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Managing Human Resource

Page
CONTENTS No.

Task 01

P1.1 Explain Guests model of Hard-soft…………………..…………………. 02

P1.2 Review the differences between Storey ………………………………. 02

P1.3 Analyze HRM from a strategic perspective …….…………………… 04

Task 02

P2.1 Review and explain a model of flexibility……………………………. 05

P2.2 Describe the need for flexibility ………………………..……………….. 05

P2.3 Evaluate the advantages and .............………………………………… 07

Task 03

P3.1 Describe the forms of discrimination …..………………………………. 09

P3.2 Review how the legislative framework ……………………………….. 10

P3.3 Explain a range of current initiatives ………………………………….. 12

P3.4 Compare and contrast equal opportunities………………………….. 12

Task 04

P4.1 Explain performance management……………………………………….. 14

P4.2 Critically evaluate different human …………..…………………………. 15

P4.3 Evaluate the impact of globalization ………………………………….. 15

P4.4 Review the impact of different national ……………………………… 16

Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………. 18

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Task 1
1.1 Explain Guests model of hard-soft, loose-light dimensions of
HRM

Human resource management is defined as a strategic and coherent


approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets the
people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the
achievement of its objective. (Michael Armstrong 2007)

As Guest 1999 comments, the drive to adopt HRM is … based on the


business case of a need to respond to an external threat from increasing
competition. It is a philosophy that appeals to managements who are
striving to increase competitive advantages and appreciate that to do this
they must invest in human resource as well as new technology.

The soft version of HRM traces its roots to the human – relations school;
it emphasizes communication, motivation and leadership. In the words of
Guest 1999, as means rather than objects, but it does not go as far as
following Kant’s (2003[1781]) advice: Threat people as ends unto
themselves rather than as means to an end. The soft approach to HRM
stresses the need to gain the commitment – the ‘heart and minds’ – of
employees through involvement, communications and other methods of
developing a high - commitment, high – trust organization. Attention is
also drawn to the key role of organization culture.

The hard model of HRM as a process emphasizing ‘the close integration of


human resource policies with business strategy which regards employees
as resources to be managed in the same rational way as any other
resource being exploited for maximum return’. In contrast, the soft
version of HRM sees employees as ‘valued assets and as a source of
competitive advantages through their commitment, adaptability and high
level of skills and performance’. (Michael Armstrong P.13-14. 2008)

1.2 Review the differences between storey definitions of HRM


and personnel and IR practices

Storey (1992) has established a theoretical model based on his


perception of how organizations have evolved from predominant
personnel and IR practices to HRM practices as he called it ‘a model of the
shift to human resource management. His model is based on ideal types
and thus there are no organizations, which conform the picture in reality.
Storey also underlines twenty-seven points of difference between
Personnel and IR against HRM. He begins his approach by defining four
elements, which distinguish HRM:

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27 points of difference
Dimension Personnel and IR HRM
BELIEVS AND
ASSUMPTIONS

Contract Careful delineation of Aim to go ‘beyond


written contracts contract’
Rules Importance of devising ‘Can- do’ outlook;
clear rules/ mutuality impatience with ‘rule’
Guide to management Procedures ‘Business need’
action
Behavior referent Norms/ custom and Values/mission
practice
Managerial Task vis-à-vis Monitoring Nurturing
labor
Nature of relations Pluralist Unitarist
Conflict Institutionalized De-emphasized
STRATEGIC
ASPECTS

Key relations Labour management Customer


Initiatives Piecemeal Integrated
Corporate plan Marginal to Central to
Speed of decision Slow Fast
LINE
MANAGEMENT

Management role Transactional Transformational leader


Key managers Personnel/ IR specialists General/business/line
managers
Communication Indirect Direct
Standardization High (e.g. ‘parity’ an Low (e.g. ‘parity’ not
issue) seen as relevant
16 Prized management skill Negotiation Facilitation
KEY LEVERS

Selection Separate, marginal task Integrated, key-task


Pay Job evaluation (fixed Performance-related
grades)
Conditions Separately negotiated Harmonization
Labor management Collective bargaining Towards individual
contracts contracts
Thrust of relations Regularized through Marginalised (exception
with stewards facilities and training of some bargaining for
change models)
Job categories and grade Many Few
Communication Restricted flow Increased flow
Job design Division of labour Teamwork
Conflict handling Reach temporary truces Manage climate and
culture
Training & development Controlled access to Learning companies
courses
Foci of attention for Personnel procedures Wide ranging cultural

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interventions structural and personnel


strategies

Through the beliefs and assumptions he sees in HRM an aim to go beyond


contract, a more of a nurturing job of management being a coach rather
than a policeman and a more unitarist approach in relations. In strategic
aspects he sees differences in a more customer oriented approach with
fast speed of decision making and central cooperate plans. A more
transformational leadership is seen in HRM rather than the transactional
in PM and IR with the line managers as key staff, direct communications
and low standardization. (Christos Theophilou 2007)

1.3 Analyze HRM from a strategic perspective and its implications


for the role of the line manager and employees with suitable
examples.

Taking into account the concepts of the resource-based view and strategic
fit, Delery and Doty 1996 contend that ‘organizations adopting a
particular strategy HR practices that are different from those required by
organizations adopting different strategies’ and that organizations with
‘greater congruence between their HR strategies and their strategies
should enjoy superior performance’. They identify three HRM
perspectives:

1. The universalistic perspective – some HR practice are better than


others and all organizations should adopt these best practice. There
is a universal relationship between individual ‘best’ practice and firm
performance.

2. The contingency perspective – in order to be effective, an


organization’s HR policies must be consistent with other aspects of
the organization. The primary contingency factor is the
organization’s strategy. This can be described as ‘vertical fit’.

3. The configurationally perspective – this is a holistic approach that


emphasizes the importance of the pattern of HR practice and is
concerned with how this pattern of independent variables is related
to the dependent variable of organizational performance. (Michael
Armstrong P.39. 2008)

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Task 2
2.1 Review and explain a model of flexibility and show how this
might be applied in practice

The model of Flexibility at Somerfield

Employee with a minimum of 26 weeks continuous service may ask the


company to consider a request to work flexibly. Qualifying employees can
request a change to their contracted hours, working pattern and or places
of work where such a change would facilitate the care of a child. The
company is under a duty to consider any application. Only one application
to work flexibility maybe made each year, if it is accepted it will result in a
change to the employee’s terms and conditions of employment.

Eligibility

In order to make a request to work flexibly you must:

• Be an employee

• Have a child under the age of six years old, or a disabled child
under 18 by the child’s mother, father, adopter, guardian or foster
parent. Alternatively the law still applies if you are married to, or
the partner of the child’s mother, father, adopter, guardian or foster
parent

• Have or expect to have responsibility for the child’s upbringing by


making the application to enable them to care for the child.

• Have worked for the company for at least 26 continuous weeks at


the date the application is made

• Have made the application on later than 2 weeks before a child’s


sixth birthday or 18th birthday in the case of disabled child.

• Not have made another application to work flexibly under this right
during the previous 12 months. (Somerfield 2005)

2.2 Describe the need for flexibility and types of flexibility which
may be developed by your organization and give an example of
how they can be implemented

Need for Flexibility

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The need of the flexibility strategy should be to develop a ‘flexible firm’


(Atkinson, 1984) by providing for greater operational and role flexibility.

- Take a radical look at traditional employment patterns to find alternative


to full-time, permanent staff. This may take the form of segregating the
workforce into a ‘core group’ and one or more peripheral groups.

- Think about outsourcing – getting work done by external firms or


individuals.

- Encourage multiskilling to increase the ability of people to switch jobs or


carry out any of the tasks that have to be undertaken by their team.
(Michael Armstrong P.167. 2008)

Functional Flexibility: is sought so that employees can be redeployed


quickly and smoothly between activities and tasks. Functional flexibility
may require multi-skilling.

For example, it may mean a reduction in demarcation lines between


occupations, or in boundaries between individual jobs. There are fewer
jobs reserved for employees with specific occupational backgrounds: in
the NHS, for example, nurses are increasingly taking on functions
formerly reserved for medical staff. Job definitions become increasingly
unhelpful in many workplaces, particularly where team working or
multiskilling is introduced

Financial flexibility: provides for pay levels to reflect the state of supply
and demand in the external labour market and also means the use of
flexibility pay systems that facilitate either functional or numerical
flexibility.

Example, by sales staff, performance (or profit) related pay has spread to
other groups throughout the workforce. This element of flexibility is
important to employers as a means of linking costs to output and
reducing the importance of the link between pay and prices.

Flexibility in the pattern and organization of work which describes a


wide range of practices including:

- Numerical flexibility or the ability of firms to adjust the number


of employees or the number of hours worked to reflect business
needs. Many more employees are now on short-team or temporary
contacts, or are employed on a part time basis, or self-employed.
This issue is discussed more fully later. We note her simply that the
changes are driven primarily by changes in the nature of employer’s
business.

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Example, supermarkets employ part-time labour so as to better match


the hours when customers prefer to shop; temporary contract for nurse
may be used to match peak demand for hospital services.

- Working time or flexibility, which relates to variations in the


number and timing of hour’s flexibility worked.

Example, include flexi time, annual hours contracts and overtime;

- Location flexibility, or flexibility for employees to work away from


the office base,

Example, home working and teleworking


(Paul. S & Mick. M P.230 & 231 1998)

2.3 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of flexible


working practices from both the employee and the employer
perspective.

The advantages

Employer

The most common factors driving organization to adopt more flexible


working practices are:

- Increased competitiveness both nationally and globally


- New technology
- Changes in labour demand and supply
- Government policies

Whit regard to flexibility in the pattern and organization of work the main
needs for employers are:

- Enables employers to match work provisions more closely with


customer/product demand
- Reduces fixed costs.
- Aids recruitment and retention of employees
- Increase productivity – those working for a reduced period of time
are likely to be less tired less stressed
- Reduces absence and labour turnover.

Employee

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Survey evidence of employees’ reactions to flexible working arrangements


is thin, but generally they are perceived as a ‘good thing’, offering
employees:

- He ability to combine work with outside with outside interests


- Greater job satisfaction
- Improved motivation
- Less tiredness

The disadvantages

Employer

- Increased training costs


- Higher direct costs
- More complex administration
- Communication difficulties
- Management of the ‘flexible’ workforce.

Employee

- Unequal treatment in terms of pay and benefits


- Reduced career development opportunities
- Limited training opportunities
- The ‘psychological contract’ is threatened
- Increased job insecurity
- Increase stress.

(Paul. S & Mick. M P.237 & 238 1998)

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Task 3
3.1 Describe the forms of discrimination that take place

Statement of intent

Somerfield will not discriminate against the many people in our society
that experience discrimination or lack of opportunity for reasons which are
unjust. These include disability (including mental illness), culture, religion
or belief, colour, ethnic origin, language, political beliefs, gender, sexual
orientation, age, marital status, responsibility for dependents.. This list is
not exhaustive and many other factors may contribute to discriminatory
experiences.

Somerfield will challenge discrimination and lack of opportunity in its own


policy and practice and that in employment practices and provision of
services it will strive to combat all direct or indirect forms of
discrimination.

Discrimination can take one or more of the forms set out below.

Direct discrimination is treating one person less favourably than


another in the same or similar circumstances, or segregating them from
others solely because they have for example a disability or illness.
Refusing to employ someone who has the required skills because they
are, for example, deaf, over a certain age or pregnant would constitute
such discrimination.

Indirect discrimination occurs where there is a provision, criterion or


practice which applies equally to everyone but which, in practice, has an
adverse impact on a particular group and cannot be justified.

For example an unnecessary physical or age requirement can discriminate


against women or disabled people.

Abuse and/or harassment – Discrimination also covers actions which


amount to abuse and/or harassment of people or groups of people
because, for example, they have a disability or illness, are a member of a
national or ethnic minority group, a woman, a lesbian, an older person.

Victimisation occurs when a person is treated less favourably or is


discriminated against because she/he has pursued or intends to pursue
their rights in respect of alleged discrimination. This protection can also
include any person who supports the person pursuing their rights.

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Racist incident (Macpherson Report, 1999)


Any incident which is perceived to be racist by the victim or any other
person. If the affected person doesn’t want to complain, another person
may do so.
Discrimination in any of the forms stated above is unacceptable,
regardless of whether there was any intention to discriminate or not.
Somerfield will take every reasonable step to ensure that no-one
connected with the organization receives less favorable treatment than
others

Employment
Somerfield will ensure that:

• Discussion and in-house training is undertaken as necessary for


personnel to combat discrimination at work.
• Practice and procedures reflect the physical, cultural and religious
needs of any employees and volunteers as well as those to whom
services are extended.
• All other appropriate measures are taken to ensure job satisfaction
as well as the delivery of services to individuals and organizations.

Recruitment and selection

Staff appointments will be monitored to ensure no discrimination is


occurring at the point of selection.

3.2 Review how the legislative framework and any proposed


changes relating to discrimination in the workplace can be applied
by your organization.

Prior to the 1970s, typical personnel practitioners would have readily


understood what was required of them in terms of the law and equality of
opportunity in the workplace. The legislative framework was very simple
and there are several key pieces of legislation relating to equal
opportunities.

Act Areas covered


Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Sex and marital status (the latter
referring specifically to persons who
are married)
Sex Discrimination (Gender Persons who intend to undertake a
Reassignment) Regulation sex change, are currently in the
1999 process of doing so or have
completed treatment
Race Relations Act 1976 Race, colour, nationality or ethnic
origins
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Race Relations (Amendment) The duty of public authorities to take


Act 2000 positive action to promote good race
relations
Disability Discrimination Act Disabled persons
1995
Disability Discrimination Removal of the exemption for
Act(Amendment) Regulations employee of fewer than 15 people;
2003 shift in the burden of proof
Employment Equality (Sexual Religion or similar belief
Orientation) Regulations
2003
Equal Pay Act 1970 Male and female pay for like work,
rated as equivalent, and work of
equal value
Rehabilitation of Offenders Persons with spent convictions
Act 1970
Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation toward persons of the
Orientation) same sex, of the opposite sex, shift of
both the same sex and the opposite
sex
Human Rights Act 1998 Prohibition of forced labour and
slavery; right to respect for private
and family life
(Margaret Foot & Carline Hook P.69.2005)

If you believe that you have been discriminated against you should, if
appropriate, raise the matter with you line manager in the first instance.
In circumstance where this is not appropriate, you should ideally take the
matter to the next level of senior Management.

Recognizing the sensitivity that is often associated with case of this type,
and in addition to the Grievance Procedure, the company has a specific
Harassment and Bullying Policy. Please refer to these documents for
details of how you should communicate and escalate any complaint of this
nature that you may have.

All applicants for employment with Somerfield will be treated equally and
with respect. No unjustifiable conditions should be imposed in relation to
any job and adverts mush not suggests that Somerfield has any intention
of unlawfully discrimination against applicants.

Opportunity for promotion and training of staff will be open to all and
based purely on merit.

The application of he company’s policies and procedures and particularly


the disciplinary and Grievance procedures will be consistent, fair and
transparent.

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If you require advice in relation to the application of this policy in regards


to recruitment and training or employee relation matters, you should
contact the Employee Relation call center. (Somerfield 2005)

3.3 Explain a range of current initiatives and practices which


focus on equal opportunities in employment.

The employment equality (religion or belief) regulation 2003


outlaw discrimination based on religion or similar philosophical beliefs.
Whether a set of beliefs is recognized under regulation will be for
employment tribunals to decide.

For example, humanism would be recognized as a set of beliefs similar to


a religion, but political beliefs normally would not be covered. The
regulations work in similar way to the sexual orientation regulations in
terms of type discrimination and the possibility of a GOR for certain
positions.

Many commentators agree that key challenge to employers in dealing


with religious discrimination will probably in the area of harassment.
Communication with employees and the creation of culture of tolerance
and acceptance of diversity will come even more important.

Sexual orientation refers to gay and lesbian preferences,


heterosexuality and bisexuality. These are not covered by the equality
regulations. The regulations apply to recruitment and selection and to
treatment in the workplace, such as opportunities for training and
promotion. Harassment is defined as unwanted conduct that intimidates
or humiliates an individual, affecting their dignity or creating a hostile
work environment. It may be possible to identify a genuine occupational
requirement for some posts, in which case a particular sexual orientation
may be specified during recruitment.

If anyone interested in such a post feels that they have been unfairly
excluded on this basis, they can challenge the GOR at an employment
tribunal, which is ultimate arbiter of the acceptability of GORs.
(Margaret Foot & Carline Hook P.70 - 71.2005)

P3.4-Compare and contrast equal opportunities and managing


diversity

Equal opportunities are at the heart of a policy for dealing with the
management of diversity or cultural differences, and organizations have
policies covering the area to assert their intention to provide equal
opportunities for all categories of staff.

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The term is sometimes held to concentrate on avoiding discrimination or


unfairness as between groups, but it should be more proactive than this.

It should involve acknowledging, tolerating and indeed welcoming


difference. It can also involve being proactive, as in what the Americans
call ‘affirmative action’ such as boosting the proportion of minority groups
in employment.

It also needs to emphasize that equal opportunities is not just something


to be pursued by management, but is the responsibility of all workers
towards each other.

Bullying and harassment are practices which are sometimes pursued by


managers, but much more frequently by workers or groups of workers
against each other. (Rosemary P.160. 2002)

Managing diversity means ‘that people should be valued as individuals for


reasons relating to business interests, as well as for moral and social
reasons. It recognizes that people can bring fresh ideas and perception
which can make the way work is done more efficient and products and
service better (Institute of personnel and Development (IPD) 1997).

In order for diversity management to work there must be involvement


from a wide range of people, form the chief executive and the board
through to the human resource management and the line mangers.
According to the CIPD ‘managing diversity needs to become a mainstream
issue which influences all employment policies and working practices’ (IPD
1997)

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Task 4
4.1 Explaining performance management in practice.

Armstrong and Baron 1998 define performance management as:


A process which contributes to the effective management of individuals
and teams in shared understanding about what is to be achieved and an
approach to leading and developing people which will ensure it is
achieved.

Although the aim of performance appraisal is undoubtedly to improve


individual and consequently organizational performance.

According to the CIPS 2004 the tools typically used in performace


management include the following:

• Objectives and performance standards


• Performance and development reviews
• Measurement
• Pay
• Learning and development
• Coaching
• Competences and competencies
• 360 feedback
• Teams
• Performance problem solving (Margaret Foot & Carline Hook
P.288.2005)

Performance management derives from the human resource management


approach as a strategic and integrated approach to the management and
development of people. It emphasis the important role of line managers
to take responsibility for the management of the performance of the
people in their department.

It uses the techniques of performance appraisal but prefers to use the


more objective types, such as management by objectives. Line managers
also have responsibility to review progress and development throughout
the year, not just personnel management or the senior management
them.

Performance management is above all a process for sharing an


understanding about what needs to be achieved, and then managing and
developing all directions and employee involvement are also extremely
important. If the performance appraisal and performance management
carried out correctly, in a way that fits with the organization’s culture and
can contribute to most of. (Margaret Foot & Carline Hook P.294.2005)

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4.2 Evaluate the Human resource practice in your work place.

Any organization’s success will depend largely on whether its employees


perform well. It is recognized that library and information services exist,
in the main, as part of a larger organization that will have its own human
resource management policies and practices. Somerfield has its
responsibility to work with human resource practitioners to understand
and shape policies and practices, and adapt specific human resource
management interventions to suit the organizational culture and
readiness of their library and information service.

The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of


activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have
and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill
these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they
are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your
personnel and management practices conform to various regulations.
Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and
compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small
businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities
themselves because they can't yet afford part- or full-time help. However,
they should always ensure that employees have -- and are aware of --
personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies
are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have.

The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone tremendous


change over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations
looked to the "Personnel Department," mostly to manage the paperwork
around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider
the "HR Department" as playing a major role in staffing, training and
helping to manage people so that people and the organization are
performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner.

4.3 Evaluate and explain the impact of globalization on issues


such as Human resource planning.

Globalization, which requires organizations to move people, idea, products


and information around the world to meet local needs. New and important
ingredients must be added to the mix when making strategy: volatile
political situations, contentious global trade issues, fluctuating exchange
rates and unfamiliar cultures.

It has been said for many years now that the world is getting smaller and
with the advent of the internet this is in one way at least becoming truer.
We can manage and be managed from a great distance. We are able to
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access development opportunities form the comfort of our own home or


workplace.

In our new world, where change, complexity and speed dispel the success
of our traditional approaches to developing our managers, we have no
choice but to invent new concepts on how development is best achieved.
Add to this the omnipresence of cyberspace which makes it far easier to
take learning to the managers, than to take the manager to available
data, which means we must be frugal but focused on learning what
actually helps. The future will insist on continuous, local individually
tailored learning.

1. Learn what you do not yet need when you do not yet need it. It will
help you to understand and interpret what is really happening
rather than what you existing paradigm suggests is happening.
2. Learn only what others do not already know.
3. Reach out through cyberspace and leave markers of your questions
and encourage others to reach back to you with more question and
answers.
4. Remember all learning has stamped on it a ‘sell by’ date. (Eddie
Obeng. Pentacle the Virtual Business School). David Megginson &
Paul Banfield. P. 180. 2000)

4.4 Review the impact of different national cultures and practices


human resource professionals can employ to manage a culturally
diverse workforce.

The easiest way to think in terms of cultural difference is on the basis of


nationality, but given the polyglot nature of many countries, cultural
differences also apply within countries. Geert Hofstede 1980 identified
four base dimensions of the differences between national cultures.

1. Power distance, is concerned with how far the culture encourages


superiors to exert power. In a country where power distance is
large, being a boss is about exerting power, but in a small power
distance country, superiors and subordinates consider each other to
be colleagues, so that inequality between them is minimized and
superiors are accessible.

2. Uncertainty avoidance raises the issue of the extent to which a


culture encourages change and risk-taking. In strong uncertainty
avoidance countries people feel threatened by uncertain situations
and experience high levels of stress in change, whereas in a weak
uncertainty avoidance culture the uncertainty which is inherent in
life is easily accepted, which means less stress and less need for
rules.

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3. The individualism collectivism dimension in the extent to which a


culture encourages individual as opposed to collective concerns. In
a individualistic culture identity is based on the individual, whereas
a collectivist culture is characterized by tighter social framework
and the emphasis is on belonging to the group and being a good
member of it.

4. Masculinity femininity is somewhat unfortunately named since it


follows the stereotyping of gender roles. Since it follows the
stereotyping of gender role. Masculinity has an emphasis on the
achievement of goals and focus on winning as opposed to losing.
Here the quality of life matters more than money, and people and
the environment are also important.

The implication of cultural differences do have a significant impact on how


organizations operate, and also therefore on policies for managing people.
(Rosemary Thomson P.161. 2002)

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