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Special thanks to DR TARIQ for his utmost services to arranging our imposable field as a
possible and also thanks to DR UMER who guide us. And at last the hero's of the field

Group Picture: From left to right

1) Shabeer Hussain 2) Ghani Ur rehman 3) Faiz Ur rehman 4) Bilal Mughal 5) Ahmad

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Group Leader:
Faiz Ur Rehman

Submitted To:

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Sir Jameel Sidiqi

Submitted by:

Names: Reg No:

Abu Hassan (group leader) sp09-ers-014

Bilal Mughal sp09-ers-029

Syed Uzair sp09-ers-011

Faiz Ur Rehman sp09-ers-007

Ahmad Baig sp09-ers-015

Ghani Ur Rehman sp09-ers-043

Syed Hur Hussain sp09-ers-017

Shabeer Hussain sp09-ers- 032

Bs. Geology 3rd Semester

Date: 11 June 2010

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1. Chapter 1. Introduction to Field Trip 7

2. Chapter 2. Physiography 8-9

3. Chapter 3. Stratigraphy 10-26

4. Chapter 4. Economic Geology 28-30

5. Conclusion 30-31

6. Glossary 32-33

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Chapter No. 1

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Two days field in Nammal Gorge:

Department of Earth Sciences University of Ciit Abbottabad arranged a field Trip of two
days for BS-3 on May 31, 2010 to Nammal Gorge.
The objectives for that field trip were to study and observe Lithology, depositional
condition, Sedimentary structure, rock type, contact and fossils of the area. Also how to
find the dip and strike. Another objective of our field trip was to enhance our knowledge
and to strong our grip on Stratigraphy subject, especially to concentrate on geology of
salt range and Nammal gorge and to study the structures, Lithology, depositional
environments, rock types and economical importance of different formations.
The area was easily accessible and we went there through buses. The journey was
pleasant and smooth. The field which we visited was unsteady; rocky along the
mountains. On first day when we reach to Nammal gorge we started our field from
Wargal formation up to mianwali formation. Then we return back to hotel at 5 pm. Next
day we visited the Nammal gorge Mianwalli in western salt range again. The temperature
of Nammal was very high it touches maximum 51 to 52 C. There we observe and
recognize different rock units. Limestone was mining for different purposes. We also
saw a sulpher water stream was running.

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Chapter No. 2

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2.1) Physiography of salt range:

2.1.1) Relief:
Salt range the natural museum of geology is moderately relief area. Sakesar peak is the
highest peak in the Area.

2.1.2) Lakes:
Five beautiful lakes are present in salt range. The Khabeki Lake and Jahlar Lake
are present in central salt range.. A large lake is known as Uchhali Lake is located in central
salt range. This lake acts as local base level for streams draining central and southern
hilly terrain of mapped area. The streams of northern most part are drained in to tributaries of
Soan River. The Nammal Lake is present in western salt range. The Kalar Kahar Lake is
present in eastern salt range.

2.1.3) Drainage:
The drainage is mostly dendrite to parallel and generally controlled by structure. These
run along the conjugate shear features that strike N30W to N60W and N40E to N50E.

2.1.4) Vegetation:
The area is vegetated and contains many types of crops for both the summer and also
In the winter seasons. The vegetation of salt range comprises both legumes and non
legumes. Legumes have the capacity to capture nitrogen from the soil atmosphere; this
allows pastures and crops to maintain productivity without depletion of soil nitrogen and
some times can grow under situations where soil nitrogen levels are very low and where
growth of other plant would not be possible. Further more, when legume plants die, its
organic matter is broken down; there is usually a net gain in organic nitrogen to the soil.

2.1.5) Rainfall and Climate:

The average yearly rainfall is 70-80mm for salt range. This area lies within limits of
monsoons and receive maximum rainfall in July and August. In December, January and

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February there is little rainfall month of April, November and October are almost show
the dryer season of that area.

The climate of area is semi humid and sub tropical with hot to moderate summers and
severe winters. Due to the higher altitude and presence of SAKAESR PEAK to the west
temperature is usually less in summers as compare to adjoining plain areas and rarely
exceed 44C. During winters temperature usually remains between 0C to 23C.

2.1.6) Geomorphic Features Observed In Salt Range: Gorge:
Gorge is a deep narrow passage with steep rocky sides. We observed Khewra gorge in eastern
salt range and Nammal gorge in western salt range. Lake:
A lake is a large inland body of fresh water or salt water. We observe Nammal Lake in
western salt range.

Map of salt range:

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Chapter No.3

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3.1 Stratigraphy of Nammal Gorge:

We observed Nammal gorge in western slat range. It is a good area for field geologist to
study and also for us. To know about the stratigraphy of that place.

List of Observed Formations in the Nammal


The following formations were observed in the Nammal Gorge during our field work.

1. Wargal limestone
2. Chhidru formation
3. Mianwalli formation
4. Tridian formation
5. Kingriali formation

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6. Datta formation
7. Hangu formation
8. Lockhart formation
9. Patala formation
10. Nammal formation
11. Sakkasar formation

3.1.3 Stratigraphic Notes:

1. Wargal Limestone:

The name Wargal limestone was formalized by Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan

which was introduced by Teichert (1966).
The type section is near Wargal village in central salt range
The Lithology comprises limestone, dolomite of light to medium grey, brownish-grey
and olive grey colours. The contact of Wargal limestone with underlying Amb
formation is well defined and is placed at the basal sandy limestone of the
formation above upper most shale unit of Amb formation. The upper contact with
Chhidru formation is transitional.
The unit was observed in Nammal gorge. Fossils of Trilobites, Gastropods and Bivalves
were observed. The fauna consist of abundant bryozoans, brachiopods, bivalves,
gastropods, nautiloids, Ammonoids, trilobites and crinoids. The age of unit is Late
Permian on the basis of Brachiopods.

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Figure no 1: Wargal Limestone

Figure no 2: Nodular limestone at the top of

Wargal Limestone

2. Chhidru Formation:
The name Chhidru formation was introduced by Dunbar 1932) which is now formalized
by the Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan.

The type locality of the formation is in Chhidru Nala.

The formation at the base as described by Kummel and Teichert (1970) has a
unit of weathered pale-yellowish grey to medium,(fresh) dark grey in color and
thickness of 6 to 13 m. It contains rare at places shale overlying this unit are the beds of
calcareous limestone with few sandy limestone. The top most bed of Chhidru
formation contains white sandstone with occasional ripple marks. The sandstone is
medium to fine grained.

Chhidru formation was observed In Nammal gorge during our field work. The
lower unit of Dolomite, upper unit of nodular limestone and whit sandstone at top
was observed. The contact between Chhidru and Wargal formation has been marked

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which gradational contact.

The upper most part of Chhidru formation is white sandstone which contains
remains of Brachiopods, Ammonoids and genus Cyclolobus.

The age of formation on the basis of Ammonoids considered being Late Permian.

Figure no 2

Triassic Rocks

The rock units of Triassic system are Mianwalli Formation, Tridian Formation,
Kingriali Formation.

3. Mianwalli Formation:

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The name .Mianwalli Series was used by Gee and later modified by Kummel
(1966) into a formation. The type section of the formation is located in Zaluch Nala in
western salt range. The formation consists of following three members:

 Kathwai Member

This unit consists of dolostone in the lower part and limestone in upper part.
The dolomite is finely crystalline and includes fossil fragments and quartz grains.
The upper unit is grey to brownish limestone.

 Mittiwali Member

The Lithology consists of grey, fine grained, non-glauconitic limestone with

abundant ammonites. The basal art consist of limestone which is less then two meters
thick in salt range, but up to 8 meters thick in Khisor range. The rest of unit consists of
greenish to grayish shale, silty shale with some sandstone and limestone interbeds.

 Narmia Member

Limestone bed of three meters thickness which is basal part of Narmia member
and rest of member consist of grey to black shale with interbeds of sandstone and
lenticular limestone and dolomite. The top most bed is a grey to brown, massive
Three members of Mianwalli formation was observed in Nammal gorge during our field
woke the contact between Mianwalli and Tredian formation has been marked. Fossils of
Brachiopods were observed from Mianwalli formation.
The brachiopods from the dolomite of Kathwai member were studied by grant (1970)
including lingual, orbiculoldea and others. Permian-Triassic boundary consists of
bryozoans, brachiopods, bivalves, ostracodes, fish and trace fossils. The age of formation
is Early Triassic.

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Figure no 3

PT Boundary:

Permian-Triassic boundary in salt range was placed by some at the top of the dolomite
unite of Kathwai member while by others was placed in the middle of a white
sandstone which is the heist bed of Chhidru formation. Kummel and Teichert
(1966) shifted it to the base of the dolomite unit of Kathwai member. Permian
Triassic boundary is a paraconfromity equivalent in magnitude to at least a Stratigraphic
stage. Paleontologist says that this is unconformity. (Book stratigraphy of Pakistan by
Bandar and Raza).

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Figure no 3

4. Tredian Formation:
The name Tredian formation was introduced by Gee (1945). The type locality of the
formation is in Zaluch Nala. The formation consists of two members:

 Landa Member

The Landa member consists of sandstone and shale. The sandstone is micaceous and varies in
color from pinkish, reddish grey to greenish grey. It is thin to thick bedded with rile marks and
slump structures. The thickness varies from 19 m to 29 m in Zuluch section and Tapan Wahan
sections respectively. Tredian formation has conformable contact with overlying Kingriali

 Khatkiara Member

The Khatkiara member is massive, thick bedded, white sandstone that grades into the

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overlying. Kingriali Formation with the inclusion of dolomite beds in its upper part. The
thickness varies from 38 m to 59 m in the Tapan Wahan and Zuluch nala
sections respectively. Two members; Khatkiara member and Landa member of
Tredian formation were observed in Nammal gorge during our field work. Sedimentary
structures such as cross bedding and ripple marks were found in Landa member.
Khatkiara member containing concretions of Iron was observed.

The formation consists of plant micro fossils. The lower Landa Member contains
acritarchs whereas the Khatkiara member yielded only spores, pollen grains and
wood fragments.
On the base of stratigraphic position over Mianwalli Formation of Early Triassic
age, the microfossils, and its conformable contact with overlying Kingriali formation the
age is regarded as Middle Triassic.

Figure no 4

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5. Kingriali Formation:
The name Kingriali Dolomite was used by Gee (1945) and later formalized as Kingriali
Formation because of several lithological facies are present.
Type section of the formation is in Zaluch Nala in the western salt range.
The formation consists of thin to thick bedded, massive, fine to coarse
textured, light grey-brown dolomite and dolomitic limestone with interbeds of
greenish dolomitic shale and marl in upper part. The formation is widely developed
throughout the salt range. The lower contact with the Tredian Formation is marked by
inter bedding of sandstone and dolomite. The upper contact with Datta formation is
disconformable. It has transitional contact with the underlying Tredian formation or Chak
Jabbi formation and disconformable contact with the overlying Datta Formation.
Sandy dolomite of Kingriali formation was observed in Nammal Gorge during our field
The contact between Kingriali and Datta formation has been marked, which is
Fossils are rare and poorly reserved in these formation .Some brachiopods, bivalves
and crinoidal remains have been observed.
The age of formation on the basis of upper and lower contact is regarded as Late

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Figure no 6

6. Datta Formation:
Datta is one of the major reservoir of hydrocarbons rock unit or formation of Pakistan.
The formation is mainly of continental origin and consists of variegated (red,
maroon, grey, green and white) sandstone, shale, siltstone and mudstone with
irregularly distributed calcareous, dolomitic, carbonaceous, ferruginous glass sand and
fire clay horizons. The fireclay is normally present in the lower part while upper
part includes a thick bed of maroon shale easily recognizable in Salt range and
Trans-Indus ranges. The thickness at type locality is 212 m. The Datta formation is
widely developed in the western part of Salt range and in Trans_indus ranges. The
formation is disconformable lower contact with Kingriali formation and the upper contact
with Shinawari formation is gradational.

Datta formation was observed in Nammal gorge during our fieldwork, it contains thick

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bedded sandstone with some Horizon of fireclay and concretions of sulpher. The
contact between Datta formation and Samanasuk formation has been marked.
No diagnostic fossils have been reported from formation except some carbonaceous
The age of formation is regarded as early Jurassic on the basis of Kingriali formation
which is of Late- Triassic.

Paleocene Rocks:
The Paleocene rocks are well exposed throughout the western salt range. Three
formations belong to Paleocene epoch of tertiary system.
 Hungu formation
 Lockhart limestone
 Patala formation

7. Hungu Formation:

The name Hungu formation was formalized by Stratigraphic committee of

Pakistan (1973) for Hungu sandstone/ of Davies (1930).
The type section of the formation is near fort Lockhart and Dhak pass in salt range as a
principle reference section of the formation.
The formation consists of variegated sandstone, shale, carbonaceous shale and some
nodular, argillaceous limestone in the Nammal gorge. The formation unconformable
overlies the Datta formation and conformably underlies Lockart limestone in the salt
Late rite beds of Hungu formation has been observed in Nammal gorge during our field
Foraminifera's with some Corals, gastropods and bivalves have been reported
by Iqbal (1972).
The age of formation is assigned as early Paleocene on the basis of above
mentioned Foraminifera’s.

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8. Lockhart Limestone:
Davies introduced the name .Lockhart Limestone for a Paleocene limestone unit in the
Kohat area (1930). This unit thus represents .Nummulitic series of Middle Miss (1896).
Latif (1970) assigned Mari Limestone to this unit.
A section exposed near fort Lockhart in the Samana range has been designated as
the type locality of the unit.
Lockhart formation is consisting of nodular lime stone and at places shale. The
weathered color the rocket unit is pal-yellow and light-gray fresh. It has sharp contact
with formation and lower contact with Patala formation. The formation is highly
The formation conformably and transitionally overlies and underlies the Hungu
Formation and Patala Formation respectively.
The fossil which is present in this formation is Lockhartia. The formation is of
Paleocene age.

Figure no 7

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9. Patala Formation:
The term Patala formation was formalized by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan
for the Patala Shale of Davies and Pinfold (1937) and its usage was extended to
other parts of the Kohat-Potwar and Hazara areas.
The section exposed in Patala nala is designated as type section in western Salt range.
In the Nammal, the formation consists of shale and marl with subordinate
limestone and sandstone. The shale is greenish grey and containing carbonaceous
material. The limestone is white to grey and nodular. Coal seems of economic value are
present in upper part. Throughout its extent, the Patala formation conformably overlies
the Lockhart lime stone. The Patala formation is conformably and Transitional overlain
by Nammal formation in the Salt range.
A thin bed of bituminous shale and horizons of Fire clay, coal and sand were
The formation is richly fossiliferous and contains abundant Foraminifera, mollusks
and ostracodes. The age of formation is regarded as Late Paleocene.
10. Nammal Formation:
Lithologically formation comprises shale, marl and limestone. In the Salt range, these
rocks occur as alternations. The shale is grey to olive green, while the limestone
and marl are light grey to bluish grey. The limestone is argillaceous in places. The
lower contact with Patala formation and Upper contact with the Sakkasar limestone
are transitional. Abundant fossils, mainly Foraminifera’s and mollusks, have been
reported from the formation. Eocene age has been assigned to the formation on the
basis of fauna.

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Figure no 8

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Figure no 9

11. Sakkasar Formation:

The unit consists dominantly of limestone with subordinate marl. The limestone
throughout its extent is cream color to grey color, nodular, usually massive, with
considerable development of chart in upper part. The marl is cream colored to light
grey and forms a persistent horizon near the top. The thickness of the formation
is 70m to 150m in salt range. The lower contact with the Nammal Formation is
conformable. In eastern salt range, the upper contact with Sakkasar formation is
conformable. Creamish colored, massive nodular limestone with nodules of chart in
upper part was observed. It contains rich assemblage of Foraminifera's, mollusks and
echinoids. The age of formation is regarded as Early Eocene on the basis of

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Chapter No.4

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Economics of any country depend upon the natural resources present in it. In Pakistan
nature has gifted abundant natural resources.
Salt range and Hazara range contains abundant mineral deposits and building materials,
which are used in industry as crude material. It has large deposits of Halite, Gypsum,
Phosphate, Potash, Coal, Limestone, Dolomite, Silica sand, Iron ores, Petroleum,
Radioactive minerals, clays and etc.


Limestone is far most abundant mineral commodity in Pakistan contains vast reservoirs
in many localities. In salt range Wargal lime stone, Lockhart limestone, Sakkasar
limestone, Nammal formation and Chak Jabbi limestone indicated major Limestone.
More than 95% limestone is used in cement making, so this is the reason that Pakistan's
many cement industries are present in Salt Range areas.
Limestone is used in variety of purposes due to variation of composition.
The more common uses for which these rocks are suitable include concrete and other
aggregate, crushed rock for road metal and other uses, agricultural limestone, riprap, and
building stone.


Pakistan contains vast amount of dolomite. In upper Indus basin, major dolomite bearing
Formations are Jutana, Kingriali and Samana Suk. Dolomite is of good grade, close to
theoretical value of dolomite.
The inherent differences between dolomite and calcite drive the applications for
dolomite. Dolomite is chosen for many construction and building product applications
due to its increased hardness and density. Asphalt and concrete applications prefer
dolomite as filler for its higher strength and hardness. Dolomite also finds use in a

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number of applications as a source of magnesium such as glass and ceramics

manufacture, as well as a sintering agent in iron ore pelletization and as a flux agent in

making. Farmers use dolomite for agricultural pH control. The chemical industry uses the
mineral dolomite in making magnesium salts including magnesia, magnesium oxide (Mg
O), which is used in pharmaceuticals.

Pakistan contains large deposits of low quality coal of Tertiary age. The Datta formation
and Sakkasar contains major coal fields of the country. The salt range province contains
two horizons, which are Makarwal Coal and Khushab-Dandot coal fields. This coal is
present in Hungu formation in western part of the salt arrange and other in Patala
formation, which is formed in all over salt range but coal of economic value is only
present in central salt range area.
Another use for coal is in the manufacture of coke. Coke is nearly pure carbon produced
when soft coal is heated in the absence of air. In most cases, one ton of coal will produce

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0.7 ton of coke in this process. Coke is of value in industry because it has a heat value
higher than any form of natural coal. It is widely used in steel making and in certain
chemical processes.
In the Nammal gorge potash beds are associated with rock salt in the formation of
Nammal gorge. Potash has three main uses: fertilizer, livestock feed supplements and
industrial processes. 95% of world's potash is used in fertilizers, while the rest is used for
feed supplements and industrial production.
Potash is a key ingredient in fertilizers that enhances water retention of plants, increases
crop yields and plants' disease resistance. In feed supplements, the key function of potash
is to contribute to animal growth and milk production. Potash is also used to produce
glass, ceramics, soaps etc.

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