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Job Analysis and Job

► Meaning and Definition
► Job analysis and competitive
► Process of job analysis
► Methods of collecting job data
► Potential problems with job analysis
► Job design
► Factors affecting job design
► Job design approaches

Job Analysis
► Process of collecting, analyzing and
setting out information about the
content of jobs in order to provide the
basis for a job description and data for
recruitment, training, job evaluation
and performance management
► It is the process which provides
information used for writing job
description ( a list of the job entails)
and job specification (what kind of
Types of information provided by
Job Analysis
► Overall purpose- why the job exist and, in essence,
what the job holder is expected to contribute
► Content- the nature and scope of the job in terms of
the tasks and operations
► Key result area
► Performance criteria
► Responsibilities
► Organizational factors- reporting relationships etc
► Motivating factors
► Development factors- promotion, and career
► Environmental factors- working condition, unsocial
hours, mental and emotional demands
Conducting a job analysis can help identify:
► Selection Procedures:
 job duties that should be included in
advertisements of vacant positions
 minimum requirements (education and/or
experience) for screening applicants
 interview questions
► Compensation:
 skill levels
 responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
 required level of education (indirectly related
to salary level)
► Training/ Needs Assessment:
 training content
 equipment to be used in delivering the
 methods of training (e.g., small group,
computer-based, video, classroom)
► Performance Review:
 goals and objectives
 performance standards
 evaluation criteria
Process of Job Analysis
Process of Job Analysis
► Strategic choices
 employee involvement
 levels of details
 timing and frequency of analysis
 sources of data
► Information gathering
► Information processing
► Job description
► Resulting in various outcomes
Methods of Collecting Job

Job analysis interviews should be conducted as


►Work to a logical sequence of questions

that help interviewees to order their thoughts
about the job.
►Probe as necessary to establish what
people do-answers to questions are often
vague and information may be given by
means of untypical instances.
► asking leading questions that make the
expected answer obvious
 Allow the job holder ample opportunity to
Pros and cons
 Basic method of analysis and, as such, is the
one most commonly used. Obtain clear
statements from job holders about their
authority to make decision
 Requires skills on the part of the analyst and is
time consuming.
 Effectiveness can be increased by the use of a
► They are helpful when a large number of
jobs are to be covered.
► Can save interviewing time by recording
purely factual information and by enabling
the analyst to structure questions in
advance to cover areas that need to be
explored in greater depth
► should only be carried out on the basis of
some preliminary field work
► The accuracy of results also depends upon
the willingness and ability of job holders to
complete questionnaires
► Pros and cons
 Can save interviewing time but may fail to
reveal full flavor of the job. if they are
over generalized it will be too easy for job
holders to provide vague or incoherent
Self description
► Job holders can be asked to analyze
their own jobs and prepare job
descriptions but people do not find it
easy, perhaps because what they do is
so much part of themselves that they
find it difficult to be detached and
dissect the information into various
► It is advisable to run special training
sessions in which they practice
► Observation means studying job holders at
work, noting what they do, how they do it,
and how much time it takes. It is
appropriate for situations where a relatively
small number of key jobs need to be
analyzed in depth, but it is time consuming
and difficult to apply in jobs that involve a
high proportion of unobservable mental
activities, or in highly skilled manual jobs
► Pros and cons
 Most accurate but so time consuming that it is
seldom used except when preparing training
specifications for manual or clerical jobs.
Diaries and Logs
► Job holders requires to analyze their own
jobs by keeping diaries or logs of their
activities. These can be used by the job
analyst as the basic material for a job
► Best used for managerial jobs which are
fairly complex and where the job holders
have the analytical skills required, as well as
the ability to express.
► Pros and cons
 Make great demand on job holders and can be
difficult to analyze
Job Description and Job
Specification in Job Analysis
Job Description
► Derivedfrom the job analysis they
provide basic information about the
job under the heading of the job title,
reporting relationships, overall
purpose and principle accountabilities
or main tasks or duties.
Content and format
► Content
 Flexibility: operational flexibility and multi
skilling are becoming increasingly
significant. It is therefore necessary to
build flexibility into the job description.
This is achieved by concentrating on
results rather than spelling out what has
to be done
 Team work: flatter organizations rely
more on good team work and this
requirement needs to be stressed
► Job identification
► Job summary
► Responsibilities and duties
► Authority of incumbent
► Standards of performance
► Working conditions
► Job specifications
Job Specification
►A list of a job’s “human requirement”,
that is, the requisite education, skills,
personality, and so on – another
product of a job analysis.
Job design
► Jobdesign has been defined by Davis
(1966) as: “ the specification of the
content, methods and relationships of
jobs in order to satisfy technological
and organizational requirements as
well as the social and personal
requirements of the job holder”
Job design is the conscious efforts to
organize tasks, duties and
responsibilities into one unit of work. It
 identification of individual tasks
 specification of methods of performing
the tasks
 combination of tasks into specific jobs
to be assigned to individuals
Job Design Factors
Approaches to job design
► Job rotation
► Job enlargement
► Job enrichment
► Self-managing teams
► High- performance work design
Job enrichment
► Aims to maximize the interests and
challenges of work by providing the
employee with a job that has these
 Complete piece of work in the sense that the
worker can identify a series of tasks or activities
that end in a recognizable and definable product
 It affords the employee as much variety,
decision- making responsibility and control as
possible in carrying out the work
 It provide the direct feedback through the work
itself on how well the employee is doing his work
► Jobenrichment as proposed by
Herzberg(1986) is not just increasing
the number nor variety of tasks. It is
claimed by supporters of job
enrichment that these approaches
may relieve boredom, but they do not
result in positive increase in
Job rotation
► Means systematically moving workers from
one job to another
► A closer look at some Indian companies
shows that job rotation is becoming an
increasingly accepted practice.
► At McDonald's, cross-functional job rotations
are encouraged, globally and in India. "It is a
win-win situation -- win for the organization,
the team and the employee," says Amit
Jatia, joint venture partner and managing
director, McDonald's, Western India
Job Enlargement
► Job Enlargement is the horizontal
expansion of a job. It involves the
addition of tasks at the same level of
skill and responsibility. It is done to
keep workers from getting bored. It is
different than job enrichment
► Thus the worker who previously only
bolted the seat to legs might attach
the back as well
► Examples:Small companies may not
have as many opportunities for
promotions, so they try to motivate
employees through job enlargement.
Comparison of Five
Job Design Approaches
Contemporary Issues

► Telecommuting

► Alternative work patterns

► Techno stress
► Task revision
► Skill Development
Principles of Job Design
► To influence skill variety, provide
opportunities for people to do several tasks
and combine tasks
► To influence task identity and form natural
work units
► To influence task significance
► To influence autonomy, give people
responsibility for determining their own
working system
► To influence feed back, establish good
relationships and open feedback channels