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Glycolysis Pathway

Overall: glucose + 2NAD+ + 2ADP + 2Pi 2 pyruvate + 2NADH + 2 ATP


glucose + 2ADP + 2P 2 lactate + 2 ATP (anaerobic)
Alternative feedstocks.
Mannose: through Man-6-P, F-6-P HO 6
Galactose: through Glc-1-P
Fructose: fructokinast to F-1-P, aldolase 5 O 1
OH
Glycerol: glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase
glucose 4 OH
ATP HO 2
PO 6 hexokinase (HK) 3
Hexokinases and glucokinase (liver)
Km and bloodstream [glucose]
1 HO
5 ADP
Buffering capacity O Pentose phosphate
4 1 glucose-6-phosphate
OH pathway
HO 2
3 OH phosphoglucose
HO 2 isomerase (PGI) PO 6 1 OH
O
fructose-6-phosphate 5 HO 2
PFK-1: committed step. ATP phosphofructokinase 4 OH
3 3
Adenylate kinase and ATP:ADP:AMP
PO 6 (PFK-1) OH
AMP, F-2,6-BP increase activity O OH ADP
ATP, citrate decrease activity
5 HO 2 fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
1 OP fructose bisphosphate
Aldolase: Class I/II. 4 3 4 aldolase CH2OP
OH
Protonated Schiff base (imminiun ion)

H O glyceraldehyde- dihydroxyacetone O
+
3-phosphate phosphate HOH2C
OH
CH2OP triosephosphate
5
Preparation (P-I-P-C-I) isomerase (TPI, TIM) INVESTMENT

Payoff (O-PT-I-D-PT) PAYOFF


2Pi + 2 NAD+ glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
6
2 NADH + 2H+ dehydrogenase (GAPDH) O OP
GAPDH: Moonlighter (as is PGI).
Thiohemiacetal and arsenate (uncoupling)
2 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate OH
2 ADP CH2OP
7 phosphoglycerate
O O -
2 ATP kinase (PGK)

OH 2 3-phosphoglycerate
CH2OP phosphoglycerate
PGM: A phosphoenzyme.
Phosphohistidine 8 mutase (PGM) O O-

2 2-phosphoglycerate OP
9 CH2OH
O O- enolase (ENO)
2 H2O
pyruvate
OP 2 phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) decarboxylase
Resupply GAPDH under
(PDC)
PYK: allosteric regulation. CH2 2 ADP pyruvate anaerobic conditions
AMP, F-1,6-BP increase activity 10
ATP, AcCoA, Ala decrease activity O O- kinase (PYK) NADH + H+ NAD
+
2 ATP
O 2 pyruvate acetaldehyde alcohol
ethanol
CH3 2 NADH + 2H+ dehydrogenase
Resupply GAPDH under (ADH)
anaerobic conditions
2 NAD+
lactate
O O- dehydrogenase
acetyl-CoA
2 lactate (LDH) (TCA cycle, Lipids)
HO
CH3

BCHM 4115
Fall 2010