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Information Technology

NETWORKS
BY JYOTINDRA ZAVERI IT Consultant

MIS

Information Technology - Networks

Networks
Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the nodes of a computer network. LAN = Local Area Network
Within four walls

WAN = Wide Area Network


Multi location network connected using telecommunication network (e.g. telephone lines)
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Physical and Logical


The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. The logical topology of a network refers to the method used to pass information between workstations.

MIS

Information Technology - Networks

Topologies of Networks
Types of Topology: There are mainly three ways to connect computers. Star Topology Client Server Topology Peer-to-Peer Topology

MIS

Information Technology - Networks

Star Topology
In the star topology, all computers and other network devices connect to a central device called a hub or switch. Each connected device requires a single cable to be connected to the hub, creating a point-to-point connection between the device and the hub.
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Why Star Topology?


Advantages of a Star Topology Easy to install and wire. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts. Disadvantages of a Star Topology: Requires more cable length than a linear topology. If the hub, switch, or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs, etc.

MIS

Information Technology - Networks

Client Server Network


Recommended for the Management Information System - MIS

MIS

Information Technology - Networks

Client Server network


Advantage
Easily managed security policy. Files are centrally located Files are easy to backup Suitable for ERP software

Disadvantage
Hackers target the server as a central point to gain full access of a network Files are not accessible if the server goes down Network servers can be expensive
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Peer to - Peer
Peer-to-peer network operating systems allow users to share resources and files located on their computers and to access shared resources found on other computers.
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Peer-to-peer network
Advantage Affordable LAN for small office, because no expensive Server computer required Simple file sharing and printer sharing Not suitable for ERP software Disadvantage Hackers target the server as a central point to gain full access of a network Files are not accessible if the server goes down Security Policy can be hard to control Backup is challenging because files are scattered across different machines
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Telecommunication and Networks

Web based infrastructure


Entire organization uses Internet technology for various activities Inside office or while on the move MIS uses databases that are accessible on the net.

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Leased Lines networks


Leased line is a line (cable) connecting two offices. Leased lines can be used for telephone, data or Internet services. Unlike traditional PSTN lines it does not have a telephone number, each side of the line being permanently connected to the other.
No PSTN (Public switched telephone network)
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Leased Lines networks are expensive

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VSAT based private networks


VSAT is a Very Small Aperture Terminal. VSAT is a two-way satellite ground station with a dish antenna VSATs are most commonly used to transmit data such as point of sale transactions, credit card, or RFID data; VoIP or video transmission.

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VPN = Virtual Private Network


A Virtual Private Network (VPN) implements private networks over public infrastructure. A VPN can provide secure but more costeffective LAN-WAN communication. A VPN uses the Internet as its transport mechanism, while maintaining the security of the data on the VPN. It is like a tunnel connecting two computers (or two networks).
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Intranet
There are enterprises that have local area networks or LAN within four walls of the organization. Such websites can be accessed by authorized users using login id and password.
A website on such network is called Intranet. User can use browser to browse. E.g. sharing of price list or sharing birthdays of the month list.
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An extranet is an Internet site that is accessible to a select group of people


An Extranet provides the ability to create applications that associates and customers can access, but that are not accessible to the general public. Extranets can use encryption and password protection to secure access to the site. For business-to-business transactions, Extranets enable secure electronic commerce. An Extranet can automate informationsharing by providing access to specific information and controlled access to internal databases.

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Extranet
Intranet on Internet is Extranet. In other words Extranet is a website on Internet that can be accessed by authorized users using login id and password, from anywhere.
Extranet web pages cannot be viewed by outsiders.

Extranet is information shared with suppliers, (vendors), partners, customers or other business associates.
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Benefits of Extranet
An extranet can also provide remote access to corporate systems for staff that spends lots of time out of the office, for instance those in sales or customer support, or home workers. E.g. Microsoft Office SharePoint Server (MOSS)

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Why would you use an extranet?


Business managers are keen to meet the demands of larger companies in terms of working flexibly, adopting new technologies and enabling the exchange of business information and transactions. Extranets offer a cheap and efficient way for businesses to connect with their trading partners. It also means that your business partners and suppliers can access the information they need 24 hours a day. This is useful, especially because of different time zones.
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Why would you use an extranet?


The ability of the extranet to automate the trading tasks between you and your trading partners can lead to enhanced business relationships and help to integrate your business firmly within their supply chain.

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Bluetooth Technology
Bluetooth technology is a short-range wireless radio technology that allows electronic devices to connect to one another.
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