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Enzymes are proteins and bio-catalyst

Enzymes, like other proteins, consist of long chains of amino acids held together
by peptide bonds. They are present in all living cells, where they perform a vital
function by controlling the metabolic processes, whereby nutrients are converted
into energy and new cells. Moreover, enzymes take part in the breakdown of
food materials into simpler compounds. As commonly known, enzymes are found
in the digestive tract where pepsin, trypsin and peptidases break down proteins
into amino acids, lipases split fats into glycerol and fatty acids, and amylases
break down starch into simple sugars.

Enzymes are bio-catalyst, and by their mere presence, and without being
consumed in the process, enzymes can speed up chemical processes that would
otherwise run very slowly. After the reaction is complete, the enzyme is released
again, ready to start another reaction. In principle, this could go on forever, but in
practically most catalysts have a limited stability, and over a period of time they
lose, their activity and are not usable again. Generally, most enzymes are used
only once and discarded after, they have done their job.

Enzymes are specific and work in mild conditions

Enzymes are very specific in comparison to inorganic catalysts such as acids,


bases, metals and metal oxides. Enzyme can break down particular compounds.
In some cases, their action is limited to specific bonds in the compounds with
which, they react. The molecule(s) that an enzyme acts on is known as its
substrate(s), which is converted into a product or products. A part of large
enzyme molecule will reversibly bind to the substrate(s) and then a specialised
part(s) of the enzyme will catalyse the specific change necessary to change the
substrate into a product. For each type of reaction in a cell there is a different
enzyme and they are classified into six broad categories namely hydrolytic,
oxidising and reducing, synthesising, transferring, lytic and isomerising. During
industrial process, the specific action of enzymes allows high yields to be
obtained with a minimum of unwanted by-products.

Enzymes can work at atmospheric pressure and in mild conditions with respect
to temperature and acidity (pH). Most enzymes function optimally at a
temperature of 30 °C-70 °C and at pH values, which are near the neutral point
(pH 7). Now-a-days, special enzymes have been developed that work at higher
temperatures for specific applictains.

Enzyme processes are potentially energysaving and save investing in special


equipment resistant to heat, pressure or corrosion. Due to their efficiency,
specific action, the mild conditions in which they work and their high
biodegradability, enzymes are very well suited for a wide range of industrial
applications.

Enzymes and industrial applications

Maps produces major industrial enzymes originating from micro-organisms in the


soil. Micro-organisms are usually bacteria, fungi or yeast. One micro-organism
contains over 1,000 different enzymes. A long period of trial and error in the
laboratory is needed to isolate the best micro-organism for producing a particular
type of enzyme. When the right micro-organism has been found, it has to be
modified so that it is capable of producing the desired enzyme at high yields.
Then the micro-organism is 'grown' in trays or huge fermentation tanks where it
produces the desired enzyme. With the latest technological advancements of
fermenting micro-organisms, it possible to produce enzymes economically and in
virtually unlimited quantities.

The endproduct of fermentation is a broth from which the enzymes are extracted.
After this, the remaining fermentation broth is centrifuged or filtered to remove all
solid particles. The resulting bio-mass, or sludge in everyday language, contains
the residues of micro-organisms and raw materials, which can be a very good
natural fertiliser. The enzymes are then, used for various industrial applications.

There are many applications of enzymes and the main applications of Maps
enzymes in industry are described under Industrial Applications.

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Enzymes are being used increasingly in textile processing, mainly in the finishing
of fabrics and garments. The most important applications of enzymes are:

Desizing Bio-Polishing Denim Washing

Desizing

The fabrics made from cotton or blends of cotton and synthetic fibres, reinforced
with an adhesive, the size before weaving, in order to prevent breaking of warp
threads. For this purpose starch and starch derivatives are commonly used.
Apart from starch many different materials such as gelatine, vegetable gum,
polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and water soluble cellulose derivatives like methyl and
carboxymenyl cellulose, are also used to prepare the size.

In the finishing of the fabric/garment (dyeing, bleaching, printing, etc.), to get


uniform results the size must be removed. Starch and other ingredients of the
size should be made water-soluble. Acids, oxidising agents or bases can do this
process of desizing in several ways, however these processes involve a risk of
damaging the fibres. Bio-technical developments in science have enabled us to
completely replace these methods with use of enzymes (amylases). Enzymatic
desizing is now widely accepted. Enzymes are highly efficient in removal of size,
and extremely gentle on fabrics/garment. Most importantly they are non-
corrosive, non-hazardous and Eco-friendly.

Maps offers, Palkozyme, Palkozyme Ultra, Palkozyme CD and Palkozyme HT, a


variety of enzymes for textile desizing.

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Bio-Polishing

Bio-Polishing is an enzymatic treatment for cotton and other natural fibres based
on cellulose. As the name suggests, the treatment gives the fabric a smoother
and glossier appearance.

The treatment is used to remove 'fuzz'-the tiny strands of fibre that protrude from
the surface of yarn. A ball of fuzz is called a 'pill' in the textile trade. These pills
can present a serious quality problem since they result in an unattractive knotty
fabric appearance. After BioPolishing, fabric shows a much lower pilling
tendency. The other benefits of removing fuzz are a softer and smoother handle,
and superior colour brightness.

Maps offers, Palkofeel and Palkosoft T, two different enzymes for bio-polishing.
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Denim Washing

Denims enjoy unique position in the world of fashion. Jeans are washed in
garment form to give special worn-out look. This process is termed as
stonewashing; traditional stonewashing involves washing of garments in a
tumbling washing machine with pumice stones to give a special wash down
effect and worn-out look. Stonewashing gives excellent results but also results in
severe were & loss of tensile strength when used to achieve high degree of
indigo fading and contrasts. It also damages the accessories on the garments
and stone dust, which gets accumulated on the garments, gives a rough feel and
greyish appearance.

Now-a-days, denim finishers are using a special enzyme (cellulase) to accelerate


the abrasion. The enzyme works to loosen the indigo dye on the denim in a
process known as 'biostonewashing'. Several kilograms of stones can be
replaced with a small dose of enzyme. The use of fewer stones, results in less
damage to the garments, less wear on machines and less pumice dust in the
laundry environment.

Biostonwashing has opened up lot of new possibilities for denim finishing, by


increasing the variety of finishes. With an enzyme, it is now possible to fade
denim to a greater degree without the risk of damaging the garment. Productivity
can also be increased because laundry machines contain fewer stones and more
garments.

Maps offers, Palkowash, Palkowash Super T and Palkowash N, a versatile range


of enzymes for denim washing.

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Maps offers various enzymes for textile bio-polishing applications:

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Palkofeel

Palkofeel is a blend of fungal cellulase enzyme preparations produced by a


selected strain of ' 
 and

 . The enzyme will
hydrolyse 1,4- -glucosidic linkages in cellulose. Palkofeel contents a pH
buffering system and surfactants.

Below mentioned is the influence of pH and temperature on the activity of


Palkofeel.
Optimum pH range : 4.0 - 5.0
Optimum temperature range : 50 °C - 60 °C

Palkofeel is a fungal cellulase Bio-Polishing enzyme, which hydrolyses cellulose


present in the fabric/ garment. Palkofeel is used for enzymatic finishing of woven
as well as knitted fabrics/ garments like, cotton, cotton/ polyester blends, flax and
ramie. Palkofeel has a multi-functional effect, and will result in fabric quality
improvements with respect to, reduction of fuzz and pilling, fabric softness and
smoothness and gloss/ lustre and colour brightening. The degree of hydrolysis in
Palkofeel is much controlled, to prevent weight reduction and damage to the
garment/ fabric. Palkofeel is added with a pH buffering system, due to which pH
maintenance is not required during the process.

Palkofeel is available in various types and activity.


Please contact us for details and more information.

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Palkosoft T

Palkosoft T is a blend of fungal cellulase enzyme preparations produced by


selected strains of
   
and

 
. The enzyme will
hydrolyse 1,4- -glucosidic linkages in cellulose. Palkosoft T contents a pH
buffering system and surfactants.

Below mentioned is the influence of pH and temperature on the activity of


Palkosoft T.
Optimum pH range : 4.5 - 5.5
Optimum temperature range : 50O C - 55O C

Palkosoft T is a fungal cellulase heavy Bio-Polishing enzyme, which hydrolyses


cellulose present in the fabric/ garment. Palkosoft T is used for enzymatic
finishing of woven as well as knitted fabrics/ garments like, cotton, cotton/
polyester blends, flax and ramie. Palkosoft T has a multi-functional effect, and
will result in fabric quality improvements with respect to, reduction of fuzz and
pilling, fabric softness and smoothness and gloss/ lustre and colour brightening.
The degree of hydrolysis in Palkosoft T is much controlled, to prevent weight
reduction and damage to the garment/ fabric. Palkosoft T is added with a pH
buffering system, due to which pH maintenance is not required during the
process.

Palkosoft T is available in various types and activity.


Please contact us for details and more information.

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Alcohol fermentation is probably the oldest known enzymatic reaction, but this
and other similar phenomena such as souring of milk were considered to take
place only through action of living organism. In 1833 Payen and Persoz partially
isolated the active agent breaking down the starch to sugar from malt and named
it diastase, now known as amylase. These and other active preparation were
given the general term 'ferments'. Liebig recognised that these ferments could be
non-living material obtained from living cells, but pastur and others believed that
ferments must contain living material. While this dispute continued, the term
'ferments' was gradually replaced by the name enzyme. The term 'enzyme' was
first proposed in 1867 by German physiologist Wilhelm Kuhne and comes from
greek meaning 'in yeast'. In 1897 German chemist Edward Buchner discovered
that a cell-free extract of yeast can cause alcoholic fermentation. The earliest
research to use and produce enzymes industrially was performed by Otto Rohm
in 1906. Rohm used pancreatic tissue from offal to produce trypsin, which was
used in tanning of hides. After Buchner's discovery it was assumed that enzymes
in general caused fermentation and vital reactions.

In 1926 the American biochemist James B. Summer finally succeeded in


isolating and crystallising urease from Jack-bean extracts. Four years later,
pepsin and trypsin were isolated and crystallised by American biochemist John
H. Northop. All these three enzymes were found to be protein. This was the
beginning of enzyme biotechnology and subsequently hundreds of enzymes
were purified and characterised. Years of research in biochemistry and
biotechnology have boosted knowledge of enzymes for industries as well as
research. Many new techniques have been established to modify enzymes or
increase their yields. New techniques for purification of enzymes are constantly
developing and so are being discovered new application of enzymes in medicine,
research and industries.

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Palkozyme a bacterial p -amylase enzyme for textile desizing.
Palkozyme Ultra a bacterial p -amylase enzyme for textile desizing.
Palkozyme CD a blend of bacterial/ fungal p -amylase enzymes for textile
desizing.
Palkozyme HT a bacterial high temperature p -amylase enzyme for textile
desizing.
Palkofeel a fungal cellulase enzyme for bio-polishing fabric/ garments.
Palkosoft T a fungal cellulase enzyme for heavy bio-polishing fabric/ garments.
Palkowash a fungal cellulase enzyme for denim bio-stone washing.
Palkowash a fungal cellulase enzyme for denim bio-stone washing.
Super T
Palkowash N a neural cellulase enzyme for denim bio-stone washing.
Palkosilk a bacterial alkaline protease enzyme for silk degumming.
Palkobate a bacterial alkaline protease enzyme for leather bating.
Palkocid a fungal protease enzyme for leather bating.
Palkosoak a mixture of protease and lipase enzyme for leather soaking.
Palkodegrease a lipase enzyme for leather degreasing.
Palkodehair a protease enzyme for leather unhairing.
Mapsozyme a bacterial p -amylase enzyme for starch syrup, alcohol production,
food processing, etc.
Palkoamylo a fungal p -amylase enzyme for starch syrup, alcohol production,
food processing, baking, etc.
Palkolase a high temperature p -amylase enzyme for starch liquefaction.
Palkodex an amyloglucosidase enzyme for starch saccharification.
Palkodex P a blend of amyloglucosidase/ pullanase enzymes for starch
saccharification.
Palkotase ACP a fungal protease enzyme for protein hydrolysis.
Palkotase NUP a neutral protease enzyme for protein hydrolysis.
Palkotase ALP an alkaline protease enzyme for protein hydrolysis.
Palkogent a bacterial alkaline protease enzyme for detergent.
Palkobake series a fungal amylase enzyme, with combination of hemicellulase and
protease side enzymes for baking and milling.
Palkobread a fungal amylase, hemicellulase and protease enzyme based bread
series improver for bread making.
Palkobisc a neutral protease enzyme for biscuit baking.
Palkodiastase a fungal/bacterial p -amylase enzyme for pharmaceutical.
Palkotreat an enzyme for bio-treatment of organic waste

È
(  Mr. Piyush Palkhiwala, the chairman of the group started Maps Industries, a
small unit manufacturing alpha-amylase for textile desizing agent, under the
brand name of Palkozymeå
(  Maps Industries expanded its production facilities to cope with the increasing
demand
(  Maps diversifies by setting up, a company to manufacture dyestuffs and textile
chemicals.
(  Maps broadens its product range with the introduction of Palkobateå -protease
enzyme for leather bating, manufactured at its newly expanded plant.
(  Maps sets up a large-scale fermentation plant to manufacture enzymes to offer
a range of enzyme products for textile and leather. Palkodiastaseå -amylase
enzyme for pharmaceuticals was launched.
(  Maps broadens its product range with the introduction of a range of enzymes
and auxiliaries for the leather industry. Export markets are tapped for the first
time.
(  Maps introduces a new range of enzyme products for detergents, baking &
milling. Maps, broadens its product range with the introduction of Palkolaseå
-amylase enzyme and Palkodexå -amyloglucosidase enzyme for starch
syrups.
( Maps group is listed amongst the Top 1000 national private business groups in
India. Maps Biotech, is incorporated to cover the growing export market.
( ( Maps sets up further fermentation facilities for cellulase enzymes.
Palkowashå and Palkofeelå for textile bio-polishing and denim washing
launched. Export markets expanded to cover Thailand, Indonesia and Sri
Lanka.
(  urther stress put on developing international markets, agents are appointed in
Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, China, S. Korea and Bangladesh. Middle-
eastern markets were tapped for the first time.
(  Maps modernises its fermentation facilities, along with a four fold capacity
expansion.
(  Mr. Piyush Palkhiwala, chairman of Maps group is awarded the prestigious
"Best Entrepreneur of the Year", by the Rotary International Club. Maps
(India) Limited, is incorporated.
(  Maps ventures into a large expansion program, with seven fold solid-state
fermentation and a new submerge fermentation facilities.
(  Maps ventures into a large expansion program, with seven fold solid-state
fermentation and a new submerge fermentation facilities.
(  Maps set up a new submerge fermentation plant to manufacture enzymes like
Cellulase, Beta Glucanase, High Temperature Alpha Amylase and
Amyloglucosidase. Maps Biozyme Limited was incorporated. A new R&D
centre is started to work on genetic engineering.
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m Very large, complex protein molecules consisting of intertwined chains of amino acids
m Formed within the cells of all living creatures, plants, fungi, bacteria, and microscopic
single cell organisms
m Highly biodegradable and pose no threat to the environment
m Catalysts at work all around us in nature, our bodies, and in industry
m Inanimate chemical compounds, though they are found in all living cells
m Categorized according to the compounds they act upon. For example,   split fats
into glycerol and fatty acids;   break down hydrogen peroxide; 
 
break down starch into simple sugars;   break down proteins;   
break down cellulose;   break down pectin;   break down xylan;
 
  catalyze conversion of glucose to fructose, beta-glucanases break down
beta-glucans.

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m Control many vital functions including the metabolic processes which convert nutrients
into energy and fresh cell material and are highly efficient at increasing the reaction rate
of biochemical processes.
m They have highly specific targets, breaking down or synthesizing only certain
compounds, which operate at moderate conditions of temperature, pH and pressure.

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m Fermentation broth is superheated under aseptic conditions to form a completely sterile


nutrient medium
m The nutrient is converted into a desired enzyme by carefully selected microorganism
action in the presence of oxygen. The choice of broth, microorganism, and operating
conditions determine the type and yield of enzyme.
m Once fermentation is completed, various centrifugal, filtration, and precipitation
processes separate the enzyme from the fermentation broth.

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m ë ... starch into sugars, converted into alcohol.


m ë
... degradation of feed components for improved feed utilization and
nutrient digestion. Reduction in nitrogen & phosphorus in waste.
m È... modification of flour for improved baking properties, anti-staling.
m È... faster maturation of beer, chill proofing, removal of carbohydrates for light
beers, breaks down beta-glucanases
m  ... chymosin for cheese making, removal/conversion of lactose in milk.
m ... an active biological component of washing powders or liquids. Granulated
proteases, amylases, and lipases break down starch and fatty stains. Cellulases are
included for the depilling, color brightening, and softening of cotton garments being
washed.
m  ã ... modification of lecithins and syntheses of specialty fats and oils
m - ... soaking of hides and skins, unhairing, bating, and defatting.
m ' ... biotechnology ingredients for personal care products.
m '... improvement of nutritional and functional properties of animal and vegetable
proteins. Development of flavor bases based on proteins.
m ''... control of pitch problems. Reduction of chlorine consumption in pulp,
bleaching, viscosity control in starch-based coatings, de-inking for recycling programs.
m   ... production of dextrose, fructose, and special syrups for the
baking,confectionery, and soft drink industries
m
  .. stone washing of denim (in combination with pumice stones), bio-polishing
and softening of cotton and defibrillation of Tencel® fabrics, degumming of silk,
bleaching, clean-up, removal of starch from woven materials.
m c ... degradation of pectin for clarification and increase in juice yields.