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PREDISPOSING FACTORS PRECIPITATING FACTORS

51, male, family history Working environment (tunnel laborer),


cigarette smoking, excessive drinking,
anemia, intake of salty foods, stress

Nicotine and Vasoconstriction of Atheromatous plaques are


carbon monoxide the blood vessels deposited in the blood vessel walls
obtained from
cigarette
smoking

Narrowing of the lumen

Decreased myocardial
oxygen supply in the heart

Inadequate pumping of
blood in the heart

Decreased blood supply in


the kidneys

Initiation of Renin-Angiotensin-
Aldosterone System
Sodium and fluid retention

Increase in blood pressure


Incompliance to
medication

Uncorrected hypertension

Cardiomegaly Cardiac decompensation

Left sided heart

failure symptoms:

-Dyspnea

-Tachypnea
Right sided heart failure
symptoms: -Crackles in the lungs

- Peripheral Edema -Dry, hacking cough


Heart Failure
- distended jugular vein - Orthopnea

- Pallor

If not treated If treated

Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

Pulmonary Congestion
Hypoxia
Death
Drugs: Heart Transplant
- Antithrombotic (Aspirin)

- Loop diuretics (Furosemide)

- Beta Blockers (Olmesartan)

-Vasodilators (Dobutamine)

Clinical Manifestations:

Pulse

- 60 to 100 beats per minute

Blood pressure

- 90 to 140 mmHg (systolic)


60 to 90 mmHg (diastolic)

Respirations

Prolonged life-span - 12 to 20 breaths per minute