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MANUAL DE REFERENCIA RÁPIDA: TORNO CNC

Revisión:1
Fecha: 11/11/2010
Autor: Ing. Facundo S. López
Fuente: Manuales Fagor

MANUAL DE REFERENCIA RÁPIDA: TORNO CNC................................................ 1


1. DATOS DEL TORNO CNC ................................................................................ 2
2. OPERATING MODES ........................................................................................ 4
Sequence for obtaining these operating modes: ....................................................... 4
3. EXECUTION OF A PROGRAM ........................................................................ 4
Selection of the program to be executed .................................................................. 4
Selection of the first block to be executed................................................................ 5
Cycle Start ................................................................................................................ 5
Cycle stop ................................................................................................................. 5
4. DISPLAY MODES .............................................................................................. 5
5. TOOL INSPECTION. .......................................................................................... 5
6. CNC Reset ............................................................................................................ 6
7. MODE 4: DRY RUN ........................................................................................... 6
8. SEARCH FOR MACHINE REFERENCE AXIS BY AXIS............................... 7
9. JOGGING THE AXES......................................................................................... 7
10. PRESETTING A COORDINATE VALUE..................................................... 7
11. ENTERING AN F VALUE.............................................................................. 8
12. ENTERING AN S VALUE.............................................................................. 8
13. ENTERING AN M VALUE ............................................................................ 8
14. ENTERING AN T VALUE ............................................................................. 8
15. MEASUREMENT AND LOADING OF THE TOOL DIMENSIONS IN THE
OFFSET TABLE.......................................................................................................... 8
1. TABLA DE FUNCIONES G
TABLE OF G FUNCTIONS USED IN THE CNC
(Modal) G00 : Positioning
(Modal) G01* : Linear interpolation
(Modal) G02 : Clockwise circular helical interpolation
(Modal) G03 : Counter-clockwise circular helical interpolation
G04 : Dwell, duration programmed by means of K
(Modal) G05* : Round corner
G06 : Circular Interpolation with absolute center coordinates
(Modal) G07* : Square corner
G08 : Arc tangent to previous path
G09 : Arc programmed by three points
(Modal) G14 : Activation of C axis in degrees
(Modal) G15 : Machining the cylindrical surface of a part
(Modal) G16 : Machining the surface of a part face
G20 : Call for standard subroutine
G21 : Call for parametric subroutine
G22 : Definition of standard subroutine
G23 : Definition of parametric subroutine
G24 : End of subroutine
G25 : Unconditional jump/call
G26 : Conditional jump/call if zero
G27 : Conditional jump/call if different from zero
G28 : Conditional jump/call if smaller than zero
G29 : Conditional jump/call if equal to or greater than zero
G30 : Display error code defined by K
G31 : Store present program’s datum point
G32 : Retrieve datum point stored by G31
(Modal) G33 : Threadcutting
G36 : Automatic radius blend (controlled corner rounding)
G37 : Tangential approach
G38 : Tangential exit
G39 : Chamfering
(Modal) G40* : Cancellation of radius compensation
(Modal) G41 : Left hand radius compensation
(Modal) G42 : Right hand radius compensation
(Modal) G47 : Single block treatment
(Modal) G48* : Cancellation of single block treatment
G50 : Loading of the values in the tool offset table
G51 : Correction of the dimensions of the tool in use
G52 : Communication with FAGOR LOCAL AREA NETWORK
(Modal) G53-G59 : Zero offsets
G64 : Multiple arc pattern machining cycle
G65 : Independent axis execution
G66 : Pattern repeat (roughing canned cycle following part shape)
G68 : Roughing canned cycle (X)
G69 : Roughing canned cycle (Z)
(Modal) G70 : Programming in inches
(Modal) G71 : Programming in millimeters
(Modal) G72 : Scaling factor
G74 : Automatic search for machine reference
G75 : Probing
G75 N2 : Probing canned cycles
G76 : Automatic block generation
G81 : Canned turning cycle with straight sections
G82 : Canned facing cycle with straight sections
G83 : Deep hole drilling
G84 : Turning with arcs
G85 : Facing with arcs
G86 : Longitudinal threadcutting cycle
G87 : Face threadcutting cycle
G88 : Grooving cycle (X)
G89 : Grooving cycle (Z)
(Modal) G90* : Programming of absolute coordinates
(Modal) G91 : Programming of incremental coordinates
G92 : Preselection of coordinates and setting of max. S value
G93 : Preselection of polar origin
(Modal) G94 : Feedrate F in mm/min (inch/min.)
(Modal) G95* : Feedrate F in mm/rev (inch/rev.)
(Modal) G96 : Speed S in m/min (feet/min.) (Constant surface speed)
(Modal) G97* : Speed S in rev/min.

Modal means that once the G functions have been programmed they remain active until
cancelled by another G which is incompatible or by M02,M30,EMERGENCY or
RESET.

The G functions marked * are those which the CNC assumes on being turned on or after
executing M02 or M30 or after an EMERGENCY or RESET.

2. REFERENCIA
G – funciones preparatorias
S – speed – velocidad tangencial de corte (m/min)

F – feedrate – avance (mm/vuelta)

T – tool – herramienta. Índice de torreta + geometría, factor de forma y corrección

M – Miscellaneous functions- función auxiliar (sentido de giro, parada, fluido


refrigerante, etc.)

3. DATOS DEL TORNO CNC


Control Modelo: Fagor 8020
Potencia husillo: 600 W
Velocidad del cabezal: 0 ~ 2000 rpm
Diámetro de volteo sobre el carro transversal: 60 mm
4. OPERATING MODES
The CNC has 10 different operating modes:
0. AUTOMATIC : Execution of programs in a continuous cycle.
1. SINGLE BLOCK: Execution of part programs block by block.
2. PLAY-BACK : Creation of a program in memory while the machine is being
operated manually.
3. TEACH-IN : - Creation and execution of a block without entering it into memory.
- Creation, execution and entering of a block into memory; thus a program is created
while being executed block by block.
4. DRY RUN : To check programs before actual execution of the first part.
5. JOG/HOME SEARCH: - Manual movement of the machine.
- Machine-reference.
- Presetting of any value and zero-setting the axes.
- Entering and executing of F,S,M.
- Setting initial conditions of the tool magazine.
- Handwheel operation.
6. EDITING: Creation, modification and checking of blocks, programs and
subroutines.
7. INPUT-OUTPUT: Transferring programs or machine-parameters from/to
peripherals.
8. TOOL OFFSETS/ G53-G59: Input, modification and checking of the dimensions
(radius and length) of up to 100 tools and of zero offsets (G53-G59).
9. SPECIAL MODES:
- General testing of the CNC.
- Verification of inputs and outputs.
- Setting of decoded M functions.
- Setting of machine-parameters.
- Input of values for leadscrew error compensation.
- Operate with the PLC.

Sequence for obtaining these operating modes:


- Press OP MODE: The list of 10 modes will appear on the screen.
- Press the number of the desired operating mode.

5. EXECUTION OF A PROGRAM
- Press OP MODE : The list of 10 operating modes appears on the screen.
- Press 0/1 key : The standard display corresponding to this operating mode appears; i.e.
in the upper left-hand section of the screen the message AUTOMAT/SINGLE BLOCK
followed by the number of the program P —— and the number of the first block to be
executed N ——.

Selection of the program to be executed


Whenever a program number is wanted other than that appearing on the screen, the
following sequence should be followed:
- Press the P key
- Key in the number of the desired program
- Press RECALL
The new program selected will appear on the screen, if it exists. If not, the screen will
display:
N*

Selection of the first block to be executed


Once a program has been selected, the number of the first block to be executed appears
to the right of the program number.
If you wish to begin with a different block, the following procedure should be followed:
- Press the N key
- Key in the number of the block
- Press RECALL
The new number is displayed on the screen together with the contents of this block and
tose of the subsequent blocks.

Cycle Start

-Press

Cycle stop

Press

The CNC stops the execution of the block in progress. To resume the cycle just press
START.

6. DISPLAY MODES
The display modes in AUTOMATIC or in SINGLE BLOCK are:
. STANDARD
. CURRENT POSITION
. FOLLOWING ERROR
. ARITHMETICAL PARAMETERS
. SUBROUTINE STATUS
. GRAPHICS
. EDITOR (BACKGROUND)
. PLC/LAN
. TOOL COMPENSATION
. TOOL INSPECTION
. PLC MESSAGES

- Press “Display Mode”

7. TOOL INSPECTION.
If during the running of a program it is wished to inspect or change a tool, the procedure
to follow is indicated below:

- Press

The programme being run will be interrupted and on the upper right-hand side of the
screen the message INTERRUPTED shall appear.
b) Press the function key [NEXT].
At this time, M05 is run.
On the screen, there will appear:
JOG KEYS AVAILABLE
EXIT
c) By means of the JOG keys, the axes can be moved to the desired point.
The TOOL INSPECTION sequence allows the spindle to start and stop during the
removal of the tool, by means of the spindle operating keys situated on the Control
panel.
d) Once the tool has been inspected or changed:
Press [CONTINUE].
The screen will show:
RETURN
AXES NOT POSITIONED
(Axes which have been moved manually).
By means of the JOG keys the axes are taken to the position in which the cycle was
interrupted. The CNC will not allow this position to be passed.
When the axes are in position, on the screen there will appear:
RETURN
AXES NOT POSITIONED
NONE

- Press

The cycle will continue normally.

8. CNC Reset
When the key is pressed on the top right-hand side of the screen, the blinking

message RESET? will appear on the screen.

If the key is pressed once more, the CNC goes back to its initial conditions

9. MODE 4: DRY RUN


This operating mode is used for testing a program in a dry run before producing the first
part.
- Press OP MODE
- Press key 4. The screen will display:
- 1 - G,S,T,M FUNCTIONS
The CNC will only execute the programmed G,S,T,M functions.
- Key-in the desired number.
- The selected line will appear on the screen completed.
FINAL BLOCK:
N.
Will be displayed at the bottom of the screen.
There are two possibilities:
a) If it is desired to run the entire program selected.
- Press ENTER
b) refer to manual_8025t_user.pdf
10. SEARCH FOR MACHINE REFERENCE AXIS BY AXIS
- Once the JOG operating mode is displayed, press the key corresponding to the axis to
be referenced. In the lower lefthand side of the screen X,Z will appear according to the
key pressed.
- Press NEXT. To the right of the axis letter will appear HOME SEARCH?.

- Press . The axis will move at a feedrate selected by means of machine-

parameter toward the machine-reference point.

11. JOGGING THE AXES


- Front panel switch in any position of the % FEEDRATE zone.
- According to the axis and the direction in which it is desired to move, the JOG key
corresponding to this axis must be pressed:

12. PRESETTING A COORDINATE VALUE


Se utiliza para ubicar el “cero pieza”. En el caso del torno se ubica solo el eje Z, el eje X
es coincidente con el eje de rotación.
- Once displayed, press the key of the axis on which the preset is required.
- Key in the required value.
- Press ENTER. The new value will appear on the screen.

To cancel the preset, before pressing ENTER, operate CL as many times as characters
to be deleted.

JOG -> hasta tocar el frente de la pieza.


Z a -> ENTER. a es la distancia del cero pieza desde el borde de contacto en el sentido
del cabezal, ver Figura 1.

Figura 1 Posicionando el cero pieza


13. ENTERING AN F VALUE
- Press the F key
- Key in the required value
- Press

14. ENTERING AN S VALUE


- Press the S key
- Key in the required value
- Press

15. ENTERING AN M VALUE


- Press the M key
- Key in the required value
- Press

16. ENTERING AN T VALUE


- Press the T key
- Key in the required value (T2.2)
- Press

17. MEASUREMENT AND LOADING OF THE TOOL


DIMENSIONS IN THE OFFSET TABLE.
Once the JOG mode has been chosen, the tool dimensions can be measured and
introduced into the table, by using a part with known dimensions. The sequence to be
executed is as follows:
. Press the function key [TOOL MEASUREMENT]
. Press X.
. Key in the dimension of the part according to the X axis. This value will be in radii or
diameters, depending on how the machine is working.
. Press ENTER.
. Press Z.
. Key in the part dimension according to the Z axis.
. Press ENTER.
. Key in the desired tool number (T2.2).
. Press START.
. Move the X axis with the manual controls, until the part is touched.
. Press X.
. Press [LOAD]. At that moment the new X dimension of the tool calculated by the
control
becomes active, due to which the dimension displayed on the X axis must be the same
as the
one introduced as the radius or diameter of the part.
. Move the Z axis with the manual controls, until the part is touched.
. Press Z.
. Press [LOAD]. At that moment the new Z dimension of the tool calculated by the
control
becomes active, due to which the dimension displayed on the Z axis must be the same
as the
one introduced as the radius or diameter of the part.
. If you want to do the same with another tool, it is necessary to begin once more by
keying
in the new tool (T2.2); the rest of the operation is the same as the first tool.
. To go on to work in the normal way in the MANUAL mode, the [TOOL
MEASUREMENT]
key must be pressed.

18. MODE 6: EDITING


In this mode programs, subroutines as well as separate blocks may be written,
amended and deleted.
The method of working in this operating mode is as follows:
- Press OP MODE
- Press key 6

Format of a block
(dimensions in millimeters)
El número indica la cantidad de dígitos
N4 G2 X+/-4.3 Z+/-4.3 F5.4 S4 T2.2 M2 (in this order)

- Key in the block number.


- It is possible to write a COMMENT which must be within brackets (COM-
MENT).
- If the block is correct, press ENTER. The CNC accepts the block as a program block.

19. EXTERNAL PROGRAMMING


If the programming is to be carried out by means of an external peripheral, ISO code
must be used. % will initiate the program, followed by the program number (five digits,
followed by the characters, press RT or LF and the N of the first block). RETURN or
LINEFEED must be used
after each block prior to the N of the beginning of the following block.
To end the program the characters ESCAPE (ESC) or END OF TAPE (EOT) or a series
of 20 nul characters (ASCII 00) must be used.

%12345RTN123 G X Z F S T M
N123 …. (comentarios)
N123
ESC