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AIR COMPRESSOR INSTALLA TION GUIDE

Edition 1 - June 1996



Note: This publication serves as a general guide for proper compressor installations. More detailed information or guidelines should be obtained from the respective manufacturer.

AIR COMPRESSOR INSTALLATION GUIDE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 4

2.0 INSTALLATION CHECK LISTS 5

2.1 Compressor room 5

2.2 Cooling water system 7

2.3 Ventilation air 8

2.4 Compressor air intake 9

2.5 Electrical system check list 10

3.0 BASIC DATA 11

3.1 Site conditions 11

3.1.1 Ambient temperature 11

3.1.2 Atmospheric pressure 12

3.1.3 Relative humidity 13

3.1.4 Airborne dust load 14

3.1.5 Cooling water quality '" 15

3.1.5.1 General rules 15

3.1.5.2 Specific rules 16

3.1.5.2.1 For a once through system 16

3.1.5.2.2 For an open recirculating system 16

3.2 Compressed air quality 17

3.2.1 Condensation and water separation 18

3.2.2 Air quality classes 19

3.3 Air dryers 20

3.3.1 Sizing of dryers 21

3.4 Compressed air capacity 21

3.4.1 Airflow conversion formula 22

3.4.2 Calculation example 23

3.4.3 Air leakage - power loss 23

3.5 Air pressure 24

3.6 Regulating system 24

3.7 Cagi / Pneurop test code 25

4.0 INSTALLATION HINTS 26

4.1 General considerations 26

4.1.1 Centralized or decentralized compressor stations 26

4.1.2 Choice between one large

or several small compressors 27

4.2 Elektronikon control systems 28

4.2.1 Sequence control 28

4.2.2 Central governor 28

AIR COMPRESSOR INSTALLATION GUIDE

4.2.3 Remote monitoring 29

4.3 Compressor room 29

4.3.1 Compressor room layout 29

4.3.2 Water pipework accessories 31

4.3.3 Condensate drains 32

4.4 Sizing of water pumps 32

4.5 Sizing of water pipes 33

4.6 Lifting facilities 35

4.7 Compressor room ventilation 35

4.7.1 Calculation of the required ventilation air flow 36

4.7.2 Sizing of ducting 37

4.8 Cooling water systems 41

4.8.1 Open cooling systems 41

4.8.1.1 Once through cooling system 41

4.8.1.2 Evaporative cooling tower 42

4.8.2 Fully sealed recirculating systems 43

4.8.2.1 Air-water heat exchanger 43

4.8.2.2 Water-water heat exchanger 44

4.8.2.3 Closed cooling tower 45

4.9 Cooling tower sizing 45

5.0 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM AND INSTALLATION 46

5.1 Insulation classes 46

5.2 Starting systems 48

5.2.1 D.O.L. - starting 48

5.2.2 The star-delta starter 49

5.2.3 The auto transformer starter 50

5.3 Motor protection 51

5.3.1 Time lag fuses 51

5.3.2 Thermal relays 51

5.3.3 Magnetic relays 51

5.3.4 Thermistors 52

5.4 Electrical cable sections 52

6.0 AIR RECEIVER 54

7.0 SIZING OF AIR PIPING 55

7.1 Airnet layout , 58

8.0 CONVERSION TABLES 64 - 81

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This compressor guide has been made to provide those who work daily with air compressors an easy tool to help them decide as well as providing them with useful information on compressor installations. Where appropriate reference is made to existing information.

This booklet will contribute towards:

Increased knowledge for Sales, Service and Technical people involved in installations.

Improved reliability and efficiency of equipment.

Better control on air leakages and pressure drops in the air net.

Aspects of minimizing the life cycle cost.

2.0 INSTALLATION CHECK LISTS

Read each question carefully and mark (x) in the correct boxes.

2.1 Compressor room YES NO
a. Is the entrance to your compressor room high enough
and wide enough to get your compressor(s) IN and D D
OUT?
b. Is the room large enough to give you adequate free
space around your compressor(s) for installation, D D
ventilation, inspection, maintenance and service?
c. Do you have sufficient space above and around your
compressor(s) for you to remove the electric motor D D
and place it on the floor?
d. Have you enough space in your compressor room to D D
allow you to install a second compressor in the future?
e. Does your compressor room have overhead lifting to D D
facilitate major overhauls?
f. If no overhead hoist is available, are you able to use
a mobile crane, or fork lift truck in your compressor
room to lift and move heavy parts like motor, D D
compressor elements and coolers?
g. Is the floor area where you will place your D D
compressor(s) made of smoothed level concrete?
Not more than 6 mm CI4 in.) unevenness is allowed. YES NO
h. Will your floor be splashed frequently with water D D
while cleaning?
If YES, you should place your compressor on a
raised concrete plinth 100-50 mm (4-6 in.) high.
i. Will your floor support the static load imposed on it D D
by your compressor?
j. Do you have the necessary foundation-bolts for D D
anchoring your compressor(s)?
Foundation-bolts are only needed for piston
compressors on special foundations; they are NOT
needed for PACK compressors.
k. Do you have Atlas Copco drawings showing
compressor dimensions, maintenance space, D D
installation proposals and foundation needs? See Section 4.3

2.2 Cooling water system

YES NO

Is the WATER you use to cool your compressor acceptable?

a.

Is your cooling water free from sand and other solid particles?

00

b. Have you checked with the quality of your cooling
water and compared with the manufacturing 0 0
recommendations?
Is the pressure in your cooling water system
c. between 3-5.5 bar (44-80 psig)? ~ 0
d. Is the water inlet temperature less than 35°C (95F)? LJ 0
e. Is the water outlet temperature less than 50°C (122F)? 0 0
Temperatures above 50°C (122F) increase the risk of
scale forming in cooling jackets and coolers.
f. If you are using a cooling tower to cool the water, does
the tower have a chemical dosage system to prevent 0 0
scale and algae growth?
Bacteria checks are becoming standard procedures
in many countries.
g. Do you have the right flow of cooling water? 0 0
h. Are water pipes correctly sized? 0 0
i. Did you provide the cooling water system with
accessories (manometer, temperature in heater, 0 0
valves, others)?
See Section 3.1.5, 4.4 and 4.5 2.3 Ventilation air

YES NO

Do you have sufficient VENTILATION in your compressor room?

a. Are you aware that nearly all the electric energy to your compressor motor is converted into heat? And are you aware that this heat MUST be removed from the compressor room by either ventilation air or cooling water?

Never operate air compressors in sealed or air-tight room.

00

00

b. Do you have sufficient fan capacity to limit compressor 0 0
room temperature increase to 5°C?
c. Have you planned for adequate ventilation air for your 0 0
air cooled dryer?
If you multiply your compressor shaft input in kW by
0.012, you'll get the dryer's ventilation air need in
m/sec.
d. If you use a ventilation duct with your air-cooled
compressor, have you checked that there is little or 0 0
no duct pressure drop?
It must, in all circumstances be less than 30 Pa
(3 mm water column).
e. Do you take in your ventilation air from the coldest 0 0
and cleanliest location outside your compressor room?
f. If your compressor operates in dusty surroundings
have you fitted a ventilation air INLET PANEL FILTER 0 0
to reduce dust, sand and other particles to a minimum?
g. If you have fitted an inlet panel filter, have you installed 0 0
a ventilation fan?
h. Does your outlet opening have a wall louver to prevent 0 0
ingress of dust?
i. Has the ventilation opening an adequate area? 0 0
Ventilation air speed should not exceed 5 m/s through
an unrestricted opening and not exceed 2.5 m/s
through louvers or panel filters.
See Section 4.2 2.4 Compressor air intake

Is the INTAKE of suction to your compressor adequate?

a. Is your air intake outside

i) at least 3 m (10ft) above ground level? ii) raised above the roof level?

b. Have you fitted your outside air intake with

i) a rain cover?

ii) a protective net or screen?

iii) a pre-filter to reduce high air pollutant levels?

While the standard paper filter in the compressor is adequate, you will be able to reduce the number of paper filter replacements, if you fit a pre-filter.

c. Does your air intake pipe duct

i) have a circular cross-section?

ii) have at least the same diameter as the suction pipe connection to the standard suction filter?

iii) have more than two bends in it?

If YES to iii), then you must increase pipe duct diameter by 50% to avoid flow restrictions caused by more than two bends.

d. Is your air intake pipe duct i) properly supported?

ii) anti-corrosion treated on the inside?

iii) more than 10m (30 ft) in length?

If YES to iii), then you must increase pipe duct diameter by 50% to avoid flow restrictions caused by the pipe length.

See Section 4.7

YES NO

DD DD

DD DD DD

DD

DD DD

DD DD DD

2.5 Electrical system check list

YES NO

Do you have the correct ELECTRICAL SYSTEM for your compressor(s)?

a. Is the voltage and frequency of your electricity
supply at your connection point the same as that D D
required by the motor fitted in your compressor?
b. Does your electricity supply have enough capacity D D
for your compressor motor during starting?
Direct-on-line (DOL) starters need SIX TIMES the
rated motor current while starting. Star-delta (Y/D)
starters need TWICE the rated motor current at start.
c. Have you provided an isolator switch in the electricity D D
supply line to your compressor?
This gives you possibilities to do maintenance on
electrical equipment without stopping more than
one compressor.
d. Are the fuses/circuit heaters correctly sized? D D
e. Does your electricity supply have sufficient capacity
to allow you to install a second compressor at a later D D
date?
f. Are your electric power cables to be carried on cable D D
ladders?
Floor conduits for power cables make inspection/
access difficult; they are generally more expensive
and less flexible.
g. Are cable sections sufficiently sized? D D See Section 5.3 and 5.4

3.0 BASIC DATA

3.1 Site conditions

3.1.1 Ambient temperature

The manufacturer is stating the maximum inlet conditions. If in doubt, please check with your local Atlas Copco Company or their agent. Stationary compressors are in most cases designed for a maximum inlet temperature of 40°C.

For portable compressors in general, a maximum of 50°C is stated. These inlet air temperatures may in any case not be exceeded.

Please note that there can be a difference between the inlet temperature of the compressor and the ambient temperature as specified in geographical and climatological data of the plant site. These data only indicate outside temperatures measured in shady places. The inlet temperature of a compressor can exceed this ambient temperature considerably if the compressor is installed in a badly ventilated room. Also other installed machinery, like boilers or engines can increase the room temperature considerably. In case the compressor is installed outdoors some precautions should be taken. Direct sun rays can considerably increase the body temperature of the compressor and temperatures more than 60°C are sometimes measured on canopy parts and inside electrical cubicles. In any case rain and sun protection should be provided for outdoor installations. Special attention should be made to avoid any recirculation of cooling air which can be caused by improper sealing of canopy parts or cooling air deflections caused by wind or obstruction due to walls too close to the outlet gratings of the compressor. The dominant wind direction in the area should be taken into account when a compressor room layout has to be made.

For compressors installed indoors, a normal warming-up of approximately 5°C has to be considered when evaluating the actual maximum inlet temperature of the unit. Those five degrees should then be added to the climatological maximum condition in order to determine the maximum inlet temperature of the compressor. Please note that a warming-up in a compressor room can only be limited by adequate ventilation of the room.

Notes

a. Influence of ambient temperature on the power requirement of the compressor: For each 10°C higher ambient temperature the power consumption of the compressor decreases with 1 %.

b. Influence of cooling temperature on permitted output in percentage of rated output for electric motors.

Cooling temp. (0C) 40 45 50 55 60 70
Permitted output vs
rated output (%) 100 96.5 93 90 86.5 79 3.1.2 Atmospheric pressure

The ambient pressure and temperature decreases with altitude. A decreasing atmospheric pressure will affect the pressure ratio of compressors and therefore has an influence on power and capacity. For each 1000 m higher altitude the approximate power consumption decreases;

4% for Single Stage Oil Injected Compressors

6% for Double Stage Oil Injected Compressors

7% for Double Stage Oil Free Compressors

Changes in ambient conditions will also affect the available power from diesel engines and electric motors.

For diesel driven units the derating of engine power is more important than the reduction of power absorbed by the compressor, and therefore the altitude operation of standard units is limited to 1000 m. For electric driven units the derating of the electric motor is less than the reduction of power input for the compressor and altitude operation is only limited by the outlet temperatures of the element(s).

Influence of the altitude operation on permitted output of the electric motor:

Altitude above
sea level 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000
Permitted output
vs rated output
(%) 100 94.5 94.5 92 89 86.5 83.5 3.1.3 Relative humidity

The relative humidity at a certain temperature will determine the amount of water vapour in the air. This data is extremely important when an evaporation cooling tower has to be selected. The size of an evaporation cooling tower is determined by 4 factors:

- wet bulb temperature

- warm water temperature

- cold water temperature

- cooling water flow (See section 4.8)

Note: Influences of atmospheric pressure and relative humidity on mass output flow:

For a quick estimation of the possible mass flow rate, the following table will give a good estimation. We stress again that it is important to keep the air as cool and as dryas possible. High air intake temperature causes a decrease in mass air flow of approximately 3% for each 10De above the reference ambient temperature.

Mass flow reduction due to high intake temperature and humidity:

RH/OC O°C 5°C 10°C 15°C 20°C 25°C 30°C 35°C 40°C
0% 1.073 1.054 1.035 1.017 1 0.983 0.967 0.951 0.936
20% 1.072 1.052 1.032 1.014 0.995 0.977 0.959 0.940 0.922
40% 1.070 1.050 1.030 1.010 0.991 0.971 0.951 0.930 0.908
60% 1.069 1.048 1.027 1.007 0.986 0.964 0.942 0.919 0.895
80% 1.068 1.047 1.025 1.003 0.981 0.958 0.934 0.908 0.881
100% 1.066 1.045 1.022 0.999 0.977 0.952 0.926 0.898 0.867 Example: Intake temperature 30DC, relative vapour pressure 0.20 (20% RH), mass output is to be reduced by a factor of 0.959 so that a compressor with a FAD = 1 I 0.959 = 1.043 is needed.

3.1.4 Airborne dust load

Standard stationary compressors are normally equipped with paper filter elements with an efficiency of SAE fine:

Particle Size 1 micron 98%

2 micron 99.5%

3 micron 99.9%

The lifetime of the intake filters will be reduced drastically when dust concentrations above 150 rnq/rn" (machine shop operation) are experienced. In some cases pre-filters are to be installed. This can be done either directly upstream the compressor intake or at the inlet to the compressor room.

Please note that we only allow a maximum under pressure of 50 ml bar across air filters.

Suction openings in compressor rooms should be foreseen preferably 3 m above ground level in order to prevent too much dust sucked in.

I

3.1.5 Cooling water quality

For water-cooled compressors, it is imperative to check the quality of the water available.

In our water-cooled compressors, we use tube in shell coolers. These coolers are to be protected against scaling, corrosion and fouling. The water quality on site will determine not only the type of water treatment to be foreseen, but in some cases will also be the base criteria for selecting the type of cooling system to be used. In all cases, it is advisable to have a water sample analyzed in order to confirm whether the available water meets our specification. This will avoid bad experiences and unnecessary maintenance cost in the future. The cooling water quality must meet certain minimum requirements.

3.1.5.1 General rules

- Calcium, bicarbonate and free carbon dioxide concentrations have to be approximately in equilibrium at the maximum occurring temperature in the cooling system (less than 90°C).

- The acidity degree pH has to be limited.

- The concentration of the different components in the water has to be limited.

- Concentration of suspended solids, iron and other metals has to be limited.

- Oxygen should be present in a concentration sufficient to maintain passivity of metals present in the circuit.

Remark: No oxygen for water containing high iron and/or manganese concentrations.

I

3.1.5.2 Specific rules

3.1.5.2.1 For a once through system (water temperature less than 90°C)

At the maximum water temperature, equilibrium should be reached or the water should be slightly scaling.

Recommended maxim:

Chlorides - CI 8ulphates - 8042-

Total solids (Residue at 105°C) Iron - Fe

Manganese - Mn

150 mg/l 250 mg/l 750 mg/l 0.2 mg/l 0.1 mg/l

Remark 1: For water with a carbonate hardness (temporary hardness) less than 1 mval/l or 50 mg/l CaCo3 it is advisable to keep the chloride concentration as low as possible.

Remark 2: For water with an oxygen content less than 3 mg/l an iron concentration can be tolerated up to 0.3 mg/l.

3.1.5.2.2 For an open recirculating system (water temperature less than 90°C)

Make-up water:

Carbonate hardness (temporary hardness) less than 1 mval/l or 50 mg/l CaCo3.

Circulating water (recommended composition):

Equilibrium conditions at the maximum temperature in the system.

RSI (Rysnar Index) 7.0 - 7.5

7.5 - 9.0

9.0 and higher

Tendency of water significant corrosion heavy corrosion corrosion intolerable

A completely closed cooling water system is recommended as this offers the optimal control on water quality, greatly reducing the need for regular cleaning.

3.2 Compressed air quality

The quality of the compressed air can be specified by different factors such as temperature, amount of dust, oil content, pressure dewpoint, etc. For these applications where the oil content in the compressed air represents a danger for malfunction (instrument air) or for spoilage of the end product (foal, pharmaceutical, jet weaving looms), the selection of an oil free compressor is a must. Typical figures for oil carry-over are 5 to 10 ppm on oil injected compressors. These references will be influenced by discharge temperature, load/no-load cycle, maintenance of the unit and contamination of the separator. Addition of filters after an oil injected compressor does improve the air quality. However as this does not guarantee oil free air at all circumstances, it is not advisable to recommend oil injected compressors for these cases where oil contamination is prohibited.

Another important criteria in quality of compressed air is the dryness of the air. Certain applications do require the use of special desiccant dryers in case low dewpoints are specified. These desiccant dryers require inlet air without any oil or water droplets as this will contaminate the desiccant material. For these applications, pre-filters should be installed upstream the dryer. Dust removal filters are to be installed after the dryer. For applications below 2°C, dewpoint is not required, the use of refrigerant dryers is still advisable as water vapour will cause corrosion in airnet piping and water condensation will eventually reduce the lifespan of tools and components.

U effective compressed air pressure (bar)

dry-bulb temperature (0C) wet-bulb temperature (0C)

30 _________ 60 - 55 - 25-- 50 -

45 - 2040=

35 - 15~ 25 -

.>

10 20 -

7

5 10-

o »>: 5-

3.2.1 Condensation and water separation

0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.50.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

....,___ relative vapour pressure

I II / r.>

~ ~ 7?- V - "
~ /- t?~ I~ -, -,
~ V; ~ /(_ ~~ -. -, <,
~ ~ :// b"/ -, I~ -, -, ~
V ~ //; V "" I~ <, ~
~ -: ~~7 1// -. -, '-I "" r-, -,
" "- J <,
~ ~ ~ // ~ .. -, -, t-, <, <,
~ / "" -, <, 0
~ ~/ r-, -. -.
~ ~ V r-, <,
~ ~/ I"- <, <,
k? x~ V/ . '''"' <, <, -, """ -,
g V ~.~ V f~/ -. -, ,,'-. -,
/ // /c/ -. -, <, <,

/.

-'" f-....">.
/ f:/ // / -, " -. .~
// '/ -, "
V/ .: / v~ V -, <, <, 40 30

20

15

10

~1

5

:~60

2~50

1.5 45

-.

-:

2 3 4 5 6 7 89 10 15 20J~

humidity at 15

20°C Ig/m') ~ 5

compressed air +

temperature (0C)

Example: Dry-bulb temperature: 20°C Wet-bulb temperature: 16°C

We read with the above graph a relative vapour pressure of 0.70, which corresponds to 12 g/m3 (at 20°C air inlet temperature)

Condensation in Intercooler

At 1.8 bar effective and 25°C we find 8.2 g/m3 Separation = 12 - 8.2 = 3.8 g/m3

Condensation in Aftercooler

At 7 bar effective and 25°C we find 2.9 g/m3 Separation = 8.2 - 2.9 = 5.3 g/m3

The separation degree was assumed to be 100%. In reality it will be approximately 85%.

3.2.2 Air quality classes

Maximum Solids Content

Class Max. particle size (pm) Max. concentration (mg/m3)
1 0.1 0.1
2 1 1
3 5 5
4 15 8
5 40 100 Maximum Water Content

Class 1

2

3

4

5

6

Max. pressure dewpoint eC) -70

-40

-20

+3 +7 +10

or - > Dewpoint is 10°C below the lowest temperature in the system

Maximum Oil Content

Class 1

2

3

4

5

Max. concentration (1) (mg/m3) 0.01

0.1

1

5 (for oil injected compressors) 25

(1) droplets, aerosols and vapour

3.3 Air dryers

The outlet air of an air compressor is always 100% saturated with water vapour. Any further reduction of temperature will cause the formation of water condensation in the outlet piping. This condensation is not only harmful for the piping system, but will also shorten the lifespan of condensed air equipment. In some applications it will also spoil the end product. In all cases it is therefore recommended to install air dryers after the compressor.

The dryness of the air is expressed in :

- relative humidity

- pressure dewpoint

- atmospheric dewpoint

In the below mentioned graph, the relation atmospheric and pressure dewpoint can be found.

80
70
60
50
e 40
c
·0 30
0.
:;:
Q)
c 20
~
::J
(/)
(/) 10
~
o,
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 30 bar
20 bar
~
10 bar ::J
(/)
(/)
7 bar ~
n,
5 bar Q)
>
TI
3 bar Q)
'1=
W
2 bar
1 bar
o bar , I I I I I, I I I I

o +10

Atmospheric Dewpoint (DC)

I I I I I

1,52 3 4 5 6 8 1,5 2 3 4 56 8

0,01 0,1

1,5 2 3 4 5 6 8

10 Water content (91m3 Wet Air)

I

3.3.1 Sizing of dryers

Dryers are to be sized based on the full load operation of all installed compressors. The required dewpoint and actual working condition will determine the size and type of dryer. For refrigerant dryers, the dryer inlet air temperature and cooling media temperature might differ from the quoted reference conditions. For these applications, a derating factor has to be used. The required size of the dryer can then be found using the formula:

Q ref Q dryer =-R

Q dryer: Capacity of the dryer

Q ref: Nominal capacity of the dryer at reference calculations

R: Derating factor

Note: For high ambient calculations, derating factors of O. 7 are not uncommon. For more information, please consult your Atlas Cop co agent/dealer.

3.4 Compressed air capacity

Air capacity requirements can be expressed in different ways. Some manufacturers are using Nm3/min, scfm or other denominations. Atlas Copco compressor air flows are always expressed in lis free air delivery, therefore conversion factors are sometimes to be used.

3.4.1 Airflow conversion formula

Conversion Formula

3 1000 x (1.013x9273+T1)

Lis = Nm /min x (1)

60 x (PA - RflxPS) x 273

287 x (273 + T1)

Lis = kg/S x (2)

(PA -- RHxPS) x 100

Lis = clm x 0.4719(3)

1.6189 x (273 + T1)

Lis = scfm x ------- (4) 1000 x (PA - RHxP S)

0.454 x 287 (273 + T1)

Lis = Ib/min x ------:-::- __ -(5) (PA - RHxPS) x 100 x 60

• PS = Saturated vapour pressure in bar at an ambient temp. T1

T1 PS
25 0.317
27 0.0356
29 0.0400
31 0.0449
33 0.0503 T1 PS
35 0.0562
37 0.0627
39 0.0699
41 0.0778 PA : Atmospheric pressure RH : Relative humidity

In case the airflow requirements are not stated by the customer, an evaluation of the installed machinery has to be made. One has to consider the nominal air consumption of each and individual tool or machinery and determine the use factor. Use factors can vary from 10 to 100% depending on the type of machinery. As an example, the following table gives an idea as to how an average air consumption in a workshop can be calculated. Please note that the total average air consumption has to be increased with another 10% coping for possible air leakages in the air distribution system and future compressed air requirements. A further expansion of 40 US was also considered.

I

3.4.2 Calculation example

Machine Tool Air Consumption Qty Maximum Use Factor Average Air
Per Unit (LIS) Consumption Consumption
(LIS)
'Workshop 1~-----
Blowguns 8 10 80 i 10 8
Impact wrenches 23 4 92 i "0 18.4
: .L
Grinders 25 6 150 130 45
Air hoist (5 Ton) 97 2 194 j~~- 19.4
Spray guns 5 2 10 5
'Assembly shop -+
Drills I
-light 6 3 18 ! .20 3.6
- medium 8 5 40 .30 12
- heavy 22 2 44 .10 4.4
Screwdrivers 8 2 16 .20 3.2
Impact wrenches
-light 6 2 12 .20 2.4
- medium 15 2 30 .20 6
- heavy 23 1 23 .10 2.3
Total 129.7 LIS
Air losses 12.97 LIS
Expansion 40 LIS
Grand Total 182.67 LIS 3.4.3 Air leakage - power loss

Hole Diameter (mm) Air Leakage at 7 bar (LIS) Power Loss (KW)
0.4 0.19 0.06
1 1.18 0.37
1.6 3.07 0.97
3 10.95 3.36
6 49.1 15
10 122 37 Note: In a normal installation air losses of up to 10% of the total air capacity can be found.

3.5 Air pressure

The pressure variants on stationary compressors are ranging from 2 bar to 13 bar. Most compressed air utilities are requiring 6 bar (e) working pressure. To achieve this pressure in the system, the compressor should operate at a higher pressure due to:

Pressure drop in piping (0.1 bar) and after filters is installed (0.7 bar each)

Pressure drop in a dryer (0.3 bar)

For such installations, a 7.5 bar machine is sufficient on condition the airnet piping is correctly sized. Installations where several air filters are connected in series, e.g. in the case of oil injected machines used together with pre-filter, after-filter, and vapour filters, the working pressure of the compressor may have to be 10 bar in order to obtain a 6 bar working pressure.

3.6 Regulating system

Standard compressors are using the load-no-Ioad regulation. With the introduction of the electronic controlled compressors, the second delay stop feature was introduced. This feature is trying to stop the unit as soon as possible during off-load running without exceeding the maximum number of programmed starts and stops. Only in special applications where a constant air pressure is required, a modulating control system can be used. Keep in mind however that the load-unload regulation is consuming less energy than the modulating control.

The Variable Speed Drive (VSD) oil injected compressor offers the possibility of speed control on the electric motor. The output of the compressor is matching the air consumption by adapting the rotation speed of the electric motor. This type of regulation system is most efficient and recommended for top load machines.

% of FL. Power

100

Load Factor

o

100

3.7 Cagi I Pneurop test code

Compressor manufacturers might use different procedures for stating specific power consumption and airflow. These different practices are not making life easy for the end user when several compressor brands are to be compared and evaluated. Atlas Copco compressors are now tested following the Cagi-Pneurop test code for packaged compressors.

Cagi Compressor air and gas institute (the American Association of Compressor Manufacturers)

Pneurop: European Committee of manufacturers of compressors, vacuum pumps and pneumatic tools

The Cagi-Pneurop has established different acceptance test codes:

PN2CPTC1 Acceptance test code for bare displacement air compressors

PN2CPTC2 Acceptance test code for electrically driven packaged displacement air compressors

PN2CPTC3 Acceptance test code for engine driven packaged displacement air compressors

The Cagi-Pneurop test norms are meant to simplify and specify a method for acceptance testing of displacement air compressor packages produced in batches with a guarantee on published data. The benefits for the user is that one consistent acceptance test code for the majority of the compressor market with one set of standard reference conditions is practised. This will facilitate interpretations of the guaranteed published data. The test code also specifies the total packaged power input and efficiency of the compressor, which is the most important information he requires.

PN2CPT2 Performance guarantee

Compressor Size Volume Flow rate Specific Energy Power Consumption
(M3/Min) Consumption at Zero flow
< 0.5 +/-7% +/- 8% +/- 20%
0.5 - > 1.5 +/- 6% +/-7% +/- 20%
1.5->15 +/- 5% +/- 6% +/- 20%
>15 +/- 4% +/- 5% +/- 20% Note: Specific energy consumption is based on packaged power input. Power consumption at zero flow only if specified by the manufacturer.

4.0 INSTALLATION HINTS

4.1 General considerations

4.1.1 Centralized or decentralized compressor stations

The advantages of one centralized compressor station are:

Lower installation cost

Since a centralized compressor station will use a large compressor unit, the investment cost (purchase of the unit + accessories) and the floor space requirement will be lower than for decentralized stations using several small units. The air intake filtration, ventilation requirements, cooling water treatment, air cooling and drying are located in one place. Also, noise reduction becomes easier.

Lower power cost

A large unit operating at full load has a more economic power consumption than several small units, even when also operating at full load.

Lower maintenance cost

Savings in labour time spent for routine maintenance work. Easier application and control of more sophisticated maintenance methods such as (remote) condition monitoring (pressures, temperatures and vibration levels) and oil analysis. Better possibility for full-automatic remote control and sequence operation.

The advantages of a decentralized compressor station are:

Smaller airnet and inherently less air leakage and less pressure drop

Separate airnets can operate at different pressures Flexibility in case of breakdown

Conclusion

A decentralized compressor station is installed when the compressed air is used for special applications such as:

Different working pressures

Warm air required for e.g. pneumatic operation of forging tools Air blast for high-voltage electric breakers

Pneumatic conveying of materials

In most other cases, a centralized compressor station is preferred.

4.1.2 Choice between one large or several small compressors

Let us assume that a compressed air requirement of 100% has to be met.

Following points should be considered when making the choice between installing one compressor or two compressors with a flow rate of 50% each:

- The cost of a production stop

- The power facilities

- The load cycle

- The distribution system extension costs

- The available floor space

In many cases, one of the two 50% flow rate compressors can provide enough reserve flow rate so that at least some production can continue in case of an unscheduled compressor shut-down. If production continuity is vital, three 50% flow rate compressors should be installed: two compressors to meet the air consumption and one for stand-by. In such installations two compressors will nearly always be fully loaded while the stand-by unit is not in operation. This has the advantage that two units are running at high efficiency, as the efficiency of a compressor is maximized at full load.

The same is valid for an electric motor. When running near to the rated power, the efficiency and power factors are close to maximum. With three 50% flow rate compressors, the third compressor is available for meeting peak demands and allows scheduled maintenance jobs without loss of production.

The use of several compressors with sequence control is a potential solution for the dilemma of the low efficiency of an oversized compressor and the inability to cover peak demands with decreased production as a consequence.

In the case of one large compressor, a 10% flow rate compressor is sometimes installed which meets the low compressed air demands during the weekends and night shifts. Another point to be considered when installing a large compressor is the possibility that it may disturb the main voltage supply by too high inrush currents.

4.2 Elektronikon control systems

4.2.1 Sequence control

In case several units are connected in parallel, it is advisable to opt for sequence operation. Where the pressure is sensed on the common header or receiver, extra precautions should be taken to avoid overpressures just after the compressor. The ES 100 elektronikon selector switch nowadays available can be installed on elektronikon controlled compressors as well as electro-pneumatic controlled units.

The use of this new type of sequencer has several extra features. The main feature is that a small operating pressure band between loading and unloading can be adjusted. This is achieved by controlling the airnet pressure with only one pressure sensor/transducer. This transducer is sensing continuously the pressure variations in the airnet and the microprocessor in the sequence selector is deciding which and when a particular compressor has to be loaded or unloaded.

4.2.2 Central governor

The Central governor not only sequences the connected compressors. It will also select the most appropriate machine to run in order to match as much as possible the air capacity to the actual air consumption. Considerable energy savings is possible.

4.2.3 Remote monitoring

In order to remotely control and monitor the compressors a remote monitoring software (ES400) or telemonitoring package (ES500) can be used.

Elektronikon Products

• Possible

D Not Possible

Product Labels :

ES 01 : Relay Interface

ES 05 : Temperature Kit

ES 20 : Central Governor 6 Compressors

ES 30 Central Governor 12 Compressors

ES 400 : Remote Monitoring Software

ES 100 : Pressure Controller MK3

ES 500 : Telemonitoring System

Note: ES 500 is a local developed product in Atlas Copco SEA

Electro Pneumatic

Electro - Pneumatic with ES 01

Elektronikon

GA300 MK1

GA45-75 MK2

ZR/ZA3-6

GA 300 Spare Parts

GA 90-315 - GA 110-200

MK3 Basic (GA 5·45)

MK3 Basic with ES 01

MK3 High Range

MK3 High Range with COM1

Note: ES 500 does not require ES 400 in case monitoring is not required by the customer

4.3 Compressor room

4.3.1 Compressor room layout

Adequate space must be provided around the compressors, dryers and receiver for proper ventilation and for regular inspection and maintenance. Minimum dimensions between compressor-wallcenterlines are therefore given. Sometimes the location can be determined by the quality of the intake air. This has to be cool, clean and dry and therefore the compressor center should be away from steam, chemical vapour, engine exhaust and dust.

All ducts have to be installed so that they can be removed very easily in case of repair works.

INSTALLA nON PROPOSALS

Inlet Ducting

Electric Cable Connections

I

4.3.2 Water pipework accessories

30-: 20:

~ 4

~ 4

1: Water Shut-off Valve

2: Inlet Water Pressure Gauge 3: Inlet Water Temp Gauge

4: Outlet Water Pressure Gauge 6: Drain Valve

The installation of the extra cooling water drain valves will facilitate the draining of all cooling water in case of long stand-still periods or repair works. Cooling water inlet and outlet pipes should be provided with shut-off valves, so that the unit can be isolated from the main water supply. Extra valves in inlet and outlet should be foreseen for cleaning, rinsing or for drainage. A manometer should be installed in the water inlet and outlet pipe. A temperature gauge in the inlet water pipe should be provided.

In closed cooling systems, the following devices should be installed:

Expansion vessel

Will compensate for changes of volume of water caused by temperature differences and water losses. The expansion tank should be installed close to the water pump inlet.

Safety valve

Whenever a circulating pump fails, it is possible that the water starts boiling and to prevent excessive pressure a safety valve is required.

Air venting device

When filling the system, the air must be evacuated from the pipes. Therefore vent cocks as well as drain plugs should be provided. An automatic de-aeration device can also be provided.

4.3.3 Condensate drains

To evacuate all condensation water from dryers and compressors, sewers are to be provided. They will facilitate checking of the operation of all condensation drain traps. The outlet of all condensation drain pipes has to be situated above the water-level so that their operation can be confirmed at all times. No manual shut-off valves are to be installed in the automatic drain lines.

1-- Automatic and manual drain line

'-- ----'1-- Drained condensate level

4.4 Sizing of water pumps

Water pumps should be sized in order to limit the water temperature increase in the compressor to 1 DoC (warm climate) or 15°C (in the colder countries). Corresponding flow and pressure drop in the compressor system should be verified with the manufacturer's specifications.

The minimum pressure head of the pump should be equal to the total pressure drop in the water system, i.e., pressure drop in piping, compressor circuit, cooling tower and height. An extra of 10 to 20% in water flow at a certain minimum water head should be taken as reserve. The maximum water pressure of 5.5 bar to 7 bar that should not be exceeded. (consult compressor specifications)

A standby water pump should always be foreseen.

4.5 Sizing of water pipes

The water speed through water feedpipes should be limited to 3 to 4 m/sec. Pressure drops can be calculated by using the following graphs:

100 bar m

5 3 t-,p 2 L -2 10

3 2

..... 1-'"
V ;;;-
/' _..... I/'
V V ..... ..... ~ ......
/" ./
~'(? ~ V V V V ,.- i.----
I.~ /' /' ......
/' 1 ,.- ./ ~
./ "\ ..... ....., .....
/ / /" .~f' ". /
/ / ..,/ P /' ...... ;7
/ / / /' /' ~ /' /' ...... ...... ......
.r"\ "..
I~ / / /' /' /' ~ V /' ".. ...... I--'"'
V / 1/ /' /' V /' »: 9- /' I--'"' ~
_..
II , , ./ ./ ".
fl / .;' ./ ".
II / " /' ./ ..... he _.. ....
r, / / / / / ,/ /' ./ ......
II. / I /. / // /' ./ V
I~ ~ ~ / / /' / /' /'
/ / /'
I ./
I /
, / /
I '/ /
1/' /
r( / 5 3 2

5 3 2

2

3

m/s 4

t-,p

= pressure drop per pipe length L

Table 4.5

Pressure drop in cooling water pipes in bar/m

___ 8
corresponding pipe length
500xd
400xd
300xd
200xd ~e:
100xd
50xd ~
40xd
30xd r-
20xd ~\SJ
10xd <.
5xd ~0J
4xd A
3xd
2xd
1xd shut-off valve

angle shut-off valve

T-piece

elbow 90°

elbow 45°

gate valve

10

100

200 300

d = inner diameter of pipe in mm

20 30 40 50

Example:

Pipe length = 50 m, inner diameter = 70 mm, water speed = 1.2 m/s

l:, P = 50 m x 2 x 10-3 bar/m = 0.1 bar

Additional pressure drop is caused by valves, Tee-pieces, elbows, etc. Above mentioned graph shows these pressure drops expressed in corresponding pipe length.

Example: A shut-oft valve in a 50 mm pipe creates a pressure drop which corresponds to a pressure drop caused by

330 x somrn = 16.5 m pipe of 50 mm, which is

16.5 x 3 x 10-3 = 0.05 bar at a water speed of 1.2 m/s.

d = inner diameter of cooling water pipe.

(see table 4.5 pressure drop in cooling water pipes in bar/m).

4.6 Lifting facilities

The heaviest part in a compressor is in most cases the electric motor. Although an electric motor only has to be removed once every 24000 hrs or 40000 hrs (depending on the type of motor), it is still good practice to foresee from the beginning adequate lifting facilities. Coolers and compressor elements can be heavy items, the existence of an overhead crane or hoist will therefore reduce maintenance time considerably.

4.7 Compressor room ventilation

The total quantity of energy delivered to the compressor in the form of electricity is completely transformed into heat during compression. In the case of water-cooled compressors, most of this heat is taken outside of the compressor room. For air-cooled compressors, nearly all the heat will be dissipated in the compressor room if no ducting is provided. The required ventilation air flow rate for the room depends on three factors:

Type of unit (air-cooled or water-cooled)

Installation of ducting (inlet and/or outlet ducting)

Warming-up of the compressor room

For water-cooled units, the room ventilation should be calculated based on the electric motor losses (6% of shaft input of compressor) + 2% of radiation. For air-cooled units, a lot of cooling air is blown into the room and in most cases extra in and/or outlet ducting is required to keep room ventilation and room temperature within acceptable limits. An outlet duct for air-cooled units is recommended as this will remove heat equal to 80% of the shaft input of the compressor.

4.7.1 Calculation of the required ventilation air flow

Air-Cooled Machines

N Qv = 1.05 x - t:,T

Water-Cooled Machines

Q v = Required Ventilation (m3/s)

N = Shaft Input of the Compressor (KW)

t:,T = Room Temperature minus Ambient Temperature

Note:

The DT (warming up of the compressor room) should be limited .. in accordance to the maximum ambient temperature. For high ambient conditions, the warming-up temperature (DT) should be kept to 5°C.

When more than one compressor is installed, it is advisable to install several ventilating fans instead of one big fan. The fans should be mounted onto the wall in such a way that each of them creates an airflow lengthwise of the compressor. Thermostatic control can be foreseen.

Air inlet gratings provided in the wall at approximately 3 m from the ground level should be sized so that the air speed through the free area keeps below 5 m/sec (normal +/-3 m/ sec).The ventilation air speed should not exceed 2.5 m/sec through louvers or panels filters. The quantity of air which is used as a base for the calculation of the inlet grating should include the FAD. of the compressors and cooling air sucked in by the ventilators. Those ventilation openings should be installed at the shady side of the building. The air intake openings are to be provided with grids or louvers in order to keep out rain, leaves etc., the free area of these grids or louvers is approximately 60% of the total area. Eventually air panel filters behind the grid or louver can be installed when required.

For air-cooled FD dryers the ventilation air need can be found by multiplying the compressor shaft input in KW by 0.012.

4.7.2 Sizing of ducting

When designing the duct installation, take into account that the total pressure drop over the duct (inlet as well as outlet) should not exceed 30 PA or 3 mm H20 at maximum ambient conditions. Velocities of 3 m/sec are considered as normal.

Always install ducts with a minimum area equal to the grating foreseen on the compressor. A maximum of 2 bends should be considered. Those bends should have a radius equal to at least the width of the ducting. Rectangular shaped bends are not acceptable. In case a length of more than 6 m and 2 bends are foreseen some calculations should be carried out to verify the total pressure drop of the ducting.

Pressure drop in duct /':, p = pd x f tot

with

pv'

pd = -- = dynamic pressure

2

In which p is density (1.2 kq/rn") and v is velocity

Dynamic pressure pd for air with density of 1.2 kg/m

Air Speed (rn/s) pd (Pa)
2 2.4
2.5 3.8
3 5.4
3.5 7.3
4 9.6
4.5 12.1
5 15 Total resistance f tot= (L x fd x correction factor) + (n x fb) + fg with L= length of duct

n = number of bends fd = flow resistance

fb = resistance in elbows

fg = resistance in outlet screens

Flow resistance fd

for round ducts, the values per unit of pipe length are stated in the following table

for rectangular ducts the hydraulic diameter dh is introduced:

dh= 4A U

A= Area U=Circumference

d\d+ 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0 0.67 0.52 0.38 0.32
100 0.29 0.26 0.23 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.13
200 0.12 0.11 0.1 0.099 0.095 0.091 0.088 0.084 0.080 0.076
300 0.073 0.071 0.069 0.067 0.065 0.062 0.060 0.058 0.056 0.055
400 0.055 0.052 0.049 0.048 0.046 0.045 0.044 0.043 0.042 0.040
500 0.039 0.039 0.038 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.033 0.033 0.032 0.031
600 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.029 0.029 0.029 0.028 0.027 0.027 0.026
700 0.026 0.026 0.025 0.025 0.024 0.024 0.024 0.023 0.023 0.023
800 0.023 0.022 0.022 0.021 0.021 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.019
900 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.Q18 0.017 0.017
1000 0.017 0.017 0.016 0.016 0.016 0.016 0.016 0.015 0.015 0.015
1100 0.Q15 0.Q15 0.015 0.015 0.Q15 0.Q15 0.015 0.014 0.014 0.014
1200 0.014 0.014 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013
1300 0.013 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012
1400 0.012 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.010
1500 0.Q10 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.0099 0.0099 0.0099 0.0098 0.0097 0.0097
1600 0.0096 0.0095 0.0095 0.0094 0.0093 0.0092 0.0091 0.0090 0.0090 0.0098
1700 0.0088 0.0088 0.0087 0.0086 0.0086 0.0085 0.0085 0.0084 0.0084 0.0083
1800 0.0082 0.0082 0.0082 0.0081 0.0081 0.0080 0.0080 0.0079 0.0078 0.0078
1900 0.0078 0.0078 0.0077 0.0076 0.0075 0.0075 0.0075 0.0074 0.0074 0.0073
2000 0.0073 0.0073 0.0072 0.0072 0.0072 0.0072 0.0071 0.0071 0.0071 0.0071 Note: The values in the above table are for air velocities of 3 mls.

At other velocities a correction factor must be applied.

I

velocity mls correction factor
2 1.15
2.7 1.08
.-~------.
3 1
3.5 0.95
4' 0.92
5 0.9
6 0.87 Resistance fb in elbows

Losses caused by change in direction are listed for 90 bends in the table below. A part proportional to the bending angle has to be taken for bends below 90° (e.g. tor« 30°, one third of the values below has to be taken).

D 1" @' 1 a
b
Rectangular elbows r= a r = 1.5a r = 2a
b/a = 0.25 0.48 0.19 0.17
b/a = 0.5 0.30 0.15 0.13
b/a > 1 0.23 0.15 0.13
Round elbows r = a r =1.5a r = 2a
diameter = a 0.25 0.17 0.14
Resistance fg of outlet screens
The resistance of outlet screens: louvers perforated sheets

2 3

4 6

5.8 8

9 13

% free area

70

60

50

40

Not Allowed

o

Calculation example for ducting:

Rectangular duct 1000 x 600 mm

b/a = 1.6

2 bends r = a

length = 6 m

free area of grid is 60% (louvers)

dh = 4 x 1000 x 600 = 750 2 (1000 + 600)

From table fd = 0.024 From table fb = 0.23 From table fg = 4

- total friction resistance

f tot = (I x fd) + (n x fb) + fg I = length of the duct

n = number of bends

f tot « (6 x 0.024) + (2 x 0.23) + 4 ;::: 4.6

- pressure drop in duct

From table fd = 5.4 Pa (air speed = 3 m/s)

6 P = f tot x fd = 4.6 x 5.4 = 24.8 Pa which is below 30 Pa.

4.8 Cooling water systems

For water-cooled units, the possibility of different heat removal systems exists.

Open cooling systems:

once through system

evaporative cooling tower

Fully sealed recirculating systems:

air-water heat exchanger

water-water heat exchanger

closed cooling tower

The choice of cooling system used is depending on following main points:

water quality and volume available

ambient conditions

cost

4.8.1 Open cooling systems

4.8.1.1 Once through cooling system

This system is in most cases not a good economical solution. It will only be used in case a private water source is available. The use of a solenoid valve in the cooling water inlet piping is to be foreseen in order to keep the compressor at working temperature during stopping and to avoid water pressure in the cooler during long stop times. In case there is a risk that the compressor water system will be empty, e.g. when the cooling water is connected to a sewer, it is advisable to connect the magnetic valve to the outlet.

The main disadvantages of an open system are:

high operation cost 50 times more water is used than in an evaporating system

- water treatment is very expensive, difficult to control and nearly always necessary

risk fouling of coolers with sand

4.8.1.2 Evaporative cooling tower

Hot water is supplied from the compressor to the cooling tower where it is diffused. Air is blown in a counter-flow direction. Some water will evaporate. Since water absorbs heat when changing from liquid to vapour, the heat is taken from the water. The amount of evaporated water in the air is limited and after some time the saturation point will be reached. Air is blown constantly through the system (counter stream) so that saturated air is replaced with unsaturated air. The temperature difference between water in and out the tower is called the range. The difference between water out and wet-bulb temperature of the in-going air is called the approach.

The larger the tower, the closer the approach. An approach temperature of 5°C is a feasible value. Even in the warmest countries, wet bulb temperatures seldom exceeds 28°C which means that a cooling water temperature of 33°C is possible. One of the disadvantages of the evaporative cooling tower is that impurities from the cooling air will gather in the cooling water. Scaling, corrosion or bacteriological problems can occur in the system. In most cases a water treatment system is required in order to control the concentration of minerals in the make-up water.

The advantages of an open cooling tower can be summarized as follows:

- small space requirement

- simple construction and installation

- low investment cost and power consumption

The disadvantages of an open cooling tower can be summarized as follows:

- ambient air in contact with cooling water

- scaling/corrosive water requires water treatment

4.8.2 Fully sealed recirculating systems

4.8.2.1 Air-water heat exchanger

Ambient air is blown over the pipe bundle or plates by means of a fan which either pushes or draws air through the core. The air can be directed horizontally or vertically. The cooling capacity depends on the temperature of the ambient air and flow rate of the water. The air coolers must be designed for the local maximum ambient temperature. It is possible to obtain an approach of 5 to 10°C. This means that a water temperature of 35°C can be achieved with a maximum ambient temperature of 25 to 30°C.

The advantages of this system are the following:

- low maintenance cost - no need for make-up water

- high quality water can be used for initial fill in the compressor cooling system

- possibility for corrosion is reduced to a minimum

- heat recovery is possible

- compressor maintenance requirements are reduced

Disadvantages

- higher power consumption

- higher investment cost

- applications are limited to ambient temperatures of 30°C

- risk for clogging up in dusty environments

4.8.2.2 Water-water heat exchanger

The hot water for the compressor is fed to a heat exchanger which is cooled down by exchanging heat with another cooling medium (water). Different types of heat exchangers exist. The simplest type is the heat exchanger consisting of a pipe within a pipe, counter-flow or parallel flow. Another construction is the shell core exchanger. In case seawater or other aggressive or contaminated water is used as a cooling media, the use of an extra plate heat exchanger offers many advantages.

Advantages

- a closed cooling system for the compressor will reduce maintenance work on the compressor coolers to a minimum

- contamination is limited to the plate heat exchanger for which the maintenance work is rather easy to perform. Corrosion, or sealing in the extra heat exchanger will be lower as temperatures are low (max. SODG)

- any clogging or leak will not endanger directly the

compressor components

Disadvantages

- higher investment cost

- higher power cost

1

Compressor

Heat Exchanger

Cooling Tower

I P1 ~ 3 x P2 I

T3: Outlet water temperature compressor (max 50°C) T4: Inlet water temperature compressor (max 35°C) T2: Warm water in cooling lower

T1: Cold water in heat exchange

P1: Pump capacity 1

P2: Pump capacity 2

4.8.2.3 Closed cooling tower

The open cooling tower exposes cooling water directly to the atmosphere, whereas the closed cooling tower does not expose the cooling air to the coolant. Heat is transferred from the internal fluid circuit through the walls of pipes to the external water circuit.

4.9 Cooling tower sizing

The maximum water outlet temperature for a compressor is 50°C. The approach temperature of a cooling tower is influenced by the relative humidity of the ambient air. The lower the relative humidity the better the evaporative cooling tower will cool. Approach temperatures of 5°C are possible. Considering an ambient temperature of 35°C a cooling water temperature of 30°C is feasible. In high humidity and high ambient conditions it is good practice to limit the cooling water temperature increase to 1 DoC. The corresponding water flow can be found in the AML. When you know the total cooling water requirement and its allowed temperature increase, you can calculate the heat amount the cooling tower.

Heat amount (kcal/sec)=

1:, T* Q

1:, T is the increase of cooling water temperature in °C

Q is the cooling water flow in I/sec

5.0 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM AND INSTALLATION

5.1 Insulation classes

The power delivered by a motor is limited by the temperature rise of the windings. Depending on the temperature rise the winding insulation can withstand continuously, there are different classes designated by characters A, E, B, F, H to choose from

105

120

130

155

180

"C Critical Temperature

80

"C Permissible Temperature Rise

75

100

125

"C Max. Temperature of Cooling Medium

A

E

B

F

H

Insulation classes

Motors are normally provided with class F or class B insulation. In most applications, the ambient temperature is below the maximum allowed cooling air temperature of 400e and neither is the allowed temperature increase of 15°e/1 O'C reached. Such a motor has an output reserve for unforeseen conditions.

The quality of insulation on the windings is decisive for the service life of a motor.

The lifespan of the insulation and of the motor depends on the temperature increase and is halved for each 1 ooe above the permissible temperature rise, which is 1200e for class Band 1400e for class F.

Effect of the winding temperature on the insulation lifespan.

'.

Life %
50
40
30
20
10
0
10 I __._ Life %

20

30

40

Excess Temperature Rise

When operating at altitude, the density of the air decreases and consequently also the cooling efficiency. Therefore, the maximum allowed temperature of the cooling air is decreased and the figures in the lower frame (insulation classes) have to be replaced by the figures of the below mentioned table.

Insulation class A E B F H
Altitude
1000 40 40 40 40 40
2000 34 33 32 30 28
3000 28 26 24 20 15
4000 22 19 16 10 3 Maximum cooling air temperature (DC) for different insulation classes at altitude.

5.2 Starting systems

5.2.1 D.O.L. - starting

2

4 6 8 10 12 14

t

IL: Start Current

IN: Nominal Current

By far the most common method of starting the polyphase squirrelcage motor is "across-the-line" starting, connecting the machine directly to the plant distribution system at full voltage, using either a manual or magnetic starter. This method is mostly termed "directon-line" starting (D.O.L).

Each motor is specified by a thermal capacity. When this energy is accumulated in the motor, it will reach the maximum allowed temperature for its winding.

This thermal capacity is mostly expressed as the time (in seconds) during which a current equal to 6 times the rated current can be tolerated. This is normally between 12 and 15 seconds.

The D.O.L. starting of large motors therefore results in a massive, short term, current surge, which often cannot be tolerated by the local supply.

, :

5.2.2 The star-delta starter

U1 W2

~-'W~1~ M °A~V~2--~

'----- V---'-1 ~-Q 3- o---=U",-2 __J

K1: line contactor K2: star contactor K3: delta contactor F1: overload relay

Star-delta starters are used in areas where the power supply is inadequate to supply full starting current without objectionable voltage drop. The motor is started with the windings in a star or wye connection, reducing the voltage and the current in the windings to approximately 58% while the line current is reduced to one third. After a preset time, a timer will switch over and the motor will be connected in delta.

Given the maximum current allowed, the moment of switching over to the delta connection can be selected without exceeding the allowable current.

ILl:;: Direct on line current IL Y: Star current

nN: asynchronised speed -s: synchronised speed

Speed

Switch-over time

5.2.3 The auto transformer starter

F1

K1

75%

65%

55%

K2

The auto transformer starter is generally used for larger motor types (or high voltage motors) and is suitable for motors which do not have both ends of each phase brought out to terminals.

The auto transformer has usually three reduced voltage tappings: 55, 65, 75%, are probably the figures most used today.

This method of starting is similar to the star-delta starter. First, we switch to a reduced voltage and when the motor has sufficiently accelerated, we switch to the full-voltage position. However, here, the size of the reduced voltage can be selected, whereas in stardelta 58% had to be used. By using the Korndorfer connection method, there is no break in the supply voltage and the transients are suppressed by part of the transformer, acting as a choke after the start contractor (K)has opened and before (K) has closed.

5.3 Motor protection

Protectors based on monitoring the line current are:

5.3.1 Time lag fuses

These fuses prevent sustained overcurrent while avoiding nuisance blow-out on starting or momentary overcurrent.

Normally, fuses have an operating value of 125% of the rated current. They are used for protecting small motors, but not for larger motors. The thermal model of the fuse does not match motor heating characteristics. If the fuse protects the motor from slight overloads, it melts too quickly on transient heavy overloads. On the other hand, if the fuse melts only on sustained overload, it may not protect the motor against a prolonged overload that goes beyond the thermal capacity of the motor.

5.3.2 Thermal relays

These relays depend on heating an element by the line current to actuate the protection mechanism. The heat-sensitive element is mostly of the bimetallic type. The thermal model is a better approach than fuses. But the ambient temperature can be quite different from the motor ambient when located at some distance, and in these conditions, magnetic relays are often used.

5.3.3 Magnetic relays

These relays are responsive solely to the magnetic field set up by the line current. As soon as the magnetic field is sufficiently strong to move an iron core or to attract an armature, the relay will trip.

All the above do not respond to overtemperatures caused by hot ambient conditions or blocked ventilation and therefore we prefer temperature-responsive protectors.

5.3.4 Thermistors

These are assembled as integral parts of the motor in order to protect against dangerous overheating or failure to start. Thermistors are small enough to be embedded in the stator slots so that they are closely thermally coupled to the motor windings. They are fed back to an amplifier with sufficient power to interrupt the contactor holding coil. Thermistor circuits with their capability of a more complete protection are becoming increasingly popular.

5.4 Electrical cable sections

The maximum nominal current through electrical cables is depending on the cable insulation material, conductor material. The voltage drop must not exceed 5% of the nominal voltage. It may be necessary to use cables with larger section than those stated to comply to this requirement.

Cable Section in rnrn" Nominal Current in Amps
0.75 8
1 10
1.5 34
2.5 17
4 22
6 29
10 39
16 53
25 69
35 86
70 132
95 159
120 186
150 213
185 243
240 288
300 333 Calculation of voltage drop

.J3 x l x f x cos e t,V= ------

XxA

I = length of the cable in m f = Current in Amps

cos e = power factor

x = specific conductance in Szm/rnm" (56 for cupper) A = cross section in mrn"

Useful formula:

Active power = P = V3E x I x cos e E = Line voltage

I = Line current

cos e = Power factor

Note: The maximum line current of an electric motor is the nominal or rated current as stated on the motor dataplate times the service factor.

Effect showing Current (I), Speed (n), Efficiency and power factor (cos e) as a function of the voltage at constant output (P).

n

--

p

Efficie~n~c!y __ ~ _

-- ~

Power Factor :

, , ,

90

% Voltage

100

110

6.0 AIR RECEIVER

The function of the air receiver is to store compressed air. It also acts as an additional condensate separator. Furthermore, the air receiver ensures a steady air flow to the compressed air equipment and equalizes momentary pressure variations in the airnet which could cause frequent loading/unloading of the compressor. The design, construction and inspection of the air receiver with its accessories are governed by regulations of the local pressure vessel authorities.

The air receiver volume V can be calculated:

Q, = compressor FAD (I/s)

P, = compressor air inlet pressure (bar absolute) T, = compressor air inlet temperature (K)

To = air receiver air temperature (K)

/:, p = pressure switch setting = P unload - P load I.; = cycle frequency = 1 cycle/30 sec

Example:

compressor air inlet pressure (bar absolute) = 1 bar (a).

L P = 0.8 bar

Inlet temperature T, = To = 273+20°C

L: = 1 cycle/30 sec

Q,.= 5841/s

V=------

0.25 x 584 x 1

1/30 x 0.8 x 293 V=5475 I

I

LOCATION OF AN AIR RECEIVER

Most compressors are provided with aftercooler and water traps. A good water trap has an efficiency of 80-90%. The rest of the condensate flows; as mist, with the compressed air into the outlet piping. As the air receiver can act as an additional water separator, it should be installed as close as possible to the compressors and at the coldest place (e.g. outdoors). In the air receiver the speed of the air will decrease and most of the residual condensate will run down to the bottom of the receiver which should be connected to an automatic and manual drain.

Stand-alone air dryers should preferably be installed downstream of the receiver. This configuration represents the following advantages:

- less water load to the dryer

- lower inlet temperature for the dryer

- steady air stream through the dryer

- prevents desiccant degradation

7.0 SIZING OF AIR PIPING

The airnet starts with the discharge pipe connecting the compressor to the main header. The diameter is at least equal to the compressor discharge connection and all parts are as short as possible. The common header should be sized for the total capacity of all installed compressors plus eventual expansions. As a quick reference the following table of recommended flows through pipes can be used:

Actual pipe diameter (mm) Rate of flow (lis) at 7 bar
6 1
9 3
12 5
16 10
22 17
27 25
"36 50
42 65
53 100
69 180
81 240
105 410
130 610
155 900 The indicated pipe diameters are valid for pipe lengths not exceeding 100 m. If the distance is longer than 100 m, the next pipe diameter can be taken. After selection of the pipe diameter, the pressure drop can be calculated considering the pipe length, number of bends and working pressure.

Compressors

Receiver

Main Header

By-pass

By-pass

Dryers

Following formula is used to calculate the pressure drop in a pipe:

Q 1.85 xL IIp=fx _v __

d5 xp

6 P = pressure drop (bar) f = friction factor

Q, = volume rate of flow at free air condition (m/s) L = pipe length (rn)

d = pipe inner diameter (mm)

p = initial absolute air pressure (bar absolute)

For hydraulic smooth pipes such as commercial or galvanized steel pipes used for the compressed airnet, the value of friction factor equals:

f = 1.6 x 108

Equivalent pipe length in m
Inner pipe diameter in mm
25 40 50 80 100 125 150
Seat valve 3-6 5-10 7-15 10-25 15-30 20-50 25-60
Diaphragm valve 1.2 2.0 3.0 4.5 6 8 10
Gate valve 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Elbow 1.5 2.5 3.5 5 7 10 15
Bend R = d 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Bend R = 2d 0.15 0.25 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.5
Hose connection T- piece 2 3 4 7 10 15 20
Reducer 0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 2.5 3.5 4.0 Pressure drop table for valves, bends, etc.

Pipe fittings and valves are expressed in equivalent pipe length, as can be seen in the above table.

The dimensions of the compressed air pipe system should be such that the maximum pressure drop in the air pipe to the most distant point is 0.1 bar. However, in a 3 bar effective airnet, the 0.1 bar pressure drop represents a relatively higher energy loss than in a 7 bar effective airnet. Therefore, it is better to specify that the pressure drop should be lower than 1.5% of the working pressure. The recommended compressed air flow velocity is between 6 and 10 mls in order to avoid excessive pressure drops in the pipe lines. The importance of an adequately sized airnet will become evident from a simple example:

A flow rate of 100 lis has to be supplied over a distance of 50 m at a pressure of 7 bar effective with a maximum p = 0.3 bar.

As a first evaluation of pipe diameter, the earlier table (pipe diameter versus flow) can be used. (see section 7.0).

100 lis> 53 mm diameter

The pressure drop calculated in the 50 m pipe equals:

!:'p =

1,6 x 108 X 0,100 1.85 X 50 535 X 8

!:, p= 0,03 bar

In case 10 bends (R=d) and 1 diaphragm valve are installed, the extra pipe length equals to

10 x 0,6 + 1 x 3 = 9 m

Isp =

1,6 x 108 X 0,11.85 x 59 535 x 8

!:, t= 0,04 bar

7.1 Airnet layout

The most efficient way to distribute the compressed air to the various locations is by using a ring loop system. The pressure drop calculation of such a main loop system has to be simplified as follows:

Ring Loop

/Header

Main Header
/
/ Branch Pipes

INSTALLATION PROPOSAL

The total flow rate Qc flows through the discharge pipe and the riser. Half of the flow rate will enter the left header and the other half the right header. It is assumed that the air flow in the left header gradually decreases to zero by the flow rates which flow through the subheaders and drop lines, so that the average losses in the left header are equal to the pressure drop if half of the flow had to cross the complete length.

Air Flow in Header

In order to calculate the pressure drop in the ring loop one has to consider the pressure drop caused by 25% of the total air flow along half of the total ring loop length.

Example:

Compressor flow rate: 250 lis at 7 bar.

1). Main pipe to the ring loop (Riser) total flow: 250 I/s.

~ diameter pipe 80 mm (see table)

length 20 m
8 bends 8m
2 T pieces 14 m
5 valves 22,5 m
!:.,. reducer 2m
Total length: 66,5 m !:"'p =

1 ,6 x 108 x 0,25 1.85 x 66,5 805 x 8

!:"'p

= 0,03 bar

2). Ring loop (Header)

total flow: 250 = 62,5 lis 4

~ diameter pipe 42 mm (see table)

length 84 m

2 bends 1,2 m

Total length: 85,2 m

Isp =

1 ,6 x 108 x 0,0625 1.85 x 85,2 425 x 8

!:.,. P = 0,08 bar

••

Conclusion: too high pressure digs, therefore we select 53 mm

6p=

1,6 x 108 x 0,0625 1.85 x 85,2 535 x 8

6 P = 0,02 bar

3). Subheader

total flow: 62,5 = 15,63 lis 4

~ diameter pipe 22 mm (see table)

length: 25 = 12.5 m 2

1,6 x 108 x 0,01563 1.85 x 12,5

6p = -----------

225 X 8

6 P = 0,02 bar

Total pressure drop main pipe + ring loop system. 0,002 + 0,002 + 0,003 = 0,007 bar.

which is smaller than 0,1 bar.

Branch pipes are further distributing the compressed air to the various locations.

As a quick reference the following table for maximum flows can be used:

Maximum Recommended Flow Through Branch Lines
Nominal Pipe Diameter in mm Air Flow in lIs
6 2.5
8 5.7
10 12.6
15 23.4
20 35
25 65
32 133
40 200
50 390
65 620
80 1085 The above table can be used for branch pipes not exceeding 15 m of length.

The total pressure drop of the piping system can be calculated by adding main pipe pressure drop, ring and branch pipe pressure drops (including additional pressure losses in valves and bends). The total should not exceed 0.1 bar.

Installation hints:

Compressed air pipes should be installed in such a way that they can be reached from all directions. Pipe installations in trenches under the floor should be avoided since they are difficult to maintain and to repair. Adequate condensate drainage is difficult too. Air leak detection becomes problematic.

Horizontally installed pipes should slope down 1 % - 2% towards the air consumption point. In this way, the condensate is carried to predetermined locations where drains permit the condensate to be removed. While some may argue that properly installed and correctly sized dryers make sloping of compressed air pipes superfluous, the cost is minimal and sloping provides additional protection in the event the dryer is out of service.

Pipe or tube bends should have generous radii in order to minimize turbulence. Bends are preferred to elbow couplings, because they reduce turbulence and create less pressure drop.

To prevent condensate from entering the branch pipe, the latter should be branched on top of the subheader.

Condensation drain points have to be provided at the lowest points of the ring net. It is recommended to provide flanges so that sections of the airnet can be isolated by inserting blind flanges. In this way maintenance work can be carried out without complete production stop.

Adequate brackets, clamps or other supports will keep lines straight without sagging and prevent machinery vibrations owing to loosening pipe couplings. The following distances between two supporting points of the horizontal compressed air steel piping should preferably not be exceeded:

Pipe in mm Distance in m
40 3.5
50 4.3
60 4.7
SO 5.S
100 6.5
125 7.3
150 S.1 I

CONVERSION TABLES

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART

Celsius - Fahrenheit

NOTE: The center column of numbers in boldface refers to the temperature in degrees, either Celsius or Fahrenheit, which it is desired to convert into the other scale. If converting from Fahrenheit to Celsius degrees, the equivalent temperature will be found in the left column, while if converting from degrees Calsius to degrees Fahrenheit, the answer will be found in the column on the right

Celsius Fahrenheit Celsius Fahrenheit
-273.17 -459.7 -59.4 -75 -103.0
-268 -450 -56.7 -70 -94.0
-262 -440 -53.9 -65 -85.0
-257 -430 -51.1 -60 -76.0
-251 -420 -48.3 -55 -67.0
-246 -410 -45.6 -50 -58.0
-240 -400 -42.8 -45 -49.0
-234 -390 -40.0 -40 -40.0
-229 -380 -37.2 -35 -31.0
-223 -370 -34.4 -30 -22.0
-218 -360 -31.7 -25 -13.0
-212 -350 -28.9 -20 -4.0
-207 -340 -26.1 -15 5.0
-201 -330 -23.3 -10 14.0
-196 -320 -20.6 -5 23.0
-190 -310 -17.8 0 32.0
-184 -300 -17.2 1 33.8
-179 -290 -16.7 2 35.6
-173 -280 -16.1 3 37.4
-169 -273 -459.4 -15.6 4 39.2
-168 -270 -454 -15.0 5 41.0
-162 -260 -436 -14.4 6 42.8
-157 -250 -418 -13.9 7 44.6
-151 -240 -400 -13.3 8 46.4
-146 -230 -382 -12.8 9 48.2
-140 -220 -364 -12.2 10 50.0
-134 -210 -346 -11.7 11 51.8
-129 -200 -328 -11.1 12 53.6
-123 -190 -310 -10.6 13 55.4
-118 -180 -292 -10.0 14 57.2
-112 -170 -274 -9.4 15 59.0
-107 -160 -256 -8.9 16 60.8
-101 -150 -238 -8.3 17 62.6
-96 -140 -220 -7.8 18 64.4
-90 -130 -202 -7.2 19 66.2
-84 -120 -184 -6.7 20 68.0
-79 -110 -166 -6.1 21 69.8
-73.3 -100 -148.0 -5.6 22 71.6
-67.8 -90 -130.0 -5.0 23 73.4
-62.2 -80 -112.0 -4.4 24 75.2 Continued on next page.

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART

Celsius - Fahrenheit

NOTE: The center column of numbers in boldface refers to the temperature in degrees, either Celsius or Fahrenheit, which it is desired to convert into the other scale. If converting from Fahrenheit to Celsius degrees, the equivalent temperature will be found in the left column, while if converting from degrees Calsius to degrees Fahrenheit, the answer will be found in the column on the right.

Celsius Fahrenheit Celsius Fahrenheit
-3.9 25 77.0 18.3 65 149.0
-3.3 26 78.8 18.9 66 150.8
-2.8 27 80.6 19.4 67 152.6
-2.2 28 82.4 20.0 68 154.4
-1.7 29 84.2 20.6 69 156.2
-1.1 30 86.0 21.1 70 158.0
-0.6 31 87.8 21.7 71 159.8
0.0 32 89.6 22.2 72 161.6
0.6 33 91.4 22.8 73 163.4
1.1 34 93.2 23.3 74 165.2
1.7 35 95.0 23.9 75 167.0
2.2 36 96.8 24.4 76 168.8
2.8 37 98.6 25.0 77 170.6
3.3 38 100.4 25.6 78 172.4
3.9 39 102.2 26.1 79 174.2
4.4 40 104.0 26.7 80 176.0
5.0 41 105.8 27.2 81 177.8
5.6 42 107.6 27.8 82 179.6
6.1 43 109.4 28.3 83 181.4
6.7 44 111.2 28.9 84 183.2
7.2 45 113.0 29.4 85 185.0
7.8 46 114.8 30.0 86 186.8
8.3 47 116.6 30.6 87 188.6
8.9 48 118.4 31.1 88 190.4
9.4 49 120.2 31.7 89 192.2
10.0 50 122.0 32.2 90 194.0
10.6 51 123.8 32.8 91 195.8
11.1 52 125.6 33.3 92 197.6
11.7 53 127.4 33.9 93 199.4
12.2 54 129.2 34.4 94 201.2
12.8 55 131.0 35.0 95 203.0
13.3 56 132.8 35.6 96 204.8
13.9 57 134.6 36.1 97 206.6
14.4 58 136.4 36.7 98 208.4
15.0 59 138.2 37.2 99 210.2
15.6 60 140.0 37.8 100 212.0
16.1 61 141.8 40.6 105 221
16.7 62 143.6 43.3 110 230
17.2 63 145.4 46.1 115 239
17.8 64 147.2 48.9 120 248 Continued on next page.

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART

cetstua- Fahrenheit

NOTE: The center column of numbers in boldface refers to the temperature in degrees, either Celsius or Fahrenheit, which it is desired to convert into the other scale. If converting from Fahrenheit to Celsius degrees, the equivalent temperature will be found in the left column, while if converting from degrees Calsius to degrees Fahrenheit, the answer will be found in the column on the right.

Celsius Fahrenheit Celsius Fahrenheit
51.7 125 257 129 265 509
54.4 130 266 132 270 518
57.2 135 275 135 275 527
60.0 140 284 138 280 536
62.8 145 293 141 285 545
65.6 150 302 143 290 554
68.3 155 311 146 295 563
71.1 160 320 149 300 572
73.9 165 329 154 310 590
76.7 170 338 160 320 608
79.4 175 347 166 330 626
82.2 180 356 171 340 644
85.0 185 365 177 350 662
87.8 190 374 182 360 680
90.6 195 383 188 370 698
93.3 200 392 193 380 716
96.1 205 401 199 390 734
98.9 210 410 204 400 752
100.0 212 414 210 410 770
102 215 419 216 420 788
104 220 428 221 430 806
107 225 437 227 440 824
110 230 446 232 450 842
113 235 455 238 460 860
116 240 464 243 470 878
118 245 473 249 480 896
121 250 482 254 490 914
124 255 491 260 500 932
127 260 500 These formulas may also be used for converting Celsius or Fahrenheit degrees into the other scales.

Decimal Vernier Degrees Celsius, 'C = § (OF + 40) - 40
9
°C of
0.06 0.1 0.18 = 5 (OF-32)
9
0.11 0.2 0.36
0.17 0.3 0.54 Degrees Kelvin, oK =oC + 273.2
0.22 0.4 0.72 Degress Fahr., of = §! ('C + 40) - 40
0.28 0.5 0.90 5
0.33 0.6 1.08
0.39 0.7 1.26 =9°C+32
0.44 0.8 1.44 5
0.50 0.9 1.62 Degrees Rankine, oR = 'F+ 459.7 Saturation pressure Pvs and density Pv of water vapour

High humidity can cause another decrease in mass flow of 1 % to 5% and each 100 mm H20 (1 0 m/bar) pressure drop over the inlet filter will reduce the mass flow rate by 1 %.

t Pvs Pv t Pvs Pv
(oG) (m/bar) (g/rn3) (0G) (m/bar) (9/m3)
0 6.108 4.847 25 31.67 23.05
1 6.566 5192 26 3361 24.38
2 7.055 5.559 27 35.65 25.78
3 7.575 5.947 28 3780 27.24
4 8.129 6.360 29 40.06 28.78
5 8.719 6797 30 42.43 30.38
6 9.347 7.260 31 44.93 32.07
7 1001 7750 32 4755 33.83
8 10.72 8.270 33 50.31 35.68
9 11.47 8819 34 5320 37.61
10 12.27 9.399 35 56.24 39.63
11 1312 1001 36 59.42 41.75
12 14.02 10.66 37 62.76 43.96
13 1497 11_35 38 6626 46.26
14 15.98 12.07 39 69.93 48.67
15 12.83 40 73.78 51.19
16 1817 13.63 41 77.80 53.82
17 19.37 14.48 42 82.02 56.56
18 20.63 15.37 43 86.42 59.41
19 21.96 16.31 44 91.03 62.39
20 23.37 17.30 45 95.86 65.50
21 24.86 18.34 46 100.9 68.73
22 26.43 19.43 47 106.2 7210
23 28.09 20.58 48 111.7 75.61
24 29.83 21.78 49 117.4 79.26 Air pressure (absolute) and density at different altitudes according to NASA

Altitude Pressure Density
(m) (bar) (kq/m'')
-1,000 1.138 1.345
-800 1.109 1.317
-600 1.080 1.288
-400 1.062 1.272
-200 1.038 1.249
0 1.013 1.225
100 1.001 1.213
200 0.989 1.202
300 0.978 1.190
400 0.966 1.179
500 0.955 1.167
600 0.943 1.156
800 0.921 1.134
1,000 0.899 1.112
1,200 0.877 1.090
1,400 0.856 1,069
1,600 0.835 1.048
1,800 0.815 1.027
2,000 0.795 1.007
2,200 0.775 0.986
2,400 0.756 0.966
2,600 0.737 0.947
2,800 0.719 0.928
3,000 0.701 0.909
3,200 0.683 0.891
3,400 0.666 0.872
3,600 0.649 0.854
3,800 0.633 0.837
4,000 0.616 0.819
5,000 0.540 0.736
6,000 0,472 0.660
7,000 0,411 0.590
8,000 0.356 0.525
(Values below sea-level have been extrapolated) .'

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