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V Downward Communication

V Upward Communication
V Lateral Communication
V àral Communication
V Written Communication-letters, faxes,e-
mails, instant messaging, periodicals, notices
etc.
V Non- Verbal Communication- a glance, a
stare, a smile et
V Rormal Small- Group Networks:
1. Chain- A
B C

D E
A
2. Wheel-
B C
D E
V . All Channel- A
B C
E R

Electronic Communication
- e-mails
- Instant Messaging/ Text messaging
- Network softwares
- Web-logs(blogs)
- Video conferencing
V TheGrapevine:
Grapevine Characteristics
Informal, not controlled by management.
Perceived by most employees as being more
believable and reliable than formal
communications.
Largely used to serve the self-interests of those
who use it.
Results from:
^ Desire for information about important situations
^ Ambiguous conditions
^ Conditions that cause anxiety
V Riltering
V Selective Perception
V Emotions
V Information àverload
V Language
V Communication Apprehension
V Gender Differences
V Politically correct Communication
V Men talk to:
Emphasize status, power, and independence.
Complain that women talk on and on.
àffer solutions.
To boast about their accomplishments.
V Women talk to:
Establish connection and intimacy.
Criticize men for not listening.
Speak of problems to promote closeness.
Express regret and restore balance to a conversation
V Certain words insult individuals.
V In an increasingly diverse workforce, we
must be sensitive to how words might offend
others.
Removed: j  , , and  

Replaced with: j
 
j  ,   

  , and  .
V Removing certain words from the vocabulary
makes it harder to communicate accurately.
Removed:  j,   and .
Replaced with terms:     ,
         and  
 .
VG  
  :    

  

     
   
V m 
  :

Cultures that rely


heavily on words to
convey meaning in communication
Gigh-
vs.
Low-
Context
Cultures