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HW8
Due: 11:00pm on Thursday, April 15, 2010
Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy.

Charged Aluminum Spheres


Description: Find the number of electrons in an aluminum sphere. Calculate the number of electrons that must be removed from one sphere and added to another to create a given attractive force, and find the
fraction of electrons per sphere this number represents.
Two small aluminum spheres, each of mass 0.0250 kilograms, are separated by 80.0 centimeters.

Part A
How many electrons does each sphere contain? (The atomic mass of aluminum is 26.982 grams per mole, and its atomic number is 13.)

Hint A.1 The definition of mole and atomic number


In one mole ( ) of any material, there are approximately atoms present. The number of atoms per mole is called Avogadro's number. The atomic number of an element is the number of
protons (and therefore also the number of electrons) in an atom of that element.

Hint A.2 How many electrons per mole of aluminum?


How many electrons are there in a mole of aluminum?
Express your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

Hint A.3 How many electrons per kilogram of aluminum?


How many electrons are in a kilogram of aluminum?
Express your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

Express your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

Part B
How many electrons would have to be removed from one sphere and added to the other to cause an attractive force between the spheres of magnitude (roughly one ton)? Assume that the spheres
may be treated as point charges.

Hint B.1 How to approach the problem


Use Coulomb's law to find the charge needed to produce the given force. Then use the charge of an electron to determine the number of electrons necessary to produce the calculated charge.

Hint B.2 Find the relationship between the charges of the spheres
Assume that after some electrons have been removed from it, the first sphere ends up with a net charge of . What would be the charge on the other sphere, , after these extra electrons are added to it?

Express your answer in terms of and any necessary constants.

ANSWER:
=

Express your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

Part C
What fraction of all the electrons in one of the spheres does this represent?
Express your answer numerically.

ANSWER:

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Coulomb's Law Tutorial


Description: Use Coulomb's law to compute the (vector) force between two, and subsequently multiple, electric charges (both positive and negative). One charge acts at an angle of pi/4 radians relative to the
given coordinate axes, and thus trigonometry is required to solve the problem.

Learning Goal: To understand how to calculate forces between charged particles, particularly the dependence on the sign of the charges and the distance between them.
Coulomb's law describes the force that two charged particles exert on each other (by Newton's third law, those two forces must be equal and opposite). The force exerted by particle 2 (with charge )
on particle 1 (with charge ) is proportional to the charge of each particle and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them:

where and is the unit vector pointing from particle 2 to particle 1. The force vector will be parallel or antiparallel to the direction of , parallel if the product and antiparallel if

; the force is attractive if the charges are of opposite sign and repulsive if the charges are of the same sign.

Part A
Consider two positively charged particles, one of charge (particle 0) fixed at the origin, and another of charge (particle 1) fixed on the y-axis
at . What is the net force on particle 0 due to particle 1?

Express your answer (a vector) using any or all of , , , , , , and .

ANSWER:

Part B
Now add a third, negatively charged, particle, whose charge is (particle 2). Particle 2 fixed on the y-axis at position . What is the
new net force on particle 0, from particle 1 and particle 2?
Express your answer (a vector) using any or all of , , , , , , , , and .

ANSWER:

Part C
Particle 0 experiences a repulsion from particle 1 and an attraction toward particle 2. For certain values of and , the repulsion and attraction should balance each other, resulting in no net force. For what
ratio is there no net force on particle 0?

Express your answer in terms of any or all of the following variables: , , , .

ANSWER:
=

Part D
Now add a fourth charged particle, particle 3, with positive charge , fixed in the yz-plane at . What is the net force on particle 0
due solely to this charge?

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Hint D.1 Find the magnitude of force from particle 3


What is the magnitude of the force on particle 0 from particle 3, fixed at ?

Hint D.1.1 Distance to particle 3


Use the Pythagorean theorem to find the straight line distance between the origin and .

Express your answer using , , , .

ANSWER:

Hint D.2 Vector components


The force vector points from to . Because is symmetrically located between the y-axis and the z-axis, the angle between , the unit vector pointing from particle 3 to particle 0, and the y-axis is
radians. You have already calculated the magnitude of the vector above. Now break up the force vector into its y and z components.

Express your answer (a vector) using , , , , , , and . Include only the force caused by particle 3.

ANSWER:

Problem 26.44
Description: (a) What is the force F_vec on the 1.0nC charge in the middle of the figure due to the four other charges? Give your answer in component form.

Part A
What is the force on the 1.0 charge in the middle of the figure due to the four other charges? Give your answer in component form.

Assume that -axis is directed horizontally to the right, and -axis is directed vertically upward.

ANSWER:
, =

Electric Fields and Forces

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Description: Electric forces and electric fields.

Learning Goal: To understand Coulomb's law, electric fields, and the connection between the electric field and the electric force.
Coulomb's law gives the electrostatic force acting between two charges. The magnitude of the force between two charges and depends on the product of the charges and the square of the distance
between the charges:

where . The direction of the force is along the line connecting the two charges. If the charges have the same sign, the force will be repulsive. If the charges have
opposite signs, the force will be attractive. In other words, opposite charges attract and like charges repel.

Because the charges are not in contact with each other, there must be an intermediate mechanism to cause the force. This mechanism is the electric field. The electric field at any location is equal to the force per
unit charge experienced by a charge placed at that location. In other words, if a charge experiences a force , the electric field at that point is

The electric field vector has the same direction as the force vector on a positive charge and the opposite direction to that of the force vector on a negative charge.

An electric field can be created by a single charge or a distribution of charges. The electric field a distance from a point charge has magnitude

The electric field points away from positive charges and toward negative charges. A distribution of charges creates an electric field that can be found by taking the vector sum of the fields created by
individual point charges. Note that if a charge is placed in an electric field created by , will not significantly affect the electric field if it is small compared to .

Imagine an isolated positive point charge with a charge (many times larger than the charge on a single electron).

Part A
There is a single electron at a distance from the point charge. On which of the following quantities does the force on the electron depend?
Check all that apply.

ANSWER: the distance between the positive charge and the electron
the charge on the electron
the mass of the electron
the charge of the positive charge
the mass of the positive charge
the radius of the positive charge
the radius of the electron

According to Coulomb's law, the force between two particles depends on the charge on each of them and the distance between them.

Part B
For the same situation as in Part A, on which of the following quantities does the electric field at the electron's position depend?
Check all that apply.

ANSWER: the distance between the positive charge and the electron
the charge on the electron
the mass of the electron
the charge of the positive charge
the mass of the positive charge
the radius of the positive charge
the radius of the electron

The electrostatic force cannot exist unless two charges are present. The electric field, on the other hand, can be created by only one charge. The value of the electric field depends only on the charge
producing the electric field and the distance from that charge.

Part C

If the total positive charge is = 1.62×10−6 , what is the magntidue of the electric field caused by this charge at point P, a distance = 1.53 from the charge?

Enter your answer numerically in newtons per coulomb.

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ANSWER:
=

Part D
What is the direction of the electric field at point P?

Enter the letter of the vector that represents the direction of .

ANSWER: G

Part E
Now find the magnitude of the force on an electron placed at point P. Recall that the charge on an electron has magnitude .

Hint E.1 Determine how to approach the problem


What strategy can you use to calculate the force between the positive charge and the electron?

ANSWER: Use Coulomb's law.


Multiply the electric field due to the positive charge by the charge on the electron.
Do either of the above.
Do neither of the above.

Enter your answer numerically in newtons.

ANSWER:
=

Part F
What is the direction of the force on an electron placed at point P?

Enter the letter of the vector that represents the direction of .

ANSWER: C

Problem 26.65
Description: A q charge is located at position (x, y)=(1.0 (cm), 2.0 (cm)). (a) At what x, y position is the electric field -225,000 imath_unit N/C? (b) At what x, y position is the electric field 161,000
imath_unit+80,500 jmath_unit N/C? (c) At what x, y ...
A 20.0 charge is located at position .

Part A
At what position is the electric field ?

Express your answers using two significant figures. Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.

ANSWER:
, =

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Part B
At what position is the electric field ?

Express your answers using two significant figures. Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.

ANSWER:

, =

Part C
At what position is the electric field ?

Express your answers using two significant figures. Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.

ANSWER:

, =

Problem 26.68
Description: An electric field E_vec = E imath_unit (N/C) causes the point charge in the figure to hang at an angle. (a) What is theta ?
An electric field causes the point charge in the figure to hang at an angle.

Part A
What is

Hint A.1 Force diagram


The only forces acting on the ball are gravity, electric force, and the tension in the string. Since the ball has no acceleration, the tension in the string must exactly cancel the net force from the other two forces.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

Charged Ring
Description: Find the electric field from a uniformly charged ring (qualitative and quantitative parts) at points along its axis. Then use this to find the frequency of small oscillations of a oppositely charged
object placed on the axis.
Consider a uniformly charged ring in the xy plane, centered at the origin. The ring has radius and positive charge distributed evenly along its circumference.

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Part A
What is the direction of the electric field at any point on the z axis?

Hint A.1 How to approach the problem


Approach 1
In what direction is the field due to a point on the ring? Add to this the field from a point on the opposite side of the ring. In what direction is the net field? What if you did this for every pair of points on
opposite sides of the ring?

Approach 2
Consider a general electric field at a point on the z axis, i.e., one that has a z component as well as a component in the xy plane. Now imagine that you make a copy of the ring and rotate this copy about its
axis. As a result of the rotation, the component of the electric field in the xy plane will rotate also. Now you ask a friend to look at both rings. Your friend wouldn't be able to tell them apart, because the ring
that is rotated looks just like the one that isn't. However, they have the component of the electric field in the xy plane pointing in different directions! This apparent contradiction can be resolved if this
component of the field has a particular value. What is this value?

Does a similar argument hold for the z component of the field?

ANSWER: parallel to the x axis


parallel to the y axis
parallel to the z axis
in a circle parallel to the xy plane

Part B
What is the magnitude of the electric field along the positive z axis?

Hint B.1 Formula for the electric field

You can always use Coulomb's law, , to find the electric field (the Coulomb force per unit charge) due to a point charge. Given the force, the electric field say at due to is .

In the situation below, you should use Coulomb's law to find the contribution to the electric field at the point from a piece of charge on the ring at a distance away. Then, you can integrate
over the ring to find the value of . Consider an infinitesimal piece of the ring with charge . Use Coulomb's law to write the magnitude of the infinitesimal at a point on the positive z axis due to the
charge shown in the figure.

Use in your answer, where . You may also use some or all of the variables , , and .

ANSWER:
=

Hint B.2 Simplifying with symmetry


By symmetry, the net field must point along the z axis, away from the ring, because the horizontal component of each contribution of magnitude is exactly canceled by the horizontal component of a
similar contribution of magnitude from the other side of the ring. Therefore, all we care about is the z component of each such contribution. What is the component of the electric field caused by the
charge on an infinitesimally small portion of the ring in the z direction?

Express your answer in terms of , the infinitesimally small contribution to the electric field; , the coordinate of the point on the z axis; and , the radius of the ring.

ANSWER:
=

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Hint B.3 Integrating around the ring


If you combine your results from the first two hints, you will have an expression for , the vertical component of the field due to the infinitesimal charge . The total field is

If you are not comfortable integrating over the ring, change to a spatial variable. Since the total charge is distributed evenly about the ring, convince yourself that

Use in your answer, where .

ANSWER:
=

Notice that this expression is valid for both positive and negative charges as well as for points located on the positive and negative z axis. If the charge is positive, the electric field should point outward.
For points on the positive z axis, the field points in the positive z direction, which is outward from the origin. For points on the negative z axis, the field points in the negative z direction, which is also
outward from the origin. If the charge is negative, the electric field should point toward the origin. For points on the positive z axis, the negative sign from the charge causes the electric field to point in
the negative z direction, which points toward the origin. For points on the negative z axis, the negative sign from the z coordinate and the negative sign from the charge cancel, and the field points in the
positive z direction, which also points toward the origin. Therefore, even though we obtained the above result for postive and , the algebraic expression is valid for any signs of the parameters. As a
check, it is good to see that if is much greater than the magnitude of is approximately , independent of the size of the ring: The field due to the ring is almost the same as that due to a point

charge at the origin.

Part C
Imagine a small metal ball of mass and negative charge . The ball is released from rest at the point and constrained to move along the z axis, with no damping. If , what will be
the ball's subsequent trajectory?

ANSWER: repelled from the origin


attracted toward the origin and coming to rest
oscillating along the z axis between and
circling around the z axis at

Part D
The ball will oscillate along the z axis between and in simple harmonic motion. What will be the angular frequency of these oscillations? Use the approximation to simplify your
calculation; that is, assume that .

Hint D.1 Simple harmonic motion


Recall the nature of simple harmonic motion of an object attached to a spring. Newton's second law for the system states that

, leading to oscillation at a frequency of

(here, the prime on the symbol representing the spring constant is to distinguish it from ). The solution to this differential equation is a sinusoidal function of time with angular frequency . Write

an analogous equation for the ball near the charged ring in order to find the term.

Hint D.2 Find the force on the charge


What is , the z component of the force on the ball on the ball at the point ? Use the approximation .

Hint D.2.1 A formula for the force on a charge in an electric field


The formula for the force on a charge in an electric field is

Therfore, in particular,

You have already found in Part B. Use that expression in the equation above to find an expression for the z component of the force on the ball at the point . Don't forget to use the
approximation given.

Express your answer in terms of , , , , and .

ANSWER:
=

Compare this to the generic force equation for an oscillator to find the oscillation frequency.

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Express your answer in terms of given charges, dimensions, and constants.

ANSWER:
=

Problem 27.42
Description: The figure shows a thin rod of length L with total charge Q. (a) Find an expression for the electric field strength on the axis of the rod at distance r from the center. (b) Verify that your expression
has the expected behavior if r gg L. (c)...
The figure shows a thin rod of length with total charge .

Part A
Find an expression for the electric field strength on the axis of the rod at distance from the center.

ANSWER:

Part B
Verify that your expression has the expected behavior if .

Express your answer in terms of variables , and constants , .

ANSWER:
=

Part C
Evaluate at =3.0 if =5.0 and =3.0 .

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:
=

Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 0%.
You received 0 out of a possible total of 80 points.

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