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TERM PAPER

MEC 207

fluid and Hydrostatic fluid with their

application.

Mr. Dinesh Kumar Gupta Name: - Rahul Sinha

Section: - M4901

Reg. No. – 10901770

Roll no: - B38

ACKNOWGEMENT

I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to all those guidepost

who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this

project that has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study.

opportunity to undertake this project in this university and providing us

with all the facilities. We are highly thankful to Mr. DINESH SIR for his

active support, valuable time and advice, whole-hearted guidance, sincere

cooperation and pains-taking involvement during the study and in

completing the assignment of preparing the said project within the time

stipulated.

Lastly, We are thankful to all those, particularly the various friends , who

have been instrumental in creating proper, healthy and conductive

environment and including new and fresh innovative ideas for us during

the project, their help, it would have been extremely difficult for us to

prepare the project in a time bound framework.

RAHUL SINHA.

CONTENTS

HYDRODYNAMIC FLUID.

INTODUCTION TO FLUID DYNAMICS or

HYDRODYNAMICS.

APPLICATIONS OF HYDRODYNAMICS.

I. Hydrodynamic Lubrication

II. Hydrodynamic Lift

III. Aerodynamics

IV. Hydrometer

V. Archimedes’s Principle

VI. Naval Architecture

FLUID STATICS OR HYDROSTATICS

HYDROSTATIC FLUID APPLICATIONS

I. Hydrostatic Lubrication.

II. Hydrostatic Bearing.

III. Applications of Fluid Mechanics

IV. Pascal’s Law

The Main Difference between both hydrodynamic fluid

and hydrostatic fluid is that one is study of fluid in motion

and the latter is study at rest resp.

The science of fluids in motion is fluid dynamics. In physics, fluid dynamics is a sub-

discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids (liquids

and gases) in motion. It has several subdisciplines itself, including aerodynamics (the study

of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid

dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on

aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather

patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and reportedly modeling fission weapon

detonation. Some of its principles are even used in traffic engineering, where traffic is treated

as a continuous fluid.

This branch of fluid mechanics deals with the laws of fluids in motion; these laws are

considerably more complex and, in spite of the greater practical importance of fluid

dynamics, only a few basic ideas can be discussed here.

Interest in fluid dynamics dates from the earliest engineering application of fluid machines.

Archimedes made an early contribution by his invention of the screw pump, the pushing

action of which is similar to that of the corkscrewlike device in a meat grinder. Other

hydraulic machines and devices were developed by the Romans, who not only used

Archimedes’ screw for irrigation and mine pumping but also built extensive aqueduct

systems, some of which are still in use. The Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius first

described the verticle waterwheel, a technology that revolutionized corn milling, during the

1st century BC.

Despite the early practical applications of fluid dynamics, little or no understanding of the

basic theory existed, and development lagged accordingly. After Archimedes, more than

1800 years elapsed before the next significant scientific advance was made by the Italian

mathematician and physicist Evangelista Torricelli, who invented the barometer in 1643, and

formulated Torricelli’s law, which related the efflux velocity of a liquid through an orifice in

a vessel to the liquid height above it. The major spurt in the development of fluid mechanics

had to await the formulation of Newton’s laws of motion by the English mathematician and

physicist Isaac Newton. These laws were applied to fluids first by the Swiss mathematician

Leonhard Euler, who derived the basic equations for a frictionless, or inviscid, fluid.

Euler first recognized that dynamical laws for fluids can only be expressed in a relatively

simple form if the fluid is assumed incompressible and ideal, that is, if the effects of friction

or viscosity can be neglected. Because, however, this is never the case for real fluids in

motion, the results of such an analysis can only serve as an estimate for those flows where

viscous effects are small.

Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure that underlies these practical disciplines, that

embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to

solve practical problems. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves

calculating various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density, and

temperature, as functions of space and time.

Historically, hydrodynamics meant something different than it does today. Before the

twentieth century, hydrodynamics was synonymous with fluid dynamics. This is still

reflected in names of some fluid dynamics topics, like magnetohydrodynamics and

hydrodynamic stability—both also applicable in, as well as being applied to, gases

Applications of hydrodynamics include the study of closed-conduit and open-channel flow,

and the calculation of forces on submerged bodies.

1).Hydrodynamic Lubrication

We saw in the discussion of the Stribeck curve that the presence of a full fluid film and no

surface contact indicates hydrodynamic lubrication. Hydrodynamic lubrication gets its name

because the fluid film is produced by relative motion of the solid surfaces and the fluid

pressure increase that results.

To understand hydrodynamic lubrication, we first should look at the figure above. We know

that a surface will have tiny asperities or peaks that will contact if two plates are placed

together. If one of the plates were to slide over the other, then friction would increase, the

asperities would break and the surfaces would wear. In hydrodynamic lubrication, a fluid film

separates the surfaces, prevents wear and reduces friction.

The hydrodynamic film is formed when the geometry, surface motion and fluid viscosity

combine to increase the fluid pressure enough to support the load. The increased pressure

forces the surfaces apart and prevents surface contact. Therefore, in hydrodynamic

lubrication, one surface floats over the other surface. The increase in fluid pressure that forces

the surfaces apart is hydrodynamic lift.

2).Hydrodynamic Lift:-

Consider two parallel plates with relative motion: if one surface is angled where the entrance

area is slightly larger than the exit area, then a wedge shaped gap is created. This is a

converging gap, and is the geometry necessary to produce hydrodynamic lift. Be careful

though - the difference between the inlet and outlet is extremely small (a few microns at

most), so the surfaces will look parallel to the naked eye. Any figures in this course or any

other source will be greatly exaggerated to illustrate the concept. Surfaces that are this closely

matched create a conformal contact.

Hydrodynamic Lift:-Whenever a surface moves over a fluid, or a fluid flows over a surface,

then the fluid immediately next to the surface will move at the same speed as the surface. So,

if two surfaces move relative to each other and a fluid is present, then it will be dragged into

the interface. A fluid that enters a converging gap in this manner will see a pressure increase

as the gap converges, which creates hydrodynamic lift, and forces the surfaces apart like a

wedge.

Hydrostatic lift is present when a higher-pressure fluid is forced between two surfaces. In this

case, the surface separation is caused by the static fluid pressure, and can occur without

surface motion. The mathematical equation that describes the fluid pressure as it relates to

surface motion, film thickness and viscosity, the Reynolds equation, was developed by

Osborne Reynolds over 115 years ago. In its full form, the Reynolds equation is very

complicated and difficult to solve; however, the equation can be simplified to solve many

problems in lubrication. The Reynolds equation itself is beyond the scope of this course.

3).Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air,

particularly when it interacts with a moving object. Aerodynamics is a subfield of fluid

dynamics and gas dynamics, with much theory shared between them. Aerodynamics is often

used synonymously with gas dynamics, with the difference being that gas dynamics applies

to all gases. Understanding the motion of air (often called a flow field) around an object

enables the calculation of forces and moments acting on the object. Typical properties

calculated for a flow field include velocity, pressure, density and temperature as a function of

position and time. By defining a control volume around the flow field, equations for the

conservation of mass, momentum, and energy can be defined and used to solve for the

properties. The use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical

approximations, wind tunnel experimentation, and computer simulations form the scientific

basis for heavier-than-air flight.

Aerodynamic problems can be identified in a number of ways. The flow environment defines

the first classification criterion. External aerodynamics is the study of flow around solid

objects of various shapes. Evaluating the lift and drag on an airplane or the shock waves that

form in front of the nose of a rocket are examples of external aerodynamics. Internal

aerodynamics is the study of flow through passages in solid objects. For instance, internal

aerodynamics encompasses the study of the airflow through a jet engine or through an air

conditioning pipe.

The ratio of the problem's characteristic flow speed to the speed of sound comprises a second

classification of aerodynamic problems. A problem is called subsonic if all the speeds in the

problem are less than the speed of sound, transonic if speeds both below and above the speed

of sound are present (normally when the characteristic speed is approximately the speed of

sound), supersonic when the characteristic flow speed is greater than the speed of sound, and

hypersonic when the flow speed is much greater than the speed of sound. Aerodynamicists

disagree over the precise definition of hypersonic flow; minimum Mach numbers for

hypersonic flow range from 3 to 12.

The influence of viscosity in the flow dictates a third classification. Some problems may

encounter only very small viscous effects on the solution, in which case viscosity can be

considered to be negligible. The approximations to these problems are called inviscid flows.

Flows for which viscosity cannot be neglected are called viscous flows.

Hydrometer

Hydrometer, in chemistry, graduated glass or metal instrument used to measure either the

specific gravity or density of a liquid. It is based on the hydrostatic principle of the Greek

mathematician and inventor Archimedes, which states that the weight loss of a body in a

liquid equals the weight of the liquid displaced. Most hydrometers are enclosed in glass tubes

fitted with rubber bulbs for drawing up the solution to be measured. The sealed instrument

itself floats and has a bulblike bottom weighted with lead or mercury. When immersed, the

graduated stem rises vertically to give a scale reading. Hydrometers must be calibrated

according to the type of liquid to be tested and at a standard temperature, usually 4° C (39.2°

F), or 20° C (68° F). Various types of hydrometers measure density or purity in storage

batteries, ship boilers, soil, and milk.

Archimedes’ Principle

Archimedes’ Principle, principle discovered by the Greek scientist Archimedes that states

that a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the displaced

fluid. This principle, also known as the law of hydrostatics, applies to both floating and

submerged bodies, and to all fluids.

Naval architecture

Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction and

repair of marine vehicles. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design,

development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a marine

vehicle. Preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, construction, trials, operation

and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship design

calculations are also required for ships being modified (by means of conversion, rebuilding,

modernization, or repair). Naval architecture also involves formulation of safety regulations

and damage control rules and the approval and certification of ship designs to meet statutory

and non-statutory requirements.

Concerns the flow of water around the ship's hull, bow, stern and over bodies such as

propeller blades or rudder, or through thruster tunnels.

Resistance - resistance towards motion in water primarily caused due to flow of water around

the hull. Powering calculation is done based on this.

Propulsion - to move the vessel through water using propellers, thrusters, water jets, sails etc.

The energy to drive these is mainly provided by internal combustion engines. Some vessels

are electrically powered using nuclear or solar energy.

Ship motions - involves motions of the vessel in seaway and its responses in waves.

Controllability (manoeuvring) - involves controlling and maintaining position and direction

of the vessel.

Hydrostatic fluid is the science of fluids at rest, and is a sub-field within fluid mechanics. It

embraces the study of the conditions under which fluids are at rest in stable equilibrium. The

use of fluid to do work is called hydraulics, a hydrostatic fluid is a fluid in which fluid

stresses act isotropically and fluid elements are in local equilibrium with one another.

A fundamental characteristic of any fluid at rest is that the force exerted on any particle

within the fluid is the same in all directions. If the forces were unequal, the particle would

move in the direction of the resultant force. It follows that the force per unit area, or the

pressure exerted by the fluid against the walls of an arbitrarily shaped containing vessel, is

perpendicular to the interior walls at every point. If the pressure were not perpendicular an

unbalanced tangential force component would exist and the fluid would move along the wall.

This concept was first formulated in a slightly extended form by the French mathematician

and philosopher Blaise Pascal in 1647. Known as Pascal’s law, it states that the pressure

applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally in all directions and to all parts of the

enclosing vessel, if pressure changes due to the weight of the fluid can be neglected. This law

has extremely important applications in hydraulics.

Fluid Static's is a form one of the constituents of Fluid Mechanics. Fluid Statics deals with

fluids at rest. A fluid at rest has no shear stress. Consequently, any force developed is only

due to normal stresses i.e., pressure. Such a condition is termed the hydrostatic condition. In

fact, the analysis of hydrostatic systems is greatly simplified when compared to that for fluids

in motion. Though fluid in motion gives rise to many interesting phenomena, fluid at rest is

by no means less important. Its importance becomes apparent when we note that the

atmosphere around us can be considered to be at rest and so are the oceans. The simple theory

developed here finds its application in determining pressures at different levels of atmosphere

and in many pressure-measuring devices. Further, the theory is employed to calculate force

on submerged objects such as ships, parts of ships and submarines. The other application of

the theory is in the calculation of forces on dams and other hydraulic systems.

Hydrostatic fluid application:-

of a kinematic pair by means of an external pressurization system. This lubrication

mechanism has now a well defined collocation in the large fields of lubrication engineering

.in particular, it can be used instead of hydrodynamic lubrication.

fluid is usually oil, water or air, and the pressurization is done by a pump. Hydrodynamic

bearings rely on the high speed of the journal self-pressurizing the fluid in a wedge between

the faces.

Fluid bearings are frequently used in high load, high speed or high precision applications

where ordinary ball bearings have short life or high noise and vibration. They are also used

increasingly to reduce cost. For example, hard disk drive motor fluid bearings are both

quieter and cheaper than the ball bearings they replace.

The laws of fluid mechanics are observable in many everyday situations. For example, the pressure exerted by water at the

bottom of a pond will be the same as the pressure exerted by water at the bottom of a much narrower pipe, provided depth

remains constant. If a longer pipe filled with water is tilted so that it reaches a maximum height of 15 m, its water will exert

the same pressure as the other examples (left). Fluids can flow up as well as down in devices such as siphons (right).

Hydrostatic force causes water in the siphon to flow up and over the edge until the bucket is empty or the suction is broken.

A siphon is particularly useful for emptying containers that should not be tipped.

The top surface of a liquid at rest in an open vessel will always be perpendicular to the

resultant forces acting on it. If gravity is the only force, the surface will be horizontal. If other

forces in addition to gravity act, then the “free” surface will adjust itself. For instance, if a

glass of water is spun rapidly about its vertical axis, both gravity and centrifugal forces will

act on the water and the surface will form a parabola that is perpendicular to the resultant

force. If gravity is the only force acting on a liquid contained in an open vessel, the pressure

at any point within the liquid is directly proportional to the weight of a vertical column of that

liquid. This, in turn, is proportional to the depth below the surface and is independent of the

size or shape of the container. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a pipe about 2.5 cm (about 1

in) in diameter and about 15 m (about 50 ft) high that is filled with water is the same as the

pressure at the bottom of a lake about 15 m (about 50 ft) deep. Similarly, a pipe about 30 m

(about 100 ft) long that is filled with water, and slanted so that the top is only about 15 m

(about 50 ft) above the bottom vertically, will have the same pressure exerted at the bottom of

the pipe even though the distance along the pipe is much longer. The weight of a column of

fresh water about 30 cm (about 12 in) high and with a cross section of about 6.5 sq cm (about

1 sq in) is about 0.196 kg (about 0.433 lb) and this will be the pressure exerted at the bottom.

A column about 30 cm (about 12 in) high and about 0.093 sq m (about 1 sq ft) in cross

section will weigh 144 times as much, but the pressure, which is force per unit area, will

remain identical. The pressure at the bottom of a mercury column about 30 cm (about 12 in)

high will be 0.196 × 13.6 = 2.07 kg per 6.5 sq cm (1 sq in) as mercury is 13.6 times as heavy

as water. See also Atmosphere; Barometer.

Pascal’s Law

Pascal’s law, developed by French mathematician Blaise Pascal, states that the pressure on a fluid is equal in all

directions and in all parts of the container. As liquid flows into the large container at the bottom of this illustration,

pressure pushes the liquid equally up into the tubes above the container. The liquid rises to the same level in all of

the tubes, reguardless of the shape or angle of the tube.

The second important principle of fluid statics was discovered by the Greek mathematician

and philosopher Archimedes. The so-called Archimedes’ principle states that a submerged

body is subject to a buoyancy force that is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that

body. This explains why a heavily laden ship floats; its total weight equals exactly the weight

of the water that it displaces, and this weight exerts the buoyant force supporting the ship.

A point at which all forces producing the buoyant effect may be considered to act is the

center of buoyancy and is the center of gravity of the fluid displaced. The center of buoyancy

of a floating body is directly above its center of gravity. The greater the distance between

these two, the more stable the body. See Stability.

Archimedes’ principle also makes possible the determination of the density of an object that

is so irregular in shape that its volume cannot be measured directly. If the object is weighed

first in air and then in water, the difference in weights will equal the weight of the volume of

the water displaced, which is the same as the volume of the object. Thus the weight density of

the object (weight divided by volume) can readily be determined. In very high precision

weighing, both in air and in water, the displaced weight of both the air and water has to be

accounted for in arriving at the correct volume and density.

References:-

1). Horace Lamb

2). R. Bassani & B. Piccigallo

3).http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_dynamics

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