npsrr B zrpyrae cernr (III, XXXVIII, 5-6);

ITo 3THM Yf{a3aHHHM tIUTaTeJIb rrYlllKURCf{OH 3IIOXH JIerI<O BOCCTlmaBJIUBaJI f{apTHHY. 3TO COOTBeTCTBOBaJIO II03THf{e Il, )1. H. TOJICTOH CMOTPHT aa MHP, HM H30- 6pamaeMhm, r JIa3aMH saemaero, snepnsre nonasurero CIO,[(a Ha6JIIO,[(aTeJIH, rrpespauraa TeM caMhIM tIHTaTeJIH B «ecTeCTBeHHoro xenoeexa», f{OTOPbIH ,[(OJImeH 06bHCHHTh ce6e CMhICJI H 3HatIeHUe f{am,n:OH .n:eTaJIH (OTCIO,ll;a rrozrpoeaocrs

62

H «OTCTpaHeHHOCTh» onacaana). Il CrpOH':r...Q§p~3 QHTaTeJUI KaK naanero 3HaKOMOrO, «caoero» B aBTopCKOM- MHpe, KOTOPOMY He nano HIFlero zreransao orracsrsars - zrocraTOqHO YKa3aTb HJIH HaMeKHYTb. Ho HMeHHO TaI<Oe 3HaKOMCTBO C BHeTeKCTOBhlM MHpOM poxana OTCYTCTByeT Y coapexenaoro HaM l.IHTaTemI. A 3TO 3aCTaBJUIeT }WMM.eHTHpOBaTb orrynreansre B EO, HO nOHHTHhle II B03HHxaanme B C03HaHHH COBpeMeHHHKOB KapTHHhI.

Bees npocrpancrseaasra MHp ponaaa (eCJIH HCKnIOqHTh H,ll;0PQry», 0 KOTOPOM pe-n, rronzrer ornerrsao) nerrarca aa TpH crpepsr: Flerepfiypr, Mocxsa, ztepeaaa.

OHerHHcKIDI Flerepfiypr HMeeT aecsaa onpenerremryro reorpadiaro. To, KaKHe paaoasr CTOJIHl(hI ynOMIlliaIOTCH B TeI<CTe, a KaKHe OCTaJIHCb aa ero nperrenaxa, pacxpi,raaer HaM CMhICJIOBOM 06pa3 ropona B poxaae. TaK, B EO He ynoMHHaeTCH XOPOIIIO H3BeCTHaH n03TY KOJIoMHa, rne, no nsrpaacenaro I'oro.na, «ne CTOJIH:u;a, H He npOBHHl(HH», «see THIIIHHa H OTCTaBKa» (<<IToprpeT») - ."mp, 3HaKOMbrM Tl no JIHlIHhIM BneqaTJIeHHHM H OnHCaHHbrM B «,UOMHKe B KOJIOMHe», «Me,n;HOM BCa,ll;HHKe». Ho He ynoMHHYThI H xeprsr neasaxca «BOeHHOH CTOJIHl(bI» : Mapcoao nOJIe (Llapmrsnr rryr-) C ero napanaaa H «scxazrpa aa pexe». AHTHTe3a 3HMHero rraopua H TIeTpOnaBJIOBCKOH KpenOCTH rraaa B TeKCTe JIHIIIb rJIy60Ko 3allIH¢POBaHHbIM HaMeKOM, cnenars KOTOPbIH nOHHTHee aBTOp C06HPaJICH npa nOMOIl(H KapTHHI<H - BHeTeKCTOBoro KJIlOqa K TeKcry.

Pea,,'IhHO B poxane npencraanea JIHIIlb Tlerepfiypr apHC'IOKpaTl1qeC{HI1 H ~erOJIbCKoM. 3TO HeBCI<rrH rrpocnexr, aaoepexcraa BeBhI, MHJIJIHOHHaH (HhIHe YJI. XaJITYPHHa), BH,ll;I1.M.O, naoepeacaaa <POHTaHKH (BpHA JIH ryaepaep BO,n;HJI MaJIbQHKa EBreHHH B J1eTHHH can H3,n;aJIeKa), J1eTHHH can, MaJIaH MopCKaH (HhIHe YJI. I'orona) - «JIOH,n;OHCKaH rOCTHHHl(a», Tearparrsnaa nrromans.

OHerHH B nepaon rnaae, BH,ll;HMO )f{HBeT na <POHTaHKe. PaHOH 3TOT 6bIJI npexpacno 3HaKOM asropy: anecs B ,lJ;OMe A. H. Torunn.ma (HbIHe NQ 20) rrpO)f{HBaJH1 B 1820-e rr. fiparsa Typreaeasr, B HblHeUlHeM ,n;OMe NQ 25, npnaannexcaamev rcrna Karepnae <I>e,n;opoBHe MypaaseaoH (MaTepH ,ll;eKa6pHcTa HHKHTbI Mypansena - «OCTOpO)f{HOrO HHKHTbI»), )f{HJI H. M. KapaM3HH, snecs 6bIBaJIH MHOHre ,ll;eKa6pHcThI, )f{HJI K. H. EaTIOIllKoB. HhIHellIHHH ,n;OM ,Ng 16 B 1820-e rr. npanartneacan KHH3IO B. IT. Koqy6elO - 6J1eCTHIIIeMY, XOTH Ii HHqTO)f{HOMY npencraaarerno

63

61OpOKpanm: nanarra XIX B. B AOMe KOtIy6e5I npoxcrsana ero pOAcTBeHHlu.J;a H. K. 3arpmf{CKa5I, BHYtIaTOll fIJIeM5IHH11lJ;eH KOTOPOH 6hIJIa H. H. I'onsaposa H paaroBOphI KOTOPOH [J 3arr11ChIBaJI B 1830-e rr. Ha <PoHTaHKe me mHJI OTelJ; ITecTeJI5I - rrOtIT-,[(HpeKTOp 11 CH611pCK1Ill reaepan-rycepaarop, OTCTaBJIeHHhIH OT CJIym6hI aa -rynoB11I.U:HhIe 3JIoyrroTpe6JIeHH5I. 3TO 6hIJI patten apncroxparn, tIeCK11X oco6H5IKoB. TaKoH me 6hIJIa 11 MHJIJIvIOHHa5I YJIHlJ;a, ynoxaayraa B nepsoa rnaae.

JJ:OM KH5I35I N HaXO,[(HJIC5I aa Ha6epemHoH HeBhI (OHerHH, OTrrpaB11BIII11HC5I {(K CBoeH TaTb5IHe» - VIII, XL, 3, .({HeCeTC5I B,[(OJIb HeBbI B CaH5IX» - VIII, XXXIX, 10). 3,[(ec.b pacnonaranacs ,[(BOPlJ;hI H OC06H5IKH asrcnrea apncroKpaTHH - Jlaaaneii, BOPOHlJ;OBhlx-JJ:aIIlKoBhIX 11 ,[(p. Korna rparp AH,[(peH lliYBaJIOB rrOCBaT:iJIC5I K CMepTen.bHO 60JIbHOH Codise HaphIIIIKHHOH (BHe6patIHOH noxepa 11Mrreparopa Anexcaanpa I), naps ,[(aJI eH npnaaaoe - ,[(OM na Ha6epe)f{HoH H Karr11TaJI, rrpHHOC5II.U:HH rroxona 25 ThIC5ItI aCCHrHalJ;H5IMH (XOT5I COBpeMeHHHK11 6hIJIH nopaxcensr ero cxynocrsro, aro see me 6bIJIO «uapcxoe» npnzranoe). O. A. )I{epe6lJ;OBa (ypcoxrtemraa 3y60Ba, cecrpa H3BeCTHoro rpasopara EKaTepHHhI II) rrportana B 1830 r. ,[(OM na AHrJIHHCKOH aafiepexcaoa aa 200 000 py6. aCCHrHalJ;H5IMH. 3a TpH rona OHa naa pasa MeH5IJIa MeCTO)f{HTeJIbCTBO (<<He JIlO6HJIa norrro mHTh B O,[(HOM AOMe», - BCrrOM11HaeT ee ,[(OMaIIlH11H KapJIHK 11. ~Ky60BcKHH; CM.: Kapmnc ¢aBOp11Ta. MCTOP115I mH3HH MBaHa ~Ky6oBcKoro. Mi.inchen, 1968, S. 158), HO He113MeHHO apeanoaana OC06H5IKH aa AHr JI11HCKOH nafiepexcaoii.

JJ:OMHHHPYIOI.U:HMH :meMeHTaMH roportcxoro neasaaca B Ilerepfiypre, B OTJIHtIHe OT MOCKBbI, 6hInH He 3aMKHYThIe B ce6e, TeppHTOpHaJIbHO 060c06JIeHHhIe OC06H5IKH HJIH roponcxne yca,[(.b6hI, a yJIHI.J;bI H tIeTKHe JIHHHH 06r.u:eH rrJIaHHpoBKH ropona, XOT5I Herepfiypr 6hIJI 3a,[(YMaH I<aK «esponeacxaa» ropon H HMeHHO KaK TaKoBoH nporaaorrOCTaBJI5IJIC5I MOCKBe, BHeIIIHHH BH,a; ero He HarrOMHHaJI ofirrmca eaponeiicxax roponos XVIII - aaxana XIX BB. B OTJIHtIHe OT xpyrmsrx HCTOpHtleCI<HX ropozroa Esponsr, Flerepfiypr HHKorAa He 6hIJI .OKpY)f{eH CTeHaM11, orpanatIHBaroI.U:HMH rrJIOI.U:a,[(h 3aCTPoHKH. IT03TOMY OrpaHHtIeHHH aa paaxepsr cpaca,[(a H IIlHPHHY Y JIU[(, orrpenerraanrax 06JIH:K acex esporreacxax cpe,[(HeBeI<OBhIX roponoa, B ITerepfiypre He 6hIJIO. ITOtITH O,[(HOBpeMeHHa5I 3aCTpOHKa

64

acero ropozta (no cpaBHeHHIO C XpOHOJIOrHeti: pOCTa npyrnx eaporrejicxnx CTOJIHU:) rrpmrasarra exy xapaxrep yrropsgOtIeHHOCTH, CTpoiiHOCTH H ogHo06pa3HR.

)l(H3Hb B c06CTBeHH0ll1 ,n:OMe 6bIJIa ztocryrraa B I1erepfiypre (B rex ero paiioaax, xoropsre yrroaaaarorca B EO) JIHlIlb o-rens 60raTbIM J1IOgRM. TI·m BHYTpeHHeii rrJIaHHPOBKH TaKOrO gOMa rrpI10JIHlf<aJICR K gBOPU:0BOMY. EOJIbIIlHHCTBO rex JIro,n:eii, xoropsre B Mocxse BbICTPOHJIH 6bI HJIH HamIJIH u:eJIbIii OC06HRK, B Ilerepfiypre gOBOJIbCTBOBaJIHCb HaeMHoii xsaprapoa. KBapTHpbI 3TI1 MOt'JIH 6bITb POCKOIIlHbIMI1: TaK, MOJIo,n:oii KOHHorBapgeHcKHH xopner rr03T- ,n:eKa6p11CT A. 11. O,n:oeBcKHH 3aHHMaJI xsaprapy H3 BOCbMI1 KOMHaT - u:eJIbIii 3Ta)K B ,n:OMe EYJIaTOBa aa Hcaaxaeacxoii nrroutaztn. 3aTO ero ,n:BOroPOgHbrH 6paTH3BeCTHbIH nacarerrs H KpHTI1K B. <t>. O,n:oeBCKI1H, - rreperipaanmjica rrOCJIe )KeHHTb6bI B gOM caoea renra Jlancxoii (na yrny MOIIlKOBa rrep. H MI1JIJIHOHHOii), 3aHRJI BO ¢JIHrene CKpOMHyIO H TeCHYIO xaaprapy, xoropyro ero npyr ITJIeTHeB HlI1eHOBaJI tIepgaKOM.

ITJIaHHpOBKa nerepfiyprcxoro gOMa B aarrane XIX B., KaK rrpaBHJIO, rrpertnorrarana BeCTH6IOJIb, xyna BbIXOgHJIH naepn H3 uraeauapcxcn H rrpyrax crryxcefinsrx noxeureana. Orcrona JIeCTHHu:a BeJIa B 6eJIb3Ta»<, rzte pacrronararracs OCHOBHble KOMHaTbI: rrepermaa, 3aJIa, rOCTHHaR, 113 KOTOpoa, KaK npaaario, IIlJIH zmepn B cnansmo H Ka6I1HeT. TaKOBa rrJIaHl1pOBKa gOMa rpa¢I1HI1 B «ITI1KOBoii gaMe» (B OCHOBY rrorroxcen peansm.rn nrraa gOMa KHRTIfHH H. IT. lOJIHU:bIHoii na Manoa MOPCKOii, HbIHe YJI. 10roJIR 10) 1: « .. .I'ep aana CTyrrHJI aa rpa<pHHHHO KPbIJIbU:O H B30- urerr B RpKO ocaememrsre CeHI1. Illaeiruapa He 6bIJIO. I'epvana B36elf<aJI rro JIeCTHHu:e, OTBOPI1JI naepn B nepenHIOIO, H YBHgeJI cnyr'y, cnanrero non JIaMrrOIO, B crapaaHbIX, sanacrrcaansrx xpecrrax. JIerKI1M 11 raepzrsra uraroa I'epaaaa rrpourerr MI1MO ero. 3aJIa H rOCTHHaR 6bIJIH TeMHbI. Jlaana cJIa60 ocneurana HX 113 nepenaeit. Tepwaaa BOlIleJI B CrraJIbHIO» (VIII, I, 239). OHerl1H BO BpeMR rroc:re,a:Hero

I H. PaeBCKI1H B KHl1re «Tloprpert.r 3arOBOpI1JII'n> (AJIMa-ATa, 1974, C. 277-28111 292-312) C<.IIlTaeT, <.ITO B OCHOBY OlmCaHI1H B «ITHKOBOH .o;aMe)} nOJIOmeH nnaa .o;OMa CaJITblKOBa aa Ha6epe>KHOil Heasr, B KOTOPOM B ·1830-e rr. >KIlJI aBCTpHi1cKI1H nOCOJI IlI.-fl. ct>HKeJIbMOH (cetrcrac .I(BoPLloBaH Ha6 . .0;. 4). Crrenyer Y<.IIlTbIBaTb, ormaxo, rnnoaoii xapaxrep nJIaHHpOBKI1 nerepfiyprcxnx OC06HHKOB XVIII aerca.

3 IO. M. JloTMaH

65

CBH,naHBJ1 C Tal'bJ1Ho:i1 raioxe npcxomrr BCID aH<im . nazty noMe~eHHH BnJ10Tb no MHTHMHhIX BHYTpeHHHX nOHOeB (rtpnxoxcyro, 3aJJY, rOCTHHYlO) H, OTBOPHB zraeps B Ha6HHeT 11J1H CnaJ1bHIO, 3aCTaeT TaTbRHY:

HeT HJ1 OAHOll ,[(YUlJ1 B npaxoaceii. OH B sany; nansme

<T. e. B rOCTJ1HYIO.- 10. l1.):

HllHoro. ,llBepb OTBOpHJJ OH. 'lTO )l{ ero

C TaHOIO cllJloti nopaacaer? KmrrHH!'l· nepen HJ1M, onaa, Camrr, He y6paHa, 6JJeAHa ...

(VlII, XL, 6-11)

H. A. DOJ1eBoH B pe~eH3HH aa nOCJ1e,uHlOIO rJJaBY pouana nHCaJJC H3J1HIlIHeH onpe,n;eJ1eHHOCTbIO 06 OHerHHe: «B nOCJJe,n;HMH pas trnTaTeJ1b BH,n;HT ero B cnarrsne TaTbRHhI, yxce HHRrHHH» (<<MOCHOBCHHH Terrerparp», 1832, N21, c. 118). ABTOP nocryrmn TOHbIlIe, '-IeM ero HpHTMH: OH, YKa3aB, '-ITO ,n;eHCTBMe nponcxomrr BO BHYTpeHHeH, Henapannoit '-Iacm ,n;OMa, He orrperterran HOMHaThI, nOJJHOCTbIO CHRB TOT OTTeHOK CKaH,n;aJJbHOCTH, KOTOPhIH npHAaJJ CBoeMY nepecxasy Florreaoii.

Hafiop : 3aJJa, rOCTMHaR, cnansaa, Ka6HHeT - 6blJ1 yCTO:i1- '-IHBbIM 11 Bhl,n;epmHBaJJCJ1 H B ,n;epeBeHCHOM nOMe~11'-IbeM ,n;OMe.

MOCKOBCKMH neiisa», CTPOHTCJ1 B poaane npamranHaJJbHO HHa'-Ie, '-IeM nerepfiyprcroni: OH paccsrnaerca na HapTHHhI, 3,n;aHMR, npezme nsr. YJ1I1Uhl pacnanarorca na He3aBHCHMhle npyr 01' npyra ,n;OMa, 6YAHH, }{O.TIOHOJJbHH. ,UJ1HHHOe H neram.iroe nYTeweCTBHe Jlapnnsrx -repes MOCKBY COCTaBJlJ.leT O,n;HO H3 caasrx npOCTpaHHhIX ormcaHml B EO (eMY nOCBHmeHhI '-IeThlpe crporpsr ; n YBeJ1II'-IHJ1 HX c-rer rio TIJITM, npH6aBHB «nycrori HOMep» XXXIX-H CTpOcPhI 11 3THM C03,n;aB Bne'-IaTJ1eHl1e, '-ITO «YTOMHTeJ1bH-aJ1 nporymca» (VII, XL, 1) nrranacs enie norrsure). OHO pe3KO OTJ1I1'-IaeTCJ1 01' KpaTKOH 3CKl13HOCTH nerepoyprcxax 3apI1COBOK. «DpaBI1JJbHoCTb» rrerepfiyprcxoro . neiiaaaca norrsepxnyra TeM, ·'-ITO OH naerca C TO'-IKH 3peHMR npexpacno aaaroutero ero II rrpnasrxnrero }{ HeMY Ha6JJIO,n;aTeJJH, HOTOPOMY ,n;ocTaTO'-IHO KpaTKIIX HaMeKOB, t-IT06hl BOCCTaHOBHTb HapTI1Hy. MOCI:CBa me noxasaaa r J1a3aMH aaeumero Ha5JJlO,n;aTeJ1R:

;'Y Tann B mYMHoti ceii npory.nxe

~ce B rOJJOBe xpyrow a.aer.c. (V], 452) ..

--

66

Xaparerepnoji ''-lepTOH MOC!<OB'CKoro nensaxca 6bIJIO TO, lfTO .n;OMHHHPYlOU,(HMH opaearapawa B repone 6bFlIH He UH<PPOBble If JIHHeHHhle xoopnaaarsr yrmn H .n;OMOB, a OT.n;eJ1bHhIe, 3aMKHYTbIe MHpKH :qaCTH: ropozravrrepxoaasre rrpaxozrsr If ropozrcxae yca.n;b6hI C .n;OMaMH-oc06mmaMIf, OTHeCeHHbIMJ1 C «rcpacnoa JIHHHi-m y.iiH~hI 'g r.rry6b 'ca,il;a HJII{ rrapxa If. oKpy)£{eHHhIMH X03RHCTBeHHhIMH rrOCTpOHKaMH, cpJIHreJIRMH H capaaxn. Kaxczraa TaKaH yca.n;b6a COCTaBJIHJIa OC06yIO castonoarretonryro CTPYKTYPY B rrrraae ropozra, ITpaBP;a, rrOCJ1e rroxcapa 1812 r. xaparcrep roponCKOH 3aCTpoHKH HeCKOJIbKO H3MeHHJICR. B 1813 r. 6hIJIa opraanaoaaaa «KOMHCCHH P;JIR crpoeana ropona MOCKBh!», xoropaa BHeCJ1a If3BeCTHYro YHHcpHKaU;HIO B rnrr MOCKOBcxoro 6apcKoro Oc06HHKa. Ho H asrseceaasreaa xpacrryro J1HHIfIO yJIIfIJ;bI cpaca.n;hI P;OMOB He H3MeHHJ1If OCHOBHoro. CTpoeHHR CTORJ1H He B rJIy6HHe ycaP;b6bI, a BP;OJIb CPPOHTa YJIHIJ;hI, C03.n;aBaR ezrarryso JIHHIfIO, onaarco, 3aCTpOHKa ace paBHO He 6bIJ1a aerrpepsraaoa: Ka)£{P;bIH P;OM 6bIJ1 OT)J;eJ1bHOH apXI1TeKTypHOH, 6bITOBOH H BJ1a.n;eJIblfeCKOH e)J;HHHI_'leH a, KaI< npaBHJIO, orcpyxcerr 6bIJ1 3eJ1eHbIO (KOTOPaH B Flerepdypre He COqeTaJIaCh. C p;OMaMH, a COCTaBmma OTp;eJIbHble MaCCHBbI B 06w:eM aHCaM6JIe roporra) 1.

AP;MHHHCTpaTHBHaR CTPOHHOCTb, TRrOTeHHe K apxirrexTypHbIM aHCaM6JIRM Flerepfiypr a 11 YIOTHaR necrpora, paclfJ1eHeHHOCTb, narpnapxarrsnaa 3aMKHYTOCTh MOCI<OBCKOro MHpa HailIJ1H pa3HTeJIbHOe BOIIJIow:eHHe If B CHCTeMe anpecon. D~1'ep6ypr 6hIJ1 ropOP;OM lfHCeJI n I<Oop)J;HHaT, MOCI<Ba - ropop;OM c06CTBeHHbIx HMeH.

«C KOHu;a XVIII aexa If no 1834 ro.n;a B Tlerepfiypre cyurecraoaarra BaJIOBaR HyMepal~IR P;OMOB B rrpenerrax I<a>K.n;oH rrOJ1HQeHCKOH qaCTH H I<BapTaJIa.3Ta HYMepaQHH He scerna 6hIJIa rrQCJIep;OBaTeJIhHa rr B 6brTY IIOlfTH He yrrorpefinanacs. C 1834 r. 6hIJ1a aaeneaa HyMepaQHH ka>K.n;oH YJIHQhI, lfeTHoH H HeqeTHOH CTOPOHbI paszterrsao ... » (Pericep C. A. PeBOJIroQHOHHbre .n;eMo!-CpaTbr B Fle repfiypre. JL, 1957, c. 135). Ozmaxo anpec, !-CaK rrpaBHJIO, HalfHHaJICH

t Bocrurranm.ni BO <t>_~opeHI<HU H npaexaaumii B 1812 rOAY B MOCKBY M, Jl BYTyprrHH rmcart : «Ha MeHl1, rrpaasrxurero K rrocrpoiiKaM eBpOnef!CKHX roponos C C[].f!OWHbIMU H BblCOIillMH HX .uOMaMM, Mocxsa crrertana nepBOHaQaJ1bHO crpaaaoe arre-rarneaae C ee OTp;errbHblMU H AByx:3Ta>KHblMH, 06blKHoBeHHo, ,lIOMaMH, II op;H03Ta>KHbIMH ,lIOMHKaMU C nanacazmnxoa rrpen HUM, KaK 6bl B nepeaae, H C AepeBHHHblMH 3a6opaMH Me>KP;Y AOMaMU)) (6ymyp,1U1-l, c. 181).

3*

67

YKa3aI-lHeM aa YJ1HUY 111m! ifIOJ1ll'ueMCI<YIO <.JaCTh, I< I<OTOPOH craocarca ,Ll;OM. B MOCI<OBCHBX anpecax flOCJ1e YI<a3aHHH pationa ropona CJ1e,n:OBaJI, I<aI< npaBHJ10,u:ePI<OBHbIH npnXO~. Il TOt.IRO cnenoaan 3TOMY: B OOOHX CJ1Y<.JaHX, xorna B poxaae qmrYPHpyeT MOCHOBCI<Hli arrpec, I<aI< OTnpaBHaH Tb<.JI<a YHa3aHa uepxoas, I< npnxony rcoropoa OH OTHOCHTCH: «Y XapHTOHbH B nepeymce» (Vll, XL) 3), «)KHBeT y CHMeOHa» (VII, XLI) 12).

ABTOP C03HaTe.nbHO nponea TaTbHHY H <.Jepe3 OI<paHHbI, H <.Jepe3 uenrp MOCI<BhI: OT ITeTP9~_CI<O:ro 3aMI<a, CTOHB-, utero BHe <.JepThI ropona, <.Jepe3· TBepCI<Yro saerasy, no TBepCI<oli·5IMCI<OH, TpHYMcPaJ1hHOH (HbIHe MaHI<OBCI<Oro} nJ1OIua,n:H, TBepCI<oJi~YJ1. Topsxorc), MHMO Crpacrnero MOHaCThlpH (Ha MeCTe I<OTOpOro reneps ITYllIKHHCI<aH nJ1.), zranee, BepOHTHO, no Kaxeprepcxowy nepeYJ1I<Y (HbIHe npoesn Xynoacecraemroro rearpa), nepecexaa EOJ1hllIYlO ;UMHTPOBI<Y (YJ1. ITYIlII<HHa), no KY3HeUI<OMY MOCTY (<<MeJ1hI<alOT < ... ) Mara3HHhI MO,n:bI») H MHCHHUKOH (HbIHe YJ1.KHpoaa) no XapHTOHbeBCI<OrO nepeyrnca.

Mara3HHbI MO,n: 6hIJIH cocpenoroneasr aa KY3HeUI<OM MOCTY - 3TO 6bIJIH cPpaHUY3CI<He J1aBI<H «AMe, ApMaH, Bencen, Mopo, ITaHCMaJ1b,illaJIbMe, Illemo H np.» CIUyI<HHCI<HH c6., BbIII. 2. M., 1903, c. 5).

"4HCJ10 cPpaHUY3CI<HX MO,n:HbIX J1aBOI< aa KY3HeUI<OM, MOCTY 6bIJIO O<.JeHb BeJ1HI<O, a COCTaB HX nOCTOHHHO MeHHJ1CH. Pa3J1H<.JHble MeMyapHCTbI npaaonar paansre cnnCI<H HMeH HaH60.TIee BbI,n:aIOIUHXCH nOCTaBIUHU MO,n:. ConOCTaBJ1HH 1820-e rr. C 1850-MH, M. n. EYTYPJ1HH nHCaJI: «He 3HaIO, OT <.Jero CJ1Y<.JHJ10Cb, <.JTO uapucano-oeMOOHblU 3J1eMeHT OI<OHt.raTeJ1bHO BbITeCHeH C KY3HeUI<OrO MOCTa. B 6bIJ10e BpeMH OH sanpyxcen 6bIJ1 Ma,n:aMaMH JIe6yp, IOpCIOJ1b, Byacerrs, COcPHeIO Ea6eH, JIaI<oM6, JIeI<J1ep H HX MeHee 3HaMeHHTbIMH I<OI-mypeHTI<aMH ... » (ByTypJ1HH, c. 437.)

3Hal.JHTeJ1bHaH qaCTb ,n:eHcTBHH pOMaHa cocpe,n:oTo<.JeHa B ,n:epeBeHCI<OM ,n:OMe nOMeIUI·ma XIX B. Orracanae THnH<.Jnoro nOMeIUHl.JherO ,n:OMa Haxo,n:HM B 3anHCI<aX M . .It BYTYPJ1HHa: «CapXHTeI<TYPHoIO YTOHqeHHOCTHIO HbIHellIHI1X Boo6IUe nOCTpOeI<, npn HOBbIX nOHHTHHX 0 ,n:oMaUIHeil\ I<OMcPopTe, HC<.Je3J1H nOBCIO,n:y 3TH HeKa3HCTble ,n:e,n:OBCI<He nOMeIUH<.JbH ,n:OMHI<H, Bce no-rra cepo-nenerrsnoro UBeTa, TeCOBaH 06IllHBI<a H recoasre xpsmra I<OHX HHI<Or,n:a He I<paCHJ1HCb < ... ) B 6oJ1ee 3aMbICJ10BaTbIX ,n:epeBeHCI<HX

68

nOCTpOH:KaX npHIrneI1BaJIHCb, TaK CKa3aTb, K 3TOMY CepOMY <POHY srersrpe KOJIOHHhI C <pPOHTOHHhIM TpeyrOJIbIDIKOM Hap: HHMH. KOJIOHHhI 3TH 6hIJIH Y 60JIee 3a>I<HTOqHhIX onrryxarypemn.re H BhIMa3aHHhle H3BeCTbIO TaK me, KaK H IiX KamiTeJIH; Y MeHee p:OCTaTOqHhIX rrOMeI14HKOB KOJIOHHhI 6hIJIH H3 TOI14HX COCHOBhIX 6peBeH 6e3 BCHKHX KanHTeJIeH. Bxorraoe naparmoe KPhIJ1b~O, C orpoMHhIM BhI,lJ;aIOI14HMCH srrepen ,lJ;epeBHHHhIM HaBeCOM Ii ,lJ;BYMH rJIYXHMH 60KOBhIMH CTeHaMH B BH,lJ;e npocrparmori 6YP:KH, OTKPhITOii: cnepeznr. BHYTpeHHee YCTPOii:CTBO 6bIJIO COBepIlleHHO O,lJ;IiHaKOBO aesne ; OHO nOBTOpHJIOCb 6e3 BCHKIiX rrocrra H3MeHeHHH B KOCTPOMCKOH, Karryxccxoa, OPJIOBCKOii:, PH3aHcKoH Ii npOt.IHX rytiepanax H 6hIJIO CJle,lJ;YIOI14ee. B 6Y,lJ;Ke napamroro KPbIJ1b~a 6hIJIa 6oKoBaH rrseps B perapanaoe MecTO (acerna, KOHeqHO, XOJIO,lJ;Hoe), H IIOTOMY BXO,lJ; B ,[(OM He acerna OTJIHqaJICH 6JIarOBOHHeM. IToCJIe rrepernreii 6hIJI '[(JIHHHhIH 3aJI, COCTaBJIHIOW:HH O,[(HH H3 yrJIOB ,lJ;OMa, C qaCThIMIi OImaMIi B ,lJ;ByX crenax H rrOTOMY CBeTJIhIH KaK opaa»cepea. B rJIYXOH KaIIHTaJIbHOH CTeHe sarra 6hIJIO ,lJ;BOe ,lJ;BepeH; nepaaa, acerna HH3I{aH, BeJIa B TeMHhIH KOPH,lJ;OP, B KOHIJ;e xoero 6hIJIa ,[(eBHt.IbH H qepHhIH BhIXO,[( na ,[(BOp. BTOpaH zrseps sana, 60JIbllIOrO paswepa Ii B ypoaeas C BepXOM OKOH, BeJIa B rOCTHHYIO; raxoro me pasaepa nseps BeJIa H3 rocranoti B Ka6HHeT HJIH B X03HIlcKYro CrraJIbHIO, COCTaBmlIOW:YIO ztpyroii yrOJI ,lJ;OMa. 3TH zrse KOlVlHaTbI H rrorrepe-raaa sracrr, 3aJIa 6bIJ1H 06paIIJ;eHhI K ~BeTInIKY, a aa HeHMeHHeM raxoaoro K <PPYKTOBOMY carry; rpacan me 3TOH qaCTH ,[(OMa COCTOHJI H3 cenn orpovnrstx OKOH, zrsa H3 HHX 6hIJIH B 3aJIe, TpH B rOCTHHOH (cpezmee anpovex rrpeapantanocs JIeTOM B CTeKJIHHHYIO nseps co cnYCKOM B can), a ocrarrsasre nsa OKHa B cnansne. Y6paHCTBO rOCTHHOH 6hIJIO raioae O,lJ;HHaKOBO BO acex ,[(OMax. B ,[(BYX rrpocremcax Mem,[(y OKHaMH BHCeJIM sepxana, a non HHMH TYM60qKH HJIH JIol\16epHhle CTOJIbI. B cepermne npOTHBOIIOJIOmHOH rJIYXOH CTeHhI CTOHJI HeYKJIIOmHH, orpOMHbIH C ,lJ;epeBHHHOIO cnHHKOIO H 60I-{aMH ,[(HBaH (naor na, anpoxea, H3 xpacaoro nepena); nepen ,lJ;HBaHOM OBaJIbHbIH 60JIbllIOH CTOJI, a rro 06eHM CTopOHaM ,[(MBaHa CHMl\leTpHqeCKH BbIXO,lJ;HJIH zraa pazia HeYKJIIO)f{HX KpeCeJI < ... > BCH 3Ta Me6eJIb 6bIJIa Ha6HTa KaK 6hI opeXOBOIO llIeJIYXOIO If IIOKphITa 6eJIhIM KOJleHKOpOM, KaK 6bI qeXJIaMH ,[(JIR c6epemeHIfR non HeIO l\1aTCpHH, XOTR non KOJIeHI-{opOM 6hIJIa nepemco orma TOJICTeHIIlaR neas-

69

lWRaH . CypOBaH TKaHb. MflTKOM Me6enl1 H B nOMHHe rorna He 6bInO; :fIO B Ka6HHeTe HnH. cnansne neperneo CTORJIa TIOnYMHrKa5l xneenxaraa senenaa codia, H TaM me R yrny araxcepxa c nyl.IillHM X035l11cHHM l.IaMHbIM cepBH30M, 3aTeMnHBhIMH ,Ue,UYUlKHHhIMH 60KanaMH,cpapCPopOBbIMH KYl<O.IJKaMM H C nO.lJ:06HhIMH 6e3,UenlOUlKaMH. 060H 6bInH rorna euie pe,UKO B XO,UY;Y 60JIee 3an<HTOl.IHbIX CTeHbI 6bIJIH oxpaurensr meJITOlO BOXpOlO ... » (BYTYpmm, c. 403- 405).

Taxosa «cnena», na xoropoii pa3BepTbIBaJIOCb ,UeiiCTBHe BTOPOH - ce,ru,MoH rJIaB powana, TaK, B crporpe XVII ce,ru,MoM rJIaBbI MbI HaXO,LUIM TaTb5lHY caanana B aane OHerHHCKoro ,UOMa, rne eH 6pOCalOTC5l B r-nasa {(KHH ua 6HJIb5lp,Ue» H MaHe)KHbIH XJIbICTHK na xaaane. Cooouienae: «TaH5l zrane» - YKa3bIBaeT, '-ITO repoana nepenina B rOCTHHYlO, rne npo,UOJImalOTC5l 06b5lCHemm AHHCbH:

... A BOT HaMl1H;

3AeCb 6apllH ClllliI1B3.1J OAIlH.

XVlIl

3AeCh C HIlM 06eAbIBaJJ 311MOlO TIOKOHHblH Jlencxna, naur cocen.

B CBH3II C ynowananaex KaMHHa YMeCTHO COCJlaTbCH na roro me BYTypJIHHa, acnoanaasurero: «06a anyrpemrae yr JIa rOCTHHOH 6bInH nepepesam.r HaHCKOCOK ,UBYM5l nel.IbMH (He ncerria H3pa3~OBbIMH, a l.IaCTO KHprrHl.IHhIMH); OHH OTarrmIBaJIH 3a,UHl1MH CBOHMH aepxanaaa san H cnansmo» (EYTypmIH, c. 404). B ,UOMe OHerHHa O,UHa H3 3'l'l1X

nel.IeH 6blJIa nepe,UeJIaHa B KaMHH. .

)J,ao'Iee AHHCbH npoaoziar TaTbHHY B {(6apCKHH Ka- 6HHeT».

Cxoznraa rrJIaHHpOBKa, BH,UHMO, 11 B ,UOMe Jlapansrx. ,UeHCTBlIe XXXVII CTPOCPbI rperseri rJIaBbI npoacxormr B rOCTHHoH:

CMepKa.fJOCb; na CTOJJe 6JJI1CTafl Ilhrrren BetIepHHH C3MOBap ...

«3aBeTHbIH aensern, 0 na En (III, XXXVII, 14) TaTb.HHa rmcana na OKHe cj:)aca,UHoH CTeHbI, BbIXO,UMBUleM B CTOPOHY napannoro xpsmsua. l.Jepe3 3TO OKHO OHa II

70

yBH,D;eJIa rrozrseaacarourero qepe3 : zraeps, Be,D;Yll(YIO B

EBreHHf:!. OHa 6pOCIfJ1aCf> KOPIfAOP. H' qepHbIll XO,D;

B can,

<PaCa.L1:HaR xacrs ,qOMa, saronovarouraa 3aJIY If napamrsre KOMHaThI,6bIJIa orraoaraxcaorr. O.L1:HaKO KOMHaThI,Haxo,qIfBnraeca ITO TY CTOPOHY «opunopa: ,qeBH%R If,qpyrHe nOMeUieHHR - 6hIJ1H 3HaQIfTeJ1bHO HIf)f{e. 3TO rr03BOJIRJIO zrerrars BTOpyIO rronoaany 3,qaHIIf:! AByx3TamHoH.

B IIOMemII%IIX gOMax, rrperennoaaaurax aa 66JIblliYIO POCKOllib, <{eM «cepeasxae AOMIIKIfH, oxapaxrepaaoaaaasre EYTypmIHhIM, II rrpH6JIIfmaBllIIIXCR ITO rany K MOCKOBCKIfM Oco6HRKaM, rrepezraae BbICOKI1e KOMHaThI' 6bIJII1 napazrHbIMIf. )l(IfJIhle rrOMeUieHHSI, paCITOJIOmeHHbre rro rtpyryro CTOPOHY xopartopa II aa BTOpOM name, IfMeJIIf HH3KHe rrOTOJIKlI H 06CTaBJIRJIIfCb ropaano npoure. OHerHH noCeJIIfJICR He B «BbICOKHX rrOKORXH (II, II, 5), a TaM, rrre ero .L1:H.n;H ({JIeT COPOK C KJIIOQHHu;ell 6paHHJICSI», rne «BCe 6hIJIO npocro» (Il, III, 3, 5) - B 3a.n;HHX mIfJIbIX rrOKOf:!X.

Ha BTOPOM name qaCTO pacnonar-anacs .n;eTCKHe. TaM H )f{HJIH 6aphillIHH JIapHHhI. B KOMHaTe TaThSIHbI 6bIJI 6aJIKOH:

OHa JUo6nJ1a na i5arrKoHe

I'Iperryrrpexcnars napa BOCXOn;.,. ([J, XXVlll. 1-2).

baJIKOH 6bIJI AJISI IT XapaKTepHOH npaveroa noxeUiHqberO ,n:OMa (CM. III, I, 403).

EapCKHH ,qOM BI1,qeH H3,qaJIeKa, H3 OKOH H C 6aJIKOHa ero rarorce OTKPbIBaJIHCb AaJIeKI1e BH.D;bI. .lloMa npOBHHQHaJIbHbIX· rrOMeUiHKOB CTaBIfJIH xperrocrrrsre apXHTeR:TOpbI H 6e3bIMHHHhle apTeJIH nJIOTHHKOB. OHH rrrytiorco YCBOHJIH O,qHY If3 rJIaBHbIX oco6eHHOCTeH ,qpeBHepYCCKOH apXHTeK- \ TYphI - YMeHIfe rrOCTaBHTh crpoeaae TaK, <{To6bI OHO' rapl\Ii()HkI::I:}lQ..J~.ID4GM()!=b ,B ,. neiiaaxc. 3TO ,qeJIaJIO TaR:I1e rtocrpornor, HapH.D:Y C o;epR:OBHbIMH CTpoeHHRMH fl KOJIOKOJ1bHRMH, opraHH3Y1DU.(HMH TOqKaMH roro PYCCKoro neaaaxca, K KOTOPOMY npHBbIKJIH IT· H fOrOJIb B CBOHX" ,qOPO)f{HbIX CTpaHCTBHHX. .llOM CTaBHJICSI 06blqHO He na POBHOM MeCTe, HO If He aa sepunrae XOJIMa, OTKPbITOH aerpaa. Ero CTPOHJIH, KaK npaBHJIO, na CKJ10He, TaK, qTO C OAHOll CTOPOHbI OH Ka3aJICR CTO~HM aa POBHOM MeCTe (orciona 6bIBaJI 06blqHO ITOAbe3A, 11 K ,qOMY BeJIa

71

JIHn03aH annea), a C il:pyrof:I - OTI<pbIBaJICH BHa; Ha CI<aT XOJIMa, cnYCI< K pexe nrra o3epy, na narrexae ropH30HTbI. TaI< nOCTaBJIeHbI il:0M n B JlvhrXaHJIOBCI<OM 11 il:0M OCHrrOBbIX B TpHrOpCI<OM. He CJIyqaHHO TaTb5IHa, rrpHeXaBIUa5I B MOCI<BY, 6bIJIa nopaaceaa OTCYTCTBlIeM rrpOCTOpI-IOrO BIIil:a lI3 OKHa:

CalUfTCH TaHH y OI<Ha. Peneer cympax ; HO OHa CBOilX nonen He pa3nH~aeT:

Ilpezr aero He3Hal<OMhili AEOP, KOHlOlllHH, KyXHH 11 safiop

(VII, XLIII, 10-14).

,IJ;eHb CBeTCKOrO qeJlOBeKa. Pa3BJleqeHHH' .I1.em. CTOJIllqHOrO il:BOpHHlIHa lIMeJI nexoropsre ranoasre qepTbI. Oil:HaI<O re npasnaxn, I<OTOPbIMlI orwenen rrens odmnepa lIJIlI nenapraxearcxoro tIllHOBHIII<a, B poxaae He OTMeqeHbI, II OCTaHaBJIlIBaTbCH na HllX B HaCTOB:r.ueM o-repxe He lIMeeT CMbICJIa.

OHerlIH aerter W:1I3Hb MOJIOil:0ro qeJIOBeI<a, caooozmoro .OT CJIyw:eOHbIX 06H3aTeJIbCTB. Crrezryer OTMeTIITb, 'ITO I<OJIlIqeCTBeHHO JIIIllIb HeMHOrOqlICJIeHHa5I rpynna il:BOPHHCI<OH MOJI0il:eW:lI Ilerepfiypra na=rana XIX B. BeJIa I10,!l;OOayto m1I3Hb. Kpowe JIIOil:eH necnyxcautax, TaI<YIO mH3Hb MOrJIlI ce6e rr03BOJIlITb JIlIIlIb perrxne MOJIOil:ble JIIOil:I1 lI3 qIICJIa OOraTbIX II llMelOmllX snarayro P0il:HlO MaMeHbI<llHhIX CbIHI<OB, "tlb5I cJIyw:6a, 'lame ncero B MllHIICTepCTBe llHOCTpaHHbIX nen, 6bIJIa tIllCTO cI>llI<THBHOH. THI1 TaI<OrO MOJIOnoro qeJIOBeI<a, rrpaazra, B HeCI<OJIbI<O 60JIee rroannee apeMH, MbI naxozma B MeMyapax M. )1.. EYTYpJIIIHa, I<OTOPbIH BCI10MHHaeT «I<HH35I Flerpa Anexceeaa-ra rOJIHUbIHa II Hepa3JIY"LII-IOrO ero npyra Ceprea (oTqeCTBO 3a6bIJI) PowaHOBa». «06a OHH 6bIJIH CTaTCI<IIe, II 06a, Kaw:eTC5I, crrymlIJIII ror-rra no MHHIIcTepcTBY mrocrpamrsrx rterr. TIOMHfO, "LITO Tlerpynra (I<aI< ero 3BaJIH B oouiecrae) rOJIHI.J;bIH rOBapHBaJI, que servant au ministere des affaires etrangeres il etait tres etranger aux. affaires < nenepeaozraaaa arpa CJIOB: cI>paHUY3CI<Oe «etrangere» osaanaer H «nnocrpanHhIH» H «qyW:OH» - «crryxca no MHHIICTepcTBY HHOCTpaHHbIX rrerr, H qym,n: BC5II<HX ,n:eJI».- 10. JI.») (EYTYPJIHH, c. 354).

Ocpanep-raapneeu B 1819·- '1820 rr. - B caMbIH paarap apaxveeanmm.r, - ecnn OH 6bIJI B MJIail:IlIHX tIllHaX (a no aospacry onnoronox OHerHHa B ary nopy, I<OHeqHO, He Mor pacc-urrsman, na BbICOI<HH tIllH, il:alOr.u;IIH H3BeCTHbIe

72

06JIer'-IeHHH B nOpR,DJ<e 1<am,n:O,[(HeBHOH BOeHHOH MyIIlTphI - npOCMOTP pana 6HorpaqmH zraer 1<OJIe6aHHe B qHHaX Mem,n:y rBap,n:eHC1<HM nOpY'-IH1<OM H apMeHCI<llM nonrrorrI<OBHH1<OM), C pannero yrpa ,n:OJImeH 6hIJI HaXO,[(HTbCR B CBOeH pore, 3C1<a'[(pOHe HJIH 1<OMaH,[(e. 3ase,[(eHHhIH I1aBJIOM I COJI'[(aTC1<HH nopanox, npn 1<OTOPOM HMnepaTop B 10 '-IaCOB nevrepa 6hIJI B nOCTeJIH, a B nars YTPa - na nor ax, cOXpaHHJICH H rrpn AJIe1<CaH'[(pe I, JIl06RBIIIeM, I<01<eTHH'-IaH, noaropars, '-ITO OH «rrpOCTOH COJI,[(aT» 1. «BeHqaHHhIM COJI,n:aTOM» ero HMeHOBaJJ IT B H3BeCTHOH 3I1Hrpaxae.

Mexcrry TeM npaao BCTaBaTb I<a1< MomHO noaxce HBJIRJIOCb caoero porta .. .rrPH3HaI{QM. _apnCTQ}{paTII3Ma, OT.n;eJIHBIIlHMiIec,iIymalli;ero ,[(BopHHMHa He TOJIb1<O OT npocroHapo.zU;lI -HJIH._ cotiparsen, TRHYrwrX <PPYHTOBYIO J1HMI<Y, HO H OT nepeaerrcrcoro rrOMem;H1<a-X03RHHa. Mona BCTaBan I<aI< MomHO nosxce BOCXO,[(HJIa 1< <PpaHIW3C1<OH apHCT01<paTHH «craporo pexcnxa» H 6hIJIa aanecena B POCCl1lO 3MHrpaHTaMH-pORJ1HCTaMH. I1apHmCI<He CBeTC1<He ,n:aMhI npe'[(peBOJIIOQROHHOH nopsr rOpMJIHCb TeM, "tITO HHI<Or.n;a He BH,[(eJIH COJIHI~a: npocsmaacs aa aaxare, OHM JIOml1JIl1Ch B nOCTeJIb nepen BOCXO,[(OM. .Ileas Ha'-IHHaJJCH C ae=repa H I<OH'-IaJJCH B yTpeHHHX cyxepxax, )K COp3H B KOMe,[(HR «Hpaasr aaurero npewesra» H306pa3HJI rraanor Mem,!W fiypxcya H apHCTOKpaT1<OH. ITepBhIH BOCXBaJJReT npenecrn COJIHe'-IHOrO ,n:HH H CJIhIIl1HT OTBeT: «cDH, MeChe, 3TO He6JIar-opozraoe y,n:OBOJIhCTBHe: COJIHQe - 3TO JIHIIIb ,[(JIR '-IepHM!» (cp.: HBaHOB HB. I10JIHTH'-IeCKaH pOJIb <ppaHQY3C1<OrO rearpa B CBH3H C <PHJIOco<pHeH XVIII aexa. - «YqeH. sarr. Mocx. YH-Ta», 1895. OT,n:-HMe HCTOPHKO-<PllJIOJI., BbIII. XXII, c. 430). Ilpocsmarsca I103me, '-IeM zrpyrne JIIO,n:ll CBeTa, HMeJIO Ta1<Oe me 3Ha'-IeHHe, Ka1< HBJIHThCH Ha 6an nosace npyrax, Orcrorra croxcer THnH'-IHOrO aaexnora 0 TOM, Ka1< CJIyma1<a-BOeHHhIH 3aCTaeT caoero cafiapara-rron-rmrennoro B YTpeHHeM ,[(e3a6HJIbe (BnOJIHe eCTeCTBeHHOM ,n:JIH CBeTCKoro '-IeJIOBeKa, HO CTbI,[(HOM ,[(JIH aoennoro) H B

1 Cp. aHeJ{AOT, 3am1caHHhIH TI. A. B513eMcIOlM: «B XOnOIJ;HhIH 311MHHi"1 IJ;eHh, npn pesxoa BeTPe, Anexcaanp TIaBJlOBHq acrpexaer r-acy Jl ***, ryrraroutyro no AHrJlMHCJ{OH Ha6epe)}{HoH. «KaJ{ 3TO He 60HTeCb BhI XOJlOAa?» - cnpaIIlHBaeT OH ee. - «A Bhl, rocynaps ?» - «0, 1I - 3TO IJ;eJlO npyroe: 51 COJl):laT}). - «KaJ{! TIoMHJlYHTe, saure BenHqeCTBO, xax! EYIJ;TO BhI COJlAaT?» (R'l3eMcKUll, CTapa51 3anHCHa51 KHU)}{Ka, c. 165- 166).

73

TaKOM anne BO,l:(HT ero no vnarepro HJIH Herepfiypry aa norexy 3pHTeJIHNL AHeK.L\OTbI raxoro porta rrpHKperrJIHJIHCb H K CYBOPOBY, H H PYMHHu;eBY, H K I1aBJIY I, H H BeJI. HH. KOHcTaHTHHY. )KepTBaMH HX B 3THX paccxaaax OKa- 3bIB8..J'1HCb oqmu;epbI-apHcTOHpaTbI. B CBeTe cxaaamroro, nepoarno, rrpoacaaercs crpanaaa npa-ryna HHHrHHH As,l:(OTbH rOJIHU;bIHOH, rrpoanarraoii «Princesse Nocturne» (nocturne (rppamr.) 03Ha'IaeT «HO'IHaH» H, HaK cymecranTeJIbHOe, - «HO'IHaH 6a6o'IHa»). «HO'IHaH HHHrHHH», rrpomHBaBIllaH B Oco6HHHe aa MHJIJIHOHHOj;'I, - xpacaaurta, «o6BopOmIl:TeJIbHaH KaH caooona» (BH3eMcHIIH), rrpenaer YBJIe'IeHHH JI II Baaeacxor-o, - HHHOr.L\a He rrOHBJIHJIaCb npa ,l:(HeBHOM CBeTe H HIIHOr,l:(a He BII.L\eJIa COJIHu;a. C09HpaH B CBoeM Oco6HHHe YTOH'IeHHOe H JIII6epaJIbHOe 06w:eCTBO, OHa rrpHHHMaJIa TOJIbHO HO'IblO. 3TO BbI3BaJIO npn HHKOrrae I zraxce rpeaory Tpersero OT,l:(eJIeHHH: «KHHrHHH rOJIIII.l;bIHa, mHTeJIbCTBYlOw:aH B co6cTBeHHoM nowe, 'ITO B BOJIbIllOH MHJIJIHOHHOH, HOTopaH, KaH yme rro H3BeCTHOCTII, HMeeT 06bIHHOBeHHe cnars ,l:(HeM, a HOl.IblO 3aHHMaeTCH HOMnaHIIHMH, - H raxoe ynorpefineaae BpeMeHH OTHOCIITCH H 60JIbIllOMY nO,l:(03peHHlO, ·H6o 6bIBalOT B CHe BpeMH ocofiemrsre 3aHHTHH HaKHMII-TO TaHHbIMII ,l:(eJIaMII ... » (MO,l:(3aJIeBCKHH B. I1YIllHHH non TaHHbIM Ha.L\30pOM. JI., 1925, C .. 79). K ,l:(OMY rOJIHI.l;bIHOH 6bIJI rrpIICTaBJIeH TaHHbIH arear. Onaceans 3TII, aecworpa aa HeYHJIIOmeCTb rrOJIHu;eHCKIIX npeyaena-renaii, He 6bIJIII COBceM JIHIlleHbI OCHOBaHIIH:

B 06CTaHOBHe apaxveeaumm,r, nozi BJIaCTblO «BeHqaHHOrO COJI.L\aTa», apHCTOKpaTIIqeCKaH IIapTHKYJIHPHOCTb rrpaofiperana OTTeHOK He3aBIICIIMOCTH, 3aMeTHbIH, XOTH II TeprrHMbIH npa Anexcaanpe I H npeapauraauraiica nO'ITH B KpaMOJIY IIpH ero npeeaamce.

Y TpeHHHH TyarreT U -raunca xodie UJIH -raro CMeHHJIUCb K ,l:(BYM-TpeM qaCaM .L\HH npor'ynxoii, I1porYJIKa neuncox, BepXOM HJIH .B HOJIHCHe 3aHHMaJIa qaC-,l:(Ba. 113JIlO6JIeHHbIMH MeCTaMH rymIHuH nerepoyprcxax cPpaHTOB B 1810- 1820-x rr. 6bIJIH HeBcHuH rrpocnetcr H AHrJIHHCKaH nafiepexcnaa HeBhI. I1porYJIUBaJIHCb raroxe IIO A,l:(MHpaJITeHCKO.'l;lY 6YJIbBapy, HOTOPbIH 6bIJI B TpH annen aacaxcen B aaxane XIX B. aa MeCTe 06HOBJIeHHOrO rrpn I1aBJIe r JIaCHca A,l:(MHpaJITeHCTBa (r JIaCIIC - HaChIIIb nepen pSOM) t.

1 Ha3BaHI1e Hescxoro rtpocrtexra «OYJlbBapOMH rrpezrcraarrano C060H maprOHI13M 113 R:3bll<a nerepfiyprcxoro uier-ona, IIOCI<OJlbKY RBJlR:JlOCb

74

E)f{e,IJ.HeBHaR nporynxa AJIeI<CaH,n;pa I nOBJIHRJIa.Ha TO, qTO MO,IJ.HOe ,n;HeBHOe rYJUIHHe npOXO,IJ.HJIO no orrpezteJIeHHOMY MapmpyTy .. «B qac nOJIy,n;HlI OH BbIXO,IJ.HJ1 M3 3HMHero zrsopua, cJIe,n;OB<lJI no .uBOP~OBOH Ha6epe)f{HOH, y Flpaxemaoro MOCTa rrosopaaasan nO¢OHTam<e .n;o AHHqI<OBCI<OrO MOCTa ( ..• ) 3aTeM rocynaps B03BpaIQaJICH I< ce6e HeBCKHM npOCneI<TOM. I1porYJII<3 IIOBTOp5IJlaCh I<a)f{,I1.bIH ,n;eHh H aassraanacs le tour imperial <HMrrepaTOpCI<HH xpyr. - 10. JI.). KaI<aH 6bI HU 6hIJIa norozta, rocyztaps nrerr B O,n;HOM cropryxe ... » (BOcIIoMHHamuI rp. B. A. COJIJIory6a. - B I<H.: IToMern;H%R: POCCHH .. , c. 91).

l_!:IMnepaTop, xax npaBHJIO, nporYJIHBaJlCR 6e3 cOrrpOBO:>I<naronnrx rnm, paarrnrzrsraaa ,n;aM B JlOpHeT (OIl 6bIJI 6mi- 30PYl<) H OTBeqaH na IIOI<JIOHbI rrpoxoxorx. Tonna B 3TH qaChI COCTOHJIa li3 qHHOBHI1I<OB, qb5I cny)f{6a aocana qmI<TI1BHbIH I1JII1 nonyqmI<TI1BHhIH xapaxrep. OmI, eCTeCTBeHHO, MOrJlI1 3aIIOJIHHTb B npHCYTCTBeHHhIe qaCbI HeBCI<I1H, aaparry C rYJlR:IOrn;I1MH ,n;aMaMH, npHe3)f{HMlI 113 IIpOBliH~liH H HeCJlY)f{alQHMH <ppaHTaMH. I1MeHHo B 3Tli qaCbI Oaermr ryJI5IJI no «6Y.1IbBapy» 1.

nepeaecemrex Ha3BaHHH MOAHOI'O MeCTa I'y.lJHHHH B Flapioxe (cp.: « ... TIOCJ1e 06eAa Bce nOHAeM B TJOJ1J1epH lIJ1H na Byrieaap ... » - BOA](06 Il, BOCnHTaHHc. - POCCHllCJ<Jll'! <j)eaTp, T. XXI. CI16., 1788, c. 120; «CneHTaKJIH TaM <B Flapnxce. - 10. II. > aeane II jusques na Byneaape l»>X60cm06 Il. PYCCKHll napnacaaen. - POCCJ.Ii1cKUH <j)eaTP, T. X'V, CI16., 1787, c. 180). Cp. AJIll cpermax BeKOB aaanornsersre ynonofinenna rana «HOBbIH Hepycanasi» non MOCKBOll HJ1l! nasaaaae «Bponsea» (<<BpoA») .lIJ1H Heacxoro npocnexra Me}!{.lIY JIuTeHHbIM 11 Canonoa B 60J1ee noaanee BpeMH.

1 E. I1BaHoB, aBTOp poaana «JI.a.nb caotioznror-o poaaaa», 3aCT3BIDl Oaer-aaa ryJ1HTh no BUp}!{eBOll Ha6epe}!{HOH MeJi<AY J<JlnaMl! TOBapOB H npaao Ha yrmne noerrars YCTPUl1 H3 TOJ1bl<O 'ITO OTl<PbITOH rOJ1JlaH):{l1eM 60qJ<Jl, 3anMBaJ'I lIX rroprepoa (H6a1l06 E. )lanb cB060gHOrO poaaaa, M.- JI., 1959, c. 106-110). BCH 3Ta nenerras cnena nenocpencraemso cnacaxa H3 KHHnI M. 11. I1bIJ1HeBa «CTapbIH Ilerepoypr-» (eI16., 1909, c. 419). OAHal<O TIbIJ1HeS, roaopa 0 <(8Ce06l.l1eM cxoncmne» 1I 0 TOM, 'ITO «npn6bITlie nepBOI'O nnocrpamroro xopafina» COCTaBJIfIJIO «onoxy S }!{1I3HH nerepoypxma», He YTOt,jHHeT, HaKOI'O xpyra 1I 06meCTBeHHOrO n0J10}!{eHYlH J1JOAI! «npecsnuarmcs YCTpHl1aMH» non OTKpbITbIM He6oM. KOHe'IHO, peurarerrsao HeB03MO)!{HO npencraaars ce6e CBeTCl<OrO QeJ10- aexa 1810-x rr., BocnHTaHHIIKa a66aTa-3MnrpaHTa, )!{YJOmHM aa YJ1Ml1e B oeuiecrae peMeCJ1eHHYlHOB YI 3anYlBaJOl.l1Y1M egy noprepox, ECJ1n '1TOJm60 B 3TOM pone H' B03MO}!{HO 6bIJ10 xax llIaJIOCTb C APY3bHMll rrocne pa3rYJ1bHOH HO'IH, TO C'IYlTaTh 3TO perynapnsra BpeMHnpOBO}!{,QeHHeM (HBaHOBCl<Hll EBI'eHYIll euie XBaCTaeTCH 11M aevepoa s xpyry CBeTCHHX AaM!) - npH6JlIl3HTeJ1hHO TO »ce caaoe, 'ITO C'IIiTaTh, 'ITO Hsep .Be3YXOB; npOCHYBllIlICb yTpOM, AeJIOBYITO OTnpaBJ1l1JlCH xynars xsaprans-

7S

OKOJIO qeThIpex '-laCOB rrOnOJIy.n;HII HaCTYlIaJIO BpeM.R ooena, Taxne qaChI erne 5IBCTBeHHO omymanncr, xax noszmae H «eBpOl1eHCKHe» : .n;JIR M.HOrHX 6hIJIO erne lIal\UITHO BpeM.H, xor-na 06e.n; Ha'lliHaJICH B ztaeaarmars.

MOJIO.n;OH qeJIOBeK, Be.n;ymHH XOJIOCTOH 06pa3 }l{1I3HII, peznco cozrepacan noaapa - xpenocrnoro IIJIH HaeM.HOrO HHocTpaHu;a - .. 11 .. IJpe.n;rro'lli'f.aJI·.·.o6e.n;aTh- .. B .. pec;TopaHe. 3a HCKJIIOqeHHeM. HeCKOJIbKHX rrepBOKJIaCCHhIx peoeopanoa, paCIIOJIOmeHHhIX na HeBCKOM., o6e.n;hI B rrerepfiyprcxnx TpaKTlIpax 6bIJIlI xyace IIO KaqeCTBY, qeM. B MocKW O. A. TIpmeU;JIaBCKIIH BCnOM.HHaJI: «KYJIHHapHaH xacrs B ny6JIHqHbIX 3aBe.n;eHHHX rrpefisrsarra B KaKOM.-TO nepao- 6hITHOM. COCTOHHIIH, na ovens HlI3KOH crenean. XOJIOCTOM.Y qeJIOBeKY, He lIM.eBIlIeMY CBoeH KyXHH, nO'-lTH HeB03MomHO 6bIJIO o6e.n;aTb B PYCCKHX rparcrapax. TIPH TOM »ce saae.n;eHHH 3TH 3aKphIBaJIlICb aexepoa .n;OBOJIbHO pano, TIPH BhIxone H3 rearpa, M.OmHO 6bIJIO rroyxcnaars TOJIbKO B O.n;HOM. pecropane, rne-ro na HeBCKOM. rrpocnexre, IIO.n; 3eMJIelO; ero conepxcan .uOM.eHHK» (TIoMemHqnH POCCHH .. , c. 68).

«XOJIOCTYIO» arviocrpepy pecropaaaoro ofiena HPKO 06PHcoBbIBaeT Tl B IIHCbMax BeCHhI 1834 r. K Haranse HIIKOJIaeBHe, yexasurea -repea MocKBY na TIOJIOTHHHbIH 3aBO.n;: « ... HBHJICH H K .uIOMe, r'rte rrOHBJIeHHe Moe IIpO- 1I3BeJIO ofiuree BeCeJIHe: XOJIOCTOH, XOJIOCTOH TIYIlIKHH! CTaJIH lIo.n;'lliBaTb MeHH IIlaMrraHCKHM. H' IIYHIIleM, H Clip aIIlHBaTb, He noeny JIM H K Corpse ACTa¢beBHe? Bee 3TO MeHH CMYTHJIO, TaK '-lTO 5I K JJ:1OM.e HBJIHTbCH ym 60JIee He naxepea M ofieztaro cerozraa .n;OMa, 3aKa3aB Crenaay 60TBMHbro M beaf-steaks» (XV, 128). H II03me: «Ofierraro y .uIOMe -raca B 2, qTo6 He BCTpeTHTbCH C XOJIOCTOIO IIlaHKOIO» (TaM me, 143) .

.uOBOJIbHO nOJIHhIH 0630p rrereptiyprcxax pecropaaon 1820-x rr. (npasna, OTHOCHmMHcH KO BpeMeHII HeCKOJIbKO 60JIee rroanaeny, qeM p;eHcTBMe rrepsoa rJIaBbI ponaaa) aaxonna B OP;HOM 'M3 .n;HeBHHKOB COBpeMeHHHKOB: « I-ro MIOHH 1829 rona. 06ep;aJI B rOCTHHIIu;e I'earte, rra BaCHJIb-

rroro, rrpanaaaa ero K Me,JJ;Bep;lO, a BCqCPOM paCCKa3bIBaJI 06 3TOM B rcpyry BOCTOpH<eHHbIX p;aNi. KOM6HHHPYli OTpblBKfI >13 pa3HbIX >lCTOqHHKOB, B. I1BaHoB He 06HapY>!{I1BaeT, oznrarco, rrOHHMaHHR H306paH<aeMoro >1M BpeMCHH. K COH<a.rICHHIO, aanepr-aaasre >1M rtoaepxnocrasre CBe,JJ;eHHR BbI,JJ;aIOTCli aaorna sa «ananae 6bITa UYWKHHCKOI! 3UOXH» (C~\.: c6. PYCCKaH rrareparypa B HCTOPHKO-CPYHKI1HOHaJIbHOM OCBew:eHHH, M., 1979, c. 294),

76

eBCKOM OCTPOBY, B Ka));eTCKOH: J1HHHH,- PYCC!-<HX nO'I'I'iI 3,neCb He BH));HO', ace HHOCTpaHQbI. OGe)]; ));e111eBbIM, ));Ba py6J1H aCCHFHaQUH:, HO rmpoxcaoro He nonaror HHt<aI<OrO H HH sa xaxne ));eHbrt'1'. CTpaHHhrH: 06hI'IaH:! B C::l.JIaT KJ1a,n:YT Mano MaCJ1a H MHoro yxcyca. 2-I'o HIOH51. Ooe));a.JI B HeMeQI<OH: pecropatran KJ1eH, na HeBCI{OM npocrrexre. Crapoe H 3aKOrrtIeHHOe aasezrenae. bOJ1bUIe acero HeMQhI, BHHa rrsror Mano, 3aTO MHoro nnaa. OGe)]; zieurea ; lime nozrarnr J1acPHTY B 1 pytins ; Y MeHH nocrre aroro ztaa ));HH fiorren mHBOT. 3-ro HIOHH oGe,n: Y .I(1OMe. flo Ka'IeCTBY 06e,n: 3TOT CaMhIH: .n;ellIeBbIH: H CaMbIH: nytIllIHH: H3 acex 06e));OB B rrereptiyprcrcrx pecroparraax. .I(1OMe HMeeT HCJ<.JIlOtIHTenbHyro rrpnaarreraro - narrornrars meJ1y,n;KH rreTep6yprCI<HX J1bBOB H ));eH));H. 4-ro H1OHH. Ofien B nransHHCKOM sxyce y Anexcaarrpa HnH Signor ce) Ales(s) andro, no MOH:I<e y Ilormneacxoro MOCTa. 3));eCb nexnea He 6bIBaeT, a 6oJ1ee nram.amrsr liJ cPpaHQY3hI. Bnpovew, aootiure nocernrerrea HeMHoI'O. OH rrpHHHMaeT TOJ1bKO XOPOlllO 3HaKOMhIX eMY moneti, H3rOTOBnHH 60nee 06e));hI ));nH crnycxa aa ));OMa. MaKapOHbI H CTocPaTO rrpeaocXO,n:HbI! Y Hero npncnyacaaana PYCCI<aH nesyunca Mapsa, nepexaenoaannaa B MapHaHHY; caMoY'IKoM OHa BbIy'IHJ1aCb npexpacao roaopnrs rro-<ppaHQY3CKH H nO-HTaJ1bHHCKH. 5-ro. 06e)); y Jlerpaaa, 6bIBlllHM ¢eJ1beTa, B BOJ1bllIOH:

MOpCKOH:. 06e)); XOpOllI; B npOIlIJIOM rorry HeJIb3H 6hIJIO ooezrars snecs naa paaa cpazry, rrOTOMY 'ITO ace 6bIJIO O));HO H TO me. B HbIHelliHeM rorry 06e,n: aa TpH pyfirra accHrHaQUHMH snecs rrpexpacasra H paaaoofipaaasra. CepBH3bI H ace npHHa,n:J1emHOCTH - rrperrecrs. TIPHCJIY>f<HBaIOT HCJ<.JIIOtIHTeJIbHO rarapsr, BO cPpaKax. 6-ro HIOHH. TlpeBOCXO,n:HbIM o6e,n: y CeH-)Kopma, no MOH:Ke (rerreps ):(OHOH), nO'ITH npOTHB Ales cs ) andro . .uOMHK na naope ,n:epeBHHHbIM, npOCTO, HO co BI<YCOM y6paHHhIH. Kam,n;hIH: nOCeTHTeJIb 3aHHMaeT OC06y1O KOMHaTY; npn noxe can ; aa 6anI<OHe o6e,n:aTh rrpenecrs ; cepanasr npeaocxormsre, BHHO OTJ1H'IHoe. Ofien B rpa H rrHTh py6J1eH: aCCHrHarrIIHMl1. 7-ro 1I1OHH HHr,n:e He 06e,naJI, nOTOMY, 'ITO neocropoxoro n03aBTpaKaJ1 H HCnOpTHJI armernr. TIo ztopore KAles < s) andro, Tome na MOH:Ke ecrs ManeHbI<aH JIaBI<a ):(HaMaHTa, B KOTopoM no,n:aIOTCH crpacfiyprcxae rraporn, aererana H npon. 3,n;ecb 06e)];aTb HeJIb3H, HO MomHO 6paTh aa ,nOM. ITo npocsfie X03Hl1H n03BOJIlIJI MHe nosaarpaxars. KYIllaHhH y Hero npeaocxoznrsr, r . .QHaMaHT 30JIOTOH: MaCTep. JIaBI<a

77

era' nanovanaer MHe naproxcxae guinguettes (Ma.rreHbl<l-l'e rpaxrapsr). 8-ro IfIOHH. Ofienan y Simon-Grand-Jean, rro . Borrsuroa KOHlOweHHoH. Ooen xoponr, HO aecreprraa aarrax OT KYXHIf. 9-ro IflOHH. 06e)laJI Y KYJIOHa. ;IllOMe rrysnne 11 zteureane. Bnposexcsnecs 60nbI1le 06e)U>I AJIH m11BYLQIfX BcaMOH rOCTIfHIfne; BIfHO npexpacaoe. 10-ro IflOHR. Ofiezr y OTTO; BKYCHbIH, CbITHbIH If AeI1leBbIH; 113 nenreasrx 06e)lOB rry-nne ensa :m MomHO CbICKaTb B Tlerepdypre» (mrr. rro: I1bIJIReB M. 11. Crapoe mMTbe. Oxeprcs If pacCXa3bI. eI16., 1892, c. 8-,9).

HacToRLQ11H OTPbIBOK xapaxrepnayer nonoxceane KOHna 1820-x rr. 11 K navarry necaranernaaoacer 6bITb rrpaxenen rrmns C aexoropsrva orosopxaxn. Tax, nanpaaep, MeCTOM cfiopa nerepfiyprcxax AeH)J;If B 3TO BpeMR 6bIJI He pecropan J(lOMe, a pecropan Tanorra na HeBcKoM. Onaaxo 06LQaR xaprana 6bma ra me: XOPOWMX pecropaaos 6bIJIO HeMHoro, Kam)U>IH rrOCeLQanCR onpeneneaasra, YCTOHqnBbIM xpyroa nan. I10RBIfTbCR B TOM MnM MHOM pecropaae (oco6eHHO B TaKOM, KaK Tarrona IfJIIf rroaxce J(lOMe) osaanano HB11TbCR aa C60PHbIH nyHKT XOJIOCTOH MOJIOAemIf«JIbBOB» 11 «AeHAIf». A 3TO 06R3bIBano K orrpezierreaHOMY CTHJIIO rrOBeAeHMR M na ace OCTaBweeCR AO aexepa BpeMR. He CJIyqaHHO n AOJImeH'6bIJI B 1834 r. 06eAaTb paasnre 06blqHOrO BpeMeHH, qTo6bIH36eraTb BCTpeqH C «XOJIOCTOIO WaHKOlO)}.

LDocJIeo6e)J;eHHoe BpeMH MOJIOAOH <ppaHT CTpeMIfJICR «y6MTb}), 3arrOJIHHBi"!IptYMemYToK MemAY peCTOpaHOM H -61trtott\ -OAHOH U3 B03MomHocTeH 6bIJI rearp. OH )J;JIR rrerepriypr-cxoro <ppaHTa TOH nopst He'-TO'ji'bKo- xyrtoxcecraexaoe 3peJIHLQe If cBoeo6pa3HbtltI511}:.p.,...rAe rrpOMCXOAMJIH CBeTCKHe BCTpeqn,HO H MeCTO JI106OBHhQG..IW:J:pHr If nocrynHhPL3aKY}!HCHbIX YBJIeqeHMH. «Tearpansaaa WKOJIa naXOAHJIaCb qepe3 AOM OT Hac, aa EKaTepIfHIfHCKOM xaaane. Brnotineaasre B BocnHTaHHHn KamAbIH AeHb rrpoxaacasaJIIfCb 6eCCqeTcHOe qncno pa3 no Ha6epe»<HOH KaHana MHMO OKOH WKOJIbI. Bocrraraaamrsr rrorseurarracs B rpersex sraxce ... » (Tlaaaeaa A. 5I. [rOJIOBaqeBa]. BocrrOMIfHaHHR. M., 1972, c. 368).

B reveane BTOPOH rrOJIOBIfHbI XVIII If nepaoji rpera XIX B)3. pacrropanox ):(HH HeYKJIOHHO CABIfranCR. B XVIII B; AeJIOBOH AeHb aa-nraanca paH~ «Boenasre RBJIRJIHCb aa CJIy»<6bI B' weCTOM 'lacy, rpaxcztaacxae qnHbI B soceas H 6e3 OTJIaraTeJIbCTB OTKpbIBanIf fIpIfCYTCTBHR,' a B <rae

78

nOnOJIY)J,HM, CJIeAY5:I perJIaMeHTY, npexpanrann CBOM cyxcneHli5:I. Tal<HM 06pa30M OHI1 aecsaa peznco B03Bpam;aJIMCb K ce6e )J,OMOH n03AHee aroporo qaca, soeaasre me 6hIBarm:

B xsaprapax yxce B naeaamrarox xacy . < ... > LJacTHhIe ae-repa ace aoofinie HaqJ1HaJIMCb B ceas qaCOB. RTO rrpnesscan aa HMX qaCOB B )J,eB5:ITh MJIM B AeC5:ITh, X035:IHH TOTqaC cnpanraaan: «A qTO rax n03)J,Ho?» OTBeT 6hIBaJI: «Tearp HJIM I<OHCepT sanepxcan, xapersr He )J,O}f{)J,aJIC5:I!» (Maxapon. 0 BpeMeHM 06e)J,OB, yxcaaoa M C'he3)J,OB B Mocxse C 1792 no 1844 rorr. - IUYKMHCI<I1H c6., BhIll. 2. M., 1903, c. 2). B. B. Kmo-rapea nacan B 1790-e rr. H. A. MOJIqaHoBY: «Mory y aac 6hlTb AO certsworo qaca, a B Ce)J,Mb qaCOB HaqHeTC5:I 6arr B I<JIy6e, TO acex H3BeCTHO». B 1799 r. 3BaHhIH o6e)J, y rJIaBHOI<OMaH,rzyIOutero B Mocxse rp. H. TI. CarrTbII<OBa HaqJ1HaJIC5:I B 1pM qaca, a aexep - B ceMh II «I<OHqaJIC5:I JIerI<HM ymHHoM qacy BO BTOPOM 3arrOJIHO%, a naorria M paaee» (TaM »ce, c. 4). B 1807 r. K MOCKOBCI<OMY rJIaBHOHOMaH,L\yrom;eMY T. H. TYTOJIMMHY HaqJiHaJIM Cbe3maThC5:I na ero se-tepa M 6aJIbI OT )J,eB5:ITI1 AO ,L\eCHTI1 qaCOB. « ... 3anHcHhle me uterorm, no asmenraeay JIbBhI, ryna me HBJIHJIIICh B OAI1HHaA~aTh, HO arc, MHOr,L\a, 3aMeqaJIOCb HM X03RHHOM C HeY,L\OBOJIbCTBMeM ... » (TaM me, c. 5). B 1810-e rr. pacnopanoxnaa eute 60JIee CABMHYJICH: B 1812 r. {(MaAaM CTaJIb, 6Y,L\Yl1M B Mocxse, 06bIHHoBeHHo aaarpaxana B Tanepee na TBepCl<OM 6YJIhBape, 3TO 6hIBaJIO B ABa qaca»

(TaM me, c. 8). . .

lR aavany 1820-x rr. 06e,L\ C)J,BMHYJICH I< qeTblpeM qaCaM, BpeM5:I aexepnax c06paHHH - I< ,lJ;eCHTI1, merona me He rrpaeaxcarra na 6aJIhI AO nOJIYHOqJ1. TaM, r,lJ;e nOCJIe 6aJIa MMeJI MeCTO Y>KHH, OH npoxoztan B zrsa-rpa qaca HOt.n:!J

.~.

Ji~ {]::._@I,lhl 3aHHMaIOT B EO 3Ha'1I1TeJIbHOe MeCTO: HM nocaauteasr aBTOpCI<Me oTcTynJIeHM.R:, OHM nrpalOT60JIhIllyro ClOmeTHYIO .. POJlI:).·

'Fam::U;I 6bIJIM BamHbIM CTPYH1'ypHbIM 3JIeMeHTOM ,lJ;BOpaacxoro 6bITa. Hx POJIh cyuiecrseaao OTJIHqaJIaCh. KaH OT <PYHH~M TaH~eB B HapO,1J;HOM 6bITY roro BpeMeHH, rax H OT COBpeMeHHoH.

B )}{H3HM pyccxoro cTOJIMqHOrO ,L\BOpHHHHa XVIII - aanana XIX· BB. BpeMH pa3AeJIHJIOCb aa ,L\Be nOJIOBHHbI:

79

IIpe5bIBaHHe ,I:(OMa 5bIJIO nOCBHw:eHO CeMeMHbIM H X03HMCTBeHHbIM 3a50TaM - 3,I:(eCb ,I:(BOPHHHH asrcryrran KaK 1:J:aCTHOe JIHU;O; ,I:(pyrYIO IIOJIOBHHY 3aHHMaJIa cJIY)f(6a - BOeHHaH HJIH CTaTCKaH, B KOTOPOM ,I:(BOPHHHH BbICTYIIaJI KaK BepHOnO,I:(,I:(aHHbIM, CJIY)f(a rocynapro H rOCY,I:(apCTBY, KaK npezrCTaBHTeJIb ,I:(BOpHHCTBa rrepert JIHUOM npyrnx COCJ10BHll. fIPOTHBOIIOCTaBJIeHHe 3THX )':(ByX <pOPM nOBegeHHH CHHMaJIOCb B aensrarotnea ,I:(eHb «C06paHHH», na 5aJIy HJIH 3BaHOM aesrepe. 3),:(eCb peaJ1H30BbIBaJIaCb 06IUeCTBeHHaH )f(H3Hb ,I:(BOpHHHHa: OH He 5bIJI HH 1:J:aCTHOe J1HUO B qaCTHOM 5bITY, HH CJ1Y)f(HBbIll qeJ10BeK na rOCY,I:(apCTBeHHOM CJ1Y)f(- 5e - OH 5bIJI ),:(BOPHHHH B gBOpHHCKOM cofipaana, qeJ10BeK CBoero COCJ10BHH Cpe,I:(H CBOHX.

TaKHM 06pa30M, 6aJI OKa3bIBanCH, C O),:(HOM CTOPOHbI, C<pePOM, npOTHBOnOJIO)f(HOMCJIy»<6e-· 06JIaCTblO nenpnHY)f(,I:(eHHOrO 06meHHB:, CBeTCKoro OT,I:(bIXa, MeCTOM, rrte rpamnrsr CJ1Y)f(e6HOM aepapxaa OCJ1a6J1HJ1HCb. fIpHCYTCTBHe ,I:(aM, TaHQbI, HOPMbI CBeTCKoro 06w:eHHH BBO,I:(HJIH BHeCJ1Y)f(e6Hble u;eHHOCTHble KpHTepHH, H IOHbIM rropyxax. J10BKO TaHIJ;yIOIUHM H YMelOIUHM CMeUIHTh ,I:(all'l, lI'lor noqYBCTBOBaTb ce6H BbIUIe crapetomero napanerraoro IIOJ1KOBHHKa. C npyroa CTOPOHbI, fian 6bIJI 06J1aCThIO ofintecraeaaoro npezrcraaarerrscraa, <POp MOM COQHanbHOll opr-aanaaL(HH, O,lJ;HOll H3 HeMHorHX <POPM. ),:(o3B0J1eHHOrO B Poccmt TOM nopsr KOJ1J1eKTHBHOrO 6b~!iI B 3TOM CMbICJ1e CBeTCI<aH )f(H3Hb nOJ1Y1:J:ana ueaaocrs 06w:ecTBeHHoro nena. Xaparcrepen OTBeT EKaTepHHbI II na norrpoc <POHBH3HHa: «OTxero Y Hac He CTbI,lJ;HO He nenars HHqero?» - « ... B 05ru:eCTBe )f(HTh He ecrs He ,I:(eJIaTb HH1:J:erO» (<POHBH3HH .n. H. Co6p. cosr. B 2-x T. T. II. M. - JI., 1959, c. 273).

\__gQ BpeMeHH rrerpoacrcnx accaafinea OCTpO BCTan aorrpoc H 05 opraHH3aQHOHHbIX <POp Max CBeTCI<HX 05ru:eHHM. <PopMbI orzrsrxa, 06meHHH lI'lOJIo),:(e}!<H, xanenzraprroro pnryana, 6bIBilIHe B OCHOBHOM 05ru:HMH H ,lJ;J1H HapO,I:(HOM, H )':(J1fl 60HPCI<0-,lJ;BOPflHCI<OM cpensr, ,lJ;OJ1)f(HbI 6bIJIH ycrynars MeCTO cnenarpavecxa ),:(BOPHHCI<OM CTpYKTYpe 6bITa. BHYTpeaaaa opranaaarraa fiana uterranacr, 3a,I:(a1:J:eM HCI<J1IOqHTeJIbHOM KYJ1bTYPHOM Ba)f(HOCTH, TaI< KaI< 5bIJIa npasaana nars <pOPMbI 05ru:eHHIO «xaaanepoa» H «zraa», orrperre.mrn, THrr COU;HaJ1bHOrO rrOBe),:(eHHfl BHYTPH,lJ;BOPflHCKOM KYJ1bTYphI. 3TO nOBJ1eI<J10 aa C060M pHTyanH3aU;HIO 6ana, C03- zraaae CTporOM rrOCJIe)':(OBaTeJIbHOCTH qaCTeM, BhI,lJ;eJ1eHHe YCTOMqHBhIX H 06fl3aTeJ1bHhIX 3JIell'leHTOB. B03HHKana rpaa-

80

Man1J<a oana, a cast OH cxnaasmancs B aexoropoe uenocrHoe rearpanasoaaaaoe rrpencranneaae, B KOTOPOM Kam,n;OMY :meMeHTY COOTBeTCTBOBanH ranoasre 3MOu;HH (OT sxona B aarry zro passesna), <pHKCHpOBaHHbIe 3HaqeHHH, crana noseneaaa. O,n;HaI<O CTporHH paryarr, rrpH6nmKaBI.IlHH 6an K rraparty, nerran TeM fiorree 3Ha'IHMbIMH B03MO>Knsre oTcTyIIJ1eHHH, «fiansnsre aorrsaocra», xoropsre KOMno- 3HU;HOHHO B03paCTanH K ero <pHHany, CTPOH oan HaK oopeHHe «noparnca» H «caofioztsr».

OCHOBHbIM 3neMeHTOM oana KaK ooru;eCTBeHHO-3CTeTHqecxoro ,n;eHCTBa ObIJIH TaHI:(bI. OHH CJ1Y>KHnH opraHH3YIDru;HM CTep>KHeM aenepa, aaztaaana ran H cram, 6ece,n;bI. «Maaypo-raaa oonTOBHH}) rpefioaana nOBepXHOCTHbIX, Her'rryfioxax TeM, HO TaK>Ke 3a:flHMaTeJ1bHOC11! .... li.OC'1'pOTbI pasroaopa, cnoco6HOCTH K ObICTpOMY, ,;:tITHrpaMMaruQeCKOMY Q~. EanbHbIH paaroaop 6bIJI nanex OT TOH HrphI aarennexryansnsrx CHJ1, «yanexarenaaoro pasroaopa BbICuren o6pa30BaHHOCm» (VIII, 1, 151), KOTOPbIH xyrrs'raaaponarrca B rrareparypasrx ' canoaax Ilapaaca B XVIII croneran H na OTCYTCTBHe xoroporo B POCCHH >KanOBanCH n. TeM He MeHee OH HMen CBOID rrpenecrs - O>KHBJ1eH=_ HOCTb csofiortsr H HenpHHY}l{,n;eHHOCTb 6eCe,n;hI Me>K.n;y MY>K- " 'IHHOH H >KeHru;HHOH, xoropsre OKa3bIBanHCb o,n;HOBpeMeHHO

H B uenrpe rnYMHoro npasnaecraa, H B HeB03MO>KHOH

B npyrnx 06CTOHTenbCTBax 6nH30cTH (<<BepHeH HeT MeCTa ,n;nHrrpH3HaHHH ... » - I, XXIX, 3).

06YQeHHe TaHI:(aM HaQHHanOCb paao -C IIHTH-IUeCm nex.J BH,n;HMO, Il nanan YQHTbCH TaHI:(aM Y>Ke B 1808 r. ,Uo rrera 1811 r. OH C cecrpoit noceman raanesansnsre ae=repa y Tpy6eI:(KHx, Byryprmasrx H CYIIIKOBbIX, a no =reraepraa - ,n;eTCKHe 6anbI y MOCKOBCKoro raanxeacrepa Horena. Bansr y Horerra OIIHcaHbI B BOCnOMI1HaHHHX 6aneTMeHcTepa A. IT. I'nymxoacxoro (CM.: I'nynncoaCKHH A. IT. BocnoMHHaHHH oaneTMeHcTepa. M. - 11., 1940, c. 196-197).

~HHee o6YQeHHe rannaa 6blno MYQHTeJ1bHhIM H HaIIOMHHano xcecrrcyro rpenapoaxy cnoprcaeaa lIJ1H o6YQeHHe petcpyra ycepnasra <penb,n;<pe6en~ Cocraaarerrs «TlpaBHn», H3,n;aHHbIX B 1825 r., Jl. ITeTpoBcKHH, caa onbITHbIM TaHU;MeHCTep, TaK onncsraaer aexoropsre rrpaexsr nepaonanarn.aoro o6YQeHHH, OCY}l{,n;aH IIpH 3TOM He caaoe MeTO,n;y, a rnnrrs ee cnHIIIKOM }l{eCTKOe rrpnaeneaae: «YQHTeJ1b ,n;OJI>KeH ofipanta'rs BHMMaHlIe HaTO, QTo6bI YQaru;HeCH

81

OT CHJIhHOrO HanpHmeHHH; He norepnenn B anoposse. Hel<TO paCCl<a3bIBaJI MHe, 'lTO Y4HTeJIb ero n01.JHTaJI HenpeMeHHbIM rrpaBHJIOM, 'lT06bI yqeHlil<, HeCMOTPH na npapO~HyJO Hecnoc06HOCTh, nepacan aorrr B60l<, noztooao eMY, B napaJIJIeJIbHOH JIHHHM < ... > Kax yqeHHl< MMe]l 22 rona, POCT ~OBOJIbHO nOpH~O'IHbIH H norn newansre, rrpn TOM neacnpaansre ; TO yt.IHTeJIb He Morum caM HH'IerO cnenars, n01.J:eJI aa ~OJ1r ynOTPe6MTb xersrpex 'IeJ10Bel<, M3 l<OHX zraa BbIBOpa'IHBaJIll 'HorM, a nsa nepxcana l<OJIeHa. Cl<OJ1hl<O ceil HH xpn 1.J:an , re JIMllib CMeHJIMCb M 0 60JIM CJ1bIIllaTh He XOTeJIH - noxa Hal<OHeQ He TPecHYJIO B nore, II ror-na MY1.J:11TeJIM ocraaarm ero < ... ) 51 nO'IeJI aa ~OJIr paccxasars ceM CJIY'IaH ~JIH npenocrepeacenaa npyrnx. HeM3BeCfHO, l<TO BhI~yMaJI CTaHl<H ~JIH nor ; H CTaHl<H aa BHHTax ~JIH nor, l<OJ1eH 11 cmrnsr: H306peTeHHe O'IeHh xopowee! O~Hal<O H OHO MomeT C~eJIaTbCH He6e3Bpe~IM OT JIMWHerO nanpaacenaa» CTIpaBIwa Mfl 6JIarOpO~HbIX 06IQeCTBeHHbIX TaHQeB, asnanasre yt.IHTeJIeM TaHQeBaHbH npa CJI060~cl<0- yxpaaacxoii rHMHa3MH 11JO~OBHl<OM TIeTpOBCl<HM. Xapsl<OB, 1825, c. 13 - 14).

l_.gmiTeJIbHaH TPeHI-IpOBl<a npnztasana MOJIO~OMy 'IeJIOaexy He TOJIbl<O J10Bl<OCTb BO BpeMH TaHQeB, HO M yaepeHHOCTh B ~BH)l{eHHHX, cB060~y H He3aBHCHMOCTh B nOCTaHOBl<e <pHrYPbI, 'ITO onpezreneaasrx 06pa30M BJIHHJ10 H aa nCHXH'IeCl<HH CTPOll 'IeJIOBel<a: B YCJIOBHOM .MHpe CBeTCl<Oro 06IQeHHH OH qYBCTBOBan ce6H YBepeHHo H CBO- 6~~HO, xax OnbITHi>IH axrep jracnene. IbHIT(ecTBo, npoflBnffi(jIIteeCH B TO'IHOCTH· ~BH)l{eHHlI, HBJIHJIOCb npH3Hal<OM xoponrero BocnHTaHlJ~ 11. H. TOJICTOll, onHCbIBaH B powaHe «.II.el<a6pHCTbI» aepaynuryroca H3 CH6HPH »ceay ~el<a6- pncra, nozrceprcraaer, 'ITO, HeCMOTpH na ~OJIrHe ronsr, npoaenemnae eJO B THmeJIelllIIHX YCJIOBHHX ~06pOBOJIbHOrO H3rHaHHH, «HeJIh3Ji 6blJI0 ce6e rrpezrcraaars ee HHa1.J:e, xax oxpyxcemryro nO'ITeHHeM H BceMH y~06cTBaMH mH3HH. 1·!T06 OHa l<or~a-HH6y~b 6bIJIa rOJIO~Ha H ena 6bI »carmo, HJIH 'lT06bI na Hell 6bIJIO rpasaoe 6eJ1be, HlIH 'IT06bI OHa CnOTbIl<HYJ1aCb, HJIH 3a6bIJIa 6bI BbICMOpl<aThCH - sroro He Mor JIO CHell CJIyt.IHTbCH. 3TO 6bIJIO <pH3HqeCl<H HeB03MO}l<HO. Or-aer-o 3TO Tal< 6bIJIO - He snaro, HO BCHl<Oe ee ~BllmeHHe 6hIJIO BeJIH'IaBOCTh, rpanaa, MHJIOCTb MH Bcex Tex, l<OTOphle MOrJIH nOJIb30BaTbCH ee BH~OM ... » Xapaxrepno, LITO cnoc06HOCTh CnOTl<HYThCH snecs CBfl3bIBaeTCJi . He C BHelIIHHMH YCJIOBHHMH, . a ' c .xapal<TepO~l

82

If' BOCIlHTaHHeNi.4eiIoBeKa. ,UYIIIeBHOe If <pff3HQeCKOe H3i1::" meCTBO CBH3aHbI ... H . HCKJIIOQaio't .'.B03MO»arOCTbHeTOqHbIX HJIHHeKpaCHBblx'.i:I;BIDKeHHH: .. H >KeCTOB. APHCTOKpamqeCKOH: npOCTOTe )J;BH>KeHHHrIIO)J;eH «xoponrero o6rgeCTBaH H . B >KH3HH, H B JIHTepaTYpe npOTHBOCTOHT CKOBaHHOCTh HJIH H3JIHIIIHHH pa3BH3HOCTh (pe3YJIUaT' 60Pb6bI C C06CTB9H:ron 3aCTeH~BOCThIO) )f(eCTOB pa3HO~HI:(a.

L_!)an B snoxy 'OHerHHa naxaaarrca n 0 JI b C H H M (nOJIOHe30M), HOTOPbIH: B TOp)f(eCTBeHHOH cPYHHI:(HH rrepsoro raaua CMeHHJI MeHY3T. MeHY3T OTOIIIeJI B npOIIIJIOe BMeCTe C HOpOJIeBCKOH <ppaHUH$!Y «CO BpeMeHH nepewen, rrOCJIe)J;OBaBUIHX Y eaporrerinea xax B onexcne, TaK H B ofipaae MbICJIen, HBHJIHCb aoaocra H B ramtax; H rorna nOJIhCKOH, }(OTOPbIH HMee'r 60JIee CBo6o.!U>I H TaHuYeTCH neonpeneneaHbIM ~CJIOM nap, a rrOTOMY ocaoooxcnaer OT H3JIHIIIHeH H CTpOrOH: BbI.n;ep)f(HH, CBOHCTBeHHOH: MeHY3Ty, 3aHHJI MecTO nep!,OHaqanhHOrO raana» (ITpaBHJIa .. , c. 55).

L!!0Ha3aTeJIbHO, qTO B EO 1J_QJlQHeS-~ He yrroxanaerca .

HH pa3y.B Flerepfiypre n03T BBO)J;HT Hac B 6amHYIO 3aJIy B MOMeHT, rcorzra <<TOJIna Ma3ypHOH 3aHHTa» (lJ XXVIIIJ 7), T. e. B CaMhIM paarap npaszraaxa, qeM nozrsepxaaaerca MO)J;Hoe on03)J;aHHe OHerHHa. Ho H aa 6any y Jlapmrsrx rrOJIOHe3 Ony-meR; ... i1:' oiiHc,HHerrpa3)J;HH. xa Ha~HaeTCH co aroporo ranua - Bam~ C rrOJIOHe30M MO)f(HO CBH3aTb, BepOHTHO, JIHIIIY> He BKJIIOqeHHYIO B OKOHqaTeJIhHbIH TeKCT CTPO<PY, BBO)J;HI.IJ;yro B CI:(eHy nerepfiyprcxoro fiarta B BOCbMOH: r.rraae BeJIHHyro HHHrHHIO Anexcaa)J;PY <Pe)J;opOBHy' (6y)J;yrn;yro HMrrepaTpHuY), KOTOPyro II HMeHyeT J1aJIJIOH-PYl< rro MaCHapa)J;HOMY HOCTIOMY repomm n03MbI T. Mypa, HOTOPbIH OHaHa)J;eJIa BO BpeMH MaCKapana B EepJIHHe (CM.: Lalla-Roukh, Divertissement execute au chateau royal de Berlin le 27 janvier 1821, ... Berlin, 1822).

ITocJIe CTHXOTBOpeHHH )l(YKoBcHoro «J1anJIa-' PYKH (1821) HMH 3TO crarro rr03THqeCHHM np03BHI.UeM AJIeHcaH.n;:" phI <Pe.n;0poBHbI:

II B sane HPIWH 1I 60raTOH Korna B YMOJIKurnn, recasra xpyr ITop;06Ha. JIHJIlIH KpbIJIaTOH I{Oi1e6JIHCh BXO)J;HT JIarrJIa-PYl<

II Hap; noaaxmeso TOJIIIOIO

Caaer uapcrseaaoa r JIaBOIO

Ii THXO BbeTCH II CKOJIb3HT 3ile3P;a-XapllTa Mem XapHT

Ii B30P CMeweHHbIX IIOl<OJIeHHH ·CTpeMHTCH peBHOCThIO ropa

To aa nee, TO aa napa -

,Umi HHX 6e3 r JIa3 O)J;lIH

EBr(eHItn) O.1lHOH TaThHHoH rropaacea ; OP;HY T'(arsatry ) BH)J;lIT OH

(VI, 637).

83

f. A. fYKOBCKHM TaK npOKOMMeHTHpOBaJI 3TH CTHxn: <t~HerHH BJUo6JIeH. OH na 6aJIY. If BOT B 3aJIY BXO,IU1T HMnepaTPln~a, «JIaJIJIa-PYK», H C HeM can naps». 3Ta crporpa, no MHeHllID HCCJIe}J;OBaTeJI5I, «5IBHbIlJ: aHuxpOHH3M: }J;ei1:cTBHe BOChMOM rJIaBbI npOHCXO,IU1T B 1825 rorry» (fYKOBCKHM f. A. TIYlllKHH H np06JIeMbI peanacraxecxoro CTHJI5I. M., 1957, c. 258). O}J;HaKo B }J;aHHOM cnyuae KOMMeHTaTop OIllH6c5I: AJIeKcaH}J;pa <Pe}J;opoBHa npHCYTcrsyer aa 6aJIy B BOCbMOM rrraae He KaK HMnepaTpHu;a (eID OHa c}J;eJIaJIaCb rranrs B rtexafipe 1825 r.), a KaK aernrKa5I KH5IrHHH. CooTBeTcTBeHHo ynoMHHYTbIM B crnxax naps He HIiKOJIaM I, a AJIeKcaH}J;p I, KOTOPbIM qaCTO 6bIBan rrapraepox AJIeKcaH}J;pbI <Pe}J;opoBHbI B ranuax (cp. B ee BOCnOMHHaHllHX: «51 06bIKHoBeHHo }J;OCTaBanaCb aa }J;OJIID IIMnepaTopa, KOTOPbIM Ka3anCH B aocropre OT eroro ... » - Illansnep H. K. lIMn. HHKOJIaM TIepBbIM, ero mlI3Rb H u;apCTBOBaHHe, T. I. CTI6., 1903, c. 116). YnoMHHYTbIM B crporpe 6aJI, aepoarao, npHXO,IU1TCH na n03}J;HIDID oceas 1824 r., a He aa 1825 r., KaK nOJIaraer fYKOBCKHM: 3HMOM BJIlo6JIeHHbIM OHenIH, «KaK cyPOK» (VIII, XXXIX, 7) CH}J;eJI }J;OMa, a 4 anpens 1825 r. AJIeKCaH}J;p I-noKMHYJI Tlerepfiypr, OTnpaBHBUlHCb B BapuraBY, M aa CTOJIHqHhIX 6anax HHKor}J;a yxce 60JIbille He 6hIBaJI.

. KOCBeHHbIM nozrrsepacneaaea roro, qTO «naps» B }J;aHHOM crrysae AJIeKcaH}J;p, a He HHKOJIaM, HBJIHeTCH CJIeJJ;yIDnree cooopaxceaae: H3 TeKCTa BH}J;HO, qTO «JIanJIa-PYK» «CKOJIb3MT» B nape C napex, B03MOmHOCTb roro, qT06bI HMnepaTOp raaneaan, OTKpbIBaH fian, CO CBoeM meHOM, a6COJIIDTHO HCKJIIDqaeTC5I, KaK nporaaopevamaa 3THKeTy. ECJIM fian npOHCXO}J;lIT B }J;OMe KaKOrO-JIH60 BeJIbMOmH, HMnepaTOp OTKpbIBaeT ero B nape C X03HMKOH }J;OMa, eCJIH me 3TO npazraopasrn fian - co craputeti (no norrozceHMIDMY}Ka) nparrranrenaoa rOCTbeH. ECJIH O,1J;HOBpeMeHHO TaHU;YlOT H HMnepaTOp, M HMnepaTpMu;a (60JIbHaH H 3a6bITaH »ceaa AJIeKcaH}J;pa I EJIH3aBeTa Anexceeaaa B aanarre 1820-x rr. fianoa He nocenrana), TO OHa M}J;eT B rrepaoa nape C X03HHHOM, a naps BO BTOPOH - C X035IHI<OH ,1J;OMa. Ha rrpanaopaoa 6any crapnreji }J;aMOH, eCTeCTBeHHO, OKa- 3bIBaeTC5I BeJIHI<aH I<H5IrMHH - xceaa 6paTa napa. II H pacyer TaI<YIO, peansao nO,1J;TBepm}J;aeMYIO ,1J;OKYMeHTaMH KapTHHy: AneKCaH,1J;p I B nape C BemmOM KH5IrHHei1 Anerccaarrpon <Pe,1J;OpOBHOH OTI<phIBaeT 6an, npHBJIeI<aH B30PbI acex npHcYTcTBYIO~HX, KpOMe BJI106JIeHHOrO

84

OHerHHa. Ilosxce JI. H. TOJICTOH:, He 3HaH aror-o, He orry6JIHKOBaHHoro rorzta OTpbIBKa, aapacyer CXO~Hyro CHTya:QHIO: 3aHHTaH co6CTBeHHbIMH nepeacaaaaaaaa, Haranra POCTOBa He 3aMeTHT aa 6any rocynapa. XO~ MbICJIH II H TOJICTOrO 0 rrpOTHBOrrOJIOmHOCTH HCTHHHbIX H MHlIIypHbIX n;eHHOCTeH: pa3BHBanCH B O,ll;HOM HarrpaBJIeHHH. CTHX «II THXO BM!TCH H CKOJIb3HT» CBHp;eTeJIbCTByeT, qTO pesn, aner He 0 rrOHBJIeHHH «JIaJIJIbI-PYK» B 3aJIe, a 0 MOMeHTe OTKpbITHH eIO fiana B rrepsoa rrape, T. e. 0 nOJIOHe3e.

lEan He q:mrypHpyeT B EO .KaK oq:mD;HanbHO-papa,!l;HOe ropncecrno, H rr03TOMY nOJIOHe3 He ynoMHHY2.:.! IloxaaaTeJIbHO, qTO B «BOHHe H MHpe» TOJICTOH:, onacsraaa rrepBbIH 6aJI HaTalIIH, rrpOTHBOIIOCTaBHT rrOJIOHe3, KOTOPbIH OTKpbIBaeT «rocyrraps, YJIbI6aHCb H He B TaKT Be~H sa pyxy X03HHKY ~OMa» (<<3a HHM lIIJIH X03HHH C M. A. HaPbIllIKHHOH\ rrOTOM MHHHCTPbI, pasnsre reaepansr»), BTOpoxy TaHQy - BaJIbCY, KOTOPbIH CTaHOBHTCH MOMeHTOM TOPIHeCTBa Haranra. I'ocynaps me H3 MHpa rrOBeCTBOBamm B 3TOT MOMeHT acxesaer (T. II, q. III, rJI. 16). 3Ta nporaBonOCTaBJIeHHOCTb ~ByX 06JIHKOB 6ana ({(rrOJIbCKHH - npyrne raansr») onpezrenana H TO, qTO B EO 6anbI aanaHa.fOTCH «He C aasana», H TO, qTO H3 TeKCTa HCKJIIOlIeHO yrrovunratrae nOJIOHe3a. npHMelIaTeJIbHO, lITO pasasre MeMyapHcThI CBH.n;eTeJIbCTBYfOT 0 JII06BH II K rannax, HO HH B OP;HOM' H3 BOCIIOMHHaHHH MhI He BH,ll;HM ero TaHD;YIOIn;HM nOJIbCKHH:.

1 BTOPOH 6aJIbHbIH TaHen; - B a JI b C - l1...J:ia3.:s,M.jiOJI,RQ." ...•• " ... 06pa3HhIH: H6esYMHbIH» (V, XLI 1). 3mrTeTbI 3TH HMeIOT

He TOJIbKO 3MOn;HOHanbHhIH CM~ «O,ll;Hoo6pa5lHbIH» - noCKOJIbKY, B OTJIHqHe OT Ma3ypKH, B KOTOPOH B 'ry nopy or-powrryro pons HrpaJIH COJIbHble TaHQhI H H306peTeHHe HOBhIX qmryp, H yIH TeM 60JIee OT raana-nrpsr KOTllJIbOHa, aarrsc COCTOHJI H3 O,!l;HHX H rex me nOCTORHHO rrOBTOpHIOrn;HXCH ,!l;BHmeHMH. Ouryurenae oP;Hoo6pa3HH YCHJIMBaJIOCb TaKIHe TeM, lITO HB 3TO BpeMR aarrsc TaHQeBanH

B rraa, a He B TPH na, KaK ceirsac» (CJIOHHMCKHH IO. Banernsre CTPOKH Tlyunoraa. JI., 1974, c. 10). OnperteJIeHHe sansca KaK «6e3YMHOrO» HMeeT .n;pyrOH CMbICJI:

BaJIbC, HeCMOTpH na sceoomee pacrrpocTpaHeHI~j(Jl. TlerPOBCI{HH: ClII1TaeT, lITO ({M3JIHllIHe 6bIJIO 6bI onncsraan.,

1 M. A. HapbIlIIKHHa - JU060BHHua, a He meHa HMnepaTopa, no- 3TO~1y He MomeT orxpsrsars 6an B nepson nape, y IT me «JIaJUla-PYK» H,lJ;eT B nepsoa nape c AneKCaH,lJ;pO~\ I.

85

KaKHM 06pa30M BaJIhC Boo61J..'(e rannyerca, H60 HeT nO'-ITH HM O.u,HOrO '-IeJIOBeKa, KOTOPbIH 6bI CaM . He TaHl."(eBaJI ero HJIH He BH.u,eJI, KaK raauyerca» - Ilpaaana .. , c. 70),

Ln_OJIh30BaJICfl B 1820-e rr. perryrauaeit nenpacroaaoro HJIH, no KpaHHeH Mepe, H3JIHlIIHe BOJIbHOrO TaHI."(a. «Taaeu cea, B KOTOPOM, KaI< H3BecTHO,nOBOpa'-IHBaIOTCfl H C6JIH)!WFOTCfl OC06bI o6oero nOJIa, rpeoyer nannexcamea OCTOPO)f{HOCTH ( ... ), '-ITo6bI TaHI."(eBaJIH He CJIHlIII<~OM 6JIH3I<O zipyr K npyry, '-ITO OCI<Op6JIflJIO 6bI npHJIH'-IHe» CIT paBHJ1a .. , c. 72). ~lJ..'(e onpeztenennee nHCaJIa aHJIHC B «CJ10Bape nparrsopaoro 3THI<eTa»: «Morionaa oco6a, J1erI<O oneraa, fipocaerca B pyxu MOJIo.u,oro '-IeJ10BeI<a, KOTOPbIH ee npH)f{HMaeT I< csoen rpyzra, I<OTOPbIH ee YBJIeI<aeT C TaI<OH CTpeMWreJ1hHOCTbIO, '-ITO ceprme ee HeBOJ1hHO Ha'-IHHaeT cTY'-IaTh, a r0J10Ba nrrer I<Pyro~ BOT '-ITO raxoe 3TOT BaJIhC!.. ( ... ) Coapeaenaaa M0J10,r:(e)f{h HaCTOJ1hI<O eCTeCTBeHHa, '-ITO, crans HH BO '-ITO YTOH'-IeHHOCTb, OHa C npOCJ13.~JIfleMbIMH npOCTOTOH H CTpaCTHOCThIO ramryer BaJIhcbI~Dictionnaire critique et raisonne des etiquettes de la cour ( ... ) par M-me la comtesse de Genlis. Paris,

v. II, 1818, p. 355).

We TOJIbKO CI<Y'-IHafl MopamICTI<a )l(aHJIHC, HO H nnaMeHHbIH Beprep Tere C'-IHTaJI BaJIbC TaHI."(eM HaCTOJ1hI<O HHTHMHbIM, '-ITO I<JIflJICfl, '-ITO He n03BOJIHT CBoeH 6y,r:(ylJ..'(eH »ceae TaHI."(eBaTh ero HH C I<eM, KpOMe cefia.

O,r:(HaI<O CJ10Ba )KaHJ1HC mrrepecm.r erne II B npyroa OTHOlIIeHHH: BaJIhC npOTHBOnOCTaBJIfleTCfl I<JIaCCH'-IeCI<HM TaHI."(aM I<aI< pOMaHTH'-IeCI<HH; crpacrnsnr, 6e3YMHbIH, onacHbIH H 6JIH3I<Hll I< rrpaporte, OH npOTHBOCTOHT 3THKeTHbIM TaHI."(aM craporo BpeMeH~ «ITpocTOHapo.u,HOCTh» BaJIhCa onrymanacs OCTpO: «WIener Walz, COCTOfllJ..'(HH H3 zrayx maroa, xcropsre 3aI<JI1O'-IalOTCfl B TOM, t!To6bI crynars aa rrpason, rra na JIeBOH nore 11 rrprrron TaK . CKOpO, I<aI< lIIaJIeHOH, TaHI."(eBaJIH; nOCJIe -rero npe,r:(OCTaBJIflFO cvxcneHHlO '-IHTaTeJIfl, COOTBeTcTByeT J1H OR 6JIarOpO,lJ;HOMY coopaHHIO HJI11 zrpyroay KaI<OMY» (Flpaaana .. , c. 70). Bansc 6bIJI norrymen aa OaJIbI Eaponsr KaK ,r:(aHh HOBOMY apeMeHH. 3TO ObIJJ TaHeI."( MO.u,HbIH H MOJJo.u,e)f{Hbli:'J.

f M a 3 y P I< a COCTaBJJflJIa I."(eHTp OaJIa H3HaMeHOBaJIa C<500H ero KYJIhM11HaIUflO. Masypxa TaHI."(eBaJIaCh C lVlHoro'-IHCJIeHHbIMH npH'-IY,r:(JIHBbIMH qmrypaM:H H MY)f{CI<HM COJIO, COCTaBJJHIOIJ..'(HM «COJI!>)) TaHI."(a. H COo'lHCT;M pacnoparmrerrs Ma3ypKH .u,OJJ)f{HbI 6bIJIH npOHBJIflTh H300peTaTeJIhHOCTh

86

lIcrroc06HOCTh'lIMnpOBlI3l1pOBaTh. «Illaxaasyprcr COCTOllT B TOM, 'lTO xananep gaMY 6epeT ce6e aa rpyzrs, TyT )f(e yztapaa ce6H rrHTKm1: B centre de gravite < rppaan, rrearp TH)KeCTlI. - 10. fl.) ('lTo6hI He CKa3aTh sarnraua), JIeTllT aa .upyrm1: KOHeU;3aJIa M rOBopMT: «Masype-nca, nane», a .uaMa eMY: «Masype-nca, nan» ( ... ) Torna HeCJUlCh nonapno, a He TaHu;eBaJIM crrOKOHHo, KaK reneps» (CMHpaosa-Poccer A. O. ABT06Morpa¢MH. M., 1931, c. 119). B npeneriax Ma3ypKM cymecTBOBaJIO HeCKOJIbKO peaxo asrpaxcenrrsrx CTMJIeH. OTJIMLIMe Me)f(AY CTOJIMu;eH If npoBMHU;HeH asrpaacanocs B rrpOTllBOrrOCTaBJIeHllH «H3bICKaHHOrO» H «Spaaypnor-o» MCrrOJIHeHllH Ma3ypI<H:

Maayprca paanarracs. Bsrsano, Korna rpexert Ma3ypKH rpox,

B OrpOMHOH 3aJIe ace rrpoxcano, TIapKeT TPeIl.(an non xafirryrcosr, .

TpRcnHCR, gpe6e3H<aJIH parasr ; Terreps He TO: H MbI, KaK p;aMbI, CKOnb3!!M no naKOBbIM ,n;OCKaM

(V, XLII, 1-"7)

«Korzra nOHBHJIMCh rro.uKOBKH H asrcoxne rrozrfopsr Y carroroa, zrerraa nrarn, HeMMJIOCep.uHo CTaJIH crysars, TaK, QTO, xor zta B O.uHOM rry6JIHtIHOM cotipanaa, r.ne Haxo.uHJIOCh CJIHUII<OM zraecrn MOJIO.ubIX JIIo.ueH MY}f{CKOrO norra, aaarparra MY3hIKa Ma3ypKY < ... ) rro.uHHJIH TaKyIO CTyKOTHlO, 'lTO H MY3bIKy 3arJIYUIHJIH» (I1paBMJIa ... , c. 83).

Ho cymecTBOBaJIO H npyroe npoTHBonOCTaBJIeHHe. CTapaa «dipaauyscxaa» MaHepa HCrrOJIHeHHH Ma3ypKH rpefioBaJIa OT xasarrepa JIerKOCTM rrpsrxcxoa (cp.: «Jlerxo Ma3ypKY TaH~eBaJI» - I, IV, 3), T. H. aarpura. Anrpnra (HJIM «aarpenra»), rro rrOHCHeHHlO onaoro TaH~eBaJIbHOrO cnpaao-nraxa, «roBopIHCH 0 cxanxe, B KOTOPOM nora 06 aery ynapaerca TpM paaa B TO apewa, KaK TeJIO 6bIBaeT B aosnyxe» <KoMrraHlliapJIh) TaH~eBaJIbHhI:H CJIOBaph .... M., 1790, c. 182). <ppaHIJ;y3CKafl, «CBeTCKaH» H «JII06e3HaH», MaHepa Ma3ypKH B 1820-e rr. CTMa CMenarsca aHrJIHHCKOH, caaaaaaoa C ,lJ;eHAH3MOM. Ilocnezmaa Tpe60BaJIa OT xaaanepa TOMHbIX, JIeHHBhIX gBH}f{eHHH, rrozraepxaaaamax, 'lTO eMY CKY'lHO ranneaars H OR 3TO nerraer nporaa BOJIM. Kaaarrep OTKa3bIBaJICH OT Ma3YpO'lHOH 60JITOBHM H SO spexa TaHu;a yrPIOMO MOJI'laJI.

«... 11 aoofime HH OgHH ¢eIlIeHe6eJIhHbIH xaaanep CeH'laC He raanyer, ::lTO He nonaeaemcsit -BoT KaK? - YAHBJIeHHO CrrpOCMJI MHcTep CMMT < ... ) - HeT, KJIRHYCh 'leCThIO, HeT! - rrpo60pMOTaIJ; MHcTep PHTCOH. - HeT, paaae 'lTO npOHAYTCH B KaL1:pMJIH HJIn noeepmnmcn 66a/lbCe ( .. ) HeT,

87

K t.IOPTY TaHIJ;hI, 3TO ovens Y)f{ BYJIbrapHO!» (BYJIbBepJIMTTOH, c. 228). B BocnOMMHaHIIHX CMHPHOBOH-PocceT paccxasan 3nM30,n ee nepaoii BCTpet.IM C Il : erne MHCTMTYTKOH OHa npnr JIaCMJIa ero na Ma3ypKY. n MOJIt.Ja H JIeHHBO napy paa rrpOWeJICH C HeH no 3aJIY. CA. O. CMMpHoBa. 3anHcKH. M., 1929, c. 332). To, t.ITO OHerHH «JIerKO Ma3ypKy TaHI.\eBaJI», (/, IV, 11), nOKa3hIBaeT, t.ITO ero ,neH,nM3M H Mo,nHoe pasovapoaanae 6hIJIH B nepaori r JIaBe HanOJIOBHHY no,n,neJIbHhIMM. Pana HMX OH He Mor OTKa- 3aTbCH OT y,nOBOJIbCTBMH norrpsrrars B Ma3ypKe.

,UeKa6pHCT H JIH6epaJI 1820-x rr. YCBOMJIM ce6e «aHrJIMHCKoe» OTHOIlIeHHe K TaHI.\aM, noaezra ero no nOJIHOrO OTKa3a OT HMX. B nYWKHHCKOM «POMaHe B rracsnax» BJIa,nMMHp nanrer npyry: «TBOM YM03pMTeJIbHhle H Ba)-Knsre paCCY)f{,neHMH npaaazrneacar K 1818 rorty. B TO BpeMH cTPorOCTb npaBHJI H nOJIHTMt.IeCKaH 3KOHOMHH 6bIJIM B Mo~e. MbI HBJIHJIMCb aa 6aJIbI He CHMMaH umar <CO nnraroa HeJIb3H 6bIJIO TaHI.\eBaTb, orpanep, )f{eJIalOI..L(HH raanenars, OTCTerMBaJI mrrary H OCTaBJIHJI ee Y. WBeHnapa. - /0. J/.) - HaM 6bIJIO HenpMJIMt.IHO TaHI.\OBaTb, H aexor.na 3aHMMaTbCH ,naMaMH» (VIII, 1, 55). Ha cepsesasrx ,npY)f{eCKHX se-repax Y JIHnpaH~H He 6bIJIO TaHI.\eB C«PYCCKHH apXMB». 1866, NQ 7, crfi. 1255). ,UeKa6pHcT H. H. Typrenea nMCaJI 6paTY Ceprero 25 MapTa 1819 r. o TOM y,nMBJIeHMH, xoropoe BbI3BaJIO y Hero H3BeCTHe, t.ITO nOCJIe,nHMH TaHI.\eBaJI na 6aJIy B Tlapaxce (c. H. Typreaes Haxo,n:HJICH BO <ppaHI.\HH npa KOMaH~ylOI..L(eM pycCKHM 3Kcne~HUMOHHbIM xoprrycoa rp. M. C. BOpOHI.\OBe): «ThI, H CJIhIWY, ramryeurs. Fp[arpy] IOJIOBHHY ,nOt.Ib ero nHCaJIa, tITO C rcfioro ranneaana. H TaK H C HeKOTopbIM y,nMBJIeHMeM Y3HaJI, tITO reneps BO <PpaHI.\MM erne M TaHI.\YlOT! Vne ecossaise constitutionelle, independante, ou une contredanse monarchique ou une danse contre-rnonarchique». < <ppaHU. KOHCTMTYI.\MOHHhIH exocea, axoces He- 3aBHcMMhIH, MOHapXHtIeCKHH KOHTp~aHc HJIH aHTHMoHapxHt.IeCKMH raaeu - nrpa CJIOB 3aKJIlOtIaeTCH B nepetIMCJIeHMM nOJIHTMtIeCKMX napraa: KOHCTMTYI.\MOHaJIMCThI, He3aBHCHMhIe, MOHapXHCThI - H ynOTPe6JIeHMH npHCTaBKH «KOHTP» TO KaK TaHueBaJIbHOrO, TO KaK nOJIHTMt.IeCKOrO TepMHHa./0. J/.) C,UeKa6pi1:cT H. H. Typrenea. I1HcbMa K fipary C. H. Typreneay. M.- JI., 1936, c. 280). C 3TMMM »ce HaCTpOeHMHMM CBH3aHa »canofia KHHrHfm Tyroyxoncxoa B «lope OT YMa»: «TaHUOBI..L(HKH Y)f{aCHO CTaJIH pernca!»

88

(III, 7). TIPOTI1BOIIOJIOmHOCTb MemAY qeJIOBeHOM, paccyxc,z:r;ammHM 06 A,u;aMe CMI1Te, H qeJIOBeHOM, raanyromaa BaJIbC 11JIM Ma3ypHY, non-repxaaanacs pexapxoii nOCJIe rrporpaaxaoro MOHOJIOra LJaQHoro: ((OCUIRObI8aemcR, 8Ce 8' eansce l<pY;)1CamCR C eenuuaiauuu ycepoueu» (III, 22).

CTHXH:

BYliHOB, fipareu MOll 3aAOpHbIll, K repoto aamewy nOABeJI

Tarsarry C OJIbrmO ... (V, XLIII, XLIV, 1-3) -

HMelOT B BUAY OAHY U3 ¢uryp Ma3ypHH: H xaaanepy (HJIH ,n;aMe) nO,L(BO,lJ;RT ztsyx ,L(aM (UJIH HaBaJIepOB) C npenrromeHHeM BbI6paTb. BhI60p ce6e rrapsr BOCrrpHHI1MaJICH xax saax nnrepeca, 6JIarOCl{JIOHHOCTH llJIll (reate HCTOJIl<OBaJI JIeHCl<UH) BJI106JIeHHOCTH. Haxorraii I ynpexan CMHPHOBYPoccer : «3aqeM ThI MeHH He BbI6upaelllh?» (CMHpHOBaPoccer A. O. Aarotiaorparpaa, c. 118). B Hel<OTOpbIX CJIyqaHX BbI60p 6bIJI conpazcea C yrazn.rsanaex xasrecrn, 3araAaHHbIX ranuopawa. Cp.: «Tlononreznrrae x HllM TpH ,L(aMbI c aorrpocaan - oubli ou regret? < ¢paHQ. 3a6BeHHe llJIll coxcaneaae. - 10. JI.) - npepaamr pasroaop ... )} (VIII, 1, 244). eM. raioae B «I1oCJIe 6aJIa» JI. TOJICToro: « ... Ma3ypl<Y H TaHQeBaJI He C HeI<) < ... ) Korna Hac nonBO,L(HJIU H HeM: M OHa He yrazrsraarra Moero xasecraa, OHa, rroztaaaa PYl<Y He MHe, rrO)I{HMlUIa Xy.nbIMll IIJIeqaMM ll, B 3HaH yreurenaa M COmaJIeHHH, YJIhI6lUIaCh MHe».

11 6eCKOHe'l!HbIll KOTHJIhOH

Be TOMHJI KaK TlIYf{KHll COH (VI, I, 7-8).

K 0 T M JI h 0 H - BM,n; Ha.nPMJIU, O,D;MH H3 3aHJIlOqa:EOmMX 6aJI TaHQeB - TaHQeBaJICH na MOTHB BaJIbCa U rrpe,D;CTaBJIHJI C060H raaen-arpy, CaMbIH HerrpMHY)I{,lJ;eHHbIH, pasaootipaaHbIll U lllaJIOBJIMBbIH raaen. « ... TaM ,n;eJIaI<)T M tcpecr, M xpyr-, M caacaror naay, C TOpmeCTBOM npMBO,lJ;H l< HeM: xasanepoa, ,L(a6bI u36paJIa, C l<eM 3aXOqeT TaHQeBaTb, a B npyr-ax MeCTax M aa l<OJIeHa CTaHOBHTCH nepen HeI<); HO qTo6bI orcrraronapan, ce6H B3aMMHo, ca,n;JITCR H Myml.J:MHbI, .na6bI H36paTh ce6e ,n;aM, I<aI<aH nOHpaBHTcR < ... ) 3aTeM CJIe.nYI<)T cPMrYPbI C IIIyTI<aMH, nO,D;aBaHMe xapr, Y3eJIHOB, C,lJ;eJIaHHbIX na rrJIaTl<OB, 06MaHbIBaHMe MJIll OTcxaxaaaane B TaHQe ozmoro OT npyroro, neperrpsn-anarrae xepea nnarox BbICOI<O ... )} CI1paBllJIa .. , c. 74).

89

BaJI OhU! He epJ-IHCTBeHHOH B03MOH<HOCTbl-O BeCeJIO H rnyMHo npOBeCTH HO'Ih. Anarepaaraaoa -eMY 6btJIH

... arpst roaourea pa3ry JIbHbIX,

Fpossr A030POB KapaYJIbHbIX (VI, 621) -

XOJIOCTbIe nonomca B KOMnaHUH MOJIOAhIX rYJ1JIK, oqmnepos-Sperrepoa, npOCJIaBJ1eHHbIX «nrarryrfoa» M nbHHuU;. BaJI, KaK npMJIM'-IHOe M BnOJIHe CBeTCKoe BpeMHITpOBOH<,n;eHUe, npOTHBOnOCTaBJ1HJICH 3TOMY pasr-yrry, KOTOPbIH, XOTH M KYJIbTHBHPOBaJICH B onpeneneaastx raapneacrcax xpyrax, B u;eJIOM BOCnpMHMMaJICH KaK npOHBJIeHHe «nypnoro TOHa», ,n;onYCTHMOe ,n;J1H MOJIo,n;oro '-IeJIOBeKa JIMmb B onpezrenemrsrx, YMepeHHbIX npenerrax. M. .n. BYTYPJIllH, Cl{J]OHHhIH K BOJ1bHOH II pa3rYJ1bHOH H<M3HM, BCnOMllHaJI, '-ITO 6hm MOMeHT, xorna OH «ae nporrycxan HH onnoro OaJIa». 3TO, rranrer OH, «necsaa pa,n;OBaJIO MOIO MaTb, KaK ,n;OKa3aTeJIhCTBO, que j'avais pris le gout de la bonne societe» (¢paHU;. '-ITO 51 nOJIIo6HJI 6hIBaT6 B xopourex ofimecrne. - EO. fl.> (BYTYPJIMH, c. 46). Onaaxo BKYC K 6ecIlla6aIllHoH IKM3HH B351JI sepx: «BhIBaJIH Y MeH51 aa rcsaprape ,n;OBOJ1bHO '-IaCTble oOeAhI M yH<HHbL rOCT51MH MOMMH 6bIJIH aercoropsre H3 HaIllHX odrauepos II IllTaTCKHe nerepfiyprcxae MOM 3HaKOMhle, npeaxyntecraeaao ll3 HHOcrpaanes ; TyT IIlJIO, pa3YMeeTCH, pa3J1MBHOe Mope uraarrancrcoro M H<H<eHKH. Ho rJ1aBHa51 OIllH6Ka MOH 6bIJIa B TOM, '-ITO nOCJIe nepBbIX BM3MTOB C 6paTOM B Ha'-IaJ1e npHe3,n;a Moero K KHHrHHe MapMH Bacnrrseaae KO'-Iy6eH, Hararn,e KHPHJIJIOBHe 3arpHH<CKOH (aecsxa MHoro ror-na 3Ha'-IllBnreji) U K npOlIuM B poncrse lIJIH rrpexcnea 3HaKOMCTBe C naIIIHM ceMeHcTBoM, H nepecrarr rroceuiars 3TO BbICOKoe OO~ meCTBO. I10MHro, KaK O)l;HaH<,n;bI, rrpa asrxone H3 ¢paHU;Y3- cKoroKaMeHHoocTpoBcKoro TeaTpa, cTapa51 M051 3HaKOMaH EJIHCaBeTa MHXaHrrOBHa XUTpoBa, Y3HaB MeHH, BOCKJIHKHyJ1a: «Ax, MHmeJ1b!» A 51, lIT06bI H36erHYTb acrpevn H 3KCnrraxanari C Hero, lIeM cnYCTHTbCH C J1eCTHHU;hI nepeCTHJI51, r,n;e npoacxozrarra 3Ta cneaa, nOBepHYJ1 KpYTO aanpaao MHMO . K0J10HH ¢aca,n;a; HO TaK KaK CXO)l;a· aa yrrmry TaM mncarcoro He 6blno, TO 51 H norrererr crpear rras aa 3eMnIO C nopH,n;O'-IHOH aecsaa BhICOTbI, PHCKYH nepenoxars pytcy HJ1H aory. BKOpeHHJ1HCb, K HeClIaCTHIO, BO MHe rrpnBbI'-IKM pa3fYJ1bHOH H aapacnanncy H<H3HH B Kpyry apxeaCKHX TOBapHlIJ;eH C n03,n;RHMH nonOHKaMH no peCTopaHaM,

90

If nOTOMY Bble3,lJ,bl ·B· BemU{QCBeTC!<He CaJIOHhI OTID'OIl\aJIH MeH51, BCJIe,lJ,CTBHe '-lerO HeMHOrO npomno MeCHneB, KaK '.IJIeHhI TOrO 06Il\eCTBa penrann (M He 6e3 OCHOBaHM:H), qTO 51 MaJIhI:H, norpaanraa B OMYTe .D.YpHOrO 06Il\eCTBa» (EyryPJIMH, c. 343 ~ 344).

TIo3,lJ,HMe nononxa, aaxaaaacs B O,lJ,HOM M3 nerepfiyprCI<HX pecropanon, .OI<aH~BaJIMCb r,lJ,e-HM6y,lJ,h B «Kpacnoa I<a6a'-lI<e», CTOHBllleM na Ce,lJ,bMOH BePCTe no Flereprodxxoa nopore H 6bIBllleM M3JII06J1eHHblM MeCTOM orpanepcrcoro paaryrra.

)KecToKa51 xaprexcaaa nrpa H IIlYMHble nOXO,lJ,bI no HOqHbIM rrerepoyprcxaa yrmna« ,lJ,OnOJlH51J111 KapTHHy. Illyxnsre YJ1M'-lHhle nOXO>.K,lJ,eHM51 ~ «rposa nOJ1YHO'-lHbIX ,lJ,O- 30POB» (VIII, III, 6) ~ 6hIJIM 06hI'-lHhIM HOqJibIM 3aHHTHeM «lllaJIYHOB». TIJIeMHHHI1K rroara ,UeJ1hBMra BcnOMHnaer : « ... DYIllKMH H ,UeJ1hBHr HaM paCCKa3bIBaJIM 0 nporYJ1I<ax, xoropsre OHM no BhmYCI<e H3 JIHneH coaepnrana no nerepoyprcxax YJ1l1naM, II 06 HX pa3HhIX npn 3TOM npoxasax H rJ1YMHJ1MCh nart HaMM, IOHOIllaMH, He TOJ1bHO HH I< I<OMY He npM,lJ,HpalOIl\HMHCH, HO ,lJ,ame OCTaHaBJIHBalOIl\MMH npyrnx, xoropsre ,lJ,eC51ThIO H 60JIee rO,lJ,aMM Hac crapee <. .. ). TIpO~TaB onacanne 3TOH nporYJ1KH, MomHO nO,lJ,YMaTb, qTO TIYIlllGIH, .neJIbBMr H nee rrpyr-ae C HI-U1H rYJ1HBIllHe MymqHHbI, sa HCHJ1lO'-leHHeM fipara Anexcannpa H MeW], 6bIJ1H nbHHbI, HO 51 pelIlHTeJ1hHO Y,lJ,OCTOBepHIO, qTO aroro He 6bIJ10, a npOCTO 3aXOTeJ10Cb HM BCTpRXHyTb CTapMHI<OlO H noxaaars ee HaM, MOJIO,lJ,OMY nOI<OJ1eHH.lO, HaI< 6bI B yxop naurexy 60JIee cepsesaoxy 11 06,lJ,YMaHHOMY nosenemeo» (DYIlllGIH B. BocnOMMHaHMHX COBpeMeHHMI<OB, T. 2, c. 124~ 125). B TOM me nyxe, XOTR H HeCI<OJIbI<O n03>.Ke ~ B CaMOM I<OHn:e 1820-x rr'., M . .n. Eyryprraa C npHRTeJ1RMH COpBaJJ C ,lJ,ByrJIaBOrO opna (anre-moa BbIBeClGI) cxanerp H nepxcaay H rneCTBOBaJJ C HMMH '-lepe3 uenrp ropozta. 3Ta «lIlaJIOCTb» Y>.Ke MMeJIa ,lJ,OCTaTO"lJHO onacmsrii nOJIHTI1qeCI<l1H nO,lJ,TeI<CT: OHa nasana OCHOBaHH51 ,lJ,JIH yr0J10BHOrO 06BHHeHHH B «ocxopfiJIeHHH BeJIHLJeCTBa». He CJIY'-lailHO 3HaI<OMbIH, J{ KOTOPOMY OHM B TaI<OM BH,lJ,e HBHJ1HCb, «HUI<Or,lJ,a He Mor BCnOMHMTh 6e3 crpaxa 3TO HOqHOe Harne noceuiemre». ECJ1U 3TO noXOm,lJ,eHHe COlIlJIO C PYH, TO sa nonsrrxy HaHOpMI1Th B pecropaae cynox 6lOCT HMnepaTopa nOCJ1e,lJ,OBaJIO naxasaaae : rnTaTCI<Ue ,lJ,PY3bR BYTYPJIHHa 6bIJ1H COCJ1aHbI B rpam,lJ,aHCHYIO cJ1ym6y na J(aBHa3 II B Acrpaxam., a OH

91

nepesezrea B npOBHHL(HaJ1bHhIH aplVleHCI{MH nOJ1I{ (EYTYPm1H, c. 355 - 356).

3TO He CJ1yqaMHO: «6e3YMHhle naper» , MOJ1o,nemHhIM pa3rYJ1 na <pOHe apax-reescrcoa (rtoaxce HHI{OJ1aeBCI{OM) CTOJ1HL(hI HeH36e)f{HO OI{paUlHBaJ1HCb B onnosarraoaasre TOHa (CM.: JIoTlVlaH, ,IleI{a6pHCT B noacenaeaaon mM3HH).

,[(Y31Ib' .uY3J1b - noeznmorc, rrpoacxozrsntaa rro orrpezreJ1eHHhIM npaBHJ1aM napasrn 60M, HMelOIl.(MH L(eJ1bIO BOCCTaHOBJ1eHHe qeCTM, CHHTMe C o6HmeHHoro nosopnoro mITHa, aanecemroro OCI{Op6J1eHHeM. TaI{l1M 06pa30M, pOJ1b .o;Y3J1H COIzyIaJ1bHO-3HaI{OBaH., .uY3J1b npeztcraanaer vcotioa onpenerremryrc npouenypy no BOCCTaHOBJ1eHHIO qeCTM H He MO)f{eT 6hITb nOHHTa BHe caMOM cneIzyI<pMI{H rrOHHTHH «veers» B 06Il.(eM CHCTeMe 3TMI{l1 pyccxoro eaponeaanposaaaoro nOCJ1eneTpOBCI{OrO ,nBOpHHCI{OrO 06Il.(eCTBa. EcTeCTBeHHO, 'ITO C n03HL(HH, B npammrre oraeprasrnea 3TO nOHHTHe, zryans TepHJ1a CMbICJ1, npeapauiaacs B pirryaJ1H30BaHHoe y6HMCTBO.

PYCCI{HM ,nBOPHHHH XVIII - Ha'IaJ1a XIX BB. )f{HJ1 H ,neMcTBOBaJ1 non BJ1HHHHeM rrayx rrpoTHBOn0J10)f{HhIX perYJ1HTOpOB 06Il.(eCTBeHHoro nOBe,neHHH. KaI{ aepaonon,naHHhIH, crryra rocynapcraa, OH no,n'IHHHJ1CH npHI{a3Y· ITcHX0J10rH'IeCI{HM CTHMYJ10M rro,n'IHHeHHH 6hIJ1 crpax nepen I{apOM, HaCTHraIOIl.(eM OCJ1YUlHHI{a. KaI{ ,nBOPHHHH, qeJ10BeI{ COCJ10BHH, I{OTOpOe o,nHOBpeMeHHO 6bIJ10 H COL(HaJ1bHO rocrroncrayrourett xoprropauaen, H KYJ1bTypHOM 3J1HTOM, OH rro,n'IHHHJ1CH 3aKOHaM qeCTM. ITcHX0J10rHqeCI{l1M CTMMyJ10M rro,n'IHHeHHH anecs asrcryrraer CThI,n. Hnean, I{OTOPbIM C03,naeT ce6e ,nBopHHCI{aH I{YJ1bTypa, noztpaayaeaaer rrOJ1HOe H3rHaHHe crpaxa H yrsepxcneaae 'IeCTn I{aI{ OCHOBHoro 3aKOHo,naTeJ1H noaeneana. B 3TOM CMhICJ1e 3Ha'IeHHe npa- 06peTaIOT 3aHHTHH, ,neMOHCTpHpyroIl.(He 6eccTpaUlHe. TaI{, aanpaxep, eCJ1H «peryrrapaoe rocyrrapcrao» Ilerpa I pacCMaTpHBaeT rrOBe,neHHe ,nBopHHHHa Ha BOMHe KaI{ CJ1ymeHHe rocynapcraeaaoii n0J1b3e, a xpaopocrs ero - J1HUlb I{aK cpezrcrao ,nJ1H ,nOCTH)f{eHHH 3TOM L(eJ1H, TO C n03HIzyIM 'IeCTH xpa6pOCTb npespamaerca B CaMOL(eJ1b. Oco6eHHO HPI{O 3TO rrpOHBJ1HeTCH B OTHOUleHHH I{ ,nY3J1H: onacaocrs, C6J1H)f{eHHe J1HL(OM I{ J1ML(Y co CMepTbIO CTaHOBHTCH O'IHIl.(a-IOIl.(HMH cpencrsawa, CHHMaIOIl.(HMH C QeJ10BeI{a OCI{op6- J1eHHe. CaM OCI{Op6J1eHHbIM ,nOJ1meH peunrrs (B rrpHHHTHH

92

H1I1 rrpaaansnoro peurenaa npOHB.i1HeTCH creneas ero BJIa,l:IeHI1H 3al{OHaMH 1.JeCTll), HBJIHeTCH .i1H 6ecl.J:ecTl1e HaCTO.i1bl{O He3Ha1.Jl1TeJIbHbIM, 1.JTO ,l:IJIH ero CHHTI1H ,l:IOCTaTOl.J:HO ,lJ;e1l10HCTpa~H 6eCCTpaililiH - rroxasa rOTOBHOCTI1 l{ 60IO (npaMHpeHlle B03MomRO rrOCJIe Bhl30Ba II ero rrpHHHTl1H: rrpnHHMaH Bb130B, OCl{Op611TeJlb TeM caMhIM noxassraaer, 1.JTO Cl.J:HTaeT rrpOTIIBHI1l{a paBHhIM ce6e ll, cnenoaarern.ao, peaoa.i111TI1pyeT ero 1.JeCTb) llJIll 3HaI<OBOrO 11306pameHHH 60H (npaxapeaae rrpmICXO,lJ;l1T nOCJ1e 06MeHa BhICTpeJ1aMII HJ1M yrtapazor urrrara 6e3 l{al{IlX-JI1l60 KpOBaBhlX HaMepeHllM C I<aI<OM-J1H60 CTOpOHhI). ECJIII ocxopfineaae 6bl.i10 6oJ1ee cepseansrx, TaI<HM, l{OTOpOeAO.i1mHO 6bITb CMhITO KPOBblO, AY3JIb MomeT 3aI<OH1.JIIThCH rrepBbIM parreaaesi (1.JbIIM - He nrpaer POJIll, nOCKO.i1bKY 1.JeCTb BOCCTaHaBJIJmaeTCH He aaneceaaea yuiepfia OCl{Op6HTemo MJ1H MeCTbIO eMY, a cpal{TOM nponaraa KPOBH, B TOM 1.JI1CJIe II CBoeM coticraeaHOM). Haxoaeu, OCl{Op6JIeHHbIM MomeT xaanarpmrapoaars OCKop6.i1eHI1e xax CMepTeJIhHOe, 'rpefiytotnee P;JIH caoero CHHTI1H r1l6eJ1H ornroro H3 Yl.J:aCTHI1l{OB CCOphI. CyurecrBeHHO, l.J:To6hI ouemca MephI .ocxoptineaaa - He3Ha1.Jl1TeJIbHoe, KpOBHoe 1IJ111 CMepTeJIbHOe - COOTHOCllJIaCb C onenxoii CO CTOPOHbI oxpyxcatontei! CO~aJJbHOM cpezn.r (aanpasiep, C nO.i1l{OBhIM o6illecTBeHHbIM MHeHlleM): 1.JeJ10BeK, CJIMlIIl{OM rrer-rco llAymllM na rrparsnpenne, MomeT rrpOCJIhITb TpyCOM, Henponop~oHaJJbHO xposoacamrsra - fipe'rrepora .

.uY3JIb KaK HHCTllTYT KOpnOpaTl1BHOM 1.JeCTll BCTpe1.JaJJa ormosaumo C ,I\ByX CTOpOH. C O,lJ;HOH CTOPOHbI, npasaTe.i1bCTBO OTHOCHJ10Cb K noertamcaa He1l3MeHHO orpnnaTeJIbHO. B «ITaTeHTe 0 noermaxax II Ha1.Jl1mtHI1H ccop», COCTaBJ1HBilleM rJI. 49 nerpoacxoro «Y CTaBa aoancxoro» (1716), npenmrcsrsanocs: «Excerra CJIYl.J:HTCH, l.J:TO zrsoe aa Ha3Ha1.JeHHOe MecTo Bble,I\YT, II O,lJ;l1H nporas zrpyroro umara 06HamaT, TO MhI nOBeJ1eBaeM TaKOBhIX, XOTH HMl{TO U3 OHbIX YH3BJIeH U.i1U YMepillBJIeH He 6YAeT, 6e3 BCHl{OM MUJ10CTI1, raxoscne U ceKYH,I\aHTOB U.i1M csanererrea, na KOTOPhIX ,I\OKamYT, CMepTlIlO l{a3HI1Tb U OHhIX no)t{HTKll OTnHCaTb ( ... ) EmeJIH me 6UTbCH Hal.J:HYT, U B TOM 6mo y6UTbI II panerrsr 6Y,I\YT, TO xax mUBhle, Tal{ U MepTBble noaeurensr na 6YAYT)} (~T. no KH.: ITaMHTHI1KH pyccxoro rrpasa, BblII. VIII. M., 1961, c. 459- 460). K. A. Corp-. pOHeHl{O C1.Jl1TaeT, 1.JTO ITaTeHT nanpaanen «npOTI1B crapoii ¢eo,I\aJIbHOM saara» (TaM me, c. 461). B TOM me rryxe BbICl{a3bIBaJICH H H. JI. Ep0,I\cKUM, l{OTOPbIM CtIMTaJI,

93

'C:£TO {(,n; Y 3 J1 b - nOpQ}I(,n;eHHbIH q,eOnaJIbHO"'pbIQapcKIlM 06.;; t:o;eCTBOM· 06hlqaH· xpoaasoa pacrrpaasr-aecra, coxpaaarrca B ,n;BOPSIHCKOH cpezre» (BPO,n;CKHH, 248). Ormaxo ",n;Y3JI'b B Poccan He 6bIJIa rrepe:H<HTKOM, rrOCKOJIbKY HH'C:£ero aHaJIO"'nrQHOrO B 6blty PYCCKOH {(CTapOH q,eo,n;aJIbHOH saara» He cym;ecTBOBaJIO. Ha TO, 'C:£TO nOeAHHOK npencraarraer C060H HOBoBBe,n;eHHe, He,n;BycMbICJIeHHO YKa3bIBaJIa EKaTepana II: «ilpe,n;y6e}I(,n;eHHfI, He OT rrpeztxoa rrOJIYQeHHhIe, HO rrepeaarsre varra vaaaocm-re," qy}I(,D;ble» (<<MaHHlpecT 21 anp, 1787 r.», cp.: «HaKa3», CTaTbH 482). . ...

Xapatcreptro BblCKa3bIBaHHe HHKOJIafI I: «51 rreaaanxcy ,n;y3J1H; 3TO - BapBapCTBO; na MOH B3r rran, B . HHX HeT HH'C:£ero psruapctcoro» (ITYlllKHH. TIHcbMa, T. II, 1826- 1830. M. -J1., 1928,c. 185).

Ha npH'C:£HHbI oTpHu;aTeJ1bHOrO OTHOllleHHH caaoztepxcaaHOH BJIaCTH K 06bIQalO ,n;Y3J1H YKa3aJI erne MOHTeCKbe B «Ilyxe 3aKOHOB»: «'4eCTh He MomeT 6bITh rrpmnrarroa ,n;eCITOm'C:£eCKHX rocynapcra : TaM see J1lOAH paaast H nOTOMY He MoryT rrpeB03HOCHThCH npyr Ha,n; zrpyrow; TaM ace JIlOAH . pa6bI HITOTOMY He MoryT npeB03HocHTbCH HH Ha,n; 'C:£eM < ... > MO}I(eT JIH necnor norepners ee B CBoeM rocyztapcrae? OHa norraraer CBOro CJIaBY B rrpespeana K mH3HH, a BCR CHJ1a necnora TOJ1bKO B TOM, 'C:£TO OH MomeT rnnnars mH3HH. KaK OHa caxa MOrJIa 6bI crepners necnora?» (KH. I, rn. VIII).

ECTecTBeHHo, 'C:£TO B Oq,HU;HaJIbHOH rmreparype AY3J1H npecrrejroaarrucs KaK npOfIBJIeHHe cBo60,n;0J1106HH, <(B03- ponnanreeca 3JIO caMOHa,n;efIHHOCTH H BOJIbHO,n;YMcTBa serca cero» (rclIonapox qeJ10BeQeCTBY, HJ1H Jlexapcrso OT noe,u:HHKOB)}. Cflfi., 1826, c. I; aHOHHMHaH 6pollilOpa, rrpe,ll;HCJIOBHe rro,n;IIHcaHO: «PYCCKOH}») .

... C ,n;pyrQH CTOPOHbI, zryans rronaepranacs KpHTHKe co C~OPOHhI MbICJIHTeJIeH-,n;eMoKpa1.'()B,. BH,n;eBUIMX B HeHnpo:

HB.l1eRUe • .cocnoaaoro npe,n;paccY,L!;I<a ,u:BOpHfIcTBa· H npOTHBonOCTaBJUIBIlIMX ,n;BOPfIHCKYro QeCTh QeJ10BeQeCKOH, OCHOBaRHOH na Pa3YMe H Tlpapone. C 3TOM n03Ru;HH . .u;y3JIb nenarracs o6beKToM IIpOCBeTHTeJIbCKOM carapsr HJ1H KpHTHKH. B «HYTelliecTBHH H3 ITeTep6ypra B MOCKBY» Pazmurea llHCaJ1: «BbI rsepnon HMeeTe· zryx, H 06H,n;olO He COQTeTe, eCJIH ocerr aac YJU1THeT, HJIH CBHHbH CMpa,n;HbIM no-sac KOCHeTCH PhIJ10M}i (<<KpeCTbU;hIl».

«EhIBaJIO XOTb QYTb-qYTb KTO-JIH60 xoro no HeQaRHHOCTR sauerrar umaroii HJIH uinanoro, noapemrr J1H aa

94

rOJIOI;le . OroIH ,BOJIOCOlffiK, noraer JIH Ha nne-re CYKHO, TaI( MHJIOCTH npOCHM B nOJIe <... > XBOPruoIlUfH 3y6aMH nacr JIH OTBeT B nOJIrOJIOca, HaCMopH HMelOIlUfH cxaacer JIM ~TO-HH6y)l.b B HOC ... 1m aa ~TO He CMOTIHlT!.. Toro H rJUIroI, ~TO no 3<pec umara!.. Taroxe rJIYX JIH HTO, 6JIH30PYH JIH, HO xor na, Boace coxpana, OH He OTBeTCTBOBaJI, HJIH Ht¥J;OBH,n;eJI nOHJIOHa... CTaTOIliHoe JIH ,[IeJIo! TOTQaC umarn B pyxa, urnarrsr na rOJIOBY, zra H nomna TPeCHOTHH na py6Ha!» (CTPaXOB H. Fleperracxa MO)J,bI ... M., 1791, c. 46). ce. 6acmo A. E. H3MaimoBa HTIOe,IJ;HHOH» (Coxaaeaaa H3MaHJIOBa, T. 1. Cn6., 1849, C. 34- 35).

OTPHl\aTeJIbHO OTHOCHJIHCb H ,IJ;y3JIH H MaCOHbI - CM., aanpaxep, CTaTbIO «Onberonrnax»-(nep; c'aHTJI:'A.BPRHneaa - «Mocx, emeMeCR~H. COq.», 1781, ~. II).

TaHHM oGpa30M, B ,n;Y3JIH, C O,n;HOH CTOPOHbI, MOrJIa nsrcrynars Y3HO COCJIOBHaH H,n;eR 3aI.QHTbI xopnoparaaaoa qeCTH, a C ,lJ;pyrOH - o6~eqeJIOBeqeci<aH, necaorpa na apxaa=recxae <pOPMbI, H,n;eH 3anJ;HTbI qe.JIOBeqeCI<Oro ,[iocroHHCTBa. Flepezi JIHl\OM nOe,IJ;HHHa npI1W30PHbIH urapxyn, JII06HMeLl HMnepaTopa apncroxpar H <pJIHrenh-a,ll;blOTaHT B. .II.. HOBOCMJIbl\eB O:Ka3bIBaJICR paaen nozmopynaxy CeMeHOBC}{OrO nonxa, 6e3 COCTOHHHH M caasen, H3 rrpoBHHlJ,HaJIbHbIX nsopaa K n. qepHoBY (CM. !ilime).

B CBR3H C 3THlV1 OTHOlneHHe ,IJ;eHa6pHcToB K TIOe;:UlHHY 6bIJIO ,IJ;BOlkTBeHHbIl\1. .II.onycHaH B reopaa vaeraraamae BbICKa3bIBaHHR B rryxe o6I.QerrpOCBernTe.JIbCKOHHPHTHHH ,n;Y3JIH, ,n;eHa6pHCTbI rrpaHTH~eCHH IIIHPOHO nOJIb30BaJIHCb npaaox nOe,IJ;HHHa. TaH, 060JIeHCHHH y6HJI 'na ,lly3JIH aexoero CBHHbHHa (CM.: ,UeHa6pHCTbI. M., 1907, C. 165); MHorOHpaTHO BbI3bIBaJI pasasrx JIHl\ HC HeCHOJIhKHMH ,n;PaJICR PbIJIeeB; 5IHy6oBH~ CJIbIJI 6peTTepoM. lliYMHbI:H OTHJIHH Y cOBpeMeHHHHoB BbI3BaJIa rtyans HOBOCHJIbn;eBa H qepHoBa, HOTopaH rrpnofipena xapaxrep nonarauecxoro CTOJIKHOBeHHH Mem,n;y aaunnnaronnos l.ieCTh cecrpsr tmeHOM TaHHOrO ofintecraa 11 rrpeaaparouraa qeJIOBe~eCI<Oe ,ll;OCTOHHCTBO rrpOCTbIX JUO.D.eM apncroxparox. 06a ,n;Y3JIJIHTa CI<OHl.iaJInCb ~epe3 HeCI<OJIbKO ,ll;HeM OT TIOJIy-qeHHbIx paa. .. Ceaepnoe ofinrecrno npeaparnno . UOXOPOHbI qepHoBa B nepayro B POCCHH ymr-nryro MaHu<pecTaQHlO.

B3rJIR,ll; aa ,ll;Y3JIh" HaH ria cpezrcrao sarmrrsr caoero qenOBeqeCI<Oro ,ll;OCTOHHCTBa He 6bIJI qym,n; H n, I<aI< IIOI<a3bIBaeT ero 6uorpa<pHlI.

95

HeCMOTpH aa, B 06IIJ;eM, HeraTIIBHYro OQeHKY ,n;Y3JIH I<aK «CBeTCKOH apaxorsr» II npoannemra {(JIOmHOrO crsrrra», II306pameHIIe ee B poxaae He caTlIpI1QeCKOe, a rparnQeCKOe, qTO rrortpasyxeaaer II orrpezreneaayio creneas coyvacraa B cy,n;b6e repoea, ,IlJIH roro qTo6hI nOHHTb B03MOmHOCTb raxoro nonxorra, Heo6xo,n;IIMO npOKOMMeHTIIposars nexoropsre TeXHlIqeCKHe CTOPOHbI noennaxa rex JIeT.

Ilpexcne scero cneztyer nonsrepscsyrr., qTO nyans nonpa3YMeBaJIa HaJIIIqIIe crpororo II TIIJ;aTeJIbHO HCrrOJIHHeMOro pnryarra. TOJIbKO rryHKTYaJIbHOe CJIe.n;OBaHlIe YCTaHOBJIeHHOMY nopanxy OTJIHqaJIO noe,D;HHOK OT y6I1HcTBa. Ho He- 06XO,D;HMOCTb TOqHOrO C06JIlO.n;eHlIH rrpaBIIJI BCTynaJIa B rrporaaope-nre C OTCYTCTBIIeM B POCCIIH crporo Ko,n;lIClm:QI1- pOBaHHoH .n;Y3JIbHOH CHCTeMhI. HI1KaKliX ,n;Y3JIbHhiX xortexCOB B PYCCKOH nexara, B YCJIOBIIHX oqm:QI1aJIbHOrO aanpera, rrOHBI1TbCH He MOrJIO, He 6hIJIO II ropII,D;HqeCKOrO oprana, KOTOPhIH Mor 6bI npIIHHTb aa cefia nOJIHOMO~H ynopa.n;OqeHlIH npaBI1JI noermaxa. KOHeqHO, MomHO 6bIJIO 6hI nOJIb30BaTbCH cPpaHQY3CKIIMI1 xonexcaxa, HO aanaraeasre TaM npaBIIJIa He COBceM COBna,n;aJIII C PYCCKOH ,n;Y3JIbHOH Tpa,D;HQI1eH. CTporOCTb B C06JIro,n;eHlIH npaBIIJI ,n;oCTI1raJIaCb 06paIIJ;eHlIeM K aBTOpI1TeTY 3HaTOKOB, mI1BbIX HOCIITeJIeH Tpa,D;HQI1H II ap6IITpOB B sonpocax srecra. Taxyro pOJIb B EO BhmOJIHHeT 3apeQKI1H.

,Ily3JIb Ha~HaJIaCb C BhI30Ba. EMY, KaK npaBI1JIO, npe,n;IlIeCTBOBaJIO CTOJIKHOBeHHe, B pe3YJIbTaTe rcoroporo KaKaH-JIII6o CTOpOHa CqHTaJIa ce6H oCKop6JIeHHoH II B Kasrecrae TaKOBOH Tpe60BaJIa y.n;OBJIeTBOpeHlIH (carncrparcQHII). C aroro MOMeHTa npOTI1BHIIKH yxce He ,n;OJImHbI 6hIJIH scrynars HH B KaKHe 06IIJ;eHHH - 3TO 6PaJIH na ce6H HX npe,n;CTaBHTeJIH - ceKYH,n;aHThI. BhI6paB ce6e ceKYH.n;aHTa, OCKop6JIeHHhiH oficyxczran C HlIM THmeCTb aaaeceHHOH eMY 06I1.n;hI, OT qero 3aBIICeJI II xapaxrep fiyrtyIIJ;eH ,n;Y3JII1 - OT cPOpMaJIbHOrO 06MeHa BhICTpemlMI1 rto rII6eJIII orraoro IIJII1 060IIX yqaCTHlIKOB. IToCJIe aroro ceKYH.n;aHT HarrpaBJIHJI rrpoTIIBHlIKy nI1CbMeHHbIH BhI30B (xaprerrs).

POJIb ceKYH,n;aHTOB CBo.n;IIJIaCb K CJIe,n;ylOIIJ;eMy: KaK nocpezraaxa Mem.n;y npOTIIBHIIKaMII, OHlI rrpeacrre acero 06H3aHhI 6hIJIII npIIJIOmIITb MaKCIIMaJIbHhIC YCIIJIIIH K npaMI1peHlIlO. Ha 06H3aHHoCTH ceKYH.n;aHTOB JIemaJIO II3hICKHaars ace B03MomHOCTH, He HaHOCH ynrepfia narepecaa

96

'leCHi H OC06eHHO cJ1e,Li5I sa C06J1IO,LieHHeM rrpas csoero ,LiOBepI1TeJ15I, ,LiJ15I MHpHoro penreaaa KOHqlJIHKTa. L(ame

_ aa nOJIe 605I ceKYH,LiaHTbI 065I3aHbI npermpaaars nOCJIeAHIOIO norrsrrxy K npHMHpeHHIO. Kposie roro, ceKYH.n;aHTbI asrpacarsraaror YCJ10BH5I ,LiY3JIH. Ecrra rrpawaperrae OI<a3bIBaJIOCh HeB03MomHbIM, I<aI< 3TO 6bIJ10, aanpazsep, B nyann IT C JJ:aHTecoM, ceKYH,LiaHTbI COCTaBJI5IJIH rrnCbMeHHbIe yCJ10- BH5I H T~aTeJ1bHO CJIe,LiHJ1H sa CTporHM MCnOJIHeHHeM BCeH: npOue,LiYPbI.

Y CJIOBH5I, nonrmcanasre ceKYHAaHTaMH IT H Ilaareca, 6bIJIH CJIe,LiYIOIUHMH (nO,LiJIHHHHK no-¢paHUY3cKH):

«1. IlpoTHBHHKH CTaHOBRTC5I aa paCCT05IHHM naanuarn maroa npyr OT npyra H nRTM maroa (.n;JIR I<a)R.JJ:oro) OT 6apbepoB, paccroaane Mem,Zzy KOTOPbIMH paBHReTcR ,LieC5ITH nraraa.

2. Boopyxceaasre nMCTOJIeTaMH npoTHBHHKM, no AaHHOMY 3HaKY, HA5I OAHH aa zrpyroro, HO HH B KoeM CJ1Y'lae He nepecrynaa 6apbepbI, MoryT CTpeJI5ITb.

3. Csepx roro, npHHHMaeTcR, 'lTO nOCJIe BbICTpeJIa rrpOTHBHHKaM He A03BOJI5IeTC5I MeHRTh MeCTO AJ1R roro, 'lT06bI BbICTpeJIHBmHH: nepBbIM ormo csoero npoTHBHMKa nO,LiBeprC5I aa TOM me caMOM paCCT05IHHH.

4. Korna 06e CTOPOHbI C,LieJIaIOT no BbICTpeJ1Y, TO, B CJIY'lae 6e3pe3Y J1bTaTHOCTH, nOe,LiHHOK B0306HOBJI5IeTC5I I<aK 6hI B nepasnt pas: rrpOTHBHHKH CTaHOBRTC5I na TO me paCCT05IHHe B 20 maroa, coxpaHHIOTC5I Te me 6apbepbI H re me npaanna.

5. CeI<YH,LiaHTbI HBJI5IIOTC5I HerrpeMeHHbIMH nocpenaaI<alVl.H BO BCHKOM 06b5ICHeHHH MemAY npOTMBHMKaMM aa nOJIe 60H.

6. CeKYHAaHThI, HMmenOArrMcaBmMeC5I H 06JIeQeHHbIe BceMH rrOJIHOM0'lM5IMM, ofiecnevanaror, I<a}f{AbIH: sa CBOlO CTOPOHY, caoero 'leCThlO crporoe C06JIlOAeHlfe M3JIOmeHHbIX snecs YCJIOBnH}) ClUerOJIeB IT. E. L(Y3JIh H CMepTh ITymI<HHa. M., 1936, c. 191).

Y CJIOBM5I ,LiY3J1H IT H Ilanreca 6bIJIlI MaKCHMaJIhHO lfCeCTOI<HMM C,LiY3JIb 6hIJIa pacc-nrraaa na CMepTeJ1bHbrH:

HCXOA), HO II YCJIOBII5I nOeAHHI<a OHerHHa II Jleacxoro, I< naurexy y,LiMBJIeHMlO, 6bIJIH rarorce 04eHb meCTOKHMH, XOT5I npH4HH AJIH CMepTeJIhHOH: BpamAbI 3AeCb HBHO He 6bIJ10. ITOCIWJIhKY 3apeUKHH pa3BeJI APY3eH: aa 32 mara, a fiapseprsr, BMAMMO, HaXO,LiHJ1MCb aa «firraropozmoa paccroaHHM» (VI, XXXIII, 12), T. e. aa ,LiHCTaHUUM B 10 rna-

4 10. M. JIOTi\mH

97

rOB, TO Kam,n:bIM Mor cnertars 11 iuaros. O,D,HaHO He HCKmotIeHO, tITO 3apeIJ,I<I1M onpe,D,eJIHJI ,D,HCTaHIJ,lllO Mem,n:y fiapsepaaa MeHee tIeM B 10 maroa. Tpe60BaHHfl, tITo6hI rrOCJIe nepaoro asrcrpena npOTHBHHKH He ABHraJIHCb, BH,D,11MO, He 6hIJIO, tITO rro,n:TaJI}{MBaJIO HX H HaH60JIee onacHOM TaKTMKe: He crpenaa aa xony, 6hlCTpO BhIHTl:l K fiapsepy H na npenensno 6JIH3KOM ,n:HCTaHIJ,HH nenarsca B nerronmoxnoro npOTHBHliKa. I1MeHHo TaKOBhI 6hIJIH CJIytIaM, KOr,D,a »cepraaaa CTaHOBHJIHCb 06a ,n:Y3JIflHTa. TaH ObIJIO B ,n:Y::lJIH HOBOCHJIhu;eBa H 4epHOBa. Tpe60BaHHe, tIT06bI rrpOTHBHHKH OCTaHOBHJIHCh aa MeCTe, aa HOTOPOM HX 3aCTaJI rrepBhIH EhICTpeJl, 6hIJIO MHHHMaJIhHO B03MomHhIM CMflrtIeHMeM YCJlOBHH. Xapaxrepno, tITO KOr,J1.a Tpn- 60e,n:OB CTpeJIflJICfl C 5IKy60BHtIeM, TO, XOTfl TaKoro rpe- 60BaHHfl B YCJlOBHflX He 6hlJIO, OH ace me OCTaHOBHJICfl na TOM MeCTe, na HOTOPOM 3aCTaJI ero BblCTpeJI, H crperran, He nonxona K fiapsepy.

3apeIJ,HHH 6hIJI e,n:HHCTBeHHhIM pacnopanarenex ,n:Y3JIH, 11 TeM 60JIee 3aMeTHO, tITO, «B .n:Y3JIflX HJIaCCHK 11 nenanr» ( V J, XXV J, 8) ,-DR BeJl.n:eJIOC 60JlbIllHMH ynymeaaaan, aepnee, C03HaTeJIbHO nrnopnpya ace, tITO MOrJIO ycrpaHHTh HpOBaBhIH UCXO,D,. Euie npn nepBOM nocemeana OHerHHa, npa rfepenaxe xapre.na, OH 06fl3aH 6bIJI 06Cy,J1.UTh B03MomHOCTU npaanpeaaa. Tlepen HatIaJlOM noezmaxa nonsrrxa nOHOHtIHTb ,n:eJIO MUPOM raroxe axonana B npaxrsre ero 06fl3aHHOCTH, TeM 60Jlee '-ITO HPOBHOH 06M,n:bl· Haaeceno He 6b1JlO M scex, HpOMe 18-JIeTHero Jlencxoro, 6bLTJO HCHO, '-ITO neno saxmouaerca B He,n:opa3YMeHHH. BMeCTO aroro OH «BCTaJI 6e3 o6'hflcHeHHI:f <- .. ) HMefl ,n:OMa lIlliOrO ner» (V J, IX, 9 -11). 3apeU;HHH Mor OCTaHOBHTb .n:Y3JIb M B ,n:pyroH MOMeHT: noaaneane Onernaa co cnyroii BMeCTO cexynziaara 6bIJIO eMY npflMblM oCHop6J1eHMeM (ceHYH.n:aHThI, HaH II npOTHBHUHU, ,n:OJ1mHbI 6bITb COD;naJlbHO paBHhIMH; rIIJ1bO - <ppaHIJ,Y3 U cB06o,n:HO HaHHTbUl JIaHeH - <popMaJlbHO He Mor 6bITb OTBe.n:eH, XOTfl rrORBJleHUe ero B 3TOM POJlH, HaH H MOn'IBHpOBK3, tITO OB no KpafuIeH Mepe «MaJlbnl tIeCTHhIll», flBJIflJII:lCb He,n:BYCMblCJ1eHHOM 06H,n:OH ,n:JIH 3apeU;Horo), a O,JJ,HOBpeMeHHO H rpy6hIM napymeaaea npaanrr, TaK HaK ceHYH,n:aHTbI ,D,OJ1}}{Hbl 6bIJIH BCTpenITbCH HaKaHYHe 6e3 npOTHBHHKOB M COCTaBHTh npaBI1J1a noernuuca.

HaI{OHeIJ" 3apel.wml MMeJl ace OCHOBaHMH He ,D,OnYCTHTb xpoaaeoro acxona, 06bHBHB OHerHHa HeflBMBlllHMCl'!. «3a-

98

'CTaBJUITb m,n;aTbCe6H aa MeCTe noenaaxa xpaaae HeBemJIUBO. 5IBUSIllHi1:cH BOBpeMH 06H3aH )f{)];aTI, csoero rrpOTHBHHKa qeTBepTlb qaca. ITo rrpOllIeCTBHH ::lTOrO cpoxa HBHBlliUi1:CH rrepBbIi1 HMeeT npaao IlOKHHYTb MeCTO noemraxa Hero cexyaztaarsr gOJImHhI COCTaBHTb rrpOTOKOJI, CBII,ll;eTeJIbCTByrorn;ni1: 0 Herrpu6hITUH rrpOTHBHHKa» c.UypaCOB • .uY3JIbHhlli xonexc. I'pan CB. Flerpa, 1908, c. 56). OHerHH Orr03,!l;aJI 6oJIee, qeM aa qa:c 1.

TaKIIM 06pa30M, 3apeUKHI:f BeJI ce6H He TOJIbKO He Ka:K CTOPOHHHK crpornx npaaan HCKYCCTBa .n;Y3JIII, a KaK JIHUO, 3aHHTepeCOBaHHoe B MaKCUMaJIbHO CKaH,n:aJlbHOM II rnYMHOM "- qTO npHMeHIUeJIbHO K nyarrn osaanano KpOBaSOM. - Ilcxo,n:e.

Cp. npHMefY H3 a5JlaCTU «,n;Y::lJIbHOH KJIaCCHI{lI»: B 1766 r.

Kasaaoaa gpaJICH na rryarm B Bapnraae C nK)6HM~eM nOJIbCKOrO rcoporra BpaHlrU:KHM, kOTOPhIll HBHJICH na none qeCTlI B conpoaosxnemra 6JIeCTHru;eli CBHTbL Kasaaona me, naocrpaaeu H rryrernecraeaaax, l'wr npnaecrn B Kaxecrae CBu,n;eTeJIH rrams KOrO-JIH6o H3 CBOHX crryr. O,!l;HaI<O OH OTKa3aJICH OT raxoro pemeana, KaK aaaenoao HeB03- MO}KHOf'O - oCKop6uTeJIbHOrO ,n;JIH rrpOTIIBHIIKa II ero ceKYH,n:aHTOB n MaJIO JIeCTHOro ,n:JlH Hero caworo: CO['I1HHTeJIbHOe ,n;OCTOHHCTBO cercynnaara opOClIno 5hI reas aa ero co6CTBeHayro 6e3ynpe4HoCTh KaK qeJIOBeKa qeCTH. OH npermonen nonpocnrs, qTo6bI rrpOTHBHHK Ha3[-,mtJ:HIl eMY cexynnaara n3 '-H!CJIa csoea apnCTOKpaTHqeCKOH CBHThI. Ka3aHOBa nomen: na pUCK HMeTh B cexyanaare apara, HO He cornaClIJICH rrpaaaars HaeMHOrO crryry 6bITb caaaererrex . B ~ene '4:eCTI! (CM.: Memoires de J. Casanova de Seingalt ecrits par lui-mernevParis, MCMXXXI, v. _X, p. 163).

Jho6oIlbITHO OTMeTIITb, qTO aaarrora-nraa clITyaU;HJI OT- 4aCTI! IlOBTOplIJIaCb B TparlI'4:eCKoti: gY3JIH [I If .Ilaareca, Hcnsrras sarpynaeana B IlOHCKax cexyaztaara, n nncan YTPO,"1 27 HHBapH 1837 r. g'ApmHaKY, qTO rrpnaeser caoero ceKYH;D;aHTa «nmns na MeCTO BCTpe'4:H», a rtanee, anarraa B rrporasope-me C ca:'.1l[M cofioit, HO BrrOJ1He B nyxe Oneruaa, OH npenocraanaer I'exxepeay BbI6paTh eMY

l C? s «Fepoe aaurero spexean»: «.(\Ib!q:3.BHO yxc sac OlKH,[IaeMH, _ CKa33..IT .r:IparYHcKHll rcantrraa C npOHH'leCKOH YJlbI6KOlI. 5I asnryrr qaCbI I{ nOKa3:1n '.!My. OH 113BHH!IJICH, roaopa, 'ITO ero xacsr YXOAHTH.

Cr;\b!CJl 3nU30):la B cnenyrourem: ,qparYHCKlIll «arnrraa, y6e}f(AeHHb!iil, 'ITO fL:croPHH «nepasm TP},C), 8:0CBeHHO 06Sr-ll-lHeT ero B »cerraaan, OTI03L!;.aS, COPBJ.Tb ~y3J!D.

99

ceKYHAaHTa: « ... a sapaaee ero npnaaaaro, 6YAb TO XOTa 6bI ero J1HBpeHHbIH JIaI<eH» (XVI, 225 H 410). OAHaKo A' APUlH:aI<, B OTJIH'1He OT 3apeQKOro, peUlHTeJIbHO npecex raxyro B03MO)l{HOCTb, 3aaBHB, -rro «CBHAaHHe Me)l{AY cexyaztaarazra, T-te06XOOuMoe nepeo nOeOUT-tl<OM» (nozrsepxBYTO A' Apuraaxox. - 10. JI.), .HBJIaeTCa YCJIOBHeM, OTKa3 OT I<OTOpOro paBHOCHJIeH oTKa3Y OT AY3JIH. CBHAaHHe A' ApUIHaI<a H ,UaH3aca COCTOaJIOCb, H AY3JIb CTaJIa rpopaansao B03MO)l{Ha. CBHAaHue Bapenxor-o H rUJIbO COCTOaJIOCb JIHI1Ib na nOJIe Goa, HO 3apeQKli:H He OCTaHOBHJI noenanxa, XOTa Mor 3TO CAeJIaTb.

Oneraa H 3aperWn:H - o6a napynraror npaaana AY3JIH.

TIepBbI:H, t.fTo6hI npOAeMOHCTpnpOBaTb csoe paanpaaceanoe npespeaae K nCTopHH, B xoropyio OH nonan npOTHB co6CTBeHHO:H BOJIH H B cepbe3HOCTb KOTOPO:H Bce eLQe He

'BepHT, a 3apeQKHM nOTOMY, <rro BHAHT B AY3JIH '3a6aBHyro ncropmo, npenaer CnJIeTeH H possrrpsnnea ...

I10BeAeHHe OHerHHa aa AY3JIH aeorrposepxorxo CBHAeTeJ1bCTByeT, t.fTO aBTOp XOTeJ1 ero CAeJIaTb y6H:Hu;ei1 nOHeBOJIe. 11 AJIa Il, H AJIa t.fHTaTeJ1e:H poxana, 3HaI<OMbIX c AY3J1bIO He nOHaCJIhIIIIKe, 6hIJIO Ot.feBHAHO, tITO TOT, KTO »cenaer 6e3ycnoBHO:H CMepTH npOTHBHHKa, He crpenaer C XOAY, C AaJIbHe:H AHcTaHQHH H nOA OTBJ1eKaroLQHM BHHMaHHe AYJ10M t.Iy)l{oro rmcronera, a, HAa na PHCK, naer no ce6e asrcrpenars, rpefiyer npoTHBHHKa K 6apbepy H C KOPOTKO:H .B:HCTaHQHU paCCTpeJIHBaeT ero KaI< HenOABU)l{HYro MUIlleHb.

TaK, aarrpaxep, BO BpeMa AY3JIU 3aBaAOBCI<OrO H Illepexersena, 3HaMeHHTO:H no POJIH B 6HorpacPHli I'paooeAOBa (1817), il<1bI BHAUM KJ1aCCHt.feCKn:H cJIYt.fa» nOBeAeHHH 6peTTepa: «Korna OHH C I<paHHHX npeAeJIOB fiapsepa CTaJ1H CXOAHTbca aa 5J1IDKaMIIlHe, 3aBaAOBCKn:H, I<OTOPbIM 6bIJI OTJ1H'lllhIH CTpeJ10K, urerr THXO U COBepIIIeHHO crroI<OHHO. X:J1aAHOI<pOBHe J1Il 3aBaAOBCI{OrO Bs6eCHJ10 IllepeMeTheBa HJ1U npOCTO t.IyBCTBO 3J106bI nepecanano B HeM paCCYAOI<, HO TOJ1bKO OH, 'ITO aaasrsaerca, He asrnepxcan H BbICTpeJ1UJI B 3aBaAOBCKoro, euie He AOIIleAIIlH AO 6apbepa. ITyJUI npOJ1eTeJIa OK0J10 3aBaAoBCHoro 6JIU3KO, nOTOMY 'ITO OTOpBaJIa <racrs BOpOTHHI<a Y cropryxa, Y CaMO:H IIleI1. TOfAa yxce, H 3TO oneas nOH.HTHO, pa303JIHJ1Ca 3aJ3aAOBCI<HM. «Ah I», CKa3aJI OH: «il en voulait a rna vie! A la barriere» < cPPaHU;. Oro! OH rroxynraerca na MOIO )l{H3Hb! K 6apbepy! - 10. ]1.).

100

Оценить