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“Afforestation & deforestation”
DOS: 10/11/10

Vivek Kumar
Department Of physics, Roll
no :- 40
g. No:-11000518


This is a humble effort to express our sincere gratitude

towards those who have guided and helped us to complete
this project.
A project reported is major milestone during the study
period of a student. We could have faced many problems
but our teachers’ kind response to our needs and
requirement, their patient approach and their positive
criticism helped us in making our project. Very warm
thanks to our project-in-charge “Mr. REDDY SIR” with
his support and constant encouragement AND LPU
LIBRARY it was not very easy without whose support to
finish our project.
With the motivation of our parent it was very easy to
finish our project successfully and satisfactorily in short span
of time.

Abstract of the work undertaken:-
The “AFORESTATION AND DEFORESTATION” is one the most burning topic of this
present world because the whole globe is concerned about it. It was not a tough task to do
research on this given topic as it is the burning topic about which we are learning since
childhood. This is matter of great pride that I did work on this very topic as it will have graet
effect on the students about their future environment.

The work under this topic was to put a brief analysis on the need of aforestation,
consequences of deforestation. I have given my hundred percent to make this and hope i am
successful in my attempt.

Thank you
Table of contents
 Introduction

 Afforestation and plantation forestry






 Brief discussion with data and figure

 Causes of deforestation

 Need of aforestation

 Consequences of deforestation

 Reforestation, Afforestation, Deforestation,

Climate Change, global warming

Deforestation: The Means to an End

Our natural resources are being exploited; estimate that we are losing more than 137
things that were once plentiful are now a species of plants and animals every single
scarcity. Our air and water are becoming day because of rainforest
contaminated due to pollution, causing deforestation”(“Rainforest Facts”, 2009).
great harm to the environment. The greater the biodiversity in an
Fortunately, the earth has a natural filter: ecosystem, the more resilient and
forests. Trees composing forests around productive it will be. As basic biology
the world absorb pollutants, fight erosion will tell you, the removal of one species
and produce oxygen for our breathing will affect many more. This is nothing to
needs. Unfortunately, this filter is being be taken lightly when “scientists believe
cut down as we speak. Although forests that the canopy may contain half of the
can be harnessed for valuable world’s species”(“Amazon Rainforest,”
commodities, deforestation causes 2003). Each one of the approximately 5
irreversible harm to the environment and million species found in tropical
civilization because it affects biodiversity, rainforests rely on other animals to survive
results in nutrient depleted soil and and hopefully thrive. At the current rate of
enhances greenhouse gas emissions. destruction, 1.5 acres a second, rainforests
Forests, especially those in tropical areas will be a mere memory by 2050
are largely uncharted territory. The life (“Rainforest Facts”, 2009). With such jaw
and function of extinct animals such as dropping facts, it is a wonder why such an
dinosaurs are well known. However, this important and amazing thing is being
will never be the case for many of the destroyed. Unfortunately, it seems money
microorganisms, plants and small animals is the ultimate motivator, especially in
inhabiting tropical forests. As the poor areas. Environmental conservation
biologically diverse Amazon rainforest is will continue to take a back burner while
being slashed and burned, complex deforestation pillages our earth
ecosystems are as well. “Scientists
Afforestation and plantation forestry

Plantation forests now comprise around Issues remain the priority in many young
135 million ha globally, with annual plantation programmes; in more advanced
plantation Afforestation and reforestation programmes, the application of more
rates nearing 10% of total area. Some 90% sophisticated technologies - particularly in
of plantation forests have been established biotechnology and processing -
primarily to provide industrial wood, and is necessary to maintain improvements in
their relative global importance in this role production. Many plantation forests,
is increasing rapidly. Most of the particularly in the tropics, are not yet
remaining 10% of plantation forests were achieving their productive potential. The
established primarily to supply fuel or sustainability of plantation forestry is an
wood for non-industrial use. About 75% of issue of wide interest and concern. The
the existing plantation forest estate is evidence from industrial plantation
established in temperate regions, but it is forestry suggests that biological
in the tropics that the rate of expansion is sustainability, in terms of wood yield, is
greatest. The expanding tropical plantation likely to be sustainable provided good
forest estate includes trees grown primarily practice is maintained. The relative
as agricultural plantation crops and which benefits and costs of plantation forestry in
now also supply wood to forest industries. broader environmental terms, and in terms
Almost all existing plantation forests were of its social impacts, are the subject
established and are managed as even-aged of greater controversy, and pose the
monocultures; species and interspecific greatest challenge to plantation foresters as
Hybrids of a few genera dominate we approach the millennium. Our
plantation forestry worldwide. Effective experience with plantation forestry as it
research and development, based on has developed this century offers us an
appropriate genetic resources and good excellent platform for rising to these
silviculture, are the foundations of challenges.
successful plantation forestry production.
Resolving relatively fundamental

It is difficult, as others (eg Evans 1992, from relatively simple and low-input to
Mather 1993) have commented, to define highly sophisticated and intensive.
either “Afforestation” or “plantation Most plantation forests have been
forests” precisely. In particular, it is often established as even-aged monoculture
not easy to distinguish between crops of trees with the primary purpose of
Afforestation and either rehabilitation of wood production (Evans 1997). Around
degraded forest ecosystems or enrichment 90% of existing plantations have been
planting, or between plantation forests and established for the production of wood for
various forms of trees on farms. The industrial use, and most of the remainder
definition proposed by FAO to to produce wood for use as fuel or
the 1967 World Symposium on man-made roundwood. Some plantation forests are
forests and their industrial importance, grown and managed, either primarily
which uses as its criterion land use or jointly, for non-wood products such as
changes associated with afforestation or essential oils, tannins, or fodder. The
reforestation, has been the basis of provision of a diverse range of other forest
subsequent official estimates (eg Pandey benefits and services, including
1995), and is adopted here for the sake of environmental protection or rehabilitation,
consistency. However, any consideration recreational opportunities, and CO
of plantation forests should acknowledge 2 sequestration are also primary or
that the distinction between them and secondary objectives for many plantation
some other forms of forestry is not always forests (Brown 1997, Evans 1992,
clear; thus, definitions, discussion and Gauthier 1991, Kallio et al 1987,
estimates vary. The global extent of Lamb 1995, Myers 1989, Sedjo 1987,
plantation forests in 1990 is estimated at Sharma, 1992).Trees grown as agricultural
around 135 million ha (FAO 1993, plantation crops - eg rubber or coconut -
Gauthier 1991, Pandey 1995, Sharma have not traditionally been considered as
1992). About 75% of these plantation forest plantations. However, the distinction
forests are in temperate between the two forms of plantation
regions and about 25% in the tropics and culture is diminishing from two
subtropics; some 5% of are found in perspectives: from that of the forest
Africa, a little more than 10% in each of manager, as rotation ages reduce and the
the American continents, some 20% in the intensity of forest plantation management
former USSR, and around 25% in increases; and from that of the agricultural
each of Asia-Pacific and Europe (Gauthier tree estate manager, as these crops begin to
1991, Kanowski and Savill 1992). Species be used for wood products. The recent
and interspecific hybrids of only a few example of forest industry development
genera - Acacia, Eucalyptus, Picea and based on wood supply from Asian rubber
Pinus – dominate plantation forests, with plantations exemplifies the latter, and
those of a few others - eg Araucaria, provides a striking example of how
Gmelina, Larix, Paraserianthes, shifting supply factors and improved
Populus, Pseudotsuga or Tectona - of processing technologies can offer
regional importance (Evans 1992, Pandey opportunities to non-traditional supply
1995, Savill and Evans 1986). The sources, and thus expand the plantation
ownership of plantation forests extends Base. Rubber wood recovered from rubber
from governments and large industrial estate re-establishment programmes now
corporations to individual farmers, and substitutes for many traditional industrial
their management varies considerably, uses of natural forest woods from SE Asia,
and provides the raw material for newer
products such as medium-density where particular coincidences of public
fibreboard. Similar processing policies, opportunities and market forces
developments are in train, though as yet have been most conducive to
less advanced, for the other major tropical Afforestation. In some countries, eg
estate tree crops, oil palm and coconut. Indonesia or Chile, plantation
Given the substantial areas of these establishment remains concentrated on
plantation crops worldwide - estimated at sites converted directly from natural
around 7 M ha of rubber estate, 4 M ha of ecosystems; in others, eg New Zealand or
coconut, and 3 M ha of oil palm - they Portugal, plantation establishment has
have considerable potential to both shifted entirely to sites formerly used for
supplement and compete with production agriculture. The quality of plantation
from more conventional plantation forests. Afforestation varies widely, and has been
The harvest rotations of forest plantations especially problematic in some tropical
vary enormously, from annual or sub- environments (Pandey 1995,1997).
annual for some non-wood products, to Plantation forests currently provide around
around 200 years for traditionally- 10% of the world’s wood harvest; this
managed high-value temperate hardwoods. proportion is rising and will continue to
With few exceptions so far, shorter rise rapidly, as the area of natural forest
rotation plantations - typically of 5 to 15 available for harvesting diminishes, as
years - have been grown for fuel, fibre or economic pressures and technological
round wood, and longer rotation change favour plantation crops, and as the
plantations - typically upwards of 25 years plantation forest estate matures and
- Principally for sawn or veneer wood expands. The contribution of plantations to
products. wood production within domestic
economies varies enormously, reflecting
different forest endowments and policies -
from, for example, nearly 100% in New
Zealand or South Africa, to around 50% in
Argentina or Zimbabwe, to negligible
Notwithstanding successful antecedents in levels in Canada or Papua New Guinea.
both temperate (eg oak in Europe) and Given the wood production objectives of
tropical (eg teak in Asia and India; though most plantation forests, and the
see Keh 1997) environments, plantation commodity nature of most wood markets,
forests on large scale are a twentieth- plantation growth rates are of fundamental
century phenomenon. The majority of the importance because of their implications
world’s plantation forests have been for the cost of wood at harvest. Only
established in the past half-century, and around 10% of existing plantations can be
the rate of plantation aforestation has been classified as “fast-growing” (in SuttonÕs
increasing progressively during this (1991a) terms, yielding more than 14
period. Global rates of forest plantation m3/yr); most of these plantations
establishment and re-establishment are are in the southern hemisphere, with
poorly known, but are estimated at around around 40% in each of South America and
2.6 million ha annually in the tropics Asia-Pacific. The majority of “fast-
(FAO 1993, Pandey 1995), and perhaps 10 growing” plantations are of species such as
million ha in the temperate zones (Mather Acacia or Eucalyptus grown on short
1990, 1993). Recent plantation expansion rotations for the relatively low-value uses
has been greatest in the southern of fuel, fibre or round wood; perhaps a
hemisphere: in South America (principally third are longer rotation crops, of either
Argentina, Chile and Brazil), Asia softwood or hardwood species, grown
(principally Indonesia) and New Zealand, principally for sawn- or veneer wood.
Global supply and trade forecasts, for both expansion of the plantation resource is
plantation production and its share of total likely to constrain pulpwood price
wood harvest, are imprecise and increases over the next decade. As the
complicated by the uncertainties of availability and relative importance in
demand growth within developing trade of higher-value wood products from
Economies - as Apsey and Reed (1996) plantation forests increase, so too will the
comment, “the ... challenge is to sort out influence of the plantation harvest on both
the hype from the reality with respect to supply and demand options for these
fast growing plantations. Until this is done, products.
a good share of strategic planning
rests on a whirlpool of speculation”.
Imprecision notwithstanding, it is apparent
that fast-growing plantation forests are
already the most cost-competitive source
of pulpwood globally, and that the
Plantation forestry at a global or semi- auspices (Burley and Adlard 1992), and
global scale has been the subject of a the more recent role of FAO, demonstrate
number of recent reviews (eg Carrere and the many benefits of collaboration to
Lohmann 1996, Evans 1992, Kanowski et plantation researchers and managers. As
al 1992, Mather 1993, Pandey 1995, Burdon (1992) and Williams (1996),
Sargent and Bass 1992, Savill and Evans amongst others, have observed, the
1986, Shell/WWF 1992). These reviews increasingly proprietary nature of research
highlight some important common challenges these cooperative foundations;
elements and trends: Use of well-adapted l The appropriate level of research varies
genetic resources, and good silviculture at with the stage of development of the
all stages from nursery to harvest, are the plantation programme. For example, as
two technical foundations of successful many papers to this Congress (eg Aminah
plantation forestry; each can make the 1997, Biblis 1997,Genç and Bilir 1997,
difference between resounding success and KÚzmaz 1997, Lemcoff et al 1997,
abject failure. Many tropical plantations Salerno and Giménez 1997, Sharma et al
are not achieving their production potential 1997, Stanturf et al 1997, Tunçtaner 1997,
because of inadequate attention to these ZoralÚoZlu 1997) demonstrate, there
fundamental elements (Pandey 1997). remain many fundamental questions which
Successful plantation forestry is also based must be resolved to support new plantation
on sound and substantial research and programmes.The continuing expansion of
development, its implementation in plantation forests onto sites for which there
operational management, and the is as yet little plantation forestry
maintenance of close links between experience will continue to demand such
research and practice as each evolves. fundamental research. In contrast, as other
There is ample evidence of the adverse papers to this Congress illustrate (eg Evans
consequences of failing to link adequately 1997, Popov et al 1997, Watt et al 1997),
research and practice (eg Evans 1992, for programmes that are already well-
Kanowski and Savill 1992, Napompeth established, increasingly sophisticated
and MacDicken 1990, Palmer 1988); research and development will be
l Many plantation forestry programmes necessary to deliver or maintain gains; As
have been founded on and developed in other primary production enterprises,
through international: and regional advanced technologies are playing an
cooperation; the century-long history of increasingly important role in plantation
cooperative research under IUFRO forestry:
Applications of biotechnology in forestry Congress); Adequate planning and
have recently been reviewed by Haines decision support systems are central to
(1994); those currently of most relevance successful plantation enterprises.
are genomic mapping, molecular markers, Appropriate systems range from the
transformation and micro propagation. relatively simple (eg AhlbŠck 1997) to the
Their application in the production and sophisticated (eg Pritchard 1989); the lack
propagation of interspecific hybrids is of of effective systems has been a major
particular interest to many plantation constraint to, in particular, many tropical
programmes. The implementation of many plantation enterprises (Pandey 1997); l
biotechnologies are interdependent, and There is long history of concern for the
most are dependent for delivery on biological sustainability of plantation
successful clonal propagation techniques, forestry (Evans 1997). As plantation
which forests expand, so too have concerns for
are now in operational use in many their sustainability in the broader sense (eg
programmes. The optimal integration of Hughes 1994, Carrere and Lohmann
biotechnologies with plantation forestry is 1996). The sustainability of plantation
programme-specific, as demonstrated by forestry is now an issue in terms of each of
numerous examples (eg Griffin 1996, Watt its biological, economic and social
et al 1997, Wilson et al 1995); dimensions, as well as in the more holistic
w Advances in processing technologies are sense of their conjunction (Barbier 1987);
allowing the use of smaller and younger sustainability concerns in plantation
trees, and of species not previously forestry have a number of manifestations,
considered suitable for value-added as outlined below;
processing(eg papers to Topic 19, this


profit pressure, thus both demanding and
I have suggested elsewhere (Kanowski permitting relatively high levels of
1995, 1997) that there is evidence of an resource inputs. Consequently, it will be
emerging dichotomy in plantation forestry increasingly concentrated on those sites
concept and practice, between what I have which are inherently more productive than
characterised as relatively simpler and on those which are marginal, and from
relatively more complex production which the costs of transport to processors
systems. Plantation forests as we know are least. The implication is of
them are relatively simple production plantation programmes which are more
systems, typically even-aged intensive silviculturally and less extensive
monocultures, with the capacity to produce geographically, located where the forest
wood yields many times - often at least land base is stable, secure and productive
tenfold - greater than most natural forests. (Bingham 1985, Gauthier 1991),
The importance of simple plantation and where the economics of wood
forests in meeting the wood needs of production - in terms both of cost
societies will continue to increase; structures within forestry and
providing they are well-managed, these of relativities with other land uses - are
plantation forests should satisfy most favourable. Prevailing political
sustainability criteria (Sutton ideologies suggest these plantations will
1991b, Evans 1997). This plantation increasingly be under private, or quasi-
forestry for commodity production private, ownership and management.
benefits considerably from economies of Whilst successful - sometimes
scale and integration with industrial outstandingly - in producing wood, simple
processing; it is also under strong cost and plantation systems do not necessarily
address well the other needs of societies in lMore direct involvement of local people
which they are embedded. Where - as in in the conception and implementation of
much of the less economically-developed plantation forestry, and in the sharing of its
world - land is scare, time horizons short, benefits and products. The variety of joint
or demand strong for the non-industrial venture or share farmer schemes, which
products and services of forests, the recognise landownersÕ interests and
outputs of simple production priorities as well as those of the
systems are unlikely to meet the more forest industryÕs, exemplify this for the
complex needs of societies. In these case of farm forestry. There is increasing
circumstances, a broader understanding of how participatory
conception of plantation forestry and range planning, management and use might be
of plantation objectives, and a more developed and practised in a forestry
intimate integration with other land uses, context (eg Arnold and Stewart 1991, FAO
are essential if plantation forestry is to 1985, Griffin 1988, Gilmour and Fisher
prosper and be sustained. 1992), and this approach now characterises
More complex plantation forestry some programmes involving plantation
explicitly recognises that wood is not the forestry (eg Gilmour et al 1989, Arnold
only product that people demand of 1992). As the presence or absence of trees
forests, and seeks to maximise social is important in determining land tenure in
benefits rather than just wood production. many societies (eg Arnold and Stewart
The particular expression of plantation 1991, Cornista and Escueta 1990,
forestry - where it lies along the continuum Fortmann
from simple to complex - will depend on and Bruce 1993), locally-appropriate
the particular context; in developing a tenure arrangements are essential to
more complex plantation forestry, we have facilitate more
much to gain from our experiences of a complex plantation forestry (eg Sargent
wide spectrum of forestry activities, 1990);
including agro forestry, community l More diverse species composition and
forestry, and simpler plantation forestry. plantation structure, yielding an earlier and
More complex plantation forestry will be more continuing flow of a wider range of
characterised variously by: products and services than result from
A more intimate association between simple plantation forests. This does not
forests and other land uses. Simple necessarily imply that tree species will
plantation forestry is typified by a sharp grown as polycultures, though
distinction between plantation forest and this may offer advantages in particular
other land use. The boundary between circumstances (eg Ball et al 1995,
plantation forest and non-forest use will Wormald 1992). In others, a mosaic of
become less distinct as plantation forestry relatively small blocks of different tree
becomes more complex. The various species may be more easily managed,
taungya systems, widely practised as but still yield the desired range of outputs.
means of Afforestation in the tropics
(Evans 1992), are an example of this
complexity at the early stages of plantation
forestry; much farm forestry (eg Grayson
1993, Lefroy and Scott 1994)
demonstrates such integration
at the level of the farm enterprise,
irrespective of the particular configuration
of tree growing;
Although estimates vary, the total area of sustainability, at least in the narrow
forest plantations in the world amount to biological sense, has long been a concern
between 120 and 140 million hectares. in agriculture particularly with arable
What is less uncertain is that the amount of cropping. Several long-term experiments
new planting (afforestation) is increasing exist in different countries of which the
in both temperate and tropical countries. In oldest and most famous is Broadbalk Field
the tropics especially the present rate of at Rothamsted Experimental Station,
planting of 2-3 million hectares per year is Harpenden, England. Since 1843
double that recorded in the 1960s and successive crops of wheat have
1970s (FAO 1992; Evans 1992). The continuously been grown and assessed.
purpose of such plantations is mostly Over a long period yields from the control
either for industrial production or treatment, which received no fertiliser and
domestic use as building poles, fuelwood only minimal cultural treatment to control
and fodder. The great bulk of forest weeds, has remained low but stable
plantations are of uniform age and uniform (Johnston 1994). This work has shown that
composition (monoculture) and most are even after 150 years the land itself has not
managed to optimise the yield of wood become “wheat-sick” and that
from the site. Also, clearfelling and low yields arise from low external inputs
replanting is the commonest silvicultural (though these are rising, notably the
system, although, where appropriate, anthropogenic ally derived nitrogen mainly
coppicing is used as a means of in rainfall, currently up to c. 30 kg ha-1y-
re-stocking. These features of plantation 1). Unfortunately, factual evidence
silviculture - uniformity of crop, intensity concerning long-term productivity of
of production and concentration of forest plantations remains meagre. But
working - have raised concerns that many without it foresters cannot properly
of the sites on which trees are demonstrate how robust their silviculture
planted may be incapable of sustaining is and cannot refute claims that successive
their productivity. Models of nutrient rotations of fast-growing trees inevitably
export, examination of physical damage of leads to soil deterioration. This paper
soil structure, and claims of greater risk examines the evidence of yield decline and
from pests and diseases have all reports in detail on the best data sets in the
been advanced as reasons why intensive world, which describe the performance of
plantation forestry may be inherently three successive rotations on the same
unsustainable. The question of
site (Evans 1996). The subject was
reviewed by the author in the 8th World
Forestry Congress in Jakarta in 1978
(Evans 1978). Since then significant new
information has arisen which is germane
to the question of sustainability.



Humans have been cutting down tress we now know Africa to be. The visible
since the dawn of time. The wood is a affects of deforestation are alarming,
great source of fuel and building materials, however the seemingly invisible
while the barren land can be used for consequences are detrimental to life on
farming and cattle rearing. However, with earth.
every action there is an equally and
opposite reaction. Deforestation results in Trees are vital to life; they capture carbon
nutrient depleted soil and eventually dioxide and produce oxygen for us to
erosion. The freshly exposed soil of the breathe through photosynthesis. These
forest floor is extremely vulnerable to the “carbon sinks” assist in cleaning up after
elements. In it’s natural environment, the carbon producing humans and are overall
soil is shielded by the canopy and receives vital to life. “Every year humans add over
very little light. The Amazon rainforest 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide [to] the
alone receives nine feet of rainfall a year; atmosphere” through simple actions such
fifty percent of it returns to the atmosphere as breathing, fires, and deforestation
through the foliage of trees (“Amazon (Hopwood & Cohen). In order to harness
Rainforest,” 2003). When all of these the forest’s valuable commodity, the trees
protective layers are removed, the result is are either cut down or burned to create
detrimental. The rain washes away coal. “The largest anthropogenic
nutrients and the sun dries the soil. In a contributor to the greenhouse effect is
few short years, the land is no longer carbon dioxide gas emissions, about 77%
fertile and soon abandoned. Due to of which comes from the combustion of
nutrient depletion, there is little to no hope fossil fuels and 22% of which is attributed
of reforestation (Frey, 2002). This to deforestation”(Hopewood & Cohen).
unfortunate cycle is exemplified in Africa. The fuel to run chainsaws and heavy
Africa is currently experiencing machinery as well as the trucks to
deforestation four times faster than other transport the timber and coal contribute to
countries. It is thought in the early 1900’s this statistic. In addition, “as we burn
Africa was home to 193,000 square miles down [trees], carbon is released into the air
of coastal rainforest, currently, only 22.8 and the carbon bonds with oxygen to form
percent is left standing (Butler, 2009). carbon dioxide, adding to the greenhouse
Deforestation has resulted in the dessert effect”( Hopewood & Cohen). Normally,
the production of excess carbon would be
counteracted with the naturally occurring
process of photosynthesis. “The Union of
Concerned Scientists estimates that U.S.
forests absorb between one million and
three million metric tons of carbon dioxide
each year, perhaps offsetting between 20
percent and 46 percent of the country’s
greenhouse-gas emissions”(Johnson,
2009). Unfortunately, as deforestation
progresses, less carbon dioxide can be
recycled resulting in additional carbon.
Deforestation is a recognized contributor
of green house gasses and subsequently
global climate change. Many nations have
recognized this pressing issue and have
started action, however it is impossible to
know if the world will ever recover.

The positive and negative aspect of deforestation :-

Earth and the lives of everything that The positive consequences of

depends on it - from the smallest bacteria deforestation: -
to the largest sea creatures - rest on a
delicate matter and that is balance. A Depending on the needs of the social
single, seemingly harmless disturbance in group concerned, deforestation has made it
this balance has consequences that are both possible for communities to be built.
beneficial and disadvantageous. One of Forests make way for residential houses,
these is deforestation. office buildings and factories.
Governments are able to build roads to
Deforestation has always been a practice make trade and transport easier and
of many developing communities and has therefore more convenient to residents.
contributed greatly to civilization as we
know it today. Unfortunately, much of the Deforestation can also mean the
ill effects of deforestation is caused by conversion of forest land to productive
greed, bad agricultural practices and land for agricultural uses. This results in
government neglect. better and more abundant production of
food and materials, virtually eradicating
Why forests are important: - periods of want and lack. Economically,
deforestation has contributed much in
Other than for their beauty, forests are giving many communities the opportunity
highly responsible in keeping and to make positive changes in their lives.
sustaining global ecosystems. In fact,
much of the quality of life we enjoy, we The negative consequences of
owe to the forests. It is also the home of deforestation: -
more than half of all creatures and
organisms in this planet. From food to life- Unfortunately, the negative consequences
saving medicines, forests give mankind a of deforestation far outweigh its positive
variety of gifts that contribute much to our effects. Here are a few of them:
quality of life.
1. Exposing soil to heat and rain. When 3. Non-suitability of deforested areas for
forests are cleared, soil cover, which conversion. Most of the areas that have
consists mainly of vegetation, is removed undergone deforestation are actually
as well. This exposes the bare soil to unsuitable for long-term agricultural use
extreme conditions produced by the sun's such as ranching and farming. Once
heat and rainwater. deprived of their forest cover, the lands
rapidly degrade in quality, losing their
With these activities alternating, the soil fertility and arability.
quickly compacts. As rainwater flows, it
will wash out the nutrients and other The soil in many deforested areas is also
organic materials that make the soil rich unsuitable for supporting annual crops.
and fertile. Add to that the frequent Much of the grassy areas are also not as
activities of tilling, cropping and grazing productive compared to more arable soils
which gradually results to the degradation and are therefore not fit for long-term
of the soil's quality. cattle grazing.

These practices are specially a concern in 4. The displacement of indigenous

areas where forest zones are drier. communities and their traditional way of
Agriculture practice on top of life. When governments decide to offer
deforestation can result to the forests for deforestation mainly to open up
desertification of many areas. areas for 'civilized' communities, access to
Desertification is also a direct result of the forest resources by indigenous peoples are
demand for the soil to produce more (as a ignored. In fact, indigenous peoples are
consequence of the increase in human hardly included in economic and political
population), thereby decreasing to a decisions that directly affect their lives.
significant degree the land's carrying This encroachment ignores their rights as
capacity. much as it takes away the resources that
their ancestors have bestowed upon them.
2. Flooding. Deforestation can result to
watersheds that are no longer able to 5. The loss in the number of biodiversity.
sustain and regulate water flows from This is probably the most serious
rivers and streams. Trees are highly consequence of deforestation. Put simply,
effective in absorbing water quantities, it means the destruction and extinction of
keeping the amount of water in watersheds many plant and animal species, many of
to a manageable level. The forest also whom remain unknown and whose
serves as a cover against erosion. Once benefits will be left undiscovered.
they are gone, too much water can result to
downstream flooding, many of which have Each year, as deforestation continues,
caused disasters in many parts of the much of the wilderness from which we
world. benefit and would have continued to
benefit from will be lost forever. With it
As fertile topsoil is eroded and flooded are the millions of chances in the form of
into the lower regions, many coastal plants and wildlife that could bring us
fisheries and coral reefs suffer from the many economic and medical solutions to
sedimentation brought by the flooding. pressing problems we currently face.
This results to negative effects in the
economic viability of many businesses and While it's true deforestation has brought
fatalities in wildlife population. with it opportunities to improve our lives,
we have not mastered the right kind of
responsibility that goes with having
control over our planet's resources. As a
result, we and all the other creatures on
this planet suffer greatly from the
consequences of our actions.
Reforestation, Afforestation, Deforestation,

Climate Change and GLOBAL WARMING:-

• Deforestation affects climate change be- headed by women) manage forest resource
cause it releases the carbon stored in the and development projects through woodlot
plants and soils and alters the physical ownership, tree planting and nursery
properties of the surface (Bala et al., development.
2007). Tropical ecosystems are the most
productive, and changes to them are likely • Men and women often have different productive
to have the greatest impact on climate and reproductive roles with regard to forest
change. Models predict that their loss will resource management. They play different parts in
have a global warming effect and planting, protecting or caring for seedlings and
experiments suggest that afforestation small trees, as well as in planting and maintaining
projects in the tropics could help mitigate homestead woodlots and plantations on public
global warming since they are the most lands. Men are more likely to be involved in
effective carbon sinks in the short term extracting timber and non-timber forest products
(Bala et al., 2007; Malhi et al., 2002). (NTFPs) for commercial purposes. Women
Worldwide, women have played an typically gather forest products for fuel, fencing,
important role in preserving tropical food for the family, fodder for livestock and raw
forests. For example, in Zimbabwe, materials to produce natural medicines, all of
women’s groups (over half of the 800,000 which help to increase family income.
families living in communal areas are

Since 2001, under the Maya Nut Program carbon trading with the USA and Europe to
supported by The Equilibrium Fund, women show how specific projects could help
in Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador and improve women’s lives, adapt to changes
Honduras have planted 400,000 Maya Nut caused by climate change and reduce
trees (Brosimum aliscastrum ). The Equi- greenhouse gases (The Equilibrium Fund,
librium Fund is trying to participate in 2007).
• The Mama Watoto Women’s group in Kenya primarily village women. The Movement
was formed in 1990 to address the scarcity of demonstrated that women can make a
fuelwood and poverty of rural women. This difference when protecting forests and
scarcity forced women to collect wood from forest developing afforestation projects. Their
reserves, thereby exposing them to legal penalties. afforestation programme not only reduced
In response, the women established “women- landslides, but also solved the problem of
made forests” in sections within their own farms. fuel and fodder. Women looked after the
The afforestation programme improved soil trees so carefully that the survival rate was
fertility, reduced illegal harvesting, and increased between 60–80% (Joshi, 2007). Some of the
the vegetation cover in the Kambiri region that other major achievements of the Chipko
could sequester carbon (FAO, 1994). Movement have been: a 15-year ban on
• In the Uttarakhand region of the Himalayas, the green felling in the Himalayan forests in
Chipko Movement comprises hundreds of Uttar Pradesh; a ban on clear felling in the
decentralized and locally autonomous Western Ghats and the Vindhyas; and
initiatives. Its leaders and activists are greater pressure for a natural resource
policy that is more sensitive to people’s needs and trees close by, makes their lives both easier
ecological requirements. and safer.
• In Sudan, with the support of UNHCR, IUCN • In South-East Cameroon, when the Baka people
and FNC (Forest National Corporation) discussed their vision of the future, men and
women are planting gardens and trees women turned out to have different visions.
around their houses. These provide them Women would like to have bigger
with shade, windbreaks, fuelwood and fruit. community forests so they can manage their
At the same time, it gives them more own forests and harvest NTFPs – they are
security, as they don’t need to go so far to the ones who regularly go and gather food,
get their fuelwood anymore. Very often wild fruits, roots, wild yams and also raw
women are victims of assault when they materials for making crafts/baskets/mats (all
have to go far away from their village or essential for their livelihoods).
refugee camps in Sudan, and having the
• The distribution of economic incentives • In many cases, the market price for a hectare of
achieved through REDD (reduce emissions sequestered carbon offset is 50 times more
from deforestation and land degradation) or than the price obtained from converting that
payments for ecosystem services (PES) for hectare to other land uses (Chomitz et al.
carbon storage and new carbon sinks should 2006). Informing women about such
be equitable among men and women. An resources could help improve their
analysis of several India and Nepal household incomes and allow them to
community forest groups highlighted the decide which strategies are most favourable
fact that, in most cases, cash is not for their environment and for themselves.
distributed equally and funds are commonly • Women’s empowerment is now being linked to
invested in resources or activities from climate change solutions. In November
which women were unlikely to benefit, such 2006, Kenya’s Greenbelt Movement,
as club repair, purchasing community founded by Nobel Peace Laureate Wangari
utensils, rugs, drums, etc. (Agarwal, 2002). Maathai, and the World Bank’s Community
Development Carbon Fund,
signed an emissions reductions purchase Forests are home to 300 million people
agreement to reforest two mountain areas in around the world and they contribute to the
Kenya. Women’s groups will plant livelihoods of many of the 1.2 billion people
thousands of trees, an activity that will also living in extreme poverty (women constitute 70%
provide poor rural women with a small of the poor worldwide). Forests provide global
income and some economic independence. food security and resources, food, fodder, fuel and
Women’s empowerment through this medicine. However, the way people use and
process will also capture 350,000 tons of manage forests depends on the socio-economic
carbon dioxide, restore soil lost to erosion, and socio-cultural environment, age and gender
and support regular rainfall essential to (FAO, 1989).
Kenya’s farmers and hydro-electric power Forest ecosystems play an important role in
plants. the global carbon cycle. For example,
• The lack of women’s participation in the forestry reforestation and afforestation have both been
industry has proven to have detrimental integrated as forestry-based mitigation schemes
effects. Reforestation projects in India and into the international climate change regime (i.e.
Nepal without a gender perspective faced the Kyoto Protocol). Both practices entail
problems when replanting, protecting the converting non-forested land to forested land
forests and implementing rules that protect through planting, seeding and/or the promotion of
the reserves (Agarwal, 2002). Another seed banks and sources. Afforestation applies to
project that faced similar problems was the areas that have not been forested for at least 50
Noel Kempff Climate Action Project. This years while reforestation applies to land that used
project aimed to meet conservation needs to be forested but was turned over to another land
and earn carbon credits. However, most of use. Nowadays, there is a debate on the
their goals were not achieved because the importance of addressing the reduction of
benefits were inequitable and there was little emissions from deforestation and land degradation
or no participation at all of women in the (REDD). Because it is estimated that close to one
forestry team, conservation team, quarter of all greenhouse
government technical support, or
community councils (Boyd, 2002).
gas emissions are due to deforestation and REDD strategies could be used to promote
similar types of land degradation, effective the protection of current forests.
Within the complexity of the services Forms of Discrimination against
that forests provide for climate change Women (CEDAW).
mitigation, it is crucial to understand • From the onset, ensure full participation
women’s role in these processes. and integration of women, from local
Strategies are now turning to: and indigenous communities, in
understanding and taking into account the policy design processes
different benefits that women and men (international and national) as well
derive from forestry services; recognising as in the broad-scale implementation
gender differences in access to, control and of REDD.
knowledge of forest resources; and • Forestry projects used to mitigate and
identifying the significant differences in adapt to climate change require a
access of women and men to forest-related gender-based approach that captures
decision making, institutions, and the socially-defined differences
economic opportunities. between women and men, i.e.
When half of the population is not gender-based differences in roles and
included or is prevented from participating responsibilities, problems, needs and
in decisions, institutions, and programmes priorities, and knowledge of, and
relating to climate change mitigation, they access to and control over forest and
are unlikely to feel “ownership” of forestry tree resources.
sector policies. Mitigation strategies • Promote systematic attention to the
represent a unique opportunity to include participation of women in forestry
women in forestry programmes and development in policies, strategies
acknowledge that gender relations will and capacity-building efforts related
influence many aspects of forest to the conservation and sustainable
management and governance proposed for development of forests and trees and
reducing greenhouse gases. their use.
Recommendations :- • There should be equitable access to, and
• International negotiations or regimes in distribution of, the economic benefits
relation to REDD must ensure derived from forest services provided
compliance with international and to mitigate climate change.
national commitments on gender Programmes should also promote
equality and equity, including the equal access of women to land
Convention on the Elimination of All ownership and other resources
necessary for effective socio-economic sequestration through new forestry
participation in forest management technologies, including nursery
and climate mitigation strategies techniques, site selection, and
(e.g., land, capital, technical selection of species, land
assistance, technology, tools, preparation, planting, weeding, and
equipment, markets and time). maintenance.
• Afforestation, reforestation, or forest
preservation projects that receive • Responses to global climate changes
payment for ecosystem services, should avoid a narrow criterion that leads
such as carbon sequestration, should to environmentally and socially harmful
mainstream gender. Women should consequences. These responses should
be included in the design and have broad goals that aim to reduce
implementation of the projects, as climatic change, protect natural resources,
well as in the distribution of benefits. improve social well-being, promote
• Both women and men must be trained in equality, and recognise that women are
methods to increase carbon key agents in climate change processes.

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efforts. Paper to Topic 12, this Congress.
2. Aminah, H. 1997. Planting stock production of Dipterocarps in Malaysia. Paper to Topic
12, this

3. Andersen, RS and W Huber. 1988. The hour of the fox. Univ Washington Press, Seattle.
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