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Superior Series MCCB

current limiting
moulded case circuit breaker

LK-Electric Company
The History of LKE Electric

The acronym LKE stands for Lauritz Knudsen Electric. In the late 1970s, the LK
Electric Company was established in Singapore by its parent company, LKE
(Europe) of Denmark. It is to manufacture LK’s range of products, namely, the
Domino, the Tabular of low tension switchboards, the ELC-24 medium voltage
panel and the Ring Main Unit (RMU).
By the mid-80s, with an influx of technology from Denmark, a Components
Division was set up. This was also to cater to the growing demands in the low
voltage sector. Popular products such as the Switch Fuse of the QSA series,
Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB), Moulded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCB),
Load Break Switches (LK’s ELC-24) and Vacuum Circuit Breakers (LK’s VB-1)
were all produced in the Singapore factory.
In 1992, the LKE Electric Company was established in Malaysia and by
1994, has offices in Zhuhai, Shanghai and Beijing in China. At the same time,
LKE Electric entered into a partnership with the Cubic Modular System A/S
company of Denmark to produce the Cubic Modular Switchboard. And since
then, there is no looking back for the company.
The company is always striving to benefit its customers. Efforts in R&D are
constantly focused, especially with the current era of modern technology, to
enable its products to be of a higher quality and safer, yet at the same time,
aesthetically pleasing and affordable. The company also prides itself with
upgrading of its production facilities, in keeping up with technology, to fulfill
stringent process and quality control requirements. Building a relationship with
the customers and understanding their needs with a zero-defect and
unbeatable range of products are the main objectives of LKE Electric.
Focusing on these objectives, LKE Electric has become an industry leader
with its MCCB Superior Series, 6 & 10kA MCB series, 12kV Load Break Switch
(LBS) and Vacuum Load Break Switch (VLBS) and SF6 Breakers.

1
Superior Series Current Limiting MCCB

LKE Electric’s Superior Series Current Limiting MCCB was developed with the
latest technology for heavy duty usage: a magnetic trip unit for reliable quality
tripping when short circuit occurs, repulse force for moving and fix contact
construction, zero arc distance for the arc chute moulded in with thread nut for the
case and cover and a long lasting BMC material for mounting, super mechanical
and electrical strength.

Application
The current limiting MCCB Superior series is suitable for circuit protection in
individual enclosures, switchboards, lighting and power panels as well as motor-
control centers. The MCCB is designed to protect systems against overload and
short circuits up to 65kA with the full range of accessories.

Mechanism
The MCCB Superior series is designed to be trip-free. This applies when the
breaker contacts open under overload and short circuit conditions and even if the
breaker handle is held at the ON position. To eliminate single phasing, should an
overload or short circuit occur on any one phase, a common trip mechanism will
disconnect all phase contacts of a multipole breaker.

Material
The Superior series circuit breakers’ housing is made of BMC material, which
is unbreakable and has a very high dielectric strength, to ensure the highest level
of insulation. The same material is also used to segregate the live parts in between
the phases.

Accessories
To enhance the Superior series MCCB, internal and external modules can be
fitted onto the breaker. They are as follows:
• shunt trip coil • undervoltage release
• auxiliary switch • alarm switch
• motorized switch • rotary handle
• plug-in kit (draw-out unit) • auxiliary & alarm switch

International Standards
The MCCB Superior series conform and meet the requirements of these
international governing bodies:
• IEC 60947-2 from the International Electrotechnical Committee
• BS EN60947-2 from British Standards
• BT/T14048-2 from China
• NEMA AB-1 from American Standards
• VDE 0660 from Germany.

NEMA

2
Accreditation
of the Superior
Series MCCB
Having undergone rigid testings and achieving
accreditation from SIRIM QAS of Malaysia and
TILVA from China, these test reports affirm the
superior quality of LKE Electric Company’s
Current Limiting Superior Series MCCB.

3
Exceptional Current Limiting
Quick-Breaking Performance
The MCCB Superior series has exceptional performance characteristics at the
rated breaking current of 50KA. This includes:
• Limiting short-circuit current, lp, to 106KA (maximum peak let-through
current)

• Interrupting fault current, Ic, 50.7KA at 436V

• Breaking time of approximately 0.00949 seconds

• Arc-quenching time at approximately 0.0066 seconds.

As a result, the peak short circuit current (lp) is limited to the cut-
off current (Ic). This leads to a substantial reduction in electrodynamic
stresses in the overall system. l 2 let-through (proportional to the
shaded area) is considerably reduced, resulting in lower thermal
stresses in down-stream equipment and connecting cables.

Testing Current Wave Curve

4
The Superior Series MCCB
an in-depth look

Features
1 1 BMC material for

base and cover

2 2 Arc chute

3 Mounting for ST or

UVT connection block


3
4 4 Trip-free mechanism

5 Moving contacts
5
6 Clear and IEC-
6 7 compliant markings

7 Magnetic trip unit

8 8 Thermal trip unit

9 Compact size
9

a b d i
c Features
a Arching chamber

b BMC

c Handle

d Magnetic trip unit

e BMC

f Tripping mechanism

g Moving contact

h Fixed contact

i Thread nut

h g f e

5
The Technology of Tripping Devices

MCCB Arc Chamber (diagram 1)


The MCCB arc chamber is specially designed with an arc channel as a
flow guide to improve the capability of extinguishing the arc and reducing the
arc distance.

MCCB Base (diagram 2)


Mounting screws are used to insert thread nuts in the MCCB base. The
cover can withstand high electromagnetic force during a short-circuit; this
prevents the MCCB cover from tearing off. This is an improvement over self-
taping screw of other models.

Fixed Contact (diagram 3)


The MCCB fixed contact does not have any mounting screws near the
contact points. A steel screw can generate heat and the magnetic flux Diagram 1
surrounding the conductor carrying the current can create a very high
temperature. If a short-circuit occurs, it will cause the contact points to be
welded or melted.

Materials (diagram 4)
The base and cover of the MCCB are made of a specially formulated
material, i.e. bold moulded compound (BMC). It has a high-impact thermal
strength, fire resistant and capable of withstanding high electromagnetic
forces that occur during a short-circuit. Majority MCCB manufacturers in the
market use pheonolic compounds with less electrical and mechanical
strength.

Repulsive Force (diagram 5)


An electromagnetic repulsive force is where the force works between a
Diagram 2
current of the movable conductor and a current (I) in the reversed direction
of the fixed conductor. This is an improvement of the electromagnetic force
during breaking over other models.

Diagram 5 Diagram 4 Diagram 3

6
The Technology of Tripping Devices

Thermal Magnetic Type (Solenoid)


MCCB Superior Series, all models
Time-Delay Operation
Time-delay operation occurs when an overcurrent heats and warps the bimetal
to actuate the trip bar.

Instantaneous Operation
If the overcurrent is excessive and the magnetization of the solenoid coil
strong enough to attract the armature, an instantaneous operation will
actuate the trip bar.

Hydraulic Magnetic Type


MCCB Superior Series, selected models only
Time-Delay Operation
In an overcurrent flow situation, the magnetic force of the coil overcomes the
spring and closes to the pole piece, thereby attracting the armature and
actuates the trip bar. The delay is obtained by the viscosity of silicon oil.

Instantaneous Operation
If the overcurrent is excessive, the armature is instantly attracted without the
influence of the moving core.

Thermal magnetic tripping Hydraulic magnetic tripping


(available for all models) (available for LKS-63 C and S
and LKS-100 C models only )

7
Tripping Characteristics

Bi-metal Overload Tripping


Bi-metal overloads are designed to protect the motor against overheating due
to excessive current loading and at the same time, allow full utilization of its rating.
To date, LKE designs MCCB according to the international standards (see below).

Multiple of Set Current (A) Tripping Time Operating Condition

1.05 (In < 63) > 1hour cold

1.05 (In > 63) > 2h cold

1.30 (In < 63) < 1hour warm

1.30 (In > 63) < 2hour warm

These thermomagnetic overcurrent releases (bi-metal) are non-interchangeable


thermomagnetic devises. They incorporate heat sensitive elements for protection
against overcurrent and the rated current of the releases (Ith) must be equal to or
greater than the operating current of the circuit breaker.

Inverse Time Delay Tripping


The thermodynamic release of LKE’s circuit breaker affects the inverse time
delay tripping, while the magnetic release affects an instantaneous tripping. It is
shown in Table A (distribution circuit breaker) and Table B (motor protection circuit
breakers).

Thermodynamic Release Ambient Temperature; land +40ºC, marine +45ºC


Operating Current for
Rated Current (A)
Magnetic Release (A)
1.05 In (cold state) Operative Time (h) 1.30 In (heated state) Operative Time (h)

10 ≤ In ≤ 63 1 1 10In + 20%
Table A

63 < In ≤ 100 2 2 10In + 20%

5In + 20%
100 ≤ In ≤ 800 2 2
10In + 20%

630 ≤ In ≤ 800 2 2 8In + 20%

Thermodynamic Release Ambient Temperature; land +40ºC, marine +45ºC


Operating Current for
Rated Current (A)
Magnetic Release (A)
1.05 In (cold state) Operative Time (hr) 1.30 In (heated state) Operative Time (hr)
Table B

10 ≤ In ≤ 63 2 2 12In + 20%

8
Installation and Fittings

Further adjustments are unnecessary or allowed for the circuit breaker or its
accessories during service as their settings have been fine tuned by LKE Electric.
The handle of the circuit breaker has three positions which will indicate when
the breaker is closed, opened or tripped respectively. When the handle is at the trip
position, it must be pulled backward first so as to reset the breaker and be ready
for closure.
If the security seal of the circuit breaker is kept intact for 24 months from the
delivery date, and instructions are followed for its storage and maintenance, any
inherently defective product will be repaired and/or replaced at no further expense
to the customer.

Recommended Tightening Torque of the MCCB Terminal Screws

Terminal Screw Tightening Torque (Nm)

Pan head screw M5 2.3 - 3.4

Pan head screw M8 4.9 - 6.9

Hex. socket head screw M8 7.8 - 12.7

Hex. socket head screw M10 13.7 - 22.5

Hex. socket head screw M11 18.6 - 31.4

Hex. socket head screw M10 c/w terminal bar 22.5 - 37.2

Hex. socket head screw M12 c/w terminal bar 40.2 - 65.7

Preferred Conductor Size


with Preference to Current Rating
Copper Bar Dimensions for
Current Range (A) Conductor Size (sq. mm)
Currents above 400A
8 1
Copper Bars
12 1.5 Rated Current
20 2.5 (A)
Number Dimension (mm)
25 4
32 6 400 2 30 x 5
50 10
500 2 40 x 5
65 16
85 25 630 2 50 x 5
100 35
800 2 60 x 5
130 50
150 50
1000 2 80 x 5
175 70
200 95 1250 2 100 x 5
225 95
250 120
275 150
300 185
350 185
400 240

9
Arc Quenching Distance

Due to the unique design of the arc chute with an Arc Top Plate, the arc quenching
level is very low compared to other conventional models.

Arc Quenching
Model Code
Distance A & B (mm)

LKS-63C 15

LKS-63S
LKS-100C 20
LKS-100N

LKS-100S
LKS-100H
50
LKS-225C
LKS-225N

LKS-225S
LKS-225H 60
LKS-400C

LKS-400S
LKS-400H
LKS-600S
100
LKS-600H
LKS-800S
LKS-800H
measurements are in millimeter (mm)

Side view Front view

10
How to select a proper MCCB for protection

It is very important to select and apply the right MCCB for a long lasting and
trouble-free operation in a power system. The right selection requires a detailed
understanding of the complete system and other influencing factors. The factors
for selecting a MCCB are as follows:
1 ) nominal current rating of the MCCB 2 ) fault current Icu, Ics
3 ) other accessories required 4 ) number of poles

Nominal Current
To determine the nominal current of a MCCB, it is dependent on the full load
current rating of the load and the scope of load enhancement in future.

Fault Current Icu, Ics


It is essential to calculate precisely the fault current that the MCCB will have to
clear for a healthy and trouble-free life of the system down stream. The level of fault
current at a specific point in a power system depends on following factors:
a ) transformer size in KVA and the impedance
b ) type of supply system
c ) the distance between the transformer and the fault location
d ) size and material of conductors and devices in between the transformer
and the fault location
e ) the impedance up to the fault junction.

One can safely use an empirical formula, assuming a 5% impedance of the


transformer, to arrive at the projected fault level at transformer terminals of the
secondary side. This means that the projected fault current will be approximately
20 times the full load current of the transformer. The impedance of the cables and
devices up to MCCB further reduce the fault current.
Icu: ultimate short circuit breaking capacity whereby the prescribed conditions
according to a specified test sequence does not include the capability of
the circuit breaker to carry its rated current continuously.
Ics: service short circuit breaking capacity whereby the prescribed conditions
according to a specified test sequence includes the capability of the circuit
breaker to carry its rated current continuously.

Other Accessories Required


The selection of other accessories required will depend on the control and
indications as required. The range available are as follows:
a ) Under voltage release b ) Shunt-trip release
c ) Auxiliary contact d ) Trip alarm contact
e ) Rotary operating mechanism f ) Motor operating mechanism
g ) Insulation barrier h ) Plug-in kit

11
Quick & Wide Selection Guide
The Superior series current limiting MCCB is available in 8 frame sizes, with ratings from 10A to 800A. Each
frame size offers several interrupting capacities (Icu), up to 65kA, at AC 415V. Available in C, N, S and H
configurations for various breaking capacity, the space-saving current limiting MCCB Superior series provides
greater design flexibility than before. The C and N configurations are for general use in a general circuit. A best-
seller worldwide, the C and N ranges from 60A to 800A in frame sizes. Also for general usage, the S and H
configurations have a higher interrupting capacity, from 15A to 800A in frame sizes, is actually an upgrade from
the C and N range.

415V AC Interrupting Capacity (kA)

Symmetrical 5 15 18 35 50 65

10

15

20

30 LKS-63C LKS-63S

40
LKS-100C LKS-100N LKS-100S LKS-100H
50

60

75
Breaker Rated Current (A)

100

125

150

160
LKS-225C LKS-225N LKS-225S LKS-225H
180

200

225

250

300
LKS-400S LKS-400H
315

400

500
LKS-600S LKS-600H
600

700
LKS-800S LKS-800H
800

12
MCCB – Electrical & Mechanical Features

LKS-63 LKS-100
Model Code
C S C N S H

AF Frame Size 63 100

Rated Insulation Voltage


Ui 690 690
(V), 50 Hz

Rated Voltage
Ue 415 415
(V), 50 Hz

P Poles 3 3
Electrical Characteristics

with 1000 1500


Operational current
n Performance
Capability w/o 8500 8500
current

Rated Current 15, 20, 30, 40,


A 10,15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 63
at 40˚ C 50, 60, 75, 100

Rated Ultimate 415V 5 15 18 35 50 65


Short Circuit
Icu
Breaking Capacity
(kA) 240V 10 30 35 70 100 130

Rated Service 415V 3 8 9 18 25 33


Short Circuit
Ics
Breaking Capacity
(kA) 240V 6 15 18 35 50 65

Thermal & Fixed


available available
Magnetic Trip Unit
Overcurrent
Releases

Adjustable Thermal &


– –
Magnetic Trip Unit

Test Trip Button available available

Weight
kg 0.9 1.6
(3 pole)
Characteristics
Mechanical

a 75 90

a c
c
mm b b 130 155

c 68 68

13
LKS-225 LKS-400 LKS-600 LKS-800

C N S H S H S H S H

225 400 600 800

690 690 690 690

415 415 415 415

3 3 3 3

1000 1000 1000 500

7000 4000 4000 2500

125, 160, 180, 200, 225 250, 315, 350, 400 500, 600 700, 800

18 35 50 65 50 65 50 65 50 65

35 70 100 130 100 130 100 130 100 130

9 18 25 33 25 33 25 33 25 33

18 35 50 65 50 65 50 65 50 65

available available available available

– – available available

available available available available

3.5 6 9.5 10.5

105 140 210 210

165 257 275 275

86 103 103 103

14
Outline Dimensions of the MCCB
LKS-63 C, S LKS-100 C, N, S, H

LKS-225 C, N, S, H LKS-400 S, H

LKS-600 S, H LKS-800 S, H

15
Operating Characteristics & Ambient Compensation

LKS-63 C, S LKS-100
C, N, S, H

LKS-225 LKS-400 S, H
C, N, S, H

LKS-600 S, H LKS-800 S, H

16
Internal Accessories

Auxiliary Contact (AUX)


The auxiliary contact is used for remote signalling and control purposes. This
consists of one or more than one potential free change-over contacts. It also acts
as an indicator whether the circuit breaker’s status is opened or closed.

Configurations: 1NO + 1NC


2NO + 2NC
Auxiliary contact

Undervoltage Release (UVT)


The undervoltage release is used to trip the MCCB when there is a drop in
voltage. The UVT can also be used for remote tripping and electrical interlocking
purposes. The tripping threshold is 35% to 70% of the rated voltage. Pick-up
voltage is ≥ 85% of the rated coil voltage. The operating voltage is AC 220V or
380V at 50/60Hz.

Undervoltage release

Shunt Trip (ST)


The shunt release is used for remote tripping of the MCCB under abnormal
conditions. The operating voltage is 70% to 110% of the rated voltage.

Shunt release

Alarm Switch (AS)


When a tripping occurs in the MCCB, it is indicated by the alarm switch. The
potential free change-over contacts can be utilized for indicative and circuit control
purposes.

Configurations: 1 NO + 1 NC
Alarm switch 2 NO + 2 NC

17
External Accessories

Insulation Barrier
The insulation barrier should be utilized on the MCCB to facilitate
termination of cable links. Used on the incoming side of the MCCB, it
provides additional safety as it is made of superior insulating materials
that have good mechanical and electrical properties. The insulation
barrier prevents accidental contacts and flash-over between each
phase and is highly recommended for the breakers especially during
installation of a switchboard.

Plug-in Kit (PIK)


The MCCB plug-in kit is designed to replace the standard
terminal with a rear connection to improve the opening capability.
Suitable for isolation, the plug-in kit has a better contact performance
in the MCCB when there is less force and a low temperature. It is also
important to note that the MCCB can be drawn out without
disconnecting the incoming live cable. Plug-in kit

Rotary Handle (RH)


The MCCB toggle handle operating mechanism is used to
facilitate the ON/OFF operation when the MCCB is installed in the
cubicles of distribution boards. It is designed to be attached directly
onto the MCCB and transform the toggle handle movement into a
rotation switch to serve as a position indicator switch.
Rotary handle

Motor Operating Mechanism (MOD)


The motor-operated mechanism enables the MCCB to be
switched ON or OFF automatically. The MCCB should also be
equipped with an alarm switch for automatic resetting purposes.

Motor operating mechanism

18
Internal Accessories Specification

Shunt Trip

MCCB Cut-off Operating Operating


model Switch Voltage Time

63 C, S equipped 240V 5 - 15 mins

100 C, N, S & H equipped 240V 7 - 15 mins

225 C, N, S & H equipped 240V 7 - 15 mins

400 S & H equipped 240V 7 - 15 mins

equipped 240V 7 - 15 mins


600 S & H

equipped 240V 7 - 15 mins


800 S & H

Auxiliary Contact and Alarm Switch

“Open” Position “Close” Position

Circuit Breaker > 400A Circuit Breaker > 225A Circuit Breaker > 400A Circuit Breaker > 225A
2 NO + 2 NC 1 NO + 1 NC 2 NO + 2 NC 1 NO + 1 NC

Auxiliary Contact

Durability Make & Break Capacity

Frame Size 100A < In < 630A 100A < In < 630A

Conventional Current (Ith) 3 3

Rated Operational Current at AC 380V 0.3A 0.3A

I/Ic 10 10
Make U/Uc 1 1
Cos ø 0.3 0.3
I/Ic 1 1

Category
Break U/Uc 1 1
AC-15 0.3 0.3
Cos ø

Number of cycles 6050 10

Frequency (t/s) 360 120

Time (s) > 0.05 > 0.05

19
Installation and Fittings
External Accessories

20
Outline Dimensions of Rotary Handle & Door Hole
Shortest Distance between Hinge &
Outline & Mounting Drawing
Handle Center and available Shaft Space

Door Hole for Handle Handle

Features
• can be pad-locked in both ON and OFF positions.
• when door is locked in ON position, can be opened in OFF position.
• protective class (based on IEC529 standards) at IP54.

21
Selection Table & Installation Guide for Accessories
Name of Accessory LKS-63 LKS-100 LKS-225 LKS-400 LKS-630
LKS-800

Alarm Switch
* Trip Indication

Auxiliary Switch
* On & Off Indication

Shunt Trip
* Remote Trip Unit

UVT
* Undervoltage Release

Shunt Trip + Auxiliary Switch

Shunt Trip + UVT

2 Auxiliary Switch

Auxiliary + UVT

Alarm + Shunt Trip

Alarm + Auxiliary Switch

Alarm + UVT

Alarm + Auxiliary + Shunt Trip

Alarm + 2 Sets of Auxiliary

Alarm + Auxiliary + UVT

item symbol
Left Side Right Side
1. Only lead wire type is available Alarm
* 2. For Alarm, Auxiliary, Switch and UVT,a module is
* mounted externally on the cover.
Auxiliary switch
Shunt trip
MCCB On/Off Toggle UVT

22
Outline Drawings of Accessories
Shunt Trip Release Model Code A B C D

ACMSST - 63 39 31 42 23.5

ACMSST - 100 29 32.7 38.5 22

ACMSST - 225 29 34.5 43 30

ACMSST - 400 62.5 60 37.5 28

ACMSST - 630 63.5 60 37.5 28

Undervoltage Release Model Code A B C D

ACMSVT - 63 39 30.5 37.5 23.1

ACMSVT - 100 35.5 30 29.5 23.4

ACMSVT - 225 39.5 34.5 31.2 30.3

ACMSVT - 400 58.5 35 63.4 28.3

ACMSVT - 630 58.5 50.8 97 27.9

Alarm Switch Model Code A B C D

ACMSAL - 100 29.5 30.6 37.5 23.6

ACMSAL - 225 37.5 30.6 40 28.6

ACMSAL - 400 55 63 28 29.5

ACMSAL - 630 55 63 28 39

measurements are in millimeter (mm)


23
Outline Drawings of Accessories
Auxiliary Switch Model Code A B C D

ACMSAX - 100 29.5 27 37.5 23.6

ACMSAX - 225 37.5 30.6 40 28.6

ACMSAX - 400 55 63 28 29.5

ACMSAX - 630 55 63 28 39

Auxiliary + Alarm Switch Model Code A B C D

ACMSAA - 100 29.5 27 37.5 23.6

ACMSAA - 225 37.5 30.6 40 38.6

ACMSAA - 400 55 63 28 29.5

ACMSAA - 630 55 63 28 39

measurements are in millimeter (mm)

24
Outline Drawings of Accessories
Motor Operating Mechanism Model Code A B C

ACMSMOD - 100 117.5 90 91

ACMSMOD - 225 156 105 101

ACMSMOD - 400 226 132 143

ACMSMOD - 630 226 207 143

Rotary Handle Model Code A B C D

ACMRH - 50 100 25 49 68

ACMRH - 100 104 30 49 69

ACMRH - 225 143 35 55 72

ACMRH - 400 195 129 83 110

ACMRH - 630 195 129 83 110

measurements are in millimeter (mm)

25
Outline Drawings of Accessories
Plug-in Kit
MZ1-100/30 MZ1-225/30 MZ1-400/30 MZ1-630/30
model code

A 92 108 136 213

A1 60 70 44 140

B 30 38 50 58

B1 70 73 135 143

C 104 106 175 184

D 6 6 10 10

D1 0 10 13 13

E 134 144 225 243

E1 0 26 32 0

F 60 70 87 140

F1 M10 25 28 44

G 13 13 18 17

H 26 34 40 53

H1 16 15 24 20

J M10 6 8 11

K 14 17.5 27 27

L 90 105.5 144 210

L1 60 70 87 140

M M5 M5 M8 M8

m 0 108 120 0

m1 62 79 79 146

m2 122 134 0 0

N 0 18 15 15

measurements are in millimeter (mm)

26
Definition of Short-circuit
and Short-circuit Current
Short-circuit in a Network
When a short-circuit in a network occurs, it will create a highly damaged and
abnormal condition to the system, whereby the normal insulation of the system, be
it the cables or equipment and load, are damaged.
The function of the MCCB as a protection device, is to protect overloads and
bring the effect of this faulty condition under control at a fast speed in order to
reduce the damages.
The LKE Superior series MCCB, with the right combination of accessories and
proper selection to coordinate between the down-stream and up-stream of the
rated current and fault level, is one of the more reliable circuit breaker protection
device available.
It is important to understand the full load current and fault level to determine
the rated current and short-circuit kA of the MCCB before selecting the right
MCCB to protect the down-stream cable, equipment and load.
The value of the short-circuit current at a fault-junction depends mainly on:
• the kVA of the supply source, (either a transformer or generator).
• the type of supply system.
• the length and cross section of the cable and device lying in between the
source of supply and fault-junction.

Types of Short-circuit
Before calculating the short-circuit current at any point of the network, one
must be able to differentiate the various types of short-circuit. In a three-phase
network, short-circuits are generally classified as below, depending on the number
of conductor affected and with or without fault-to-earth.

Three-phase fault Two-phase fault One-phase shorted Cross-country – three-phase


to Neutral shorted to Neutral
Isc = Uo Isc = Uo
∑z ∑z Isc = Uo Isc = Uo
√3 z z = 1/z1 + 1/z2 + 1/z2

27
The Peak Value of the Short-circuit Current
When an R-L series circuit is closed with an A/C source, the current
component results in:
1 ) an A/C component with a phase shift with respect to the voltage
2 ) a D/C decaying component.

The arc component is superimposed on the D/C component. The initial peak
value of the short-circuit current depends on the voltage at the instance of the
breaker closing. The two extreme cases are:

a ) when the breaker is closed at peak voltage, the D/C component is zero and
the fault current is symmetrical or balanced.

b ) when the breaker is closed at zero voltage, the D/C component is


asymmetrical or unbalanced.

28
Determination of the Fault Current

The initial peak value depends on the instance of the breaker closing and on the
factor “K = R/X” [Refer Fig.1]. In practical applications, the value of “K” lies mostly
between 1.1 to 1.5. The electro-dynamic stress on the current carrying parts
depends on this peak value “Ip”.

Calculation of the Short-circuit Current close to the Transformer


If the MCCB is used as a main switch, whether as a transfer switch or a
distribution breaker close to the transformer, a rough estimate of the short-circuit
current is sufficient. The percentage impedance of the transformer Z can be read
out from the name plate. Otherwise, it is generally assumed as 5%. The short-
circuit current can be calculated with the help of the following simple rule:

Isc = In x 100/Z
where,
Isc - short-circuit current ( A )
In - rated current of the transformer (Full load current)
Z - percentage impedance of the transformer

The rated current of the transformer is calculated as follows:


In = S x 1000 /√3 x Ue
S = rating of transformer in kVA
Ue = rated voltage at the low tension side in Volts
e.g. :
A transformer with S = 1000 kVA, Z = 5% and Ue = 415 V
In = 1000 kVA x 1000 / √3 x 415 V = 1393 A
Isc = 1393 A x 100 / 5 = 27860 A

In this example, the short-circuit current close to the transformer is ~28 kA. The
breaking capacity of the MCCB installed at this point must be higher than this
value. This is applicable if a high breaking capacity MCCB with an ultimate short-
circuit breaking capacity Icu = 35 kA or 50 kA is used here. It is immaterial whether
the simple formula used above is sufficiently accurate or not. The selected circuit
breaker will have enough capacity in reserve.

The short-circuit current calculated above can also be read out from the table
“Rated and short-circuit currents of 3-phase standard transformers” (refer to
page 30).

29
Determination of the Fault Current
at Transformer Terminal
Rated and Short-circuit Currents of 3-phase Standard Transformers at Secondary Terminal.

Rated Current (A) Short-circuit Current (A)


Transformer Rating (kVA)
at full load current at secondary terminal

50 70 1391

100 139 2782

160 223 4452

200 278 5565

250 348 6956

315 448 8765

400 556 11130

500 696 13912

600 836 16714

700 975 19500

800 1115 22286

900 1254 25072

1000 1393 27860

1250 1741 34820

1500 2089 41780

2000 2786 55720

2500 3482 69640

3000 4179 83580

Secondary rated voltage = 415V AC; percentage impedance of transformer “Z” = 5%

30
Calculation of the Short-circuit Current in a Supply System
In a supply system, the further away from the transformer, the higher the
impedance. As such, the lower the value is for the short-circuit current. Each length
source of conductor or device in the circuit provides an impedance which reduces the
short-circuit current. To calculate the maximum level possibility of the short-circuit
current, all the impedances lying between the transformer and the MCCB must be
considered, be it with formula or simple diagram.

Rapid Determination of Fault Currents


The following monogram provides a simple method of determining the fault
fault current at
fault junction
current at any distance of cable from a transformer. To determine the fault current
at the end of a line through monogram for a cable with a cross section of 3 x 95
mm2 and at a length of 60 m is as follows:

The upstream ( source ) fault current, e.g. 50 kA,


It may be noted that a 100kA
e.g. If, length of cable = 60 m
fault at upstream side can be Cable cross section = 3 x 95 mm2
reduced to a mere 5kA level Fault current at source = 50 kA
at the end of a 150m long 70
sq.mm cable. Then, from the 80 m column in Table C, follow towards the cable size, and then
down to Table D to the upstream fault current, at the intersection reads the current
value, that is 12 kA.

Length of Cable (m) Copper Cable Cross-section (mm2)

1.2 6 4 2.5 1.5


1.5 6 4 2.5 1.5
2 10 6 4 2.5 1.5
3 16 10 6 4 2.5 1.5
4 25 16 10 6 4 2.5
6 35 25 16 10 6 4
Table C

8 50 35 25 16 10 6 4
12 70 50 35 25 16 6
15 95 70 50 35 25 16 10
20 120 95 70 50 35 25 16 10
30 120 95 70 50 35 25 16
45 185 150 120 95 70 50 35 25
60 150 120 95 70 50 35
80 185 150 120 95 70 50 35
120 120 95 70 50
150 120 95 70

Upstream Fault Current (kA) Short-circuit Current (415V)

10 9.9 9.7 9.6 9.3 9 8.6 7.8 7 6.4 4.85 4.47


15 14.6 14 13.7 13 12 11 9.6 9 7.3 5.2 4.75
Table D

20 19 18 17 15.6 14.4 12.8 10 9.0 7.7 5.35 4.85


25 2.2 21.4 20 17.6 16 13.8 11.1 9.3 7.9 5.4 4.9
30 27 24 22 19.2 17 14.6 11.5 9.5 8.0 5.45 4.95
50 39 32 27.7 22 19.2 15.8 12 9.8 8.2 5.5 5
60 43 34 29 23 19.6 16 12.2 9.9 8.25 5.5 5
70 47 36 30 23.5 20 16.2 12.3 10 8.3 5.5 5
100 53 38 32 24 20 16.4 12.5 10 8.3 5.5 5

31
Protection for Generators

Frequency 50Hz - Voltage 400V

Rated Power of Rated Current of Rated Current of


Alternator (kVA) Alternator (A) Circuit Breaker (A)
630 909 1250

710 1025 1250

800 1155 1250

900 1299 1600

1000 1443 1600

1120 1617 2000

1250 1804 2000

1400 2021 2500

1600 2309 2500

1800 2598 3200

2000 2887 3200

2250 3248 4000

2500 3608 4000

2800 4041 5000

3150 4547 5000

3500 5052 6300

Frequency 60Hz - Voltage 450V

Rated Power of Rated Current of Rated Current of


Alternator (kVA) Alternator (A) Circuit Breaker (A)
760 975 1250

850 1091 1250

960 1232 1250

1080 1386 1600

1200 1540 1600

1344 - 1350 1724 - 1732 2000

1500 1925 2000

1650 - 1680 - 1700 2117 - 2155 - 2181 2500

1920 - 1900 2463 - 2438 2500

2160 - 2150 2771 - 2758 3200

2400 3079 3200

2700 3464 4000

3000 3849 4000

3360 4311 5000

3780 4850 5000

4200 5389 6300

32
Protection of Motor by Breakers

The IEC standard classifies the coordination of the breaker and contactor into
the following 3 categories for damages on the contactor when a fault occurs on
the load side:
Category A – coordination is when the magnetic contactor is damaged to the
extent that it will require replacement. Other major components
may also require replacement or complete assembly.
Category B – coordination is when repair requirements are only to the
component parts, due to welding of contacts or melting of the
thermal relay heater.
Category C – a perfect coordination is achieved when no damages are
sustained by the contactor.

Coordination with Wiring


The wiring leading to the motor should be installed in accordance with
international standards requirements.

Coordination with Thermal Overload Relay


In a system arrangement with a MCCB, contactor and thermal overload relay,
the MCCB long time delay must exceed that of the thermal overload relay’s curve.
This is important when any overload on the motor occurs, the thermal overload
relay is able to operate instead of the MCCB.
In case of a short-circuit or heavy overload such as a locked rotor, where the
current may reach 5 to 7 times the motor rated current, the protection is then taken
over by the MCCB.

Coordination with Motor Starting Current


Motors with starting times of 15s or less are generally considered safe, while
those with starting times of longer than 15s are considered undesirable for any
standard motors. Motors with starting times longer than 30s are considered
dangerous and should be avoided altogether.

Selection Principle
1. The MCCB current rating should be higher than the motor full load current.
2. The motor starting current and starting time should be below the minimum
time/current curve of the MCCB. A margin of about 50% should be allowed for
the starting time to allow for the voltage drop or increase of a mechanical load
friction.
3. The MCCB magnetic trip current should be 1.4 to 1.7 times the motor rated
starting current ( lock-rotor current).
4. For star- delta or auto-transformer starters, the MCCB magnetic trip should be
at least 2 to 2.4 times the motor rated starting current (or lock-rotor current).

33
Selection Guide

Capacitance Load
The capacitors must be able to withstand a continuous overload of 30% due
to the harmonic currents. As a result, the circuit breaker must be derated b 30%.

Capacitor Circuit Breaker

Capacity (kVAr) Current at Capacity (A) Rating (A)

12.5 18 25

20 29 40

30 44 63

50 72 100

75 110 160

90 132 200

120 173 250

150 216 320

190 274 400

225 324 500

300 433 630

Impedance in 3-phase Capacity Average Impedance in


(converted to 1000kVA standard capacity) 3-phase Transformer

Total % if Transformer Impedance (%)


Trans. % Impedance % Impedance
Impedance Capacity
Cap of Trans. of Motor
of Power Source (kVA) %R %X
(kVA) Zt (%) Zm (%)
ZA (%)
50 1.67 1.89
50 33.4 + j37.8 82.2 + j493.2 28.98 + j36.33
75 1.62 2.36

75 21.6 + j31.47 54.8 + j328.8 18.28 + j29.39 100 1.60 2.48

150 1.50 2.71


100 16.0 + j24.8 41.1 + j24.8 13.46 + j23.03
200 1.48 2.76

150 10.0 + j18.07 27.4 + j164.4 8.341 + j16.57 300 1.44 3.27

500 1.28 3.81


200 7.4 + j13.8 20.55 + j123.3 6.161 + j12.64
750 1.26 4.62

300 4.8 + j10.9 13.7 + j82.2 3.914 + j9.773 1000 1.22 5.21

1500 1.16 5.99


500 2.56 + j7.62 8.22 + j49.32 2.064 + j6.696
2000 1.14 6.07

750 1.68 + j6.16 5.48 + j32.88 1.327 + j5.266


where
1000 1.22 + j5.21 4.11 + j24.66 0.957 + j4.372

Zs = Impedance of Power Source


1500 0.773 + j3.99 2.74 + j16.44 0.607 + j3.278
Za = (Zs + Zt) • Zm
2000 0.57 + j3.035 2.055 + j12.33 0.449 + j25 Zs + Zt + Zm

34
Selection Guide
Impedance of Electric Cable

Resistance Reactance Xw (mΩ/m)

50Hz 60Hz
Cable Rw
(mm2) (mΩ/m) 2-core, single core, single core 2-core, single core, single core
3-core closed 6cm distance 3-core closed 6cm distance

ø1.6 mm 8.92 0.103 0.143 0.287 0.123 0.182 0.344

ø2.0 mm 5.65 0.097 0.134 0.273 0.116 0.161 0.327

ø2.6 mm 3.35 0.096 0.127 0.256 0.115 0.152 0.308

2 9.24 0.100 0.138 0.279 0.020 0.167 0.335

3.5 5.20 0.092 0.126 0.261 0.110 0.152 0.314

5.5 3.33 0.092 0.120 0.247 0.110 0.145 0.297

8 2.31 0.092 0.116 0.236 0.110 0.140 0.283

14 1.30 0.088 0.111 0.218 0.106 0.134 0.261

22 0.824 0.086 0.105 0.204 0.104 0.127 0.245

30 0.623 0.083 0.091 0.195 0.100 0.122 0.234

38 0.487 0.083 0.098 0.187 0.100 0.118 0.225

50 0.378 0.081 0.095 0.178 0.097 0.115 0.214

60 0.303 0.079 0.092 0.172 0.095 0.111 0.206

80 0.230 0.078 0.087 0.173 0.094 0.107 0.196

100 0.180 0.076 0.086 0.155 0.092 0.104 0.186

125 0.144 0.076 0.087 0.148 0.091 0.106 0.178

150 0.118 0.075 0.084 0.142 0.090 0.101 0.170

200 0.092 0.073 0.084 0.134 0.089 0.101 0.161

250 0.072 0.073 0.082 0.126 0.087 0.099 0.151

325 0.057 0.072 0.080 0.118 0.086 0.097 0.142

400 0.045 – 0.079 0.112 – 0.095 0.134

500 0.037 – 0.078 0.105 – 0.094 0.216

NOTE: The resistance values are based on JIS C3307 660V grade polyvinyl chloride insulated and vinyl sheathed cable (w).
The reactance value L = 0.05 + 0.4605 log10 D/r (m/H/km)
(D = core center to center distance, then Xw = 2.π fl x 10 -3 (mΩ/m), f = frequency was calculated).

35
Selection Guide
Impedance of Bus Duct (Zb)

Reactance (mΩ/m)
Rated Current Resistance
(A) (mΩ/m)
50Hz 60Hz

400 0.158 0.039 0.046

600 0.127 0.033 0.039

800 0.085 0.024 0.028

1000 0.065 0.018 0.022

1200 0.053 0.014 0.017

1500 0.041 0.012 0.014

2000 0.025 0.014 0.017

2500 0.020 0.013 0.016

3000 0.017 0.011 0.013

Comparison of Different Methods of Starting

Current (I) Torque (T)


Method of
Starting
Ist/Idol Ist/In Tst/Tdol Tst/Tn

Direct-on-line 1 4-8 1 1 - 1.15

Star-delta 0.33 1.32 - 2.64 0.33 0.33 - 0.49

Auto transformer 50% 0.28 1.12 - 2.24 0.25 0.25 - 0.37

Auto transformer 60% 0.39 1.56 - 3.12 0.36 0.36 - 0.54

Auto transformer 75% 0.59 2.36 - 4.72 0.56 0.56 - 0.84

Rheostat, severity 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5

Rheostat, severity 1.4 1.4 1.4 1 1

Rheostat, severity 2.0 2 2 1.4 1.4

36
Selectivity

What is Selectivity?
Selectivity between 2 protective devices in series, such as the MCCB1
& MCCB2, is also called discrimination. The purpose of selectivity is to
coordinate the 2 circuit breakers in cascade, eg. A and B (see diagram). This
means only the B breaker trips in case of fault occurring at C and a
continuous supply of power to the remaining loads through the A breaker.

Total and Partial Selectivity (Diagram 1 & 2)


Diagram 1 • Total selectivity between A & B breakers is when fault occurs at C, up to
the prospective short circuit current of the B breaker, and only when the B
breaker is tripped while the A breaker remains untrip.
• Partial selectivity between A & B breakers is when the B breaker trips but
the A breaker does not, but only for fault currents lower than the maximum
prospective short circuit currents that may occur in the line connected to
the B breaker. For a higher fault current, up to the maximum prospective
short circuit current of the breaker B, both B & A breakers may trip
together.
Diagram 2
Selectivity Techniques (Diagram 3)
There are two techniques for ensuring selectivity:
1. Current selectivity
2. Time selectivity
These 2 techniques are effected intervening in the operation of the
breaker of setting the tripping current (Im) & the tripping time delay (Tm).

Current Selectivity
This technique is commonly used in low tension switchboards,
Diagram 3
achievable by adjusting the tripping unit current setting. For 2 breakers in
series, the pick-up current on the upstream breaker is set to a value higher
than the prospective short circuit current at the point of the fault junction of
the down stream breaker.
This selectivity technique is used particularly for links between main
boards and secondary boards.

Time Selectivity (Diagram 4)


This time selectivity technique requires the “selectivity” circuit breaker –
Diagram 4 a breaker with an adjustable time trip device:
• Time delay with adjustable unit in the breaker tripping system
• The breaker must be able to withstand the thermal & electrodynamic
effect of the short circuit current for the period of the time delay.

37
LKE’s Low & Medium Voltage
Range of Products

LK-VB1
LK-GLBS Vacuum Circuit Breaker
SF6 Load Break Switch

LK-LTPM
SF6 Ring Main Unit

LK-LBS
Compressed Air
Load Break LK-LTHO
Switch SF6 Pole-Mounted
Switch Disconnector

LK-VLBS
Vacuum
Load
Break
Switch
LK-CUBIC
Low Voltage
Switchboard

LK-LCA LK-ATS
Compressed Air Auto Transfer
Ring Main Unit Switch

LK-LCA LK-ACB
SF6 Ring Main Unit Air Circuit Breaker

LK-MCCB, LH-MX, LK-SF, LK-RCCB


Low Voltage Circuit Breakers

capacity of products range from 380VAC – 36kV and rated current from 5A – 6300A
OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS

SUPERIOR QUALITY

I N S TA N T D E L I V E R Y

ALL ROUND SERVICE

As standards, applications and designs may change


from time to time, please contact our nearest agent for
the latest information. For further technical references,
please refer to the respective product catalogue.

LK-Electric Co Pte Ltd


Blk 219 Henderson Industrial Park
#06-03 Henderson Rd, 159546 SINGAPORE
telephone 65 271 5388
facsimile 65 271 5088

LKE Electric (M) Sdn Bhd


1 & 3 Jalan SS13/3C, Subang Jaya Industrial Estate
47500 Petaling Jaya, Selangor D.E., MALAYSIA
telephone 603 5633 7010/7011
facsimile 603 5633 8368, 5632 3014

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No 4, North of Industrial Area Xiangzhou
Zhuhai, 519000 P.R. of CHINA
telephone 86 756 226 7005
facsimile 86 756 226 7007

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18th Floor, No 159 Handan Road
Shanghai, 200437 P.R. of CHINA
telephone 86 21 6555 7237
facsimile 86 21 6555 7119

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Egestubben 16-26
DK 5270, Odense, DENMARK
telephone 45 63 18 1560
facsimile 45 63 18 1590

info@lke-electric.com
www.lke-electric.com

Printed in Malaysia 05/2002