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ɆɂɇɂɋɌȿɊɋɌȼɈ ɈȻɊȺɁɈȼȺɇɂə ɊȿɋɉɍȻɅɂɄɂ ȻȿɅȺɊɍɋɖ


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ɍɇɂȼȿɊɋɂɌȿɌ»c
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ccccccccccccccccccccccccccɄɚɮɟɞɪɚ_______________________________________

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ɊȿɎȿɊȺɌ
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ɩɨ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɟ: Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɧɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɢ
ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ
ɧɚ ɬɟɦɭ: Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɨ
ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɂɋɈ

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ɎɆ, 1 ɪɫ, ɁɄɌ-1ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccɇ.ȼ. Ʌɢɫɨɜɫɚɹc

ɉɪɨɜɟɪɢɥ
ɚɧɞ. ɷɨɧ. ɧɚ,
ɞɨɰɟɧ ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ȼ.Ɏ. ȼɨɥɨɞɶɨ
c c cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
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Ɇɂɇ|Ʉ 2010
ɋɈȾȿɊɀȺɇɂȿ

ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««3
1 Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɰɟɥɢ ɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɂ|Ɉ«««««««««««...........................4
2 Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɪ ɪɚ«««««««««««««««««««5
3 ɉɨɪɹɞɨ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ««««««««««7
4 Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ«««««««««««««««««9
4.1 ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000«««««««««««««««««««««««.9
4.2 ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 14000««««««««««««««««««««««..16
4.3 ɂ|Ɉ 26000«««««««««««««««««««««««««.20
5 ɉɟɪɫɩɟ ɢɜɵ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɹ ɂ|Ɉ««««««««««««««««««...21
5.1. 33-ɹ Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɹ Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ (ɂ|Ɉ)««««««««««««««««.......................2 1

2
ȼȼȿȾȿɇɂȿ

ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɣ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ


ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɂ|Ɉ. Ɉɧɚ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɚ ɜ 1946 ɝ. ɞɜɚɞɰɚ ɶɸ ɩɹ ɶɸ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ. ɉɪɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɟ ɟɟ
ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ ɱɢ ɵɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫ ɶ ɨɝɨ, ɱ ɨɛɵ ɚɛɛɪɟɜɢɚ ɪɚ
ɧɚɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɡɜɱɚɥɚ ɨɞɢɧɚɨɜɨ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɹɡɵɚɯ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷ ɨɝɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɨ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ ɶ ɝɪɟɱɟɫɨɟ ɫɥɨɜɨ isos ± ɪɚɜɧɵɣ, ɜɨ ɩɨɱɟɦ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɹɡɵɚɯ ɦɢɪɚ
Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢɦɟɟ ɪɚ ɨɟ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ ISO
(ɂ|Ɉ).
ȼ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɢ ɫ ɍɫ ɚɜɨɦ ɂ|Ɉ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ
ɫɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɟ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɸ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɦ ɦɚɫɲ ɚɛɟ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɹ
ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɨɜɚɪɨɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɢ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɩɨɦɨɳɢ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɹ
ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɢɧ ɟɥɥɟ ɚɥɶɧɨɣ, ɧɚɱɧɨɣ, ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɢ
ɷɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ».
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɶ ɂ|Ɉ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɟ
ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ, ɢɯ ɢɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫ ɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ. Ⱦɨɦɟɧ ɵ
ɂ|Ɉ ɩɛɥɢɸ ɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɯ ɹɡɵɚɯ, ɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɹɡɵɚɦɢ
ɂ|Ɉ ± ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɨɦ, ɮɪɚɧɰɡɫɨɦ ɢ ɪɫɫɨɦ. Ɋɚɛɨɱɢɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɚɦɢ,
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚ ɵɜɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɪɨɟ ɵ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ, ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ
ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɵ (ɌɄ). ȼɨɡɝɥɚɜɥɹɟ ɪɚɛɨ  ɌɄ ɟɝɨ ɫɟɪɟ ɚɪɢɚ .
ɉɪɨɟ ɵ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ  ɜɟɪɠɞɚɸ ɫɹ |ɨɜɟ ɨɦ ɂ|Ɉ, ɩɨɫɥɟ ɱɟɝɨ
ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɢɡɞɚɸ ɫɹ ɢ ɪɚɫɫɵɥɚɸ ɫɹ ɜɫɟɦ ɱɥɟɧɚɦ ɂ|Ɉ.
ȼ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɢ ɫ ɍɫ ɚɜɨɦ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɨɫ ɨɢ ɢɡ Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ Ⱥɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɢ,
|ɨɜɟ ɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ, ɰɟɧ ɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɪɟ ɚɪɢɚ ɚ, ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɨ ɞɟɥɨɜ ɢ
ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ. (Ɉɨɥɨ 188 ɌɄ).
Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ Ⱥɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɹ ± ɡɚɨɧɨɞɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɨɪɝɚɧ ɂ|Ɉ,
ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɞɟɥɟɝɚ ɨɜ, ɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɟɦɵɯ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚɦɢ-
ɱɥɟɧɚɦɢ. Ʉɚ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɨɧɚ ɫɨɡɵɜɚɟ ɫɹ ɨɞɢɧ ɪɚɡ ɜ ɪɢ ɝɨɞɚ. ɇɚ ɫɟɫɫɢɹɯ
Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ Ⱥɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɢ ɪɟɲɚɸ ɫɹ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɚɠɧɵɟ
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɂ|Ɉ, ɩɨɞɜɨɞɹ ɫɹ ɢ ɨɝɢ, ɧɚɦɟɱɚɸ ɫɹ ɩ ɢ
ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɣ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ.
ɂ|Ɉ ɢɡ ɝɨɞɚ ɜ ɝɨɞ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟ ɚɟ ɜɫɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɣ ɚɜ ɨɪɢ ɟ . ɗ ɨ
ɨɛɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɟɦ, ɱ ɨ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚ
ɧɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɚɡɚ ɟɥɢ, ɧɚɢɥɱɲɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɨ ɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɟ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɧɚɢ ɢ ɩɪɚ ɢɢ. ȼɫɥɟɞɫ ɜɢɟ ɷ ɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɞɰɢɹ, ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɸɳɚɹ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɦ ɂ|Ɉ, ɩɨɥɶɡɟ ɫɹ ɜɫɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ
ɫɩɪɨɫɨɦ ɧɚ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɪɵɧɟ.
ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɟɦ, ɱ ɨ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ
ɪɟɛɟ ɱɚɫ ɢɹ ɦɟ ɪɨɥɨɝɨɜ ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫ ɨɜ ɢɡ ɞɪɝɢɯ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɟɣ
ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ, ɂ|Ɉ ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɱɚɟ ɫ ɆɈɁɆ, ɆɗɄ ɢ ɞɪɝɢɦɢ
ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ.

3
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ɩɪɚɜɢ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɝɨɜ, ɧɚɱɧɨ- ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɯ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ.
ɇɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣ ɞɟɧɶ ɜ ɫɨɫ ɚɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɜɯɨɞɹ 163 ɫ ɪɚɧɵ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ
ɫɜɨɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ. Ȼɟɥɚɪɫɶ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɹɟ
Ƚɨɫɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɊȻ.
ȼɫɟɝɨ ɜ ɫɨɫ ɚɜɟ ɂ|Ɉ ɛɨɥɟɟ 100 ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ-
ɱɥɟɧɨɜ ɱɥɟɧɫ ɜɨ ɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɦɨɠɟ ɢɦɟ ɶ ɫ ɚ ɫ ɱɥɟɧɨɜ-ɨɪɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧ ɨɜ,
ɨ ɨɪɵɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɝɨɫɞɚɪɫ ɜ. Ʉɚ ɟɝɨɪɢɹ ɱɥɟɧ-ɚɛɨɧɟɧ » ɚɠɟ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɫ ɪɚɧ. Ʉɨɦɢ ɟ ɵ-ɱɥɟɧɵ ɢɦɟɸ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚ ɶ ɱɚɫ ɢɟ ɜ ɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɥɸɛɨɝɨ
ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚ ɂ|Ɉ, ɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɚ ɶ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɟ ɚɦ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ,
ɢɡɛɢɪɚ ɶɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɫ ɚɜ ɫɨɜɟ ɚ ɂ|Ɉ ɢ ɛɵ ɶ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɧɚ ɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɹɯ
Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɢ. ɑɥɟɧɵ-ɨɪɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧ ɵ (ɢɯ 45) ɧɟ ɜɟɞ ɚ ɢɜɧɨɣ
ɪɚɛɨ ɵ ɜ ɂ|Ɉ, ɧɨ ɢɦɟɸ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚ ɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɯ. ɑɥɟɧɵ-ɚɛɨɧɟɧ ɵ ɩɥɚɱɢɜɚɸ ɥɶɝɨ ɧɵɟ
ɜɡɧɨɫɵ, ɢɦɟɸ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɶ ɛɵ ɶ ɜ ɪɫɟ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
|ɢɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɫ ɪɚɧɚɯ-ɱɥɟɧɚɯ ɂ|Ɉ ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ
ɨɩɨɪɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɟɟ ɮɧɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɉɨɷ ɨɦ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚɦɢ-ɱɥɟɧɚɦɢ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɸ ɫɹ ɨɥɶɨ ɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɧɚɢɥɱɲɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɨ ɪɚɠɚɸ
ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɫ ɪɚɧɵ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɢɦɟɸ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɨɩɵ ɢ ɨɦɩɟ ɟɧ ɧɨɫ ɶ, ɱ ɨ ɪɟɛɟ ɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɣ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɩɨ
ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ² ɷ ɨ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɢɢ ɜɫɟɯ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɣ ɂ|Ɉ
ɜ ɫɜɨɢ ɫ ɪɚɧɵ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɜɵɪɚɡɢ ɟɥɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɱɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɸɳɢɯ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ.

‰ Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ

Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɜɯɨɞɹ ɪɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɢ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ.


Ɋɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɹ (ɜɵɫɲɢɣ ɨɪɝɚɧ), |ɨɜɟ ,
Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɹɳɟɟ ɛɸɪɨ. Ɋɚɛɨɱɢɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɵ ² ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɟ Ʉɨɦɢ ɟ ɵ
(ɌɄ), ɩɨɞɨɦɢ ɟ ɵ, ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɨɧɫɥɶ ɚ ɢɜɧɵɟ ɝɪɩɩɵ (ɌɄȽ).
Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɹ ± ɷ ɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɨɫ ɧɵɯ ɥɢɰ ɢ ɞɟɥɟɝɚ ɨɜ,
ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚɦɢ-ɱɥɟɧɚɦɢ. Ʉɚɠɞɵɣ ɨɦɢ ɟ -ɱɥɟɧ ɢɦɟɟ ɩɪɚɜɨ
ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɢ ɶ ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɟɯ ɞɟɥɟɝɚ ɨɜ, ɧɨ ɢɯ ɦɨɝ ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚ ɶ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚ ɟɥɢ. ɑɥɟɧɵ-ɨɪɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧ ɵ ɢ ɱɥɟɧɵ-ɚɛɨɧɟɧ ɵ ɱɚɫ ɜɸ ɚ
ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚ ɟɥɢ.
|ɨɜɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɢ ɪɚɛɨ ɨɣ ɂ|Ɉ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɪɵɜɚɯ ɦɟɠɞ ɫɟɫɫɢɹɦɢ
Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɢ. |ɨɜɟ ɢɦɟɟ ɩɪɚɜɨ, ɧɟ ɫɨɡɵɜɚɹ Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɢ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɢ ɶ ɜ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɵ-ɱɥɟɧɵ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɞɥɹ ɨɧɫɥɶ ɚɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ
ɩɨɪɱɢ ɶ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚɦ-ɱɥɟɧɚɦ ɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ. ɇɚ ɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɹɯ |ɨɜɟ ɚ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸ ɫɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫ ɜɨɦ ɝɨɥɨɫɨɜ ɩɪɢɫ ɫ ɜɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɢ
ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ |ɨɜɟ ɚ. ȼ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɦɟɠɞ ɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɩɪɢ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫ ɢ |ɨɜɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚ ɶ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɩ ɟɦ ɩɟɪɟɩɢɫɢ.
|ɨɜɟ  ɂ|Ɉ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɹɟ ɫɹ ɫɟɦɶ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ ɉɅȺɄɈ ( ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɟ
ɛɸɪɨ), |ɌȺɄɈ (ɨɦɢ ɟ ɩɨ ɢɡɱɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ);
ɄȺ|ɄɈ (ɨɦɢ ɟ ɩɨ ɨɰɟɧɟ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɹ); ɂɇɎɄɈ (ɨɦɢ ɟ ɩɨ ɧɚɱɧɨ-
ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ); ȾȿȼɄɈ (ɨɦɢ ɟ ɩɨ ɨɚɡɚɧɢɸ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ
ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɫ ɪɚɧɚɦ); ɄɈɉɈɅɄɈ (ɨɦɢ ɟ ɩɨ ɡɚɳɢ ɟ ɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜ
ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ); ɊȿɆɄɈ (ɨɦɢ ɟ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚɦ).
5
ɉɅȺɄɈ ɩɨɞɝɨ ɚɜɥɢɜɚɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ,
ɩɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɫ ɨɪɨɧ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ.
ȼ ɫɮɟɪ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ ɉɅȺɄɈ ɜɯɨɞɹ ɪɚɫɫɦɨ ɪɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ ɩɨ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɪɨɫɩɫ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɨ ɨɪɨɣ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɡɚɧɢɦɚ ɶɫɹ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɵ.
|ɌȺɄɈ ɨɛɹɡɚɧ ɨɚɡɵɜɚ ɶ ɦɟ ɨɞɢɱɟɫɸ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɸ ɩɨɦɨɳɶ
|ɨɜɟ  ɂ|Ɉ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦ ɢ ɦɟ ɨɞɢɟ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ. |ɢɥɚɦɢ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɹ ɫɹ ɢɡɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɯ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɩɨɞɝɨ ɨɜɚ ɪɟɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɣ ɩɨ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɸ
ɨɩ ɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɨɜ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ. |ɌȺɄɈ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟ ɫɹ ɚɠɟ
ɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɟɣ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɫɟɦɢɧɚɪɨɜ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɹ ɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ.
ɄȺ|ɄɈ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟ ɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɢ ɩɨɞ ɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɹ
ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ, ɫɥɝ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ,
ɢɡɱɚɹ ɩɪɚ ɢ ɷ ɨɣ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ. Ʉɨɦɢ ɟ
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚ ɵɜɚɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ ɩɨ ɢɫɩɵ ɚɧɢɹɦ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɟ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɹ
(ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ) ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ, ɫɥɝ, ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɩɨɞ ɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɸ
ɨɦɩɟ ɟɧ ɧɨɫ ɢ ɢɫɩɵ ɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɥɚɛɨɪɚ ɨɪɢɣ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ ɩɨ ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ.
ȼɚɠɧɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɶ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ ɄȺ|ɄɈ - ɫɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɢɸ ɢ
ɩɪɢɧɹ ɢɸ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ, ɚ ɚɠɟ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɢɫɩɵ ɚɧɢɣ ɢ
ɩɨɞ ɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɹ. ɄȺ|ɄɈ ɫɨɜɦɟɫ ɧɨ ɫ ɆɗɄ ɩɨɞɝɨ ɨɜɥɟɧ ɰɟɥɵɣ
ɪɹɞ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɚɫɩɟ ɚɦ ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɲɢɪɨɨ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɸ ɫɹ ɜ ɫ ɪɚɧɚɯ-ɱɥɟɧɚɯ ɂ|Ɉ ɢ ɆɗɄ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ, ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɷ ɢɯ
ɞɨɦɟɧ ɚɯ, ɱ ɟɧɵ ɜ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚɯ ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ, ɚ ɚɠɟ
ɫɥɠɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɨɰɟɧɟ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɹ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɩɨɫ ɚɜɥɹɟɦɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɜ ɨɪɝɨɜɨ-ɷɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɫɜɹɡɹɯ ɫ ɪɚɧ
ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɨɜ. ɄȺ|ɄɈ ɚɠɟ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟ ɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɳɢɯ
ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ  ɚɞɢ ɨɪɚɦ ɩɨ ɚɪɟɞɢ ɚɰɢɢ ɢɫɩɵ ɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɥɚɛɨɪɚ ɨɪɢɣ ɢ
ɨɰɟɧɟ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ ɚɪɟɞɢ ɸɳɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ; ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɢɹ
ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚ ɨɜ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɹ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɢ ɞɪ.
ȾȿȼɄɈ ɢɡɱɚɟ ɡɚɩɪɨɫɵ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫ ɪɚɧ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚ ɵɜɚɟ ɪɟɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɫɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɸ ɷ ɢɦ ɫ ɪɚɧɚɦ
ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ. Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɟ ɮɧɰɢɢ ȾȿȼɄɈ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɨɛɫɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɲɢɪɨɢɯ ɦɚɫɲ ɚɛɚɯ ɜɫɟɯ ɚɫɩɟ ɨɜ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɫ ɪɚɧɚɯ, ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɨɩɵ ɨɦ ɫ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɵɦɢ ɫ ɪɚɧɚɦɢ;
ɩɨɞɝɨ ɨɜɚ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫ ɨɜ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɛɚɡɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɨɛɱɚɸɳɢɯ
ɰɟɧ ɪɨɜ ɜ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɵɯ ɫ ɪɚɧɚɯ; ɫɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɟ ɨɡɧɚɨɦɢ ɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɨɟɡɞɚɦ
ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫ ɨɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ, ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɜ
ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫ ɪɚɧɚɯ; ɩɨɞɝɨ ɨɜɚ ɱɟɛɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɣ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫ ɪɚɧ; ɫ ɢɦɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɹ ɞɜɫ ɨɪɨɧɧɟɝɨ
ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɵɯ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɝɨɫɞɚɪɫ ɜ ɜ
ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɦɟ ɪɨɥɨɝɢɢ. ȼ ɷ ɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ ȾȿȼɄɈ
ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɱɚɟ ɫ ɈɈɇ. Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɨɜ ɫɨɜɦɟɫ ɧɵɯ ɫɢɥɢɣ ɫ ɚɥɨ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɮɧɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɰɟɧ ɪɨɜ ɨɛɱɟɧɢɹ.
ɄɈɉɈɅɄɈ ɢɡɱɚɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ ɢ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɢ ɫɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɷ ɨɦ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɸ; ɨɛɨɛɳɚɟ ɨɩɵ
ɱɚɫ ɢɹ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ ɜ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɢ ɫɨɫ ɚɜɥɹɟ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɩɨ
ɨɛɱɟɧɢɸ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɞɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɸ ɞɨ ɧɢɯ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɯ. ɗ ɨɦ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫ ɜɟ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɨɟ ɢɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɉɟɪɟɱɧɹ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ

6
ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜ
"|ɪɚɜɧɢ ɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɫɩɵ ɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɶɫɢɯ ɨɜɚɪɨɜ",
"ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɨɜɚɪɚɯ ɞɥɹ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ", "Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɧɵɯ
ɦɟ ɨɞɨɜ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɷɫɩɥɚ ɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɯɚɪɚ ɟɪɢɫ ɢ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɶɫɢɯ
ɨɜɚɪɨɜ" ɢ ɞɪ.
ɄɈɉɈɅɄɈ ɱɚɫ ɜɨɜɚɥ ɜ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ ɂ|ɈɆɗɄ ɩɨ
ɩɨɞɝɨ ɨɜɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫ ɢ.
ɊȿɆɄɈ ɨɚɡɵɜɚɟ ɦɟ ɨɞɢɱɟɫɸ ɩɨɦɨɳɶ ɂ|Ɉ ɩ ɟɦ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ
ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɸɳɢɯ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜ ɩɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ, ɚɫɚɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɧɵɯ
ɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜ (ɷ ɚɥɨɧɨɜ). Ɍɚ, ɩɨɞɝɨ ɨɜɥɟɧ ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚɦ
ɢ ɧɟɫɨɥɶɨ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜ "|ɫɵɥɚ ɧɚ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɧɵɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɵ ɜ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɯ", "Ⱥ ɟɫ ɚɰɢɹ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɧɵɯ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜ. Ɉɛɳɢɟ ɢ ɫ ɚ ɢɫ ɢɱɟɫɢɟ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ" ɢ ɞɪ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɨɝɨ, ɊȿɆɄɈ ² ɨɨɪɞɢɧɚ ɨɪ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɂ|Ɉ ɩɨ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚɦ ɫ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɦɟ ɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɦɢ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɜ ɱɚɫ ɧɨɫ ɢ, ɫ ɆɈɁɆ ²Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ
ɡɚɨɧɨɞɚ ɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɟ ɪɨɥɨɝɢɢ.

3 ɉɨɪɹɞɨɤ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɨɜ

ɇɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫ ɜɟɧɧɸ ɪɚɛɨ  ɩɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ


ɜɟɞ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɵ (ɌɄ); ɩɨɞɨɦɢ ɟ ɵ (ɉɄ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝ
ɱɪɟɠɞɚ ɶ ɌɄ) ɢ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ ɝɪɩɩɵ (ɊȽ) ɩɨ ɨɧɪɟ ɧɵɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ
ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ.
ȼɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɟɪɟ ɚɪɢɚ ɨɜ ɌɄ ɢ ɉɄ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸ 35 ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ-
ɱɥɟɧɨɜ.
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɟɪɟ ɚɪɢɚ ɨɜ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɵ-ɱɥɟɧɵ
ɦɨɝ ɛɵ ɶ ɚ ɢɜɧɵɦɢ ɱɥɟɧɚɦɢ ɥɸɛɨɝɨ ɌɄ ɢɥɢ ɉɄ; ɚ ɚɠɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚ ɟɥɹɦɢ.
Ɉɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɹɡɵɢ ɂ|Ɉ ² ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɢɣ, ɮɪɚɧɰɡɫɢɣ, ɪɫɫɢɣ. ɇɚ ɪɫɫɢɣ
ɹɡɵ ɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɨɨɥɨ 70% ɜɫɟɝɨ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɚ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɂ|Ɉ.
|ɯɟɦɚ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɫɜɨɞɢ ɫɹ 
ɫɥɟɞɸɳɟɦ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɨɪɨɧɚ ɜ ɥɢɰɟ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚ-ɱɥɟɧɚ,
ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚ, ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚ Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɢ (ɥɢɛɨ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɱɥɟɧɨɦ ɂ|Ɉ) ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɟ ɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɡɚɹɜ ɧɚ
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ  ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ. Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɟɪɟ ɚɪɶ ɩɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɫ
ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚɦɢ-ɱɥɟɧɚɦɢ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɹɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɹɳɟɟ
ɛɸɪɨ ɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɸɳɟɝɨ ɌɄ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣ ɛɞɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɧ ɩɪɢ
ɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɟɫɥɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫ ɜɨ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ ɝɨɥɨɫɸ "ɡɚ", ɚ
Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɹɳɟɟ ɛɸɪɨ ɛɟɠɞɟɧɨ ɜ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫ ɢ
ɛɞɳɟɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ. ȼɫɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɪɟɲɚɸ ɫɹ ɧɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɨɧɫɟɧɫɫɚ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ, ɚ ɢɜɧɨ ɱɚɫ ɜɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ
ɌɄ.
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɧɫɟɧɫɫɚ ɜ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɨɟ ɚ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɌɄ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟ
ɟɝɨ ɜ ɐɟɧ ɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɟɪɟ ɚɪɢɚ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɝɢɫ ɪɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɫɫɵɥɢ ɜɫɟɦ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚɦ
- ɱɥɟɧɚɦ ɧɚ ɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɚɧɢɟ. ȿɫɥɢ ɩɪɨɟ ɨɞɨɛɪɹɟ ɫɹ 75% ɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɚɜɲɢɯ, ɨɧ
ɩɛɥɢɟ ɫɹ ɜ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ.
ȼ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɂ|Ɉ ɱɚɫ ɜɸ ɫɜɵɲɟ 30 ɵɫ. ɷɫɩɟɪ ɨɜ ɢɡ
ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫ ɪɚɧ ɦɢɪɚ. ɂ|Ɉ ɩɨɥɶɡɟ ɫɹ ɦɢɪɨɜɵɦ ɚɜ ɨɪɢ ɟ ɨɦ ɚ ɱɟɫ ɧɚɹ ɢ
ɛɟɫɩɪɢɫ ɪɚɫ ɧɚɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɢɦɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɢɣ ɫ ɚ ɫ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɪɩɧɟɣɲɢɯ
ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ.
7
| ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ² ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɲɢɪɨɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɟɦɵɟ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɦɢɪɟ, ɢɯ
ɛɨɥɟɟ 15 ɵɫ., ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɩɟɪɟɫɦɚ ɪɢɜɚɟ ɫɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟ ɫɹ ɜɧɨɜɶ 500-
600 ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ.
| ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɹɸ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɳɚ ɟɥɶɧɨ ɨ ɪɚɛɨ ɚɧɧɵɣ
ɜɚɪɢɚɧ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ  ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ (ɫɥɝɚɦ), ɱ ɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɟɥɶɧɨ
ɨɛɥɟɝɱɚɟ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɨɜɚɪɚɦɢ, ɫɥɝɚɦɢ ɢ ɢɞɟɹɦɢ ɦɟɠɞ ɜɫɟɦɢ ɫ ɪɚɧɚɦɢ ɦɢɪɚ.
ȼɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɷ ɨ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟ ɫɹ ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ
ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɜ  ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɨɧɫɟɧɫɫɚ ɩɨ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɦ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ, ɡɚ ɱ ɨ ɧɟɫ
ɥɢɱɧɸ ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɟɞɚ ɟɥɢ ɌɄ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ ɨɧɫɟɧɫɫɚ ɩɪɢ
ɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɟ  ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɂ|Ɉ ɜɩɪɟɞɶ ɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɚ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚ ɶ ɟɳɟ ɢ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɧɸ ɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɨɫ ɶ ɩɪɚɜɢɥ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ, ɩɨɧɹ ɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɪɨɧ.
ȼɟɫɶɦɚ ɲɢɪɨɢ ɞɟɥɨɜɵɟ ɨɧ ɚ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɫ ɧɟɣ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸ ɫɜɹɡɶ
ɨɨɥɨ 500 ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ, ɜ ɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɜ ɫɟ
ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɚɝɟɧ ɫ ɜɚ ɈɈɇ, ɪɚɛɨ ɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɫɦɟɠɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ.
ɂ|Ɉ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟ ɩɨɫ ɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ. ɉɪɚ ɢɱɟɫɢ ɱɥɟɧɵ ɚɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ
ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɱɥɟɧɚɦɢ ɂ|Ɉ. ɉɨɷ ɨɦ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɟ
ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɡɚ ɨɫɧɨɜ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟ ɫɹ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɂ|Ɉ ɧɟɪɟɞɨ ɟɳɟ
ɧɚ ɫ ɚɞɢɢ ɩɪɨɟ ɚ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɟɫɧɨɟ ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɱɟɫ ɜɨ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟ ɫɹ ɦɟɠɞ
ɂ|Ɉ ɢ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɢɦ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɨɦ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ (|ȿɇ).
Ʉɪɩɧɟɣɲɢɣ ɩɚɪ ɧɟɪ ɂ|Ɉ ² Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɷɥɟ ɪɨ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɚɹ
ɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ (ɆɗɄ. ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɷ ɢ ɪɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɯɜɚ ɵɜɚɸ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɜɫɟ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɟɯɧɢɢ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɨɝɨ, ɨɧɢ ɫ ɚɛɢɥɶɧɨ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɸ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɢ
ɟɥɟɨɦɦɧɢɚɰɢɢ.
Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸ ɫ ɚ ɫɚ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ
ɜɫɟɯ ɫ ɪɚɧ-ɱɚɫ ɧɢɰ. Ʌɸɛɚɹ ɫ ɪɚɧɚ ɦɢɪɚ ɜɩɪɚɜɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹ ɶ ɢɥɢ ɧɟ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹ ɶ ɢɯ. Ɋɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ
ɂ|Ɉ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɫɨ ɫ ɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɱɚɫ ɢɹ ɫ ɪɚɧɵ ɜ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ
ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɪɞɚ ɢ ɫɨɫ ɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɟɟ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ. | ɚɧɞɚɪ ɂ|Ɉ ɜ
ɫɥɱɚɟ ɟɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɜɨɞɢ ɫɹ ɜ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɸ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɜ ɟɯ ɮɨɪɦɚɯ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɵ ɜɵɲɟ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹ ɶɫɹ ɜ ɞɜɯ- ɢ
ɦɧɨɝɨɫ ɨɪɨɧɧɢɯ ɨɪɝɨɜɵɯ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ. ȼ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɨɣ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɟ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɲɥɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɨɨɥɨ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɂ|Ɉ.
Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚ ɩɪɨɟ ɚ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɜ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɚɯ ɂ|Ɉ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɫ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫ ɶɸ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɢ ɟɥɟɣ ɨ ɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫ ɪɚɧ (ɧɟɪɟɞɨ ɷ ɨ ɪɩɧɟɣɲɢɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ ɟɥɢ ɢ
ɷɫɩɨɪ ɟɪɵ ɨɜɚɪɨɜ) ɩɨ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɦ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɦ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ
ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɜɥɸɱɚ ɶɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɛɞɳɟɝɨ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ.
ȼɵɫɲɢɦ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɦɢ ɟ ɚ-ɱɥɟɧɚ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ
ɩɪɢɧɹ ɢɟ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɜ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɟ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ. Ɉɞɧɚɨ
ɫɥɟɞɟ ɱɟɫ ɶ, ɱ ɨ ɩɪɢ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɪɚɛɨ ɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɞɥɹ ɜɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɱɢ ɵɜɚɸ ɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɸɳɢɟ ɪɢ ɟɪɢɢ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɚ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ
ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫ ɢ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɡɚɳɢ ɚ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɷ ɢɯ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ
ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵ ɶ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɨ ɜɟɫɨɟ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɨ ɫɜɨɟɦ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɨ ɥɢɱɚɸ ɫɹ ɟɦ, ɱ ɨ ɥɢɲɶ
ɨɨɥɨ 20% ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɜɥɸɱɚɸ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ  ɨɧɪɟ ɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ
ɠɟ ɦɚɫɫɚ ɧɨɪɦɚ ɢɜɧɵɯ ɞɨɦɟɧ ɨɜ ɚɫɚɟ ɫɹ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫ ɢ,

8
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɡɚɦɟɧɹɟɦɨɫ ɢ, ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɫɨɜɦɟɫ ɢɦɨɫ ɢ, ɦɟ ɨɞɨɜ ɢɫɩɵ ɚɧɢɣ
ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɞɪɝɢɯ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɢ ɦɟ ɨɞɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ.
Ɍɚɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫ ɜɚ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟ , ɱ ɨ ɨɧɪɟ ɧɵɟ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ 
ɨɜɚɪ ɫ ɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸ ɫɹ ɜ ɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɧɵɯ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ.

4 Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɵ ɂɋɈ


4.1 ɂɋɈ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000

Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɫɟɪɢɢ ɂ|Ɉ 9000 ɧɚ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ.


Ʉɚɱɟɫ ɜɨ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ (ɫɥɝɢ) ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɵ ɶ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɨ ɢ ɝɚɪɚɧ ɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ
ɨɥɶɨ ɨɧ ɪɨɥɟɦ ɝɨ ɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ (ɫɥɝɢ). Ɉɧɨ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚ ɶɫɹ
ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɫ ɚɞɢɹɯ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɥɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ (ɫɥɝɢ), ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɫ ɢɡɱɟɧɢɹ
ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɪɵɧɚ, ɡɚ ɟɦ ɧɚ ɫ ɚɞɢɢ ɩɪɨɟ ɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ, ɩɪɢ
ɜɵɛɨɪɟ ɩɨɫ ɚɜɳɢɨɜ ɫɵɪɶɹ ɢ ɦɚ ɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ, ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɫ ɚɞɢɹɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ.
Ɂɚɜɟɪɲɚɸɳɢɦ ɷ ɚɩɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ  ɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɯɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɜ ɨɪɧɨɟ ɢɡɱɟɧɢɟ
ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɪɵɧɚ. ɗ ɨ ɚ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɚɹ ɩɟ ɥɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ».
|ɨɜɨɩɧɨɫ ɶ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɦɟɪ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɢ,
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɩɟ ɥɟ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ», ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɸ ɝɚɪɚɧ ɢɣ ɫ ɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɫɨɨɝɨ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɜ
ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɢ ɫ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɢ ɨɧ ɪɚ ɨɜ, ɨɛɪɚɡɟ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ.
|ɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɫ ɪɚ ɟɝɢɢ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɹ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ Ȼɟɥɚɪɫɢ ɧɨɪɦɚ ɢɜɧɨɟ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɨɯɜɚ ɵɜɚ ɶ
- ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɦɟ ɨɞɨɜ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ (ɫ ɚ ɢɫ ɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɦɟ ɨɞɵ,
ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧ ɚ, ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫ ɶ, ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫ ɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫ ɜɢɣ ɨ ɚɡɨɜ, ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɨɱɧɨɫ ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɢ .ɞ.);
- ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ (ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ, ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚ
ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ, ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚ ɚɪɟɞɢ ɚɰɢɢ ɢ .ɞ.);
- ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ  ɨɧɪɟ ɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ. ɗ ɨ ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ
ɩɪɨɞɰɢɹ ɦɟɠɨ ɪɚɫɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ (ɪɟɩɟɠɧɵɟ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɹ, ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɢ,
ɪɟɡɢɧɨ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɹ ɢ .ɞ.), ɚ ɚɠɟ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɧɚ ɦɟ ɨɞɵ
ɨɧ ɪɨɥɹ ɚ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ  ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ, ɚ ɢ ɢɯ
ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɶɫɢɯ ɫɜɨɣɫ ɜ, ɜ ɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɨ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɮɚɥɶɫɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ
ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ.
ȼ ɧɚɫ ɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɹɯ ɲɢɪɨɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɸ ɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ
ɫɟɪɢɢ ɂ|Ɉ 9000. Ƚɥɚɜɧɚɹ ɰɟɥɶ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000
- ɫ ɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɟɞɢɧɨɝɨ, ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɦɢɪɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ  ɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɧɵɦ
ɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ ɩɨ ɨɰɟɧɟ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ ɢ ɪɟɝɥɚɦɟɧ ɚɰɢɹ
ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɦɟɠɞ ɩɨɩɚ ɟɥɟɦ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢ ɟɟ ɩɨɫ ɚɜɳɢɨɦ ɩɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ. ɉɪɢ ɷ ɨɦ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚ ɶɫɹ ɠɟɫ ɚɹ
ɨɪɢɟɧ ɚɰɢɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɹ ɫ ɫɥɨɜɢɟɦ ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɟɧɢɹ.
|ɢɫ ɟɦɚ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɚɹ ɜ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɢ ɫɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɦɢ
ɂ|Ɉ 9000, ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɹ ɶ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ  ɫɢɫ ɟɦɟ ɨɧ ɪɨɥɹ ɢ
ɢɫɩɵ ɚɧɢɣ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ, ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫ ɢ; ɫɢɫ ɟɦɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ; ɫɢɫ ɟɦɟ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ ɨ ɩɪɨɟ ɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɨ
ɷɫɩɥɚ ɚɰɢɢ.
9
Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000 - ɷ ɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɣ
ɨɦɩɥɟɫ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɞɨɦɟɧ ɨɜ ɩɨ ɚɱɟɫ ɜ, ɨɯɜɚ ɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ
ɜɫɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ.
Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000 ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ 
ɫɢɫ ɟɦɟ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɨɧɪɟɧ ɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫ ɶ ɢ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨ ɩɨ
ɨɧɪɟ ɧɨɦ ɜɢɞ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ. ɇɨ ɫɚɦɨɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɟ, ɱ ɨ ɷ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ
ɨ ɪɚɠɚɸ ɨɧɰɟɧ ɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ ɨɩɵ ɩɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ,
ɪɚɫɫɦɚ ɪɢɜɚɸ ɲɢɪɨɢɣ ɫɩɟ ɪ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɩɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ (ɨ
ɦɚɪɟ ɢɧɝɚ ɞɨ  ɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ).
ɗ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɢɫɯɨɞɧɵɦ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɞɨɦɟɧ ɨɦ ɩɨ
ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ  ɚɱɟɫ ɜ ɜ ɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɢɯ ɫɞɟɥɚɯ ɦɟɠɞ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɹɦɢ.
Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000 ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɛɨɥɟɟ 350
ɵɫɹɱ ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɹɯ
ɝɨɫɞɚɪɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɱɚɫ ɧɨɝɨ ɫɟ ɨɪɚ ɜ 150 ɫ ɪɚɧɚɯ.
ɍɫɩɟɯ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɫɥɨɜɥɟɧ ɫɥɟɞɸɳɢɦɢ ɮɚ ɨɪɚɦɢ
- ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ ɢ ɨɩɵ ɨɦ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɰɜɟ ɚɸɳɢɯ ɮɢɪɦ (ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɣ) ɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɧ ɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ
ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ ɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɩɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɦ ɟɝɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ;
- ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɢɧɫ ɪɦɟɧ ɨɦ ɨɰɟɧɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ
ɜ ɨɪɨɣ ɢ ɪɟ ɶɟɣ ɫ ɨɪɨɧɨɣ;
- ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɸ ɫɹ, ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸ ɫɹ, ɢ ɢɯ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ( ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ)
ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɹɟ ɪɚɫ ɳɢɟ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɧɨɫ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ.
|ɥɟɞɟ ɨ ɦɟ ɢ ɶ, ɱ ɨ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ
9000 ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɪɟɨɦɟɧɞɟɦɵɦɢ, ɢ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɢ ɞɟɥɨ
ɞɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɟ. Ɉɞɧɚɨ ɛɟɫɫɩɨɪɧɨ, ɱ ɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɷ ɢɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɢ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɸɳɟɣ ɜɫɟɦ
ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ
ɨɧɪɟɧ ɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫ ɢ ɢ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ, ɫɧɢɠɚɟ ɡɚ ɪɚ ɵ,
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɶ, ɩɨɜɵɲɚɟ ɞɟɥɨɜɸ ɚ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɶ. Ɍɚɠɟ ɫɥɟɞɟ
ɩɨɦɧɢ ɶ, ɱ ɨ ɚɡ ɉɪɟɡɢɞɟɧ ɚ Ɋɟɫɩɛɥɢɢ Ȼɟɥɚɪɫɶ ɨ 20 ɦɚɹ 1998 ɝ. Ɉ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɢ ɨɧɪɟɧ ɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫ ɢ ɨ ɟɱɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ (ɪɚɛɨ ,
ɫɥɝ) ɢ ɨɛ ɫɢɥɟɧɢɢ ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ ɢɡɝɨ ɨɜɢ ɟɥɟɣ, ɩɨɫ ɚɜɳɢɨɜ ɢ
ɩɪɨɞɚɜɰɨɜ ɡɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ (ɪɚɛɨ ɢ ɫɥɝ)», ɩɟɪɜɵɦ ɩɧ ɨɦ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟ , ɱ ɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɢ
ɨɧɪɟɧ ɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɟ
ɮɧɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɸɳɟɣ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ
ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000.
ȼɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟ ɫɹ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɣ ɨɦɢ ɟ ,
ɜɨɡɝɥɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɣ Ʉɚɧɚɞɨɣ.
ɉɟɪɜɚɹ ɜɟɪɫɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000 ɛɵɥɚ
 ɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɚ ɜ 1987 ɝ. ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɹɥɚ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɨɦɩɥɟɫ ɢɡ ɩɹ ɢ
ɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɩɨ ɚɱɟɫ ɜ
- ɂ|Ɉ 9000-87 (ɱɚɫ ɢ 1-4) Ɉɛɳɟɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɨ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɩɨ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ. Ɋɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ»;
- ɂ|Ɉ 9001-87 |ɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ. Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɪɢ
ɩɪɨɟ ɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɢ (ɢɥɢ) ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɟ»;
- ɂ|Ɉ 9002-87 |ɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ. Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɪɢ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫ ɜɟ ɢ ɦɨɧ ɚɠɟ»;
- ɂ|Ɉ 9003-87 |ɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ. Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɪɢ
ɨɨɧɱɚ ɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɨɧ ɪɨɥɟ ɢ ɢɫɩɵ ɚɧɢɹɯ»;

10
- ɂ|Ɉ 9004-87 (ɱɚɫ ɢ 1-3) Ɉɛɳɟɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɨ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ ɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧ ɵ
ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ. Ɋɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɚɡɚɧɢɹ».
ȼ ɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ  ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000 ɛɵɥ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚɧ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ
ɟɪɦɢɧɨɜ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ - ɂ|Ɉ 8402.
ȼ 1994 ɝ. ɷ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɛɵɥɢ  ɨɱɧɟɧɵ, ɨɞɧɚɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɚɫɶ ɩɪɟɠɧɹɹ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚ, ɜ ɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɰɟɥɢ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɢɯ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɹ. ɉɪɢ
ɷ ɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɞɨɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɞɨ 25 (ɧɟɨ ɨɪɵɦ ɧɨɜɵɦ ɩɪɢɫɜɨɢɥɢ
ɧɨɦɟɪɚ, ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɫ 10 000). ɂɡ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɫɟɦɟɣɫ ɜɚ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ 1994 ɝ. ɨɥɶɨ
ɂ|Ɉ 9001, ɂ|Ɉ 9002 ɢ ɂ|Ɉ 9003 ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɞɥɹ ɰɟɥɟɣ
ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ, ɢ ɢɯ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ,
ɚ ɢ ɂ|Ɉ 10012 Ɍɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɝɚɪɚɧ ɢɪɸɳɢɟ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨ ɢɡɦɟɪɢ ɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɢɧɫ ɪɦɟɧ ɚ». Ɉɫ ɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɨɫɢɥɢ ɯɚɪɚ ɟɪ ɪɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɚɡɚɧɢɣ ɢɥɢ
ɪɟɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɣ.
Ɍɚɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ 9001-9003 ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɹɥɢ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɚɛɨɪ
ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ  ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚɦ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɵɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɞɟɦɨɧɫ ɪɚɰɢɢ
ɫɜɨɢɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɟɣ ɩɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɨɧ ɪɚ ɚɯ, ɚ
ɚɠɟ ɞɥɹ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɨɰɟɧɢ ɷ ɨɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫ ɢ. | ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɝɪɩɩɵ ɂ|Ɉ 9004
ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɚɡɚɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɧ ɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚɧɧɵɟ ɂ|Ɉ ɞɨɦɟɧ ɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɵ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ
ɫ ɪɚɧɚɯ ɦɢɪɚ, ɢ  2000 ɝ. ɨɨɥɨ 350 ɵɫɹɱ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɣ ɠɟ ɩɨɥɱɢɥɢ
ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚ ɵ ɧɚ ɫɜɨɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ.
ɉɨ ɩɪɨɲɟɫ ɜɢɢ ɧɟɨ ɨɪɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɜɵɹɫɧɢɥɨɫɶ, ɱ ɨ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ,
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɦ ɂ|Ɉ ɜɟɪɫɢɢ 1994 ɝ., ɢɦɟɥɢ ɧɟɨ ɨɪɵɟ
ɫɳɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɟɞɨɫ ɚ ɢ. |ɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɯ ɫɥɟɞɟ ɨ ɦɟ ɢ ɶ ɨ, ɱ ɨ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɞɜɚɞɰɚ ɶɸ ɷɥɟɦɟɧ ɚɦɢ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫ ɜɨɜɚɥɚ ɪɨɫ 
ɛɚɪɶɟɪɨɜ ɦɟɠɞ ɨ ɞɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɱɚɫ ɹɦɢ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ. ɉɪɢ
ɚɨɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ ɨ ɫ ɫ ɜɨɜɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɧɚɹ ɫ ɪ ɪɚ, ɨ ɨɪɚɹ ɛɵ ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɥɚ
ɜɫɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧ ɵ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɠɞ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɢ ɨɪɢɟɧ ɢɪɨɜɚɥɚ ɛɵ ɚɠɞɵɣ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɧɚ
ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɰɟɥɢ - ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɹ.
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɨɝɨ, ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɨ ɂ|Ɉ 90011994 ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɢ ɥɢɲɶ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɨ ɨɪɨɟ ɧɟɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɥɨ ɫ
ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɦɨɝɥɨ ɨɚɡɚ ɶɫɹ ɧɟɜɨɫ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ. ɉɨɷ ɨɦ ɫ
ɫɢɫ ɟɦɨɣ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɨ ɂ|Ɉ 90011994 ɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɢ ɧɟ ɞɨɫ ɢɱɶ ɫɩɟɯɨɜ ɜ
ɛɢɡɧɟɫɟ, ɩɨɫ ɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɹɫɶ  ɛɚɧɪɨ ɫ ɜ.
ȼ 2000 ɝ. ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɢɧɹ ɵ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɫɟɦɟɣɫ ɜɚ ɂ|Ɉ, ɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ
ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣ ɞɟɧɶ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɟɪɫɩɟ ɢɜɧɵɦɢ. ȼ ɷ ɨ ɫɟɦɟɣɫ ɜɨ ɜɨɲɥɢ ɂ|Ɉ
9000, ɂ|Ɉ 9001, ɂ|Ɉ 9004 ɢ ɂ|Ɉ 19001.
ɇɨɜɚɹ ɜɟɪɫɢɹ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟ ɫɥɟɞɸɳɢɦɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫ ɹɦɢ
- ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɳɢɦɢ;
- ɛɨɥɟɟ ɝɢɛɢ ɜ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ, ɢɦɟɟ ɫɹ ɨɥɶɨ ɨɞɢɧ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɣ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ;
- ɮɧɞɚɦɟɧ ɚɥɶɧɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɚ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɹ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ  ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ  ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ,
ɜɜɟɞɟɧ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ;
- ɫɳɟɫ ɜɸɳɢɟ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ  ɫɢɫ ɟɦɟ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɢɫɶ
ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢ ɟɥɶɧɨ;
- ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɟɫɨɥɶɨ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɨɚɠ ɫɳɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɟ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ ɟɥɹ;
- ɧɟ ɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɚɞɰɚ ɶ ɷɥɟɦɟɧ ɨɜ, ɧɨ ɨɧɢ ɩɪɢɫ ɫ ɜɸ ɜ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɟ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫ ɶɸ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɂ|Ɉ 9000 ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ
ɮɧɞɚɦɟɧ ɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ  ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ  ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɨɝɞɚ ɨɧ
ɫ ɚɧɨɜɢ ɫɹ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɸɳɢɦ ɜ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɮɢɪɦɵ, .ɟ. ɪɟɚɥɢɡɟ ɫɹ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ

11
Ɉ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ  ɚɱɟɫ ɜ ɮɢɪɦɵ». |ɢɫ ɟɦɧɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɧɚɡɜɚ ɶ ɫɥɟɞɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ
- ɨɪɢɟɧ ɚɰɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɹ;
- ɥɢɞɟɪɫ ɜɨ ɪɨɜɨɞɢ ɟɥɹ;
- ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɛɨ ɧɢɨɜ;
- ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ;
- ɫɢɫ ɟɦɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ  ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ;
- ɩɨɫ ɨɹɧɧɨɟ ɥɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɟ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ;
- ɩɪɢɧɹ ɢɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɮɚ ɨɜ;
- ɜɡɚɢɦɨɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɟ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɩɨɫ ɚɜɳɢɨɦ.
Ɉɪɢɟɧ ɚɰɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɹ. ȼ ɧɚɫ ɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫ ɜɟ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɱɢ ɵɜɚ ɶ ɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɵ ɩɨɩɚ ɟɥɹ, ɜɟɞɶ ɨɥɶɨ ɜ ɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɞɟɮɢɰɢ ɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɡɚɫ ɚɜɢ ɶ ɥɢɟɧ ɚ ɩɨɩɚ ɶ ɨ, ɱ ɨ ɟɦ ɧɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɸ .
|ɟɝɨɞɧɹ, ɟɫɥɢ ɦɵ ɯɨ ɢɦ ɞɨɛɢ ɶɫɹ ɫɩɟɯɚ, ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢ ɫɹ ɞɨ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ
ɧɨɜɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢɞ ɢ  ɩɨ ɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɹɦ ɢ ɳɚ ɟɥɶɧɨ
ɜɵɹɫɧɹ ɶ, ɱ ɨ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɨɧɢ ɯɨ ɟɥɢ ɛɵ ɩɢ ɶ. ɂ ɨɥɶɨ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɷ ɨɝɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ
ɩɪɢɫ ɩɚ ɶ  ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɟ, ɫ ɪɟɦɹɫɶ ɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɨɜɚ ɶ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɸ ɟɯɧɢ ɢ
ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɦɚɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ  ɚɨɣ,
ɚɨɣ ɟɟ ɠɟɥɚɟ ɜɢɞɟ ɶ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɶ.
Ʌɢɞɟɪɫ ɜɨ ɪɨɜɨɞɢ ɟɥɹ. ɗ ɨ ɧɟɨ ɴɟɦɥɟɦɵɣ ɷɥɟɦɟɧ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ (|ɆɄ) ɢ ɩɫɨɜɨɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ» ɷ ɨɣ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ.
ɇɢɚɨɟ ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɟ ɞɟɥɨ ɧɟ ɛɞɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɨ ɫ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɷɮɮɟ ɨɦ, ɟɫɥɢ
ɥɸɞɢ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɝɥɚɜɥɹɸ , ɧɟ ɜɨɡɶɦ ɧɚ ɫɟɛɹ ɥɢɞɟɪɫɢɟ ɮɧɰɢɢ
ɦɚɥɨ ɛɵ ɶ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɢɨɦ, ɧɚɞɨ ɟɳɟ ɫ ɚ ɶ ɥɢɞɟɪɨɦ. Ʌɢɞɟɪɫ ɜɨ ɜɵɫɲɟɝɨ
ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ, ɟɝɨ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɚ ɢ ɚ ɢɜɧɨɟ ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɪɚɛɨ  ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɚ
ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɪɟɲɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɢ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɫɨɫ ɨɹɧɢɢ
ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɢɜɧɨɣ ɢ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɣ |ɆɄ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɝɨɞɵ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ
ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɪɨɧ.
ȼɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɛɨ ɧɢɨɜ. ɑɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɥɸɞɢ, ɪɚɛɨ ɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ,
ɞɟɣɫ ɜɸ ɟɣ ɜɨ ɛɥɚɝɨ, ɟɦ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɜɟ ɥɵɟ ɩɟɪɫɩɟ ɢɜɵ ɨ ɪɵɜɚɸ ɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɞ
ɧɟɣ. Ʉɨɧɟɱɧɨ, ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɚ ɫɳɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɨ ɜɥɢɹɟ ɥɶ ɪɚ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɫ ɢɥɶ ɥɢɞɟɪɫ ɜɚ, ɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɫɢ ɚɰɢɹ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ,
ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɥɢɞɟɪ - ɨɦɚɧɞɚ». Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɫɨɪɟɟ ɚ
ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɸɳɢɯ ɨɦɚɧɞ, ɧɟɠɟɥɢ ɠɟɫ ɚɹ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɚɹ
ɜɟɪ ɢɚɥɶ. ɉɟɪɜɵɣ ɲɚɝ  ɧɚɥɚɠɢɜɚɧɢɸ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɨɦɚɧɞɟ -
ɞɟɥɟɝɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣ. Ɂɚɦɟɱɟɧɨ, ɱ ɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɟɦ
ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɟɟ, ɱɟɦ ɛɥɢɠɟ  ɢɫ ɨɱɧɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ
ɩɪɢɧɹ ɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ. Ⱦɟɥɟɝɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨ ɧɚ ɞɨɜɟɪɢɢ, ɚ
ɞɨɜɟɪɢɟ - ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɫɚɦɵɯ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧ ɨɜ ɜɨɪɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɥɢɦɚ ɚ,
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫ ɜɸɳɟɝɨ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɧɚ ɠɟɫ ɢɯ ɪɵɧɚɯ. ȼɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɧɨɫ ɶ
ɨɦɚɧɞɵ ɫɢɥɢɜɚɟ ɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜ ɩɚɪɫɢɩɚ ɢɜɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, .ɟ. ɩɪɢ ɩɪɟɞɨɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɜɫɟɦ ɱɥɟɧɚɦ ɨɦɚɧɞɵ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɢ ɱɚɫ ɜɨɜɚ ɶ ɜ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ - ɜ ɜɵɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɢɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
ɉɪɨɰɟɫɫɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɱɢɢ ɨɛɫɠɞɚɟɦɨɣ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜ
ɩɨɥɚɝɚɸ , ɱ ɨ ɜɫɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɣ, ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɟɦɵɯ ɜ ɧɟɨ ɨɪɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ,
ɢɦɟɟ ɫɦɵɫɥ ɪɚɫɫɦɚ ɪɢɜɚ ɶ ɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ. ɉɨɞ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦɢ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɸ
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢ ɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɷ ɚɩɨɜ, ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɸɳɢɯ
ɜɯɨɞɵ ɜ ɜɵɯɨɞɵ. ȼ ɧɟɨ ɨɪɨɦ ɫɦɵɫɥɟ ɚɨɟ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɛɥɢɡɨ 
ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɨɛ ɚɥɝɨɪɢ ɦɚɯ.
| ɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɡɚɥɸɱɚɟ ɫɹ ɜ ɨɦ, ɱ ɨ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɚɠɞɨɣ
ɪɚɛɨ ɵ ɪɚɫɫɦɚ ɪɢɜɚɟ ɫɹ ɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ, ɚ ɮɧɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ
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ɪɚɫɫɦɚ ɪɢɜɚɟ ɫɹ ɚ ɰɟɩɨɱɚ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɞɥɹ
ɜɵɩɫɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɥɢɛɨ ɨɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɫɥɝɢ.
ɉɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɨɫ ɨɹɧɧɨɟ ɥɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɟɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɵ ɶ
ɞɨɫ ɢɝɧ ɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ PDCA ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɜɧ ɪɢ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɫ ɶ ɨ ɨɪɨɝɨ ɛɵɥɚ ɪɚɫɫɦɨ ɪɟɧɚ ɜɵɲɟ.
|ɢɫ ɟɦɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ  ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ . Ɉɞɧɨ ɞɟɥɨ - ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚ ɶ ɚɨɣ-ɧɢɛɞɶ
ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ. ɇɨ ɫɨɜɫɟɦ ɞɪɝɨɟ - ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɢ ɶ ɰɟɥɸ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɚ
ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɸɳɢɯ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ
Ɂɞɟɫɶ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɪɚɫɫɦɚ ɪɢɜɚɟ ɫɹ ɨɦɚɧɞɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ  ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ,
ɪɚɡɪɲɚɸɳɢɣ ɛɚɪɶɟɪɵ ɦɟɠɞ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ.
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɨɝɨ, ɫɢɫ ɟɦɧɵɣ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ ɪɟɛɟ ɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɜɫɟɯ ɚɫɩɟ ɨɜ
ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ. ɉɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɷ ɨ ɜɟɞɟ  ɜɹɡɵɜɚɧɢɸ ɦɟɠɞ
ɫɨɛɨɣ ɡɚɞɚɱ, ɜɨɡɧɢɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɪɚɦɚɯ ɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɫ ɦɢɫɫɢɟɣ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɟɟ ɜɢɞɟɧɢɟɦ, ɫ ɪɚ ɟɝɢɱɟɫɢɦɢ ɰɟɥɹɦɢ, ɩɨɥɢ ɢɨɣ ɢ .ɞ.
Ƚɨɜɨɪɹ ɩɪɨɫ ɵɦɢ ɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ, ɫɢɫ ɟɦɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ  ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ  - ɷ ɨ ɨɝɞɚ
ɜɵɫɲɢɣ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟ ɫɹ
- ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɨɣ ɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɞɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɟɟ ɞɨ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɨɜ,
ɩɨɥɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɛɪɚ ɧɨɣ ɫɜɹɡɢ, ɩɨɥɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɧɫɟɧɫɫɚ;
- ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɨɣ ɜɢɞɟɧɢɹ;
- ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɨɣ ɫ ɪɚ ɟɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɫ ɪɚ ɟɝɢɱɟɫɢɦ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ;
- ɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɦ ɪɵɧɚ ɢ ɩɨɫ ɪɨɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɥɶ ɪɵ;
- ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɨɣ ɛɸɞɠɟ ɚ (ɛɢɡɧɟɫ-ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ), ɩɨɥɢ ɢɨɣ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ ɜ
ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɪɨɧ
ɢ ɩɪɟɞɨ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɨɧɮɥɢ ɧɵɯ ɫɢ ɚɰɢɣ.
ɉɨɫ ɨɹɧɧɨɟ ɥɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɟ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ. ȼɫɟ ɟɱɟ ,
ɜɫɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟ ɫɹ», ɢ ɨɥɶɨ ɫɚɦɢ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɵ ɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɵ. ɇɢɱ ɨ ɧɚ ɫɜɟ ɟ ɧɟ
ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ, ɢ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɞɟɥɚ ɶ ɡɚɜ ɪɚ, ɥɱɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ.
|ɢɫ ɟɦɚ ɢɱɟɫɢ ɥɱɲɚɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɨɥɱɢ ɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɶ
ɩɨɫ ɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɫɧɢɠɚ ɶ ɰɟɧɵ, ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɧɟ ɡɚ ɫɱɟ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ ɢɥɢ
ɞɟɦɩɢɧɝɚ, ɚ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɛɵɫ ɪɨ ɪɚɫ ɳɟɦ ɡɚɡɨɪ ɦɟɠɞ ɫɟɛɟɫ ɨɢɦɨɫ ɶɸ ɢ
ɰɟɧɨɣ. Ɍɚɨɟ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɰɟɧɵ ɜɟɞɟ  ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɸ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɧɢɲɢ, ɚ ɷ ɨ, ɜ
ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢ  ɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɸ ɫɟɛɟɫ ɨɢɦɨɫ ɢ ɡɚ ɫɱɟ ɷɮɮɟ ɚ
ɦɚɫɲ ɚɛɚ. |ɥɟɞɸɳɢɣ ɲɚɝ - ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ ɨɦɚɧɞɵ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ
ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɩ ɟɦ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚ ɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɨɛɱɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɞɨɛɪɨɠɟɥɚ ɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɚ ɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ. ɗ ɨ - ɨɛɥɚɫ ɶ ɪɟ ɶɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ - ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɚ. Ⱦɚɥɟɟ
ɫɥɟɞɟ ɥɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɨɛɢ ɚɧɢɹ», ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɦɟɫ ɚ, ɪɚɛɨɱɟɣ ɡɨɧɵ.
ȼɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɦ ɦɨɦɟɧ ɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɨɛɱɟɧɢɟ, ɨ ɨɪɨɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟ ɫɪɚɡ
ɧɟɫɨɥɶɨ ɥɸɱɟɜɵɯ ɮɧɰɢɣ, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɨ ɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɢɞɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɜɨɪɱɟɫɨɝɨ
ɯɚɪɚ ɟɪɚ; ɫɩɥɨɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɦɚɧɞɵ; ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɜɚɥɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɨɜ;
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨ ɟɪɶ ɨ ɧɟɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɵɯ, ɧɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ,
ɧɟɜɚɥɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɣ.
ɉɪɢɧɹ ɢɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɮɚ ɨɜ. Ʌɸɛɨɣ ɜɢɞ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɨɣ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ
ɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧ ɫ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫ ɜɨɦ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɨɜ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ. Ɉɧɢ ɧɚɚɩɥɢɜɚɸ ɫɹ
ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɰɟɥɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨ, ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɫɚɦɢ ɫɨɛɨɣ, ɩɪɢ ɷ ɨɦ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɫɳɟɫ ɜɟ
ɨɫ ɪɚɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɷ ɢɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɸ
ɨɫɨɡɧɚ ɶ ɮɚ ɵ, ɜɚɠɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɧɹ ɢɹ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
Ʌɸɛɨɟ ɨɪɪɟ ɢɪɸɳɟɟ ɢɥɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɟɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟ ɫɹ
ɨɥɶɨ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɮɚ ɨɜ. ɉɪɢ ɷ ɨɦ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɨ ɥɢɱɚ ɶ ɞɨɫ ɨɜɟɪɧɵɟ ɢɥɢ
ɧɚɞɟɠɧɵɟ ɮɚ ɵ ɨ ɥɨɠɧɵɯ, ɫɨɦɧɢ ɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɚ ɨɜ ɢɥɢ ɚɪ ɟɮɚ ɨɜ.
ȼɡɚɢɦɨɜɵɝɨɞɧɵɟ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɩɨɫ ɚɜɳɢɚɦɢ. Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ
ɩɨɫ ɚɜɳɢ - ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɶ» ɛɵɥɢ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɞɨɛɧɵ. Ʉɨɡɟɥ ɨ ɩɳɟɧɢɹ» ɜ ɥɢɰɟ
ɩɨɫ ɚɜɳɢɚ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɛɵɥ ɩɨɞ ɪɨɣ. Ɍɟɩɟɪɶ ɧɚɫ ɚɥɢ ɢɧɵɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɚ ɢ
13
ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɥɨɡɧɝɢ. ɇɟ ɫ ɨɢ ɫ ɪɚɢɜɚ ɶ ɨɧɪɟɧɰɢɸ ɦɟɠɞ
ɩɨɫ ɚɜɳɢɚɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɰɟɧ. ɗ ɨ ɦɨɠɟ ɩɪɢɜɟɫ ɢ  ɩɨ ɟɪɟ
ɩɟɪɫɩɟ ɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɨɫ ɚɜɳɢɨɜ. Ⱥ ɩɨɢɫ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɧɚɥɚɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɫ
ɧɢɦ - ɞɟɥɨ ɞɨɥɝɨɟ, ɞɨɪɨɝɨɟ ɢ ɧɟ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɟ.
Ʌɱɲɟ ɫ ɪɟɦɢ ɶɫɹ  ɩɨɫ ɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦ. Ɍɨɝɞɚ ɩɨɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɶ ɩɪɚɜɥɹ ɶ ɰɟɩɨɱɚɦɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫ ɟɣ.
ɗ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ, ɩɨ ɫɳɟɫ ɜ, ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɦɢ ɩɨ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ
ɫ ɱɟ ɨɦ ɟɝɨ ɩɨɫ ɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ. | ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɫ ɢɦɥɢɪɟ ɱɟ ɸ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɹ ɩɨ ɟɟ
ɥɱɲɟɧɢɸ, ɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɷ ɨɦ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɸ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɶ ɧɨɜɨɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ,
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫ ɜɸɳɢɯ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɸ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɨɜɚɧɢɸ
ɫɚɦɨɣ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ.
ȼ ɧɚɫ ɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ Ɋɟɫɩɛɥɢɟ Ȼɟɥɚɪɫɶ ɞɟɣɫ ɜɸ ɝɨɫɞɚɪɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɟ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ, ɢɞɟɧ ɢɱɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɦ ɂ|Ɉ ɜɟɪɫɢɢ 2000 ɝ. Ʉ ɧɢɦ ɨ ɧɨɫɹ ɫɹ
|ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 9000-2000 |ɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɢ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɶ», ɨ ɨɪɵɣ ɫ ɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟ ɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɸ ɞɥɹ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɢ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ |ɆɄ, ɡɚɥɸɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ
ɫɥɟɞɸɳɟɦ
- ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫ ɢ |ɆɄ, ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɢ, ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɜ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɢ ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ
ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɹ;
- ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ  ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɸ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ;
- ɨɰɟɧɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ;
- ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶ ɦɟɠɞ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɨɣ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɞɪɝɢɦɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚɦɢ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɹɦɢ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɚ.
|ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 9001-2001 |ɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ. Ɍɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ»,
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ  ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚɦ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɞɥɹ ɟɯ
ɫɥɱɚɟɜ, ɨɝɞɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɪɨɞɟɦɨɧɫ ɪɢɪɨɜɚ ɶ ɫɜɨɸ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫ ɶ ɩɪɟɞɨɫ ɚɜɥɹ ɶ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɸ, ɨ ɜɟɱɚɸɳɸ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ
ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ. ɇɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ
ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ. Ⱦɚɧɧɵɣ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɦɟɟ ɧɟɫɨɥɶɨ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫ ɟɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧ ɧɚ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɢ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ  ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ 
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ  ɞɨɦɟɧ ɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ
ɢ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɝɢɛɢɦ ɜ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ.
|ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 9004-2001 |ɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ. Ɋɟɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ
ɥɱɲɟɧɢɸ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ», ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɣ ɪɟɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ, ɪɚɫɫɦɚ ɪɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ
ɚ ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɶ, ɚ ɢ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɶ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ.
ɐɟɥɶɸ ɷ ɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɥɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ
ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɫ ɶ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɞɪɝɢɯ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɪɨɧ.
|ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 9001-2001 ɢ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 9004-2001 ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚɧɵ ɚ
ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɩɚɪɚ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɧɚ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɞɥɹ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɞɪɝ ɞɪɝɚ, ɧɨ ɢɯ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹ ɶ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨ. Ⱦɥɹ ɞɨɛɫ ɜɚ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɧɢ ɢɦɟɸ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɸ ɫ ɪ ɪ.
|ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 19011 Ɋɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɚɞɢ  ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ
ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɢɢɥɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ», ɨ ɨɪɵɣ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢ
ɪɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚɦɢ ɚɞɢ ɚ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɸ
ɜɧ ɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɢɥɢ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɚɞɢ ɨɜ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɢ (ɢɥɢ)
ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɩɨ ɨɦɩɟ ɟɧ ɧɨɫ ɢ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɟ
ɚɞɢ ɨɪɨɜ.
ɉɪɚ ɢɱɟɫɚɹ ɱɚɫ ɶ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɧɚ
ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɢ ɦɨɠɟ ɜɥɸɱɚ ɶ ɧɟɫɨɥɶɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɷ ɚɩɨɜ
14
- ɩɟɪɜɵɣ ɢ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɫɚɦɵɯ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɷ ɚɩɨɜ - ɷ ɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɷ ɚɩ;
- ɜ ɨɪɨɣ ɷ ɚɩ - ɫɨɛɫ ɜɟɧɧɨ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ;
- ɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɸɳɢɣ ɪɟ ɢɣ - ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɜɧ ɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɚɞɢ ɨɜ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ -
ɮɚ ɢɱɟɫɢ ɨɧ ɪɨɥɶ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɫɞɟɥɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɫɩɟɲɧɨɝɨ ɢɯ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞɨ ɫɨɡɞɚ ɶ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ,
ɪɟɫɪɫɧɵɟ, ɦɟ ɨɞɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɜ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ. ȼɚɠɧɨ ɢɦɟ ɶ ɜ ɜɢɞ, ɱ ɨ ɨɲɢɛɢ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɞɨɱɟ ɵ, ɞɨɩɳɟɧɧɵɟ
ɧɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɷ ɚɩɟ, ɚ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹ  ɪɞɨɟɦɢɦ
ɨɪɪɟ ɢɪɨɜɚɦ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɟɥɚɦ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɸɳɢɯ ɷ ɚɩɚɯ ɪɚɛɨ .
Ɍɚɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ² ɷ ɨ ɫɪɟɞɫ ɜɨ,
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɟɟ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢ ɢɢ ɢ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɟ
ɩɨɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ. |ɢɫ ɟɦɚ ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɦɚ ɪɢɜɚɟ ɨɦɩɥɟɫɧɨɟ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ, ɨɝɞɚ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚ,
ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɸɳɚɹ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɣ, ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɚ
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ  ɩɨɚɡɚ ɟɥɟɣ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɢɯ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɟ, ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɞɨɫ ɢɝɧ ɨɝɨ
ɪɨɜɧɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫ ɜɚ ɢ ɷɫɩɥɚ ɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɧɚ
ɫɚɦɨɦ ɷɨɧɨɦɧɨɦ ɪɨɜɧɟ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɦ ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɟɧɢɢ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɩɨ ɪɟɛɢ ɟɥɹ. Ʉɨɦɩɥɟɫɧɨɟ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ ɪɟɛɟ ɱɚɫ ɢɹ ɜɫɟɯ
ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɹ, ɜɥɸɱɚɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɟ, ɨ ɞɟɥɵ
ɩɪɨɟ ɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ, ɫɛɵ ɚ, ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɨɧ ɪɨɥɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ,
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɞɪ.
Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɫɟɪɢɢ ɂ|Ɉ 14000 ɧɚ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ.
ȼ 1992 ɝɨɞ ɜ ɀɟɧɟɜɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɢɧɹ ɚ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɍɫ ɨɣɱɢɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɹ» -
ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɮɚ ɨɪɨɜ ɷ ɨɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢ
ɨɪɢɟɧ ɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɦɟ ɨɞɨɜ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɫɜɹɡɶ
ɷɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɹ ɫ ɨɯɪɚɧɨɣ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢ ɱɟ ɨɜ ɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜ
ɛɞɳɢɯ ɩɨɨɥɟɧɢɣ.
ɍɫ ɨɣɱɢɜɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɟ - ɷ ɨ ɚɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɟ, ɩɪɢ ɨ ɨɪɨɦ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɧɨɫ ɢ
ɧɚɫ ɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɩɨɨɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɹɸ ɫɹ ɛɟɡ ɳɟɪɛɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɟɣ ɛɞɳɢɯ
ɩɨɨɥɟɧɢɣ ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɹ ɶ ɫɜɨɢ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɧɨɫ ɢ.
ȼɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɡɚɫɟɞɚɧɢɹ Ȼɢɡɧɟɫ-|ɨɜɟ ɩɨ ɫ ɨɣɱɢɜɨɦ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɸ» ɩɨɞɱɟɪɧɥ,
ɱ ɨ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫ ɶ ɢ ɛɢɡɧɟɫ - ɞɜɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɨɪɞɢɹ ɜ
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɦɟɪɚɯ ɩɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɢ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ». Ⱦɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɂ|Ɉ ɛɵɥ ɨ ɞɚɧ ɩɪɢɨɪɢ ɟ
ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɜɵɪɚɛɨ ɚɥɚ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɸ
ɨɰɟɧ, ɱ ɨ ɪɵɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟ ɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. |ɥɟɞɹ ɪɟɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɹɦ ɟɟ
ɫ ɪɚ ɟɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɨɧɫɥɶ ɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɩɩɵ, ɨ ɨɪɚɹ ɜɥɸɱɚɥɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɢ ɟɥɟɣ ɢɡ 20 ɫ ɪɚɧ, 11 ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɟɦ 100
ɷɫɩɟɪ ɨɜ ɩɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ, ɂ|Ɉ ɜ 1993 ɝ. ɱɪɟɞɢɥɚ Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɣ
Ʉɨɦɢ ɟ 207 ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ», ɨ ɨɪɨɦ ɛɵɥɚ ɨ ɜɟɞɟɧɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɢ.
ɉɪɨɝɪɟɫɫ ɜ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɩɨ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɦ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɛɵɥ
ɫɳɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɟɫɧɨɦ ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɱɟɫ ɜ ɱɥɟɧɨɜ ɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɢɡ 70
ɫ ɪɚɧ ɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɟ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɢɨɜ-ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɢɨɜ, ɩɪɚɜɢ ɟɥɶɫ ɜ ɝɨɫɞɚɪɫ ɜ,
ɝɨɫɞɚɪɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɟɝɨɫɞɚɪɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ. ɉɟɪɜɵɟ ɩɹ ɶ ɫɟɪɢɣ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɩɛɥɢɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ ɨ ɹɛɪɟ 1996 ɝ, ɱɟɪɟɡ ɪɢ ɝɨɞɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɂ|ɈɌɄ 207.
ɇɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣ ɞɟɧɶ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 14000 ɜɥɸɱɚɸ ɨɨɥɨ 20
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ, ɨ ɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɯ ɫɥɟɞɸɳɢɟ ɚɫɩɟ ɵ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ
ɫɪɟɞɨɣ
15
- ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ |ɍɈ| (ɂ|Ɉ 14001, ɂ|Ɉ 14004, ɂ|Ɉ 14061);
- ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɣ ɚɞɢ ɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɧɢɦ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɂ|Ɉ
14010, ɂ|Ɉ 14011, ɂ|Ɉ 14012, ɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɫ ɜɢɢ ɡɚɦɟɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɂ|Ɉ 1901 1, ɚ
ɚɠɟ ɂ|Ɉ 14015);
- ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɚɹ ɦɚɪɢɪɨɜɚ ɢ ɞɟɥɚɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ (ɂ|Ɉ 14020, ɂ|Ɉ 14021,
ɂ|Ɉ 14024, ɂ|ɈɌɈ 14025);
- ɨɰɟɧɚ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɢ (ɂ|Ɉ 14031, ɂ|ɈɌɈ 14032);
- ɨɰɟɧɚ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɥɚ (ɂ|Ɉ 14040, ɂ|Ɉ 14041, ɂ|ɈɌɈ 14042, ɂ|Ɉ
14043, ɂ|ɈɌɈ 14047, ɂ|ɈɌɍ 14048, ɂ|ɈɌɈ 14049);
- ɞɪɝɢɟ ɚɫɩɟ ɵ (ɂ|Ɉ 14050, ɂ|ɈɌɈ 14062, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɩɪɨɟ ɵ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ
ɂ|Ɉ 14063, ɂ|Ɉ 14064).

4.‰ ɂɋɈ ɫɟɪɢɢ 14000

Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 14000 ɜ ɨ ɥɢɱɢɟ ɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ


ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɨɯɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɞɪɝɢɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɧɟ ɪɟɝɥɚɦɟɧ ɢɪɸ ɨɥɢɱɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɟ
ɩɨɚɡɚ ɟɥɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɸ ɫɪɟɞ (ɨɛɴɟɦ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɢ ɫɛɪɨɫɨɜ,
ɉȾɄ ɜɪɟɞɧɵɯ ɜɟɳɟɫ ɜ, ɢ .ɞ.) ɢ ɧɟ ɪɟɛɸ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ȼȺɌ-
ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ (Best Available Technology - ɧɚɢɥɱɲɚɹ ɢɡ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ
ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ). ɂɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɢɞɟɹ - ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ (ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ) (EMS - Environmental Management System) ɢ ɜ ɟɟ
ɪɚɦɚɯ - ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɩɨɫ ɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɥɱɲɟɧɢɹ. | ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ
ɫɟɪɢɢ 14000 ɧɟ ɡɚɦɟɧɹɸ ɡɚɨɧɨɞɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɧɟ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɸ ɫɹ ɜ
ɫɮɟɪ ɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɨɪɦɚ ɢɜɨɜ, ɚ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɸ ɢɯ. Ɉɧɢ ɩɪɢɡɜɚɧɵ
ɦɟɧɶɲɢ ɶ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɸ ɫɪɟɞ ɧɚ ɪɟɯ ɪɨɜɧɹɯ
- ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦ ² ɥɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɨɪɝɨɜɥɢ ɧɚ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɦ ɪɵɧɟ,
ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɛɚɪɶɟɪɨɜ ɜ ɨɪɝɨɜɥɟ;
- ɝɨɫɞɚɪɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɦ ² ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ  ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɧɨɪɦɚ ɢɜɧɨɣ ɛɚɡɟ ɢ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɩɨɥɢ ɢɟ;
- ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ²ɥɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ» ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɣ.
Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ, ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫ ɪɚɧɹɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ, ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ
ɷɥɟɦɟɧ ɚɦɢ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɣ |ɍɈ|, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝ ɛɵ ɶ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɵ ɫ ɞɪɝɢɦɢ
ɷɥɟɦɟɧ ɚɦɢ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫ ɪɚ ɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɟɦ, ɱ ɨɛɵ ɫɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɨɜɚ ɶ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦ ɜ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɢ ɷɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ.
ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 14000 ɜ Ȼɟɥɚɪɫɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚɧɵ 14
ɝɨɫɞɚɪɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ, ɢɞɟɧ ɢɱɧɵɯ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɦ. Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɦ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɦ ɜ ɷ ɨɣ ɫɟɪɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14001 |ɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ. Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɢ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɨ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ»,
ɫ ɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ  |ɍɈ|. ȿɝɨ ɦɨɝ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹ ɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɢɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ, ɥɶ ɪɧɵɦɢ ɢ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫ ɹɦɢ. Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ |ɍɈ|, ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɟ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ,
ɨɯɜɚ ɵɜɚɟ ɜɫɟ ɫ ɚɞɢɢ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɥɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ. ɍɫɩɟɯ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɡɚɜɢɫɢ
ɨ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɫ ɜ, ɜɡɹ ɵɯ ɧɚ ɫɟɛɹ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɢ ɜɫɟɦɢ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ, ɜ ɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɜɵɫɲɢɦ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɨɦ. |ɢɫ ɟɦɚ ɞɚɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɶ ɫ ɚɧɨɜɢ ɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪɵ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɢ ɶ ɢɯ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɶ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟ
ɫɮɨɪɦɥɢɪɨɜɚ ɶ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɸ ɩɨɥɢ ɢ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɨɜɢ ɶ ɰɟɥɟɜɵɟ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɩɨɚɡɚ ɟɥɢ, ɞɨɛɢ ɶɫɹ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɹ ɷ ɨɣ ɩɨɥɢ ɢɟ ɢ ɰɟɥɟɜɵɦ
ɩɨɚɡɚ ɟɥɹɦ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɟɦɨɧɫ ɪɢɪɨɜɚ ɶ ɷ ɨ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɟ ɞɪɝɢɦ. ɐɟɥɶ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ
ɡɚɥɸɱɚɟ ɫɹ ɜ ɨɦ, ɱ ɨɛɵ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚ ɶ ɦɟɪɵ ɩɨ ɨɯɪɚɧɟ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢ
16
ɩɪɟɞɨ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɟɟ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɚ ɫ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-
ɷɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɢɦɢ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɧɨɫ ɹɦɢ.
Ⱦɟɦɨɧɫ ɪɚɰɢɹ ɫɩɟɲɧɨɝɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ ɫɳɟɫ ɜɸɳɟɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɵ ɶ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɞɥɹ ɨɝɨ, ɱ ɨɛɵ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɨɪɨɧɵ
ɞɨɫ ɨɜɟɪɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ  ɧɟɟ ɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɣ |ɍɈ|.
|ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14001 ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢ ɨɥɶɨ ɟ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝ ɛɵ ɶ
ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɧ ɵ ɨɛɴɟ ɢɜɧɨɣ ɚɞɢ ɨɪɫɨɣ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɟ ɩɪɢ ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɩɨ
ɫɚɦɨɫ ɨɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɸ. ɗ ɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɧɟ ɫ ɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟ ɚɛɫɨɥɸ ɧɵɯ
ɩɨɚɡɚ ɟɥɟɣ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɢ, ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ
ɫɮɨɪɦɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢ ɢɟ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɟɥɶɫ ɜ ɨ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɢ ɡɚɨɧɨɞɚ ɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ɚ ɚɦ ɢ ɩɨɫ ɨɹɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ. Ɍɚ, ɞɜɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ,
ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɣ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɶɸ, ɧɨ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɸ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɸ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɶ, ɦɨɝ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɨɜɚ ɶ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ |ɌȻ
ɂ|Ɉ 14001.
ɉɪɢɧɹ ɢɟ ɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚ ɢɱɟɫɨɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ  |ɍɈ| ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɚ
ɨɩ ɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɵ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɪɨɧ. Ɉɞɧɚɨ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɧɟ ɝɚɪɚɧ ɢɪɟ ɨɩ ɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɨɜ,
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɯɪɚɧɨɣ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. Ⱦɥɹ ɞɨɫ ɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɰɟɥɟɜɵɯ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɩɨɚɡɚ ɟɥɟɣ |ɍɈ| ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɫ ɢɦɥɢɪɨɜɚ ɶ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ
ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɨɣ ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɢɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫ ɢ,
ɷɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɢ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɢ.
|ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14001 ɩɨɫ ɪɨɟɧ ɧɚ ɟɯ ɠɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɯ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫ ɪɚ ɢɜɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɱ ɨ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɧɚ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000.
Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɦɨɝ ɜɵɛɪɚ ɶ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɳɟɫ ɜɸɳɸ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ
ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫ ɪɚ ɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɸɳɸ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ
|ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000, ɜ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɞɥɹ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ. ɉɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧ ɨɜ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ
ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫ ɪɚ ɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɠɟ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚ ɶɫɹ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫ ɢ ɨ
ɰɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɪɨɧ. ȼ ɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɚ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ
ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫ ɪɚ ɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ ɧɚɰɟɥɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ
ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ ɟɥɹ, |ɍɈ| ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɲɢɪɨɨɝɨ ɪɝɚ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɪɨɧ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɩɨ ɪɟɛɧɨɫ ɟɣ ɨɛɳɟɫ ɜɚ, ɚɫɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ.
| ɚɧɞɚɪ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14001 ɨɛɫɥɨɜɥɢɜɚɟ ɨ, ɱ ɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɹɸɳɚɹ ɟɝɨ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢ ɶ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɸ ɩɨɥɢ ɢ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɸ
ɜɟɪɯɨɜɧɵɦ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɨɦ, ɢ ɱ ɨ ɨɧɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫ ɪɚɧɹ ɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ
ɪɚɛɨ ɧɢɨɜ.
ɗ ɚ ɩɨɥɢ ɢɚ, ɛɞɱɢ ɞɨɫ ɩɧɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɳɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ, ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɵ ɶ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɫ ɶ ɫ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɦ ɡɚɨɧɨɞɚ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɨɦ ɩɪɢ
ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɦ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹ ɢɣ. | ɚɧɞɚɪ
ɪɟɛɟ ɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɱɪɟɞɢ ɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɫɜɨɢɯ
ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹ ɢɣ ɚɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɱ ɨɛɵ ɞɟɥɢ ɶ ɨɫɨɛɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɢ.
|ɥɟɞɟ ɱɢ ɵɜɚ ɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɟɟ ɡɚɨɧɨɞɚ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɨ, ɚɫɚɸɳɟɟɫɹ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɚɫɩɟ ɨɜ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹ ɢɣ, ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ ɢɥɢ ɫɥɝ ɜ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ
ɞɥɹ ɦɟɪ ɩɨ ɥɱɲɟɧɢɸ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɯɚɪɚ ɟɪɢɫ ɢ. | ɚɧɞɚɪ ɪɟɛɟ ,
ɱ ɨɛɵ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɫ ɚɧɨɜɢɥɚ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ, ɫɨɜɦɟɫ ɢɦɵɟ ɫ ɟɟ
ɩɨɥɢ ɢɨɣ ɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɥɚ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷ ɢɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ. Ʉɚ ɢ ɜ
ɫɥɱɚɟ ɫ ɞɪɝɢɦɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɦɢ ɩɨ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚɦ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ( ɚɢɦɢ ɚ |ɌȻ
ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000), |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 14001 ɜɜɨɞɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪɵ ɢ ɦɟɪɵ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ
ɝɚɪɚɧ ɢɪɸ , ɱ ɨ |ɍɈ| ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɧɠɧɨɣ,
ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɣ ɢ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɣ. Ɍɚɢɟ ɦɟɪɵ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɦɟɜɚɸ ɱɟ ɨɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɣ, ɞɨɫ ɚ ɨɱɧɵɣ ɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɨɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ ɢ
17
ɨɦɩɟ ɟɧ ɧɨɫ ɢ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɥɠɚɳɢɯ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫ ɜɨɦ ɨɛɱɟɧɢɹ, ɜɧ ɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɢ
ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɨ, ɨɧ ɪɨɥɹ ɞɨɦɟɧ ɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɪɟ ɢɪɸɳɢɯ
ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪ. | ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɠɟ ɪɟɛɟ ɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚ ɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪɵ,
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɵ ɧɟɫɱɚɫ ɧɵɯ ɫɥɱɚɟɜ ɢ ɫɥɱɚɣɧɵɯ ɫɢ ɚɰɢɣ ɫ ɟɦ,
ɱ ɨɛɵ ɛɵ ɶ ɝɨ ɨɜɵɦ ɢ ɫɦɹɝɱɢ ɶ ɧɚɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɣ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɣ ɞɚɪ.
ɉɨɞɨɛɧɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɦ ɧɚ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɨɦ, |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14001
ɩɪɟɞɫɦɚ ɪɢɜɚɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɢ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɢ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ
ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɜ ɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚ ɢɱɟɫɨɟ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɜɧ ɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɚɞɢ ɚ, ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɫɨɫ ɨɹɧɢɹ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ  ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɨɪɪɟ ɢɪɸɳɢɯ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹ ɢɣ ɫ
ɰɟɥɶɸ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɩɢɫɟɣ ɨ
ɟɟ ɫɨɫ ɨɹɧɢɢ.
| ɚɧɞɚɪ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14004 |ɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ.
Ɉɛɳɢɟ ɪɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦ, ɫɢɫ ɟɦɚɦ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɫ ɜɚɦ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɮɧɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ» ɜɵɫ ɩɚɟ ɜ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɟ ɚɥɶ ɟɪɧɚ ɢɜɵ |ɌȻ
ɂ|Ɉ 14001 ɢ ɧɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢ ɨɧɪɟ ɧɵɯ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ  |ɍɈ|, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝ
ɛɵ ɶ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɟɧɵ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14004 ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ
ɨɚɡɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦ, ɜɧɟɞɪɹɸɳɢɦ ɢɥɢ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫ ɜɸɳɢɦ
|ɍɈ|. Ɉɧ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɵ, ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɚɪɢɚɧ ɵ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫ ɜɸ
ɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ, ɚ ɢ ɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɸ
ɫɜɹɡɟɣ ɫ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɨɣ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫ ɪɚ ɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɨɝɨ, |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14004 ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢ ɩɪɚ ɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɪɟɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ
ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɦ ɢɧɢɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ, ɥɱɲɟɧɢɸ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ
ɫɨɫ ɨɹɧɢɢ |ɍɈ| ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫ ɜɨɦ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɫɪɫɨɜ,
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɨɫ ɟɣ ɢ ɩɨɫ ɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɢ ɦɟ ɨɞɨɜ, ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪ ɢ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ |ɍɈ|.
Ɉ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ |ɍɈ| ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɨɥɱɢ ɶ ɫɳɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɜɵɝɨɞɵ,
ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɫɥɟɞɟ ɢɞɟɧ ɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚ ɶ ɫ ɟɦ, ɱ ɨɛɵ ɩɪɨɞɟɦɨɧɫ ɪɢɪɨɜɚ ɶ
ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ ɫ ɨɪɨɧɚɦ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɚɰɢɨɧɟɪɚɦ, ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɫ ɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɞɥɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ. |ɍɈ| ɞɚɟ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɶ ɫɜɹɡɚ ɶ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɰɟɥɟɜɵɟ ɢ ɩɥɚɧɨɜɵɟ ɩɨɚɡɚ ɟɥɢ ɫ
ɨɧɪɟ ɧɵɦɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɦɢ ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɚɦɢ, ɢ ɚɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɝɚɪɚɧ ɢɪɨɜɚ ɶ,
ɱ ɨ ɪɟɫɪɫɵ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɞɚ, ɝɞɟ ɨɧɢ ɩɪɢɧɟɫ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɸ ɩɨɥɶɡ ɢ ɫ
ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɣ, ɢ ɫ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɨɱɟ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ, ɜɧɟɞɪɢɜɲɚɹ
|ɍɈ|, ɦɨɠɟ ɩɨɥɱɢ ɶ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɢɦɳɟɫ ɜɚ ɜ ɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɣ
ɨɧɪɟɧɰɢɢ.
ȼɚɠɧɵɦ ɫɪɟɞɫ ɜɨɦ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɢ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɢ ɮɧɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ |ɍɈ|
ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɣ ɚɞɢ , ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ  ɨ ɨɪɨɦ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ
ɫɥɟɞɸɳɢɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɯ
- |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14010, ɨ ɨɪɵɣ ɫɥɠɢ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɨɦ ɩɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦ
ɚɞɢ ɚ ɞɥɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ, ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢ ɶ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɣ ɚɞɢ ,
ɚɞɢ ɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɢɯ ɥɢɟɧ ɨɜ. ȼ ɧɟɦ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ
ɚɞɢ ɚ ɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɧɢɦ ɟɪɦɢɧɨɜ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɚɞɢ ɚ.
- |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14011, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɟɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪɵ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɚɞɢ ɚ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɹ
ɪɢ ɟɪɢɹɦ ɚɞɢ ɚ;
- |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14012, ɨ ɪɚɠɚɟ ɪɢ ɟɪɢɢ ɜɚɥɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ ɚɞɢ ɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɜɟɞɳɢɯ
ɚɞɢ ɨɪɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ɉɧ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɦ ɚ  ɜɧ ɪɟɧɧɢɦ, ɚ ɢ 
ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦ ɚɞɢ ɨɪɚɦ.

18
ȼɩɨɫɥɟɞɫ ɜɢɢ ɷ ɢ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɡɚɦɟɧɟɧɵ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 19011, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɦ
ɪɨɜɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɦ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɚɞɢ ɚ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ
ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɚ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɚ ɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɚɫɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɦɚɪɢɪɨɜɢ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ,
ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚɯ
- |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14020, ɨ ɨɪɵɣ ɫ ɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ ɢ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɷ ɢɟ ɨ ɢ ɞɟɥɚɪɚɰɢɣ.
Ɉɧɢ ɹɜɥɹɸ ɫɹ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɢɧɫ ɪɦɟɧ ɨɜ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɚɸ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɨ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɫɥɝɚɯ ɜ ɨ ɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɢɯ ɨɛɳɢɯ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɯɚɪɚ ɟɪɢɫ ɢ, ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɫɨɥɶɢɯ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ
ɚɫɩɟ ɨɜ. ɉɨɩɚ ɟɥɢ ɦɨɝ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ ɶ ɷ  ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɟ
ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɫɥɝ, ɟɫɥɢ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɟ ɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɯ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫ ɢ. ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟ ɫɹ, ɱ ɨ ɫɩɟɲɧɨɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ
ɷ ɢɟ ɨ ɢ ɞɟɥɚɪɚɰɢɣ ɨɞɧɢɦɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ ɟɥɹɦɢ ɩɨɜɥɟɱɟ ɡɚ ɫɨɛɨɣ
ɥɱɲɟɧɢɟ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɚɫɩɟ ɨɜ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɫɥɝ ɞɪɝɢɯ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢ ɟɥɟɣ, ɱ ɨ ɜ ɢ ɨɝɟ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟ  ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɧɚ
ɨɪɠɚɸɳɸ ɫɪɟɞ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɸɳɟɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɫɥɝ.
- |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14021, ɫ ɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ  ɫɚɦɨɞɟɥɚɪɢɪɟɦɵɦ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɦ ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ ɷ ɢɟ ɨ ɢ ɞɟɥɚɪɚɰɢɣ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɣ
ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɦɟ ɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɢ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɢ
ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ. Ɉɧɢ ɦɨɝ ɛɵ ɶ ɫɞɟɥɚɧɵ ɢɡɝɨ ɨɜɢ ɟɥɹɦɢ,
ɢɦɩɨɪ ɟɪɚɦɢ, ɞɢɫ ɪɢɛɶɸ ɨɪɚɦɢ, ɪɨɡɧɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɨɪɝɨɜɰɚɦɢ ɢɥɢ ɞɪɝɢɦɢ
ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɥɢɰɚɦɢ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɫɥɨɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɥɢɪɨɜɢ, ɡɧɚɚ ɢɥɢ
ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɷ ɢɟ ɟ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɩɚɨɜɟ ɥɢɛɨ ɜ
ɞɨɦɟɧ ɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɸ, ɪɟɥɚɦɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɫɩɟ ɟ, ɪɟɥɚɦɟ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɫ ɜɚɯ
ɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɢ . ɩ.
- |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14024, ɨ ɨɪɵɣ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪɵ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ
ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɦɚɪɢɪɨɜɢ ɢɩɚ I, ɜɥɸɱɚɹ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɝɪɩɩ
ɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ, ɟɝɨ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɪɢ ɟɪɢɢ ɢ ɮɧɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɯɚɪɚ ɟɪɢɫ ɢɢ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɨɰɟɧ ɢ ɞɟɦɨɧɫ ɪɚɰɢɸ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɹ.
ɇɚɪɹɞ ɫ ɨɰɟɧɨɣ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɢ, ɜ ɪɚɦɚɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɂ|Ɉ
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚɧ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɨɜɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ  ɨɰɟɧɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɧɚ
ɨɪɠɚɸɳɸ ɫɪɟɞ - ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɰɟɧ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɥɚ (Ɉɀɐ).
Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɫ ɪ ɪɚ, ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɢ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ  ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɸ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ,
ɚɫɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ Ɉɀɐ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɟ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14040. Ɍɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ
ɩɪɨɰɟɞɪɵ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɛɨɪɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɰɟɥɢ ɢ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ Ɉɀɐ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɢɧ ɟɪɩɪɟ ɚɰɢɢ ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɨɜ
ɢɧɜɟɧ ɚɪɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɥɚ ɫ ɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɜ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ
14041. ȼ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14042 ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢ ɫɹ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɨɛɳɚɹ ɫ ɪ ɪɚ ɮɚɡɵ
ɨɰɟɧɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɥɚ (Ɉȼɀɐ), ɟɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ ɢ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶ ɦɟɠɞ Ɉȼɀɐ ɢ ɞɪɝɢɦɢ ɮɚɡɚɦɢ Ɉɀɐ.
Ɍɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ  ɡɚɥɸɱɢ ɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɮɚɡɟ Ɉɀɐ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14043.
ȼ ɡɚɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɟɞɟ ɨ ɦɟ ɢ ɶ, ɱ ɨ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ, ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ ɢ
ɷɫɩɥɚ ɚɰɢɢ |ɍɈ| ɨɱɟɧɶ ɜɚɠɧɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɢɝɪɚɟ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɞɨɫ ɨɜɟɪɧɨɣ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɵɣ ɥɢɲɶ ɜ ɨɦ ɫɥɱɚɟ, ɨɝɞɚ ɛɞɟ ɢɦɟ ɶ
ɦɟɫ ɨ ɟɞɢɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɟɦɵɯ ɟɪɦɢɧɨɜ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷ ɢɦ ɛɵɥ
ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚɧ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14050, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɣ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɟɪɦɢɧɨɜ ɜ
ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ.
ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟ ɫɹ, ɱ ɨ ɲɢɪɨɨɟ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ
ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɹɦɢ ɫɳɟɫ ɜɟɧɧɨ ɥɱɲɢ ɢɯ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɟ
ɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɢ ɛɞɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫ ɜɨɜɚ ɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɡɚɨɧɨɞɚ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɚ

19
ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɧɨɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ, ɨ ɨɪɵɣ ɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɟ
ɪɚɛɨ  ɚɠɞɨɣ ɜɧɟɞɪɹɸɳɟɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
Ʉ ɨɧɰ 2004 ɝ. ɜ Ȼɟɥɚɪɫɢ ɧɚɫɱɢ ɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ 35 ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɣ, ɨ ɨɪɵɟ
ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ |ɍɈ| ɜ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɢɢ ɫɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɦ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14001.
ɗɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɢɟ ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚ ɵ ɩɨɥɱɢɥɢ ɈȺɈ Ƚɨɪɢɡɨɧ », ɜɥɸɱɚɹ ɑɇɂɍɉ
ɂɧɫ ɢ  ɰɢɮɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɟɥɟɜɢɞɟɧɢɹ Ƚɨɪɢɡɨɧ » ɢ ɑɉɍɉ Ʉɚɛɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɢ
ɫɩ ɧɢɨɜɨɟ ɟɥɟɜɢɞɟɧɢɟ Ƚɨɪɢɡɨɧ », ɈȺɈ Ɇɨɝɢɥɟɜɯɢɦɜɨɥɨɧɨ»,
ɈȺɈ |ɩɚɪ ɚ», Ɋɍɉ Ȼɟɥɚɜ ɨɫ ɪɚɞɚ», ɁȺɈ ȼɢ ɷɫ», ɁȺɈ Ɇɢɥɚɜɢɰɚ» ɢ
ɈȺɈ Ʌɚɨɪɚɫɚ» (ɝ. Ʌɢɞɚ).
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɦɨ ɢɜɚɰɢɟɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14000 ɢ ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ
|ɍɈ| ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɹɯ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɷɫɩɨɪ ɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɟɣ ɢ
ɨɧɪɟɧ ɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɪɵɧɚɯ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ɢɧɜɟɫ ɨɪɨɜ, ɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɡɚɨɧɨɞɚ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɚ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɵ ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ.
ȼ ɧɚɫ ɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ Ȼɟɥɚɪɫɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ |ɌȻ ɂ|Ɉ 14000
ɜɟɞɟ ɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɥɚɧɨɜɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɢ, ɜ ɩɟɪɜɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɹɯ,
ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɷɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɸ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫ ɶ ɢ ɜɵɩɫɚɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɸ,
ɨ ɨɪɚɹ ɦɨɠɟ ɛɵ ɶ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɷɫɩɥɚ ɚɰɢɢ. |ɚɦɵɦɢ ɩɟɪɜɵɦɢ
ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹ ɢɹɦɢ Ȼɟɥɚɪɫɢ, ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɜɲɢɦɢ ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɨɪɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɨɣ, ɛɵɥɢ ɁȺɈ Ⱥ ɥɚɧ », ɈȺɈ Ɇɢɧɫɢɣ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɨɜɵɣ
ɡɚɜɨɞ», Ȼɟɥɚɪɫɶɚɥɢɣ», ɈȺɈ Ʉɨɜɪɵ Ȼɪɟɫ ɚ».

4.3 ɂɋɈ ‰ 000

Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɣ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɂ|Ɉ 26000 ɩɨ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ


ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ ɇɨɜɵɣ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ISO 26000, ɜ ɨ ɨɪɨɦ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɨ
ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ
(SR), ɩɪɨɲɟɥ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɸɸ ɫ ɚɞɢɸ ɢ ɛɵɥ ɨɞɨɛɪɟɧ ɞɥɹ ɩɛɥɢɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɚɱɟɫ ɜɟ
ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ɜ ɧɨɹɛɪɟ ɷ ɨɝɨ ɝɨɞɚ.
| ɚɧɞɚɪ ɫ ɚɥ ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɨɦ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɨɧɫɟɧɫɫɚ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɢ ɟɥɟɣ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɨ ɪɚɫɥɟɣ ɢ ɡɚɢɧ ɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɨɪɨɧ. ɐɟɥɶ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɚ ±
ɜɫɟɦɢɪɧɨɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɚ ɢɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ.
Ⱦɨɦɟɧ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢ 
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ;
ɩɪɚ ɢɱɟɫɨɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ;
ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɨ ɩɨ ɢɧ ɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɨɩɟɪɚ ɨɪɨɜ ɜ ɪɚɦɚɯ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɟɧɧɨɫ ɢ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
ISO 26000 ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɞɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶɧɵɦ ɪɨɜɨɞɫ ɜɨɦ, ɚ ɧɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦ
ɞɨɦɟɧ ɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɫɟɪ ɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ ɪɟ ɶɟɣ ɫ ɨɪɨɧɨɣ, ɜ ɨ ɥɢɱɢɟ ɨ ISO 9001 ɢ
ISO 14001.

20
 ɉɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɂɋɈ
.1 33-ɹ Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɹ Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɩɨ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ (ɂɋɈ)

ȼ ɟɟ ɪɚɛɨ ɟ ɩɪɢɧɹɥɨ ɱɚɫ ɢɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 400 ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫ ɨɜ ɢɡ 127 ɫ ɪɚɧ-ɱɥɟɧɨɜ


ɂ|Ɉ ɫɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɧ ɢɧɟɧ ɨɜ, ɚ ɚɠɟ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɢ ɟɥɢ ɪɹɞɚ ɪɩɧɵɯ
ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ, ɚɢɯ, ɚ ȿɗɄ ɈɈɇ, ȼɌɈ, ȿ|, |ȿɇ, Ɇ|ɗ,
ɆɗɄ, ɆȽ| ɢ ɞɪ.
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ Ⱥɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɨ ɪɟɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɸɳɢɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ
- ɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɹ ɂ|Ɉ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɜɥɟ ɜɨɪɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɪɟɛɧɨɫ ɟɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫ ɪɚɧ;
- ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ | ɪɚ ɟɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɧɚ ɂ|Ɉ 2005-2010;
-  ɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟ | ɪɚ ɟɝɢɱɟɫɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɧɚ ɂ|Ɉ 2011-2015;
- ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɡɚɳɢ ɚ ɨɪɝɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɚ ɂ|Ɉ;
- ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ;
- ɦɟɧɟɞɠɦɟɧ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ;
- ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɱɟɫ ɜɨ ɂ|Ɉ, ɆɗɄ ɢ Ɇ|ɗ ɜ ɪɚɦɚɯ ȼɫɟɦɢɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɸɡɚ ɩɨ
ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɞɜɯɫ ɨɪɨɧɧɟɝɨ ɫɨ ɪɞɧɢɱɟɫ ɜɚ.
16 ɫɟɧ ɹɛɪɹ 2010 ɝɨɞɚ ɫɨɫ ɨɹɥɚɫɶ ɨ ɪɵ ɚɹ ɫɟɫɫɢɹ, ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɚɹ ɟɦɟ
ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɜ ɪɚɛɨ ɟ ± ȼɥɚɞ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ».
ȼ ɯɨɞɟ ɟɟ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɚ ɨ ɦɟɱɟɧɚ ɜɚɠɧɨɫ ɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɫɮɟɪɚɯ ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫ ɜɚ,
ɨ ɨɪɵɟ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɸ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɢ ɢ ɥɱɲɚɸ ɧɚɲ ɠɢɡɧɶ.
ɇɚ ɫɟɫɫɢɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ (ɞɚɥɟɟ ± ɂɌ) ɜ ɡɞɪɚɜɨɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɢ
ɮɚɪɦɚɰɟɜ ɢɱɟɫɨɣ ɢɧɞɫ ɪɢɢ. ɇɟɫɦɨ ɪɹ ɧɚ ɨ, ɱ ɨ ɫɳɟɫ ɜɟ ɦɧɨɠɟɫ ɜɨ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚ ɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɡɞɪɚɜɨɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ, ɟɦ
ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ, ɧɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣ ɞɟɧɶ ɧɟ ɟɞɢɧɵɯ ɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɫ ɪɚɧ, ɱ ɨ
ɡɚ ɪɞɧɹɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫ ɜɢɟ ɢ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ ɦɟɠɞ ɫ ɪɚɧɚɦɢ. ȼ ɂ|Ɉ
ɞɟɣɫ ɜɟ ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɢɣ ɨɦɢ ɟ 215 ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚ ɢɚ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ
ɡɞɪɚɜɨɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ», ɞɟɹ ɟɥɶɧɨɫ ɶ ɨ ɨɪɨɝɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɢ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɥɢɣ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɢɯ
ɞɨɦɟɧ ɨɜ (ɥɚɛɨɪɚ ɨɪɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɥɶ ɚ ɵ, ɢɫ ɨɪɢɹ ɛɨɥɟɡɧɢ, ɪɟɰɟɩ ɵ ɢ ɞɪ.),
ɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɚɰɢɢ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɡɨɜ, ɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɫɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɰɢɢ ɢ ɩɪ.
Ɉ ɦɟɱɚɹ ɫ ɪɟɦɢ ɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɜ ɫ ɪɨɢ ɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɢɧɞɫ ɪɢɢ, ɷɫɩɟɪ ɵ ɢɡ ɜɟɞɳɢɯ ɫ ɪɚɧ ɦɢɪɚ ɚɠɟ ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɢɥɢ ɩɪɟɡɟɧ ɚɰɢɢ
ɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɂɌ ɜ ɫ ɪɨɢ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɟ. ɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɂɌ- ɢɧɫ ɪɦɟɧ ɨɜ ɢ
Ɉ ɪɵ ɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɞɚɧɢɣ (BIM)» ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟ ɜɢɡɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚ ɶ
ɩɪɟɞɫ ɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɟ ɵ ɫ ɱɟ ɨɦ ɜɵɛɪɨɫɨɜ ɩɚɪɧɢɨɜɵɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɨ
ɫ ɪɨɢ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɨɦ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɨɨ ɜɟ ɫ ɜɸɳɟɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɱ ɨ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɧɢɡɢ ɶ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɵ (ɞɨ 40%) ɢ ɨ ɯɨɞɵ ɨ ɫ ɪɨɢ ɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɦɚ ɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ.
Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɫ ɪɨɢ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɨ ɡɞɚɧɢɣ ɪɟɛɟ ɫɢɥɢɣ ɫɨ ɡɧɚɱɢ ɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɡɚ ɪɚ ɚɦɢ, ɜ ɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɚ BIM ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫ ɶ ɜɫɟɦ ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɧɵɦ
ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɫ ɪɨɢ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɚ ɫ ɨɪɨɧɚɦ ɨɛɦɟɧɢɜɚ ɶɫɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ, ɜɧɨɫɢ ɶ
ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɚɱɟɫ ɜ, ɷɮɮɟ ɢɜɧɨɫ ɢ ɢ ɫ ɨɢɦɨɫ ɢ ɜ
ɢɧ ɟɪɚ ɢɜɧɨɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ ɪɚɛɨ ɵ, ɢɧ ɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚ ɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɂɌ-ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɜ
ɟɞɢɧɨɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɫ ɪɚɧɫ ɜɨ ɫ ɪɨɢ ɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɨ ɪɚɫɥɢ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ ɶ
ɚɜ ɨɦɚ ɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɂɌ-ɫɢɫ ɟɦɵ ɨɧ ɪɨɥɹ ɢ ɧɚɞɡɨɪɚ ɡɚ ɯɨɞɨɦ
ɫ ɪɨɢ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɚ. Ⱦɚɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɟ ɛɵɥ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɚɧ ɨɦɩɚɧɢɟɣ Building SMART
International», ɨ ɨɪɚɹ ɜ ɧɚɫ ɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɹɜɥɹɟ ɫɹ ɜɟɞɳɢɦ ɢɧ ɟɝɪɚ ɨɪɨɦ

21
ɩɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɸ, ɷɫɩɥɚ ɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɸ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫ ɢ ɂɌ ɜ
ɚɪɯɢ ɟ ɪɟ ɢ ɫ ɪɨɢ ɟɥɶɫ ɜɟ ɦɧɵɯ ɡɞɚɧɢɣ».

ȼɕȼɈȾɕ

ɂ ɚ, ɢɡ ɜɵɲɟɫɚɡɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɞɟɥɚ ɶ ɫɥɟɞɸɳɢɟ ɜɵɜɨɞɵ

(ɇɚɩɢɫɚ ɶ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɂ|Ɉ)«..

Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɰɟɥɢ ɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɂ|Ɉ«..

Ɉɩɢɫɚ ɶ ɪɚ ɨ Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɪ ɪɚ«.

Ɉɩɢɫɚ ɶ ɉɨɪɹɞɨ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨ ɢ ɦɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɨɜ«.

ɇɚɩɢɫɚ ɶ ɚɢɟ ɛɵɜɚɸ Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɵ ɂ|Ɉ

ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 9000

ɂ|Ɉ ɫɟɪɢɢ 14000

ɂ|Ɉ 26000

Ɋɚɫɫɚɡɚ ɶ ɉɟɪɫɩɟ ɢɜɵ ɪɚɡɜɢ ɢɹ ɂ|Ɉ , ɟɟ ɩɨɥɶɡɟ ɞɥɹ ɨɧɪɟ ɧɨ ɚɠɞɨɣ ɫ ɪɚɧɵ«.
33-ɹ Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɫɫɚɦɛɥɟɹ Ɇɟɠɞɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɫ ɚɧɞɚɪ ɢɡɚɰɢɢ (ɂ|Ɉ)

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