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SECTION2 PUBLICATION 2-49 ISSUE 6 : 11708, HallScrew Operators Manual 2000 Series H818/235 and HS2018/2236 (Open Drive, Oil Injected) J & E Hall Limited ye Preface This manual contains all the information necessary for the installation and operation of the =~ $2000 range of open drive, oil injected, single screw refrigeration compressors. A thorough z study should be made of the following pages before the compressor is installed and put into ‘operation. It is also recommended to read through the entire manual before consulting any particular part for specific information. Further copies of this manual may be obtained from J & E Hall Limited. Please send all ‘correspondence to the address below, quoting the J & E Hall Limited order number on which the compressor was originally supplied (if known), and the compressor serial number. J& E Hall Limited., 6 Prospect Place, Dartford, Kent DAT 1BU, England. ©u&E Hall Limited 1998 All rights reserved. No part of this pubcation may bo reproduced or transmitted in any pene {form or by any means, electronic or machanical,inclucing photocopying, recorcing or by ; ‘any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ‘The copyright in this publication chall be and remain tho sole property of J & E Hall Limited. a_~ 2-49 Page 2 of 64 Issue 6 : 11/96 Misuses that Invalidate Guarantee Failure to comply with the following provisions will invalidate the guarantee as set out in J & E Hail Limited standard conditions of sale. Application The following is specitically prohibited: 1. Operation outside the limits detailed in fig 1 Specitication, Operating Limitations, and as Specified in the HS 2000 compressor selection publication, available from J & E Hall Limited. 2 Use of any anti-freeze, trace chemical or other additive in the primary refrigerant system. 3 Use of lubricating oils other than those specified by J & E Hall Limited; see Approved Oits on page 61. ‘System provisions Typical refrigerantoil flow diagrams are shown in figs 9, 10 and 11. items specitically required and which are considered mandatory are as follows: 1. Onall systems other than those using refrigerant R717 (ammonia), fit an adequately sized refrigerant fter/crier and a sight-glass/moisture indicator. 2 An adequately sized oil filter must be fitted for ftration to 10 microns or better, <10u, 8282 75B5>1. 3. To prevent excessive reverse rotation of the compressor at shutdown it is necessary to fit a non-return vaive adjacent to the compressor in the suction and/or discharge lines. The following methods are acceptable: + Single compressor application - either a suction or ‘discharge non-retum valve must be fitted. A non-return valve in the suction line must be located before the suction strainer. Muttiple compressor application ~ All compressors must be fitted with a ‘discharge non-retum valve. "Discharge non-return valves must be sized according to the operating conditions. 4. Adequate precautions must be taken to prevent oil or liquid refrigerant accumulating in ‘the compressor during the off cycle, i.e. when the compressor is stationary. 5. The compressor must be provided with a means of oll cooling, either by using an ‘external oil cooler (water, air or refrigerant cooled), or by alrect injection of liquid refrigerant; see fig 1 Specification, Operating Limitations. 6 The compressor capacity control system must be arranged so that the compressor always starts and stops on minimum load. 7. It the system is fitted with an economiser, an adequately sized suction strainer must be fitted having a mesh aperture of 250, or better. 8. An adequately sized suction strainer must be fitted having a mesh aperture of 250, or better. 9. Fit, and maintain in an operational condition, the cut-outs and other safety devices ‘shown on the typical gas/oil flow diagrams (figs 9, 10 and 11). Under no circumstances Issue 6 : 11/96 2-49 Page 3 of 64 10. should the HallScrew compressor be operated with cut-outs or other safety devices ‘short-circuited or rendered inoperative by mechanical or electrical means. - A capacity controller must be provided which permits oil to be supplied to either side of the capacity control piston while being vented from the other. Where capacity contro! modulation is required, control valves should be fitted in the load and unload oil lines to and from the capacity control cylinder. Refer to page 41. ‘Commissioning provisions Commissioning and Operation are described on page 50. Please note that the installer is responsible for the correct installation of equipment and, on completion, the owner and/or user is responsible for its safe operation and maintenance. The following provisions are considered mandatory: 1 5. The system into which the compressor is installed must be dehydrated by evacuation to a pressure of no more than 1.0 mm Hg before charging and commissioning take place, Under no circumstances must the HallScrew compressor be used to evacuate or pump out the system. NOTE: for polyolester olis, which must be used with HFC refrigerants (0.9. R134a and Ré0da), care must be taken to ensure that contact between alr and the lubricant is minimised. it is Important to remember that evacuating the system does not remove moisture dissolved In synthetic ester lubricant. Maintain the acid number of the compressor lubricating oil <0.05 by checking the oit on a regular basis using a proprietary acid test kit. With polyolester synthetic lubricants, additives in the oll mean that acid numbers >0.05 may be encountered. J & E Hall Limited must be contacted to provide guidance on the maximum acid number. Connect the compressor drive motor such that the compressor rotates anticlockwise when looking on the compressor shaft end. Ensure that the cooling air intakes to the compressor drive motor are not obstructed, permitting free air-flow with no recirculation. This is particularly important if the motor is: of the closed circuit, air-cooled type. Never attempt to run the compressor drive motor with an electrical supply voltage, frequency or phase rotation other than as designated on the motor electrical data plate. ( If, for any reason, the compressor cannot be installed immediately and must be placed in prolonged storage; refer to Prolonged Storage on page 48. aa 2-49 Page 4 01 64 Issue 6: 11/96 Safety In common with most other forms of mechanical and electrical equipment, there are a number of potential hazards associated with operating and servicing refrigeration plant. In writing this instruction manual every emphasis has been given to safe methods of working. ‘These safety instructions following are intended to draw attention to the potential hazards that could be encountered during installing, operating and maintaining the compressor and associated plant. At the same time, it should be emphasised that these notes are not ‘exhaustive, and are principally intended to draw attention to the most important points; where necessary, reference is made to other parts of the manual. Please note that the installer is responsible for the correct installation of equipment, and on ‘completion, the owner and/or user are responsible for safe operation and maintenance. Personnel Permitted to Install, Commission and Maintain the Plant tis essential that only authorised and competent personne! are allowed to install, commission and maintain the plant. A permit to work system should be introduced before commissioning begins, and should be rigorously enforced thereafter. Any person rendering assistance or under training must be supervised by the authorised competent person who is responsible for safety. Personnel must be familiar with the plant's construction, operation and the hazards involved. All personnel should make a thorough study of these instructions before undertaking installation, commissioning, maintenance or repair procedures. ‘Safety Warnings and Symbols The system of safety warnings and symbols is based on BS 5378 : Part 2 : 1082 Safety Signs and BS4884 : Technical Manuals : Part 1 : 1992 Specification for Presentation of Essential Information. 4.WARNING This denotes an immediate hazard with a high likelihood of severe Personal injury or death if instructions, including recommended Precautions, are not followed. There is also a potential risk of damage fo the product, process or its surroundings. CAUTION This draws attention to instructions which must be compiled with to avoid damage to the product, process or Its surroundings. NOTE: draws attention to Important additional Information. Mechanical Refrigeration compressors manufactured and/or supplied by J & E Hail Limited must be operated within their design parameters, and should never be used as vacuum pumps or for compressing air. Personnel must not start the plant until they have taken steps to verity the followin, Guards on couplings, belt drives and fans are in place, and other personnel are not in positions that might be hazardous when the plant is in operation. The compressor discharge stop valve is fully open. a Issue 6: 11/96 2-49 Page 5 of 64 Parts of the plant, specitically the compressor, drive motor and discharge line, are liable to be at temperatures high enough to cause a burn. A ‘cold’ burn can also result from accidentally touching any part of the plant containing oil at low temperature or subcooled liquid refrigerant. Personnel stopping a plant must be aware of the potential hazard it pipeline stop valves are ‘closed in such a manner as to trap cold liquid refrigerant between valves. If this should accidentally occur, rising ambient temperature will cause the liquid to expand and eventually tracture the pipe or valves, etc. ‘Strength and Leak Testing ‘The method of strength and leak testing the plant is described in Part D : Strength and Leak Testing in Section 1 of the plant instruction manual. The Important safety instructions which are incorporated in these procedures must be adhered to. Examination of Pressure Systems Within the United Kingdom, statutory regulations require the user to prepare a ‘written scheme of ‘examination’ to cover all parts of the plant subject to pressure. It is a requirement that this, scheme be introduced before the plant is put into operation for the first time. If the plant is modified, the written scheme of examination must be reviewed and updated to incorporate these modifications. Noise Hazard The majority of noise emanating trom refrigeration plant is produced by the compressors, pumps and fang and the motors which drive them. While short term exposure to the typical average noise level which might be encountered is unlixaly to be detrimental to health, ear defenders ‘should be worn by those personnel who have to work near major sources of noise. The type of ear defenders worn must not compromise the wearing of other essential safety clothing, for example, goggles or a respirator. Electrical Electrical wiring must be sized and installed to such a standard as to meet the requirements of the national or lacal codes pertaining to the area in which the installation is taking place. ‘The electrical power used in this equipment is at a voltage high enough to endanger life. Before undertaking maintenance or repair procedures on electrical equipment, personne! must isolate ‘equipment from the electrical supply and test to verify that isolation is complete. Whenever possible, precautions must be taken to prevent circuits being inadvertently energised, i withdraw the mains fuses, or, if this is not practicable, disconnect the equioment from the supply before work commences. it the supply cannot be disconnected or must remain connected to permit functional testing, fault diagnosis and repair should only be undertaken by persons who are aware of the hazard and who have taken adequate precautions to avoid direct contact with dangerous voltages. Itelectrical equipment overheats or suffers an electrical fault, it should be disconnected from the supply and allowed to cool. Overheating may damage the insulation system, cables, mouldings, gaskets and seals. The materials used in these components may contain complex organic ‘compounds which, when degraded by heat or electrical action, produce a large number of ‘chemical compounds in gaseous, liquid or solid forms. Many of the gaseous and liquid product compounds are highly flammabile and toxic. INitis necessary to extinguish a fire in electrical equipment, follow the advice given in the Fire Precautions Act 1971, ‘Guide to Fire Precautions in Existing Places of Work that require a Fire Certificate’ available from HMSO. Do not approach the equipment until the fire has been ‘extinguished and the equipment is cool. 2-49 Page 6 of 64 Issue 6: 11/96 Lubricating Oils Refrigeration oils are unlikely to present any significant health and safety hazard provided they are used properly, and good standards of industrial and personal hygiene are maintained. The foliowing general precautions are recommended: Avoid unnecessary handling of oily components. Use of a barrier cream is recommended. Olls are potentially flammable and should be stored and handled with this in mind, Rags or disposable wipes’ used for cleaning purposes should be kept well away from naked flames and disposed of properly. il contained in the compressor lubrication system, oil separator, oil filter etc,. will remain hot enough to cause bums for some time after the system has been shut down. Itit is necessary to open the system soon atter the compressor has stopped, to change the oil filter for example, always allow long enough for the oil to cool down so that the oil which is likely to escape is coo! enough not io be a danger (less than 35°C is recommended). Refrigerants — General Refrigeration systems contain liquid and vapour under pressure; personne! should be aware of this fact at all times. Suitable precautions must be taken to guard against the pressure hazard when opening any part of the system. ‘Opening up part of the primary refrigeration circuit will necessitate the loss of a certain amount of refrigerant to atmosphere. It is essential to restrict the amount which escapes to a minimum by Pumping over charge and isolating in another part of the system. Where lubricating oi! may be present, when changing the oll filter element for example, caution ‘must be exercised as the oil will contain a certain amount of refrigerant which will be released when subjected to atmospheric conditions. Refrigerant and lubricating oll, especially liquid refrigerant at low temperature, can cause freezing injuries similar to a burn it allowed to come into contact with the eyes or skin. Suitable protective clothing, gloves, goggles etc. must be worn when opening pipes or vessels which may contain quid. Refrigerant which is not required for immediate use must be stored in approved containers, and the quantity held in the plant room limited. Cylinders and drums of refrigerant must be treated with care. Halocarbon and Hydrotluorocarbon Refrigerants, ‘Although not considered toxic, being heavier than air, halocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant vapour can endanger lite by displacing air from cellars, ships engine rooms, etc. If refrigerant should be accidentally released, fan assisted ventilation must be used to remove the vapour. Exposure levels in the workplace should be kept to a practicable minimum and certainly within the recognised threshold limit value of 1.000 parts per miion (gpm) based on an & hour day, 40 hour week. While halocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants are not flammable, naked flames, .9. ‘smoking, must be prohibited in the presence of vapour as temperatures above approximately 300°C will cause it fo decompose and form phosgene, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and ‘other toxic compounds. If ingested, these compounds can have very dangerous physiological effects. ‘Naked flame and smoking must be prohibited in the presence of the vapour of R32 and zeotropic blends of refrigerant containing A32. All refrigerant must be purged from pipes or vessels belore Issue 6 : 11/96 2-49 Page 7 of 64 cartying out cutting or welding operations. The test lamp method of detecting leaks of halocarbon refrigerants, such as R22, must not be used with R32 or its derivatives. Ammonia Ammonia, refrigerant R717, is a colourless gas with a very powerful characteristic smell which is ‘50 pungent that itis unpleasant at concentrations too low to be considered dangerous. ‘Ammonia has inherent material and physiological hazards. A limited range of ammonievair mixtures (16 % to 27 % ammonia by volume) can be ignited by a naked flame and an explosion may result. While ammonia is not a cumulative poison, exposure will cause chemical burns and can destroy body tissue. Because of ammonia’s high affinity to water, moist areas. breathing passages and the eyes, are areas particularly susceptible to damage. of the skin, Maintenance procedures must not be carried out unless adequate fan assisted ventilation has been provided to avoid any risk of explosion or physiological harm. Naked flame must not be permitted in the area. Personnel carrying out maintenance procedures must have a respirator of the correct type ready to wear at all times. Exits and gangways from areas where ammonia is used or stored must be kept clear and free from obstructions to permit rapid evacuation in the event of a serious escape of ammonia. Locations from which evacuation can only be carried out with difficulty must be designated ‘gas ‘mask areas’. All persons entering such areas must be thoroughly trained in the use of respirators and carry one at the ready. When purging ammonia or draining oil from the plant, itis essential to use a purge precaution against ammonia escaping into the plant room. apparatus as 2-49 Page 8 of 64. Issue 6: 11/96 Contents Preface . : : Misuses that Invaidate Guarantee Safely ... Contents List of Figures : : General Desoription ......... il Management System Control, Measurement and Safety Devices Capacity Conttol ... ese eeees Economiser Facility... Sound Pressure Levels ...... Protonged Storage : . 48 ‘Commissioning and Operation 50 ‘Opening Up the Compressor . 54 Maintenance . . 56 Approved Oils... et Specimen Log Sheet . 62 Pressure Conversion Table 63 Temperature Conversion Table... 64 List of Figures Fig 1 Specification and Operating Limits .... Fig 2 Compression Process ..... Fig HS 2022 HaliScrew Compressor ..... Fig 4 HS 2031 HaliScrew Compressor ...... Fig5 HS 2235 HallScrew Compressor ....... Fig6 Oil Injection and Circulation Fig7 Oil Flow Rates, Continuously Running O1 Pump Fig8 Minimum Specification of Mineral Oils and Polyolester Lubricants we Fig9 Oil Flow ~ Standard Applications, HS 18/20 & HS 2018/2020 Compressors . 25 Fig 10 Oil Flow ~ Standard Applications, HS 22/235 & HS 2022/2235 Compressors. 26 Fig 11. Oil Flow ~ Booster and Other Low Pressure Difference Applications, HS 18/235 & HS 2018/2235 Compressors ceeeees ar Fig 12 Capacity Control Slide Valve in Operation . - 30 Fig 13. Tandem Compressor Capacity Contro! Side Valves .... 92 Fig 14 Capacity Control Mechanism, HS 18/235 Compressors . 33 Fig 18 Capacity Control Mechanism, HS 2018/2235 Compressors, eho oh Fig 16 LVDT External Connections ....... seeeeenee 85 Fig 17, LVDT Extemal Connections to Fridgewatch 2000 or 2100 Controller... 96 Fig 18 Arrangement to Manually Load and Unload the Compressor ...... 38 Fig 19 Capacity Control Operation Using 4 Solenoid Valves ....... 42 Fig 20 Capacity Control Operation Using 4-Way Solenoid Valve . 44 Fig21 Economiser Arrangement... 46 Fig 22 Sound Pressure Levels - 2980 rpm . see 7 Fig 23. Maintenance Check List... eee + 60 Issue 6 : 11/96 2-49 Page 9 of 64 Compressor Type _‘Singlo screw, onan dive. ‘Compressor Rotation Antclockwise looking onthe moto even) end. Under no circumstances shoul the ‘compressor run in the reverse recon. Monod of Dive _Direct-couple to prime mover Speed Range 148201812031: 1400 rpm to 3600 rpm; H2095/2285: 1000 rpm to 3600 rom. ‘capacity and Power Refer to HS 2000 compressa saleton publication. Capacity Control Comoressor capacity infrely varil rom 100 % to approximately 10% of ul ond Mode! enttonton PES erat 4862018 2482024 354 2005 HS‘r a2 32 euin ome Gomprossor 29 % 2020 28 & 2028 231 & 2291 model Example: 35 rato (Vr) Be acoee a1ecoa1 2582205 ,famie oe Pressure Limits ~ "Structural tost pressures HS, Hs zoraeoss | 2021/2235 ‘Compressor casing - strength <434 berg | 945.barg or easing —laak ne a Beoberg | 230baa Sassembled compressor ~ strength 2. 317 bag | 26.9 barg ‘Assembled compreseor leak .. : Liligaobarg | 280barg Preseure Limits ~*Operationel pressure limits Maximum compressor working pressure... coves 280barg | 230barg ‘Maximum compressor operating euston prossure: Vn22. 26 and. .. 60 bar g vad we. 40 bar g Maximum compressor operating pressure sifforentil (hecharge/suction) 20.0 bat Minimum suction pressure... + tere #820 NOLO sTemporature Limits - Compressor with external all cooling (extemal oll pipe modificatton required) “enon ween pgeme eigen wren at gsc a a Ce rth gt ieee icine ec sTempersture Limite — ‘Compressor with liqud injection ot cooling (standard) *Gontrolled discharge tomperature cesesess sees T6AC (0F 25°C suporheat) Discharge high tamperature cut-out $0050 maximum Injected oll high temperature cut-out 80°C Swopt Volumes Modo tswept Weight kg | Modal ‘swept "Waight ka | Woighte. velmitr —_(@pprox) vol mh (approx) 1982018 tt 240 sizes! = 1728 780 2082020 © 430 280 9582005 2486 1160 2282022 © 660 310 2are2za1 9456 4700 248 2024 853 400 235 422854972 2180 2ea 2028 ©1279 30, “These aro the test pressures appliad to HS 2000 compressors during manufacture, These limits must not be ‘proveded duting installation, commissioning or operaton of the plant, a aeseetied compressors must net be subjectad to prossures highor than those indicated. This may reatire Tsolaton ol ihe compressor during syetom strength pressure tstng. 2a aton ator pressure limits may be fess than those applicable to tho compressor. rReeRS tho appropriate operational envelope inthe H8 2000 compressor Selecton publication Fee ae aeeccam must be filed tal compressors. Partload operation wil aways require cocting even If load operation dees not. coae eecranty slvr nan R22, R134a, Rddda, RAO7 or R717 oro used, consut 4 & E Hall Limited ‘Hrotrgeran eirjccherge torporatuo is above 75°C an ol cooker is faquied, capable of supplying cto the penvage witha maximum temperature ot 75°C. Consult J & E Hall Limited. swept volumes are rated at 2980 rpm. ‘Tho weights shown are for ‘bare’ compressors, 0, coupling not fited. Fig 1 Specification and Operating Limits 2-49 Page 10 of 64 Issue 6 : 11/96 aN General Description ‘The HallScrew family are positive displacement, oil injected, single screw compressors designed on the Zimmern pattern. ‘These compressors have been specially developed for refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump applications, and can be applied to single stage and multi-stage systems using all normal refrigerants as well as many other process gases. ‘An economiser facility is provided to give improved efficiency, especially at high compression ratios. Introduction of the HallScrew 2000 compressor ‘The new HallScrew 2000 single screw compressors incorporate a number of design changes, resulting in improved performance, reliability and user-convenience. This instruction manual covers the HallScrew 2000 compressor and its predecessor, unless ‘specifically stated otherwise. Construction The motion work, i.e. that part of the machine which performs the compression function, consists of three rotating parts; there are no eccentric or reciprocating motions. These fundamental ‘components comprise the cylindrical main rotor in which are formed six-start, helically grooved ‘screw threads with @ spherical (hourglass) root form. The main rotor meshes with two identical toothed wheels each having eleven teeth. These wheels (or ‘star rotors’ as they are called owing {o their shape), are made from a special synthetic material. They are located in a single plane diametrically opposite each other on either side of the main rotor with their axes at right-angles, to the main rotor axis. As the main rotor tums, i imparts a freely rotating motion to the star rotors. The star rotors are supported by metal backings which are cast in one-piece with the star rotor shafts. Although they are located in place on their backings, the stars are allowed to ‘float’ a ‘small amount in a rotational sense. This floating action, combined with the low inertia and low power transmission between the main rotor and star rotors, effectively absorbs any minute vibrations of the star/main rotor combination. The star rotor shafts are supported at each end by taper roller bearings. ‘The main rotor is a dynamically balanced component, manufactured from cast-iron, keyed to the steel mainshaft which runs in rolling element main bearings. Where the shaft emerges from the casing, leakage of oil or refrigerant is effectively prevented by a specially designed mechanical seal ‘The main rotor and star rotors are housed inside a one-piece, cast-iron main casing. The inside of the casing has a somewhat complex shape, but essentially consists of a cylindrical annulus ‘which encloses the main rotor leaving a small clearance. Part of the annulus is cutaway at the suction end to allow the star teeth to mesh with the main rotor flutes. ‘The discharge ports (one for each star), are positioned at the other end of the annulus. These ports convey the compressed gas into the discharge manifold, formed by a web cast between the annulus and the walls of the casing; this web separates the casing into two pressure zones. Except for the discharge manifold, suction pressure prevails elsewhere in the main casing. Side covers are provided to allow easy access to the star rotors, rotor shafts and bearings, without disturbing working tolerances. The discharge end cover can also be removed to inspect the capacity control mechanism. The compressor is provided with the choice of either top or bottom discharge; the unused connection is sealed off with a blank cover. To page 12 —> Issue 6 : 11/98 2-49 Page 11 of 64 "W’ SUCTION Fig 2 Compression Process ‘The Compression Process, Fig 2 ‘As the HallScrew is a positive displacement compressor, there are three separate stages in the compression cycle. These can be distinguished as follows: ‘Suction, and Main rotor flutes ‘a’, 'b’ and 'c’ are in communication at one end with suction chamber via the bevelled rotor end face, and are sealed at the other end by the teeth of one of the star rotors. AS the main rotor turns, the effective length of the flutes increases with a corresponding increase in the volume open to the suction chamber: ‘A’ fig 2 clearly shows this process. As flute ‘a’ ‘assumes the position of flutes ’b’ and’c’ its volume increases, inducing suction vapour to enter the flute. ; Upon further rotation of the man rotor (‘B'fig 2), the flutes which have been open to the suction chamber engage with the teeth of the other star rotor. This coincides with each flute being progressively sealed by the cylindrical annulus housing the main rotor (the outline of the annulus Is shown as dotted lines). Once the flute volume is closed off trom the suction chamber, the suction stage of the compression cycle is complete. 2-49 Page 12 of 64 : Issue 6 : 11/96 °D’ DISCHARGE Fig 2 Compression Process (continued) Compression, ’C’ As the main rotor turns, the volume of gas trapped within the flute is reduced as the length of the flute shortens and compression occurs. Discharge, 'D’ AAs the star rotor tooth approaches the end of a flute, the pressure of the trapped vapour reaches a maximum value occurring when the leading edge of the flute begins to overlap the triangular shaped discharge port. Compression immediately ceases as the gas is delivered into the discharge manifold. The star rotor tooth continues to scavenge the flute until the flute volume is Teduced to zero. This compression process is repeated for each flute/star tooth in turn. While the compression process described above is occurring in the upper halt of the compressor, ‘there is an identical process taking place simultaneously in the lower haif using the other star, thus each main rotor flute is used twice per rotor revolution (one by one tooth in each star). The ‘compression process may be likened to an assembly of six double-acting cylinders (the main ‘olor flutes) in which the star rotor teeth move as pistons (always in the same direction). Issue 6 : 11/96 2-49 Page 13 of 64 <— From page ® itis necessary to fit a suction strainer immediately before the compressor suction inlet. The strainer is designed to trap any dirt circulating with the refrigerant which might otherwise enter ‘and damage the compressor. ‘To prevent reverse rotation of the compressor at shutdown itis necessary to fit a non-return valve adjacent to the compressor in the suction and/or discharge lines; see System Provisions on page 3. “There are two tandem compressors in the HallScrew range. These machines essentially ‘comprise two ‘single’ compressors mounted in line to give twice the pumping capacity. The main totors, each with its pair of stars, are mounted on a common mainshaft within a single, ‘one-piece main casing. The main rotors are offset about the mainshaft axis so that the pressure pulsation and torque fluctuation rate is doubled and the amplitude is halved. This offset produces a smooth torque characteristic and reduced noise. In the construction of the HallScrew the helical flutes in the main rotor can be likened to the cylinders of a reciprocating compressor, the star rotor teeth taking the place of conventional pistons. Instead of using suction and discharge valves, gas flow In and out of the flutes (the ‘eylinders) is controlled by fixed ports. Gas enters the compressor through the suction connection and fills the available flutes, Rotation ‘of the main rotor traps the gas in chambers formed by the flute walls, he cylindrical annular ring housing the main rotor, and the star teeth. The small clearances around the star teeth are ‘sealed with oil which is injected into the compressor during operation. As the main rotor turns, the star teeth act as stationary pistons in the moving flutes (the cylinders), and the gas is compressed until a discharge port is uncovered. Each flute is used twice per rotor revolution, i. ‘once by one tooth on each star. ‘The compression process is illustrated and described in detail in fig 2. ‘As the compression process is symmetrical, occurring at the same instant in each half of the ‘compressor, this results in zero transverse gas pressure loads on the main rotor bearings. The axial loads are also minimal because the flutes terminate on the outer surtace of the main rotor. ‘The only bearing loads, apart from the weight of parts, are bending loads on the star rotor shaft ‘bearings due to high pressure gas acting on one side of each tooth in mesh. There is also a small axial thrust load on the main rotor bearings resulting from the mainshaft projecting through the casing, combined with the rotor vent pressure. Capacity control is effected by slide valves, one for each half of the compressor. These valves are used to vent part of the gas trapped in the flutes back to suction, thus effectively shortening the compression tength of the main rotor, Using this method, compressor capacity is infinitely variable between 100 % and 10 % of full load, or 100 % and 25 % of full load for HS 2018 and HS 2020 compressors. ‘The movement of the slide valves is effected by oil pressure acting on a piston which is ‘connected to the valves by a yoke. Oil is taken from the lubrication system and fed through solenoid valves which respond to signals from the plant control system. The solenoid valves direct oil o each end of the compressor capacity control cylinder via two connections positioned at the rear of the main casing, moving the capacity control piston in the appropriate direction to load or unload the compressor. Oilfrom the other end of the capacity control cylinder is vented to the evaporator side of the suction non-return valve. Tandem compressors are provided with an identical capacity control system, with a pair of capacity slide valves for each set of main rotoristar rotors. Each pair of slides operates ‘simultaneously to load or unload the compressor. ‘All compressor components to which reference is made in the foregoing general description are ilustrated and described in the following pages. 2-49 Page 14 of 64 Issue 6 11/96 Oil Management System In common with other types of oll injected screw compressor, the HallScraw does not possess a in oil reservoir (sump), oil circulation pump or oil filtration equipment. Instead, lubrication is effected by a separate external system with oll supplied to the compressor at strategic points. Besides lubricating the bearings and other moving parts, the oil has the equally important task of ‘sealing the clearances between the rotors and other potential leakage paths thereby improving Pumping efficiency; the oil is also required to dissipate the heat of compression. The amount of «il injected is therefore well in excess of that required for lubrication alone. Oilwhich collects inside the casing during shutdown must be drained to discharge before the ‘compressor restarts. An oil drain facility, including a non-retum vaive, forms an integral part of HallScrew 2000 compressors other than the HS 2231/2235 tandems. Oil is automatically rained into the discharge line immediately inside the lower discharge flange. Wa discharge non-return vaive is fitted between the compressor and oll separator or when the ischarge line rises above the compressor, the internal drain ceases to function. In such applications, and for all booster and other low pressure difference applications where tull flow oil pump is used, provision must be made for an external drain line, fitted with an oil drain sensor to prevent the compressor starting unless the drain line is clear; see fig 11. Itis essential to supply the compressor with oil in the correct quantity and at the correct temperature. If he compressor is to be installad in a system which is not designed and supplied by J & E Hall Limited, then itis essential to fully comply with the instructions given in this manual. Failure to do so could result in deterioration of the compressor, both mechanically and functionally Oil ow is shown diagrammatically in fig 6. Oil enters the compressor through connections ‘1’, ‘6° and ‘9, connection ‘1’ is split externally on HS 18/28, HS 2018/2028 and HS 231/235, HS 2231/2235 compressors. Oil injection for Sealing and Cooling In the design of the compressor the star rotor teeth must form an effective seal with the flute Profiles in the main rotor, while at the same time maintaining a satistactory operating clearance. The main rotor tlute/star tooth profile enables hydrodynamic and hydrostatic actions to combine to provide a wedge of oll at this point. Between the main rotor and the casing, and in several other positions where a pressure differential is separated by two surfaces moving relative to each other, the oil injected provides a seating film enabling effective compression to take place. In addition to lubricating and sealing, a large proportion of the heat of compression is absorbed by the oil thus reducing the maximum discharge temperature; the oll also has a silencing effect. The oil for sealing and cooling is supplied to the capacity control side valves via oll tubes. The valves are free to move back and forth along the axis of the tubes, escape of oil being prevented by a specially designed bearing located on their inner circumference. Three drilings on the inner face of each slide inject oil into the main rotor flutes. Positioning the oil injection ports in the capacity control slide valves ensures that, at all slide valve positions, oil enters the main rotor flutes after the flute volume has been sealed, i.e. oil injection atways occurs during the compression process over the whole capacity control range, thus ensuring maximum pumping efficiency. Because oil is injected over a period in the ‘compression process when the pressure of the gas trapped in the flutes is considerably lower than discharge pressure, this means that in the majority of instances the system pressure difference can be used to provide the required cil flow without the need for an oil pump running continuously while the plant is in operation (see Oil circulation). Oil pressure is also used to actuate the capacity control mechanism, see Capacity Control. Oil ‘low paths to the capacity control cylinder are controlled either by 4 solenoid valves (see fig 19), or by a 4-way solenoid valve (see fig 20). Isgue 6 : 11/96 2-49 Page 19 of 64