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TRAINING CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr.Ishan Paul, a student of MAHARAJA SURAJMAL


INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,NEW DELHI,has completed eight weeks
Summer/Implant training starting from 4th June,2010 to 30th July,2010 on “Switchgear
and Control System” in C&S Electric,Noida.

His work and conduct during training period have been very good.

Sub Divisional Engineer


ACKNOWEDGEMENT

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Mr.Vishal Bolia and Dr. Sachin Goel for their
encouragement & valuable contributions to the project throughout its various phases.

I express my sincere thanks to Mr.Ankit Arora, Ms.Sonia Badhan , Mr.Gulab for their
full support, constant cooperation & continuous guidance throughout training period.

Being a part of C&S Electric has enabled me to get an overall picture of the switchgear
and components. The study of electrical components has been a very interesting learning
experience and has nourished my interest in nanotechnology.

Ishan Paul
th
B.tech (4 year) EEE
Maharaja Surajmal Institute Of Technology
PREFACE

With the ongoing revolution in electronics and communication where innovations are
taking place at the blink of eye, it is impossible to keep pace with the emerging trends.

Excellence is an attitude that the whole of the human race is born with. It is the
environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or
otherwise. A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot
in collating a professional attitude. It provides a linkage between a student and industry to
develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving, based on a broad
understanding of process and mode of operation of organization.

During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the industry
environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of
their studies is put to test here. Apart from this the student gets an opportunity to learn the
latest technology, which immensely helps in them in building their career.

I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which increased my
sphere of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and
also interfaced too many instruments. And all this credit goes to organization C&S

Electric Limited.
INTRODUCTION

C&S Electric Ltd. is amongst the leading suppliers of electrical equipment in


India and is India’s largest exporter of industrial switchgear. It’s wide range of
electrical and electronic products find application in power generation,
distribution, control, protection and final consumption.

The business operations of C&S Electric are divided in the following 3 strategic
business units (SBUs)

1. Switchgear & Protection SBU


2. Power Busbars SBU
3. Lighting & Wiring Accessories SBU

C&S employs over 3000 people including 400 engineers, and has 16 state-of-the
art manufacturing plants. It has 22 sales office across India and its products are
exported to 73 countries. C&S Electric also has several joint venture companies
and a 100% owned subsidiary.

HISTORY

Our CMD, Mr. R N Khanna after graduating from IIT Kharagpur, gets his first taste of
the switchgear business as a Design Engineer in a leading German company.

1966 R N Khanna returns to India after spending 4 years


with FANAL as a switchgear design engineer.
Controls & Switchgear Company is founded in a
garage by R N Khanna, who is soon joined by his
younger brother Ashok Khanna (IIT Madras).
1966 The company goes on to become amongst the
- 198 largest LV switchboards manufacturer in India,
2 executing prestigious and challenging jobs. Enters
Busduct business, with technology from Simelectro
France, to build on its strong relationships with
power generation utilities.
1982 In a short time enters the switchgear components
- business by technology transfer from Terasaki
198 Japan (Air Circuit Breakers); ABB Stromberg
5 Finland (Switches and Switch Fuse Units) and
France (Contactors, Overload Relays and Motor
Starters). Thus becomes a major LV Switchgear
Player.
1992 Diversities with 3 joint ventures: Wago
- 199 (Terminals), RS (Mail Orders) and AVK-SEG
4 (Alternator and Relays until 2004 restructuring).

1998 Second Generation join the business. Big thrust on exports. Entry into Lighting and
- 200 Wiring Accessories. Establishment of EOU and SEZ facilities. Acknowledged as
7 India’s #1 Busbar Company. Growth of almost 40% for three years in a row 2005 to
2008. JV with Himoinsa of Spain to manufacture Diesel Generating Sets.
2008 Enters Medium Voltage business through a JV with Efacec of Portugal. Raises
private equity from GE Commercial Finance with intention to grow even more
aggressively through organic and inorganic means. Merges three main companies
into a single entity – C&S Electric Ltd.

VISION AND MISSION

Our Vision

• C&S shall be the most trusted, respected and preferred brand, for electrical and
electronic equipment that finds application in power generation, distribution,
control and final consumption.
• In its major businesses C&S shall not only command a domestic market share
ranging from 12% to 50% or more, but be known widely as the company “closest
to its customers”
• C&S products shall be used to manage power in India’s biggest industries, in its
highest buildings, in its most critical infrastructure and in millions of its homes.
• The C&S name shall be recognized widely as a benchmark, and shall serve as a
role model and an inspiration to other Indian engineering products companies.
• C&S shall be cited as a company that played an important role in making “Made
in India” a label that is trusted and respected the world over.
Our Mission

• To create a unique alchemy of outstanding products, operational excellence, path


breaking customer service, and compelling marketing.
• To create and relish a vibrant workplace where employees are empowered, cared
for, developed, and most of all, provided unlimited opportunity to discover their
full potential.
• To continuously enhance our core technologies, and develop new world class
technologies and products to expand our offering to customers.
• To consolidate and strengthen our position as India’s largest exporter of Industrial
power distribution and control equipment.
• To earn a healthy return on investment for the shareholders.
• To everyday experience, the sheer joy of delighting our internal and external
customers, and to relish the thrill of participation in India’s infrastructure boom.

VALUES
STRETCH FOR YOUR CUSTOMER
• Fully understand and fulfill needs of internal and external customers

• Do not tolerate mediocrity. Stretch, Excel and Exceed


BE FRANK, BE HONEST
• Be frank, fair and non-political and expect the same treatment for yourself

• Do not be afraid of conflict, when it is required and is just


BE OBSESSED WITH QUALITY
• Display attention to quality every single day, from the very top down, and from
the bottom up

•Remember and teach that small things lead to perfection, but perfection is not a
small thing
WORK HARD, SMART & SWIFT
• Nurture a culture of tenacity, perseverance and sheer hard work Be innovative
• Opportunities to innovate are everywhere, everyday. Grab them
• Take responsibility for your own agenda and priorities

•Take some risks. If you are not making mistakes, you are not trying hard enough
SUCCEED AS A TEAM AND AS AN INDIVIDUAL
• Strike a balance between people and task orientation

• Empower and delegate, but don't over delegate


DISCOVER YOUR STRENGTHS & THOSE OF OTHERS
• While we are bonded by shared values we must encourage and respect rich
diversity in skills, experiences, knowledge, talents and personal styles

• Success comes more from exploiting strengths than from overcoming weaknesses

MARKETS SERVED

Industry
• Power • Petrochemical • Metals

• Paper • F&B • Others


Buildings
• Hotels
• IT Parks
• Others
• Group
• Hospitals
Housing
Infrastructure
• Railway • Telecom
• Others
• Water • Airports
OEMs
• Compressors
• Material • Machine
Handling Tools
• Telecom
Power
• Lifts • Others
Supplies
Homes
• Apartments

• Villas
SWITCHGEAR AND PROTECTION

The term switchgear, used in association with the electric power system, or grid, refers
to the combination of electrical disconnects, fuses and/or circuit breakers used to isolate
electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to
be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of equipment is important because it is
directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply.

The very earliest central power stations used simple open knife switches, mounted on
insulating panels of marble or asbestos. Power levels and voltages rapidly escalated,
making open manually-operated switches too dangerous to use for anything other than
isolation of a de-energized circuit. Oil-filled equipment allowed arc energy to be
contained and safely controlled. By the early 20th century, a switchgear line-up would be
a metal-enclosed structure with electrically-operated switching elements, using oil circuit
breakers. Today, oil-filled equipment has largely been replaced by air-blast, vacuum,
or SF6 equipment, allowing large currents and power levels to be safely controlled by
automatic equipment incorporating digital controls, protection, metering and
communications.
High voltage switchgear was invented at the end of the 19th century for
operating motors and others electric machines. The technology has been improved over
time and can be used with voltages up to 1,100 kV.

TYPES

A piece of switchgear may be a simple open air isolator switch or it may be insulated by
some other substance. An effective although more costly form of switchgear is gas
insulated switchgear (GIS), where the conductors and contacts are insulated by
pressurized sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF6). Other common types are oil [or vacuum]
insulated switchgear.

The combination of equipment within the switchgear enclosure allows them to interrupt
fault currents of many hundreds or thousands of amps. A circuit breaker (within a
switchgear enclosure) is the primary component that interrupts fault currents. The
quenching of the arc when the ciruit breaker pulls apart the contacts open (disconnects
the circuit) requires careful design. Circuit breakers fall into these four types:

 Oil circuit breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil to blast a jet of oil
through the arc.
 Gas (SF6) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field, and
then rely upon the dielectric strength of the SF6 to quench the stretched arc.
 Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing (as there is nothing to ionize other
than the contact material), so the arc quenches when it is stretched a very small
amount (<2–3 mm). Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-
voltage switchgear to 35,000 volts.
 Air circuit breakers may use compressed air (puff) to blow out the arc, or
alternatively, the contacts are rapidly swung into a small sealed chamber, the escaping
of the displaced air thus blowing out the arc.

Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current flow very quickly: typically
between 30 ms and 150 ms depending upon the age and construction of the device.

Several different classifications of switchgear can be made[3]:


 By the current rating.
 By interrupting rating (maximum short circuit current that the device can
safely interrupt)
 Circuit breakers can open and close on fault currents
 Load-break/Load-make switches can switch normal system load currents
 Isolators may only be operated while the circuit is dead, or the load current
is very small.

 By voltage class:

 Low voltage (less than 1,000 volts AC)


 Medium voltage (1,000–35,000 volts AC)
 High voltage (more than 35,000 volts AC)

 By insulating medium:

 Air
 Gas (SF6 or mixtures)
 Oil
 Vacuum

 By construction type:

 Indoor (further classified by IP (Ingress Protection) class or NEMA


enclosure type)
 Outdoor
 Industrial
 Utility
 Marine
 Draw-out elements (removable without many tools)
 Fixed elements (bolted fasteners)
 Live-front
 Dead-front
 Open
 Metal-enclosed
 Metal-clad
 Metal enclose & Metal clad
 Arc-resistant

 By interrupting device:

 Fuses
 Air Blast Circuit Breaker
 Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker
 Oil Circuit Breaker
 Vacuum Circuit Breaker
 Gas (SF6) Circuit breaker

 By operating method:

 Manually-operated
 Motor-operated
 Solenoid/stored energy operated

 By type of current:

 Alternating current
 Direct current

 By application:

 Transmission system
 Distribution

 By purpose

 Isolating switches (disconnectors)


 Load-break switches.
 Grounding (earthing) switches

A single line-up may incorporate several different types of devices, for example, air-
insulated bus, vacuum circuit breakers, and manually-operated switches may all exist in
the same row of cubicles.

Ratings, design, specifications and details of switchgear are set by a multitude of


standards. In North America mostly IEEE and ANSI standards are used, much of the rest
of the world uses IEC standards, sometimes with local national derivatives or variations.

C&S LV PANEL NOIDA

The Noida Unit of C&S Electric manufactures LOW VOLTAGE Switchgear Panels.The
range is approximately upto 1000A,These Panels Employ certain components which are
responsible for the detection and successful recovery of the normal operation.The
Following Components are Used :

COMPONENTS

• Power Distribution Components

Air Circuit Breakers : 630A ~ 6300A


Moulded Case Circuit Breakers : 5A ~ 1200A
Switch Disconnector Fuses : 32A ~ 800A
Switch Disconnectors : 25A ~ 3150A
Compact Changeover & Bypass Switches : 63A ~ 3150A
HRC Fuse Links & Bases : up to 800A

The LV components division of C&S electric supplies a comprehensive range of


switchgear and controlgear components. In the eighties, C&S acquired sophisticated
technology for these high technology products from companies such as Terasaki of Japan
(Air Circuit Breakers), ABB Stromberg of Finland (Switches, Switch Fuse Units), and a
large French multinational (Contactors, Overload Relays). However, today C&S Electric
is a major investor in R&D for new generation circuit breakers and contactors. It exports
these products to 73 countries. A world class expertise in the field of switchgear and
controlgear components has been developed over the years, and the division is poised to
expand its already substantial share of the domestic market and expand its fast growing
exports.

The production of these sophisticated products demands an extensive infrastructure. The


plants are equipped with sophisticated machinery and equipment. This includes the latest
CAD/CAM/CAE softwares, power presses, molding machines, runnerless molding tools,
sophisticated measurement and testing machines as well as several computerized test and
calibration benches. The standards of quality are keeping in line with the basic values of
C&S where product quality speaks for itself. It is the result of this that C&S products find
favor with customers like the worlds largest manufacturer of wind turbines, the largest
American locomotive producer, the top drives manufacturer in the world, and the world’s
largest elevator company, amongst others. In India, C&S LV components have served for
many years now, India's largest power plants, refineries, buildings and thousands of its
OEMs manufacturing anything from compressors to elevators.

o Power Control Components

Power Contactors T & F Range : 9A ~ 800A


Mini Contactors : 9A ~ 16A
Capacitor Duty Contactors : 10kVAR ~ 60kVAR
Motor Protection Circuit Breakers : 32A ~ 100A
Control & Signalling Devices
Industrial Motor Starter up to 350HP
Submersible Pump Control Unit up to 57A

The LV components division of C&S electric supplies a comprehensive range of


switchgear and controlgear components. In the eighties, C&S acquired sophisticated
technology for these high technology products from companies such as Terasaki of Japan
(Air Circuit Breakers), ABB Stromberg of Finland (Switches, Switch Fuse Units), and a
large French multinational (Contactors, Overload Relays). However, today C&S Electric
is a major investor in R&D for new generation circuit breakers and contactors. It exports
these products to 73 countries. A world class expertise in the field of switchgear and
controlgear components has been developed over the years, and the division is poised to
expand its already substantial share of the domestic market and expand its fast growing
exports.

The production of these sophisticated products demands an extensive infrastructure. The


plants are equipped with sophisticated machinery and equipment. This includes the latest
CAD/CAM/CAE softwares, power presses, molding machines, runnerless molding tools,
sophisticated measurement and testing machines as well as several computerized test and
calibration benches. The standards of quality are keeping in line with the basic values of
C&S where product quality speaks for itself. It is the result of this that C&S products find
favor with customers like the worlds largest manufacturer of wind turbines, the largest
American locomotive producer, the top drives manufacturer in the world, and the world’s
largest elevator company, amongst others. In India, C&S LV components have served for
many years now, India's largest power plants, refineries, buildings and thousands of its
OEMs manufacturing anything from compressors to elevators.

o Final Power Distribution Components

Miniature Circuit Breakers :


1P, 1P+N, 2P, 3P, 3P+N & 4P
Trip Type B, C & D
DC MCB : 1P & 2P; 0.5A ~ 63A
Isolator : 1P, 2P, 3P & 4P; 25A, 40A & 60A
ISI & CE Marked

Distribution Boards :
Single Phase Neutral Horizontal Distribution Board
Single & Double Door - 4, 8, 12 & 16 ways
Three Phase Neutral Horizontal Distribution Board
Single & Double Door - 4, 6, 8, 12 & 16 ways with 8
way as the incomer

Residual Current Circuit Breakers :


Complete range - 2P & 4P 25A, 40A & 63A in 30, 100 & 300mA

The LV components division of C&S electric supplies a comprehensive range of


switchgear and controlgear components. In the eighties, C&S acquired sophisticated
technology for these high technology products from companies such as Terasaki of Japan
(Air Circuit Breakers), ABB Stromberg of Finland (Switches, Switch Fuse Units), and a
large French multinational (Contactors, Overload Relays). However, today C&S Electric
is a major investor in R&D for new generation circuit breakers and contactors. It exports
these products to 73 countries. A world class expertise in the field of switchgear and
controlgear components has been developed over the years, and the division is poised to
expand its already substantial share of the domestic market and expand its fast growing
exports.

The production of these sophisticated products demands an extensive infrastructure. The


plants are equipped with sophisticated machinery and equipment. This includes the latest
CAD/CAM/CAE softwares, power presses, molding machines, runnerless molding tools,
sophisticated measurement and testing machines as well as several computerized test and
calibration benches. The standards of quality are keeping in line with the basic values of
C&S where product quality speaks for itself. It is the result of this that C&S products find
favor with customers like the worlds largest manufacturer of wind turbines, the largest
American locomotive producer, the top drives manufacturer in the world, and the world’s
largest elevator company, amongst others. In India, C&S LV components have served for
many years now, Indias largest power plants, refineries, buildings and thousands of its
OEMs manufacturing anything from compressors to elevators.

PANEL MANUFACTURING

The Panels Used for the switchgear is also manufactured at the LV Panel units at the
Powder Coating Plant located in the C&S NOIDA UNIT..

The following process are taken in order to obtain a clean,nuetral and powder coated
panel:

 Action of Various Chemicals on the panels


 Roasting panels
 Powder coating(both automatic and manual)
 Roasting
Action of Various Chemicals on the panels

The Panels required for the switchboard needs to be clean and properly painted so
that no voltage leakage is observed,although they are properly grounded.The Panels
are dipped in various solvents which ensure that the panels coming at the output are
free from rust,Grease,and any other unwanted chemical substance.

PROCESS CHEMICAL TEMPERATURE TIME


TAKEN
1. DEGREASING REDOLINE 50-60 C 6-8 MINS

5 MINS
2. RINSE NORMAL ROOM TEMP
WATER(PH-7)

3. DERUSTING RUSTOKEN 35-40C 6-8 MINS

4. RINSE WATER(PH 8) ROOM TEMP 5 MINS

5. ACTIVATION FIXODINE 40-50 C 1 MIN

6. PHOSPHATING CAUSTIC 25-35 C 6-8 MINS


SODA

7. PASSIVATION DEOXYLYTE 35-40 C 1 MIN


ROASTING:

After the action of various chemicals on the panels,these are fed to a roster which runs at
100 C.The basic function of the roaster is to remove or evaporate any left out
chemical/water..

PAINT:
The panels are then fed to a enclosed room in which automatic spray paint machine
paints the panels in the respected colours needed.The paint time,quality,speed of the
conveyor belt etc are controlled by an official seated in the powder coating plant.

The machines are capable of changing the amount of powder coat to be painted on the
panels.therefore the paint as required by the contractor is painted on to the panels.

ROASTING:
The panels are finally fed to a roaster which dries the paint and makes it firm.the
temperature of the roaster is higher than the previous roaster ie its above 100 C.

The entire process is automatic,where the panels and other metals to be painted are hung
upon a conveyor belt which passes 1st through the roaster which evaporates any left out
chemical by the previous process.

After that the panels are fed to the paint room,where they are painted by the machines
which are automatic.Any further portions left out by the machine can be filled by the
workers also.

Finally the roaster ,roasts the paint and makes it firm on the panels.

FEATURES:

 Booth-8 sqm/min.
 Conveyor speed-2.5M/min
 No of Panels-1200 sqM/shift.
 Variable speed of the conveyor with auto lubrication
 Press chamber with 1200 m/hr.
 Warner Autopaint Guns with touch screen
 Air emission conforming to EU-EN norms.

CONCLUSION
The role of switchgear is:

 Electrical protection
 Safe isolation from live parts
 Local or remote switching

Electrical protection at low voltage is (apart from fuses) normally incorporated in circuit-
breakers, in the form of thermal-magnetic devices and/or residual-current-operated
tripping devices (less-commonly, residual voltage- operated devices - acceptable to, but
not recommended by IEC).

Electrical protection assures:

 Protection of circuit elements against the thermal and mechanical stresses of


short-circuit currents
 Protection of persons in the event of insulation failure
 Protection of appliances and apparatus being supplied (e.g. motors, etc.)

The aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive or dangerous consequences of excessive


(short-circuit) currents, or those due to overloading and insulation failure, and to
separate the defective circuit from the rest of the installation.

A distinction is made between the protection of:

 The elements of the installation (cables, wires, switchgear…)


 Persons and animals
 Equipment and appliances supplied from the installation
The protection of circuits
- Against overload; a condition of excessive current being drawn from a healthy
(unfaulted) installation
- Against short-circuit currents due to complete failure of insulation between conductors
of different phases or (in TN systems) between
a phase and neutral (or PE) conductor
Protection in these cases is provided either by fuses or circuit-breaker, in the distribution
board at the origin of the final circuit (i.e. the circuit to which the load is connected).
Certain derogations to this rule are authorized in some national standards, as noted in
chapter H1.
The protection of persons
- Against insulation failures. According to the system of earthing for the installation
(TN, TT or IT) the protection will be provided by
fuses or circuit-breakers, residual current devices, and/or permanent monitoring of the
insulation resistance of the installation to earth
The protection of electric motors
- Against overheating, due, for example, to long term overloading, stalled rotor, single-
phasing, etc. Thermal relays, specially designed
to match the particular characteristics of motors are used.
Such relays may, if required, also protect the motor-circuit cable against overload.
Short-circuit protection is provided either by type
aM fuses or by a circuit-breaker from which the thermal (overload) protective element
has been removed, or otherwise made

Switchgear control
Switchgear-control functions allow system operating personnel to modify a loaded system at any moment,
according to requirements,
and include:

 Functional control (routine switching, etc.)


 Emergency switching

 Maintenance operations on the power system


In broad terms “control” signifies any facility for safely modifying a load-carrying power
system at all levels of an installation. The operation of switchgear is an important part of
power-system control.
]Functional control
This control relates to all switching operations in normal service conditions for
energizing or de-energizing a part of a system or installation, or an individual piece of
equipment, item of plant, etc.
Switchgear intended for such duty must be installed at least:

 At the origin of any installation


 At the final load circuit or circuits (one switch may control several loads)

Marking (of the circuits being controlled) must be clear and unambiguous.
In order to provide the maximum flexibility and continuity of operation, particularly
where the switching device also constitutes the protection (e.g. a circuit-breaker or
switch-fuse) it is preferable to include a switch at each level of distribution, i.e. on each
outgoing way of all distribution and subdistribution boards.
The manœuvre may be:

 Either manual (by means of an operating lever on the switch) or


 Electric, by push-button on the switch or at a remote location (load-shedding and
reconnection, for example)

These switches operate instantaneously (i.e. with no deliberate delay), and those that
provide protection are invariably omni-polar(1).
The main circuit-breaker for the entire installation, as well as any circuit-breakers used
for change-over (from one source to another) must be omni-polar units.
Emergency switching - emergency stop
An emergency switching is intended to de-energize a live circuit which is, or could
become, dangerous (electric shock or fire).
An emergency stop is intended to halt a movement which has become dangerous.
In the two cases:

 The emergency control device or its means of operation (local or at remote


location(s)) such as a large red mushroom-headed emergency-stop pushbutton must
be recognizable and readily accessible, in proximity to any position at which danger
could arise or be seen
 A single action must result in a complete switching-off of all live conductors (2) (3)
 A “break glass” emergency switching initiation device is authorized, but in
unmanned installations the re-energizing of the circuit can only be achieved by means
of a key held by an authorized person

It should be noted that in certain cases, an emergency system of braking, may require that
the auxiliary supply to the braking-system circuits be maintained until final stoppage of
the machinery.
Switching-off for mechanical maintenance work
This operation assures the stopping of a machine and its impossibility to be inadvertently
restarted while mechanical maintenance work is being carried out on the driven
machinery. The shutdown is generally carried out at the functional switching device, with
the use of a suitable safety lock and warning notice at the switch mechanism.
REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. http://www.electrical-installation.org/

2. WIKIPEDIA.ORG

3. Robert W. Smeaton (ed) Switchgear and Control Handbook 3rd Ed., Mc


Graw Hill, new York 1997

4. Lin Jiming et al., Transient characteristics of 1 100 kV circuit-


breakers, International Symposium on International Standards for Ultra
High Voltage, Beijing, Juillet 2007.
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

(JUNE – JULY 2007)

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements


For the 8th Semester Curriculum Degree of

Bachelor of Technology
in
Electronics and Electrical Engineering
of
Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology, New Delhi

Submitted to:
H.O.D.,

Electrical Department

MSIT.

By
ISHAN PAUL

0591504907