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Dynamics Lab Manual cum observation note book

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Просмотров: 5.5K

Dynamics Lab Manual cum observation note book

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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By

Mr.B.Ramesh, M.E.,(Ph.D),

Associate professor,

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

St. Joseph’s College of Engineering,

Jeppiaar Trust, Chennai-119

Ph.D. Research Scholar, College of

Engineering Guindy Campus, Anna

University, Chennai.

ii

St. Joseph’s College of Engineering

Jeppiaar Educational Trust

(Christian Minority Institution)

Jeppiaar Nagar, Rajiv Gandhi Road,

Chennai – 600 119

ME 2307

Dynamics Laboratory

Observation Note Book

Name :

Roll No. :

Reg. No. :

Year :

Branch :

Section :

iii

Syllabus

ME2307 DYNAMICS LAB 0 0 3 2

Aim:

OBJECTIVES:

i) To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery.

ii) To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

b) Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, Epicyclic and differential gear trains.

2. a) Kinematics of Four Bar, Slider Crank, Crank Rocker, Double crank, Double rocker, Oscillating cylinder

Mechanisms.

b) Kinematics of single and double universal joints.

3. a) Determination of Mass moment of inertia of Fly wheel and Axle system.

b) Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia of axisymmetric bodies using Turn Table apparatus.

c) Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using bifilar suspension and compound pendulum.

4. Motorized gyroscope – Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.

5. Governor - Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for Watts, Porter, Proell,

and Hartnell Governors.

6. Cams – Cam profile drawing, Motion curves and study of jump phenomenon

7. a) Single degree of freedom Spring Mass System – Determination of natural frequency

and verification of Laws of springs – Damping coefficient determination.

b) Multi degree freedom suspension system – Determination of influence coefficient.

8. a) Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and Double Rotor systems.-

Undamped and Damped Natural frequencies.

b) Vibration Absorber – Tuned vibration absorber.

9. Vibration of Equivalent Spring mass system – undamped and damped vibration.

10. Whirling of shafts – Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.

11. a). Balancing of rotating masses. (b) Balancing of reciprocating masses.

12. a) Transverse vibration of Free-Free beam – with and without concentrated masses.

b) Forced Vibration of Cantilever beam – Mode shapes and natural frequencies.

c) Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.

Students should be familiar with the use of the following device/equipments depending upon availability.

Tachometers – Contact and non contact

Dial gauge

Stroboscope

Accelerometers – Vibration pickups

Displacement meters.

Oscilloscope

Vibration Shaker

F.F.T. Analyzer, and (9) Dynamic Balancing Machine.

LIST OF EQUIPMENT

1. Cam analyzer.

2. Motorised gyroscope.

3. Governor apparatus - Watt, Porter, Proell and Hartnell governors.

4. Whirling of shaft apparatus.

5. Dynamic balancing machine.

6. Static and dynamic balancing machine.

7. Vibrating table

8. Vibration test facilities apparatus

9. Gear Model

10. Kinematic Models to study various mechanisms

5

Contents

17. Forced vibration phenomenon of equivalent spring mass system with different

damping condition.

6

ME 2307 Dynamics Laboratory

Prepared by:

Mr. B. Ramesh, M.E.(Ph.D.)

Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering.

INDEX

Name of the staff :

Sl. Date Name of the Experiment Page Date Re- Staff Date

No. of No. of marks sign

Expt Sub.

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

7

8

Exp. No. :

Porter Governor

Date :

Apparatus Required:

2. Porter arm setup 4. Measuring tape.

and pulley arrangement. Motor and test setup are mounted on a M.S. fabricated frame.

The governor spindle is driven by motor through V belt and is supported in a ball

bearing.

The optional governor mechanisms can be mounted on spindle. Digital

speed is controlled by the electronic control unit. A rpm indicator with sensor to

determine the speed. A graduated scale is fixed to the sleeve and guided in vertical

direction. Sleeve displacement is to be noted on the scale provided.

The centre sleeve of the Porter and Proell governors incorporates a

weight sleeve to which weights may be added. The Hartnell governor provides means

of varying spring rate and initial compression level and mass of rotating weight. This

enables the Hartnell governor to be operated as a stable or unstable governor.

DC motor with drive: ½ HP motor and DC drive control for speed

variation. Separate linkages for governor arrangements ( Porter, Proell and Hartnell )

are provided using same motor and base.

Procedure:

The governor mechanism under test is fitted with the chosen rotating

weights and spring, where applicable, and inserted into the drive unit. The following

simple procedure may then be followed.

The control unit is switched on and the speed control knob is slowly

turned to increase the governor speed until the centre sleeve rises off the lower stop

and aligns with some divisions on the graduated scale. The sleeve position and speed

are then recorded. The governor speed is then increased in steps to give suitable

sleeve movements and readings are recorded at each stage throughout the range of

sleeve movement possible. The radius of rotation for corresponding sleeve

displacement is measured directly by switching off the electronic control unit.

Precautions: 1) Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer remains

steady. 2) See that at higher speed the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve

of the governor. 3) While closing the test bring the pointer to zero position and then

switch off the motor.

9

Tabulation:

Speed , N Radius of

Sl. Sleeve displacement , X Diameter of Controlling force , F

( rpm ) rotation , r

No. ( mm ) rotation , mm (N)

( mm )

1

6

Observation:

Mass added = ,g

Formulae:

Where, m = mass of each ball , kgf

ω = angular velocity = ( 2πN ) / 60 , rps

where, N = speed , rpm

r = radius of rotation ,m

Graphs:

Model calculation:

12

Result:

13

14

Exp. No. :

Proell Governor

Date :

Apparatus Required:

2. Proell arm setup 4. Measuring tape.

and pulley arrangement. Motor and test setup are mounted on a M.S. fabricated frame.

The governor spindle is driven by motor through V belt and is supported in a ball

bearing.

The optional governor mechanisms can be mounted on spindle. Digital

speed is controlled by the electronic control unit. A rpm indicator with sensor to

determine the speed. A graduated scale is fixed to the sleeve and guided in vertical

direction. Sleeve displacement is to be noted on the scale provided.

The centre sleeve of the Porter and Proell governors incorporates a

weight sleeve to which weights may be added. The Hartnell governor provides means

of varying spring rate and initial compression level and mass of rotating weight. This

enables the Hartnell governor to be operated as a stable or unstable governor.

DC motor with drive: ½ HP motor and DC drive control for speed

variation. Separate linkages for governor arrangements ( Porter, Proell and Hartnell )

are provided using same motor and base.

Procedure:

The governor mechanism under test is fitted with the chosen rotating

weights and spring, where applicable, and inserted into the drive unit. The following

simple procedure may then be followed.

The control unit is switched on and the speed control knob is slowly

turned to increase the governor speed until the centre sleeve rises off the lower stop

and aligns with some divisions on the graduated scale. The sleeve position and speed

are then recorded. The governor speed is then increased in steps to give suitable

sleeve movements and readings are recorded at each stage throughout the range of

sleeve movement possible. The radius of rotation for corresponding sleeve

displacement is measured directly by switching off the electronic control unit.

Precautions: 1) Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer remains

steady. 2) See that at higher speed the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve

of the governor. 3) While closing the test bring the pointer to zero position and then

switch off the motor.

15

Tabulation:

Speed , N Radius of

Sl. Sleeve displacement , X Diameter of Controlling force , F

( rpm ) rotation , r

No. ( mm ) rotation, mm (N)

( mm )

1

16

Observation:

Mass added = ,g

Formulae:

Where, m = mass of each ball , kgf

ω = angular velocity = ( 2πN ) / 60 , rps

where, N = speed , rpm

r = radius of rotation ,m

Graphs:

17

Model calculation:

18

Result:

19

20

Exp. No. :

Torsional vibration of single rotor system

Date :

Aim :

To determine the period and frequency of torsional vibration of the single rotor

system experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values.

Apparatus Required :

2) Spanner 5) Stop watch and

3) Chuck key 6) Weights

One end of the shaft is gripped in the chuck and heavy disc free to rotate in ball

bearing is fixed at the other end of the shaft.

The bracket with fixed end of shaft can be clamped at any convenient position

along the beam. Thus length of the shaft can be varied during the experiment.

Specially designed chuck is used for clamping the end of the shaft. The ball bearing

support to the flywheel provides negligible damping during experiment. The bearing

housing is fixed to side member of the main frame.

Procedure:

2) Grip the shaft at the bracket by means of chuck.

3) Fix the rotor on the other end of the shaft.

4) Note down the length of the shaft.

5) Twist the rotor through some angle and release.

6) Note down the time required for n = 5 oscillations.

7) Repeat the procedure for different lengths of shaft.

Observation:

Shaft diameter , d = 0.55 , cm

Diameter of disc A , DA = 23 , cm

Mass of disc A, mA = 3.3 + 1.5 = 4.8 , kgf

Tabulation :

Sl. the shaft, ( sec ) ( sec ) ( Hz )

No. L

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm T exp T theo F exp F theo

( m)

1

5

Formulae:

Where,

tm = mean time taken for n oscillations

n = number of oscillations = 5

Theoretical period of vibration , T theo = 2π { sqrt (I / Kt ) } , sec

Where,

Moment of inertia, I = mA ( DA2 / 8 ) , Nms2

Where,

mA = mass of the disc A , kgf

DA = diameter of the disc A , m

Torsional stiffness, Kt = ( G Ip ) / L , Nm

Where,

G = modulus of rigidity , N/m2

L = length of the shaft ,m

Polar moment of inertia , Ip = ( π / 32 ) d4 , m4

Theoretical frequency of vibration , F theo = 1 / T theo , Hz

Model calculation:

24

Result:

The period and frequency of torsional vibration of the single rotor

system are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values.

25

26

Exp. No. :

Torsional vibration of two rotor system

Date :

Aim :

To determine the period and frequency of torsional vibration of the two

rotor system experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values.

Apparatus Required :

2) Spanner 5) Stop watch

3) Chuck key 6) Weights and

Two discs having different mass moment of inertia are clamped one at

each end of shaft by means of collet. Mass moment of inertia of any disc can be

changed by attaching the cross lever with weights. Both discs are free to oscillate in

the ball bearings. This provides negligible damping during experiment.

Procedure:

1) Fix the discs A and B to the shaft and fit the shaft in bearing.

2) Deflect the discs A and B in opposite directions by hand and release.

3) Note down the time required for n = 5 oscillations.

4) Fit the cross arm to the disc A and attach equal masses to the ends of cross

arm and again note down time.

5) Repeat the above procedure with different equal masses attached to the ends of

cross arm.

Observation:

Diameter of the disc B , DB = 200 , mm

Mass of the disc A, mA = 3.3 , kgf

Mass of the disc B, mB = 1.74 , kgf

Modulus of rigidity of the shaft, G = 0.35 x 1011 , N/m2

Shaft diameter , d = 5.5 , mm

Length of the shaft between discs, L = ,m

Mass of the cross arms

with bolts and nuts = 0.725 , kgf

27

Tabulation:

Period of vibration Frequency of vibration

added to of inertia of inertia ( sec )

( sec ) ( Hz )

Sl.No. the disc of disc A , of disc B ,

A, IA IB

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm T exp T theo F exp F theo

( kgf ) ( Nms2 ) ( Nms2 )

3

Formulae:

Where,

tm = mean time taken for n oscillations

n = number of oscillations = 5

Theoretical period of vibration , T theo = 2π { sqrt [(IA IB) / Kt(IA + IB)] }, sec

Where,

Moment of inertia of disc A, IA = mA ( DA2 / 8 ) , Nms2

Torsional stiffness, Kt = ( G Ip ) / L , Nm

Where,

G = modulus of rigidity of the shaft , N/m2

L = length of the shaft between discs , m

Where,

d = shaft diameter ,m

Theoretical frequency of vibration , F theo = 1 / T theo , Hz

Model calculation:

30

Result:

The period and frequency of torsional vibration of the two rotor system

are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical values.

31

32

Exp. No. :

Undamped free vibration of

spring mass system

Date :

Aim :

To determine stiffness of the given helical spring, period and frequency of

undamped free vibration (longitudinal vibration) of spring mass system

experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values.

Apparatus Required :

2) Platform 5) Stop watch

3) Weights

It consists of an open coil helical spring of which one end is fixed to the screw

rod and a platform to the other end. This platform is used to add weights and a lock

nut is also provided to clamp the weights added.

Procedure:

1) Fix one end of the helical spring to the upper screw rod.

2) Measure the free length of the spring.

3) Attach the other end to the platform and add some weight.

4) Note down the deflection.

5) Stretch the spring through some distance and release.

6) Observe the time taken for n = 20 oscillations.

7) Repeat the steps from 3 to 6 for other known weights.

Observation:

Formulae:

Deflection, X = ( Length of the spring after loading –

length of the spring before loading ) ,m

Where,

tm = mean time taken for n oscillations

n = number of oscillations = 20

33

Tabulation:

Load added, W of the Stiffness, oscillations vibration vibration

Deflection,

spring K exp = ( sec ) ( sec ) ( Hz )

Sl.No. X

after W/X

(m)

( kg ) (N) loading (N/m) t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm T exp T theo F exp F theo

(m)

1

K expm =

Where,

W = Load added ,N

Kexpm = Experimental mean stiffness , N/m

Experimental frequency of vibration , F exp = 1 / T exp , Hz

Graph :

Model calculation:

36

Result:

of spring mass system are determined experimentally and verified with the theoretical

values.

37

38

Exp. No. :

Determination of whirling speed of shafts

Date :

Aim:

To determine the whirling speed for various diameter shafts experimentally

and compare it with the theoretical values.

Apparatus Required:

1) Shaft – 3 nos. 4) AC voltage regulator

2) Digital tachometer

3) Chuck key and

The apparatus is used to study the whirling phenomenon of shafts. This

consists of a frame in which the driving motor and fixing blocks are fixed. A special

design is provided to clear out the effects of bearings of motor spindle from those of

testing shafts.

Procedure:

1) The shaft is to be mounted with the end condition as simply supported.

2) The speed of rotation of the shaft is gradually increased.

3) When the shaft vibrates violent in fundamental mode ( I mode ), the

speed is noted down.

4) The above procedure is repeated for the remaining shafts.

Observation:

d1 = 0.0031 m d2 = 0.00484 m d3 = 0.00511 m

l1 = m l2 = m l3 = m

Formulae:

Theoretical whirling speed, Nctheo = {0.4985 / [sqrt (δs / 1.27 )] } x 60 , rpm

Static deflection due to mass of the shaft (UDL), δs = (5wL4) / (384 EI)

Where,

w = weight of the shaft per metre , N/m

L = Length of the shaft, m

E = Young’s modulus for the shaft material, N/m2

I = Mass moment of inertia of the shaft

= ( π / 64 ) d4 , m4

39

Tabulation:

Weight of the shaft

Diameter of shaft inertia of the shaft , ( rpm )

Sl.No. per m, w

(m) I

( N/m ) Ncexp Nctheo

( m4) x 10-12

1

3

Model calculation:

Result :

The whirling speed for various diameter shafts are determined experimentally

and verified with the theoretical values.

43

44

Exp. No. :

Compound Pendulum

Date :

Aim:

radius of gyration of the given steel bar experimentally and compare it with the

theoretical values.

Apparatus Required:

2) Knife edge support 4) Measuring tape

The compound pendulum consists of 100 cm length and 5 mm thick steel bar.

The bar is supported by the knife edge. It is possible to change the length of

suspended pendulum by supporting the bar in different holes.

Procedure:

2) Note the length of suspended pendulum to measure OG.

3) Allow the bar to oscillate and determine Texp by knowing the time

taken for n = 10 oscillations.

4) Repeat the experiment with different length of suspension.

Observation:

Number of holes =

Distance between two holes = , cm

Mass of the steel bar = 1.575 , kgf

Formulae:

Where,

t = time taken for n oscillations

n = number of oscillations = 10

Where,

Ktheo = Theoretical radius of gyration , cm

= ( L ) / 2√3

45

Tabulation:

Distance of C.G. of the Moment of

n = 10 ( sec ) ( cm )

Sl. No. bar from support, OG inertia, I

oscillations , t T exp T theo K exp K theo

( cm ) ( Nms2 )

( sec )

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

K expm =

OG = distance of the C.G. of bar from support , cm

Where,

Kexpm = mean experimental radius of gyration ,m

m = mass of the steel bar , kgf

Model calculation:

48

Result:

ii) Mean experimental radius of gyration, Kexpm = , cm

iii) Theoretical radius of gyration , Ktheo = , cm

49

50

Exp. No. :

Hartnell Governor

Date :

Apparatus Required:

2. Hartnell arm setup 4. Measuring tape.

and pulley arrangement. Motor and test setup are mounted on a M.S. fabricated frame.

The governor spindle is driven by motor through V belt and is supported in a ball

bearing.

The optional governor mechanisms can be mounted on spindle. Digital

speed is controlled by the electronic control unit. A rpm indicator with sensor to

determine the speed. A graduated scale is fixed to the sleeve and guided in vertical

direction. Sleeve displacement is to be noted on the scale provided.

The centre sleeve of the Porter and Proell governors incorporates a

weight sleeve to which weights may be added. The Hartnell governor provides means

of varying spring rate and initial compression level and mass of rotating weight. This

enables the Hartnell governor to be operated as a stable or unstable governor.

DC motor with drive: ½ HP motor and DC drive control for speed

variation. Separate linkages for governor arrangements ( Porter, Proell and Hartnell )

are provided using same motor and base.

Procedure:

The governor mechanism under test is fitted with the chosen rotating

weights and spring, where applicable, and inserted into the drive unit. The following

simple procedure may then be followed.

The control unit is switched on and the speed control knob is slowly

turned to increase the governor speed until the centre sleeve rises off the lower stop

and aligns with some divisions on the graduated scale. The sleeve position and speed

are then recorded. The governor speed is then increased in steps to give suitable

sleeve movements and readings are recorded at each stage throughout the range of

sleeve movement possible. The radius of rotation for corresponding sleeve

displacement is measured using the formula.

Precautions: 1) Take the sleeve displacement reading when the pointer remains

steady. 2) See that at higher speed the load on the sleeve does not hit the upper sleeve

of the governor. 3) While closing the test bring the pointer to zero position and then

switch off the motor.

51

Tabulation:

Speed , N

Sl. Sleeve displacement , X Radius of rotation , r Controlling force , F

( rpm )

No. ( mm ) ( mm ) (N)

1

3

Observation:

Initial radius of rotation, ro = ,m

Formulae:

Where,

m = mass of each ball , kgf

ω = angular velocity = ( 2πN ) / 60 , rps

where,

N = speed , rpm

r = radius of rotation ,m

= ro + X ( a / b ) ,m

where,

ro = initial radius of rotation ,m

X = sleeve displacement ,m

a = ,m

b = ,m

Graphs:

53

Model calculation:

54

Result:

55

56

Exp. No. :

Bifilar Suspension

Date :

Aim:

To determine the radius of gyration of given bar by using bifilar suspension

and periodic time experimentally and compare it with the theoretical values.

Apparatus Required:

2) Measuring tape 5) Bar

3) Weights

frame by two parallel cords. Top ends of the cords pass through the two small chucks

fitted at the top. Other ends are secured in the bifilar bar. It is possible to adjust the

length of the cord by loosing the chucks. The suspension may also be used to

determine the radius of gyration of any body. In this case the body under investigation

is bolted to the centre. Radius of gyration of the combined bar and body is then

determined.

Procedure:

1) Suspend the bar from chuck and adjust the length of the cord ‘L’

conveniently. Note the suspension length of each cord must be the

same.

2) Allow the bar to oscillate about the vertical axis passing through the

centre and measure the periodic time T by knowing the time for say n

= 10 oscillations.

3) Repeat the experiment by mounting the weights at equal distance from

the centre ( D / 2 as shown ).

Observation:

Distance from centre to cord, a = , cm

Length of the bar,l = , cm

Mass added = ,g

Formulae:

Where,

tm = mean time taken for n oscillations

n = number of oscillations = 10

Tabulation:

Suspension length, Time taken for n = 10 oscillations Periodic time Radius of gyration

Sl.

L ( sec ) ( sec ) ( cm )

No.

( cm ) t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 tm T exp T theo K exp K theo

Kexpm =

Experimental periodic time, T exp = [ (2π K exp ) / a ] [ sqrt ( L / g ) ] , sec

Where,

Kexp = experimental radius of gyration , cm

a = distance from centre to cord , cm

L = suspension length , cm

Theoretical radius of gyration, K theo = l / ( 2 √3 ) , cm

Where,

l = length of the bar , cm

Model calculation:

60

Result:

i) Experimentally, Kexpm = , cm

ii) Theoretically, Ktheo = , cm

The periodic time of the given bar is determined experimentally and verified

with the theoretical values.

61

62

Exp. No. :

Cam Analysis

Date :

Aim :

To draw the profile of the circular arc cam with flat face follower using the

given apparatus.

Description :

The machine is a motorized unit consisting of a cam shaft driven by a AC/DC

motor. The shaft runs in a ball bearing. At the free end of the cam shaft a cam can be

easily mounted. The follower is properly guided in gun metal bushes. A graduated

circular protractor is fitted co-axial with the shaft and a dial gauge can be fitted to

note the follower displacement for the angle of cam rotation. A spring is used to

provide controlling force to the follower system. Weights on the follower rod can be

adjusted as per the requirements. The arrangement of speed regulation is provided.

The machine is particularly very useful for testing the cam performance for

jump phenomenon during operation. This machine clearly shows the effect of change

of forces on jump action of cam follower during operation. It is used for testing

various cam follower pairs, i.e., (a) Circular arc cam with flat follower, (b) An

eccentric cam with flat follower, (c) Sharp edged cam with flat follower.

The unit is provided with the push rod in the two bush bearings. Should the

unit be disassembled, for any, reason while assembling following precautions should

be taken: (a) The horizontality of the upper and lower glands should be checked by a

spirit level. (b) The supporting pillars should be properly tightened with the lock nuts

provided.

Jump phenomenon:

The jump phenomenon occurs in case of cam operating under the action of

compression spring load. This is a transient coefficient that occurs only with high

speed, highly flexible cam follower systems. With jump, cam and the follower

separate owing to excessively unbalanced forces exceeding the spring force during the

period of negative acceleration. This is undesirable since the fundamental function of

the cam follower system, the constraint and control of follower motion are not

maintained. Also related are the short life of the cam flank surface, high noise,

vibrations and poor action.

Jump and crossover shock:

A cam follower retained against the cam with a compression retaining spring

will under certain conditions, jump or bounce out of contact with the cam. This

condition is most likely to occur with low values of damping and with high speed

cams of quite flexible follower trains.

moves from one side of the cam to the other. Clearance and backlash are taken up

Tabulation:

stroke

Angle in

degree

Follower lift in

mm

64

during the crossover and impact occurs. Crossover takes place on the rise or return

motion when the acceleration changes sign and when the velocity is at its peak. The

effects can be reduced by preloading the system to remove backlash, by designing for

low peak velocity and by using rigid follower train. Roth Bart states that jump will not

occur in high speed systems if at least two full cycles of vibration occur during the

positive acceleration time-interval of the motion. If a smaller number of cycles exist

during this period, then, he states, the system should be investigated mathematically

to determine if jump exists.

is the angle through which the cam rotates during positive acceleration period. This

figure can probably be reduced slightly for appreciable amounts of damping.

Spring ko loses compression when jump begins and is carried motion with the

mass. The resulting motion now gets rather complicated because the mass, too, must

be redistributed. Probably a good first approximation could be obtained by

concentrating a portion of the mass at the bottom of spring and treating the motion as

a system of two degrees of freedom. It must be noted, through that the system will

vibrate at a new frequency after jump begins and then analysis of the motion using the

old frequency is not a true description of the motion. Spring Ko loses its compression

whenever X exceeds by the amount of Ko was initially compressed during assembly.

Thus to set up a criteria for jump, it is necessary to calculate the pre-compression of

K.

speed of cam rotation and stroboscope frequency of neon lamp are gradually and

simultaneously increased and at the time of jump to occur the follower is seen to loose

contact with cam. The jump speed thus can be obtained from the stroboscope. When

jump occurs the follower pounds on the cam surface giving a good thumping sound.

Upward inertia force = Downward retaining force

[W/g] ω2r = W + S

This is the equilibrium of force equation when jump will just start.

W = weight of follower assembly

ω = angular velocity = [2πN] / 60 rad/sec

S = spring force (kg) = stiffness of spring x compression length

r = distance according to the geometry of cam = l / (2π) where l is lift of the

follower.

To study the effect of follower assembly weight on the jump speed when the

spring force is kept constant, keep the initial spring compression at a certain level and

observe jump speed for different follower weights by adding them successively and

plot the graph of follower weights vs jump speed.

ω2 = [(W + S) / (Wr) ]g Therefore , ω = sqrt[ (g/r)(1 + (s/W) )]

This relation shows that as the follower weight increases the jump speed goes on

decreasing.

Procedure :

Rotate the cam shaft with the help of the hand through some angle and note

down the angle of cam rotation indicated on the protractor and the corresponding

follower displacement indicated in the dial gauge. Continue the experiment for

65

Displacement, velocity and acceleration diagrams of the flat

face follower :

Calculation:

66

67

Profile of the circular arc cam :

68

different angles of cam rotation and draw the graph X vs θ. The X vs θ plot can be

used to find out velocity and acceleration of the follower system. The exact profile of

the cam can be obtained by taking observations X vs θ, where X = displacement of the

follower from reference initial position and θ = angle of cam rotation with reference

from axis of symmetry chosen.

Observation :

Nose radius , r2 = mm

Result:

Thus the profile of the circular arc cam with flat face follower has been drawn.

69

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